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Sample records for broilers

  1. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  2. Malabsorption syndrome in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Balk, F.R.M.; Post, J.; Hemert, van S.; Zekarias, B.; Stockhofe, N.

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial disease that causes intestinal disorders in broilers due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract with different infectious agents. The exact aetiology is unknown, although several viruses are isolated from MAS affected chickens. None of these isola

  3. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  4. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  5. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  6. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  7. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  8. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  9. Pododermatitis in Danish broiler farms 2002 - 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Jensen, Henrik Bang; Ambrosen, Thorkil;

           Hyperkeratosis and ulcers on foot-pads is a major welfare problem in broiler production. The problem is associated with ammonia irritation due to poor and wet litter quality. Since 2002 Danish producers have been subject to the Act on Welfare in Broilers and Parent Stock. After slaughter...

  10. Evaluation of the nutritive value of broiler and broiler parent stock litters after pelleting for ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2010-01-01

    Samples of poultry litter were collected in January-February 2009; 30 each from broiler and from broiler parent stock houses in the different parts of Thailand. The bedding material was rice hull. Both types of litter were pelleted as feed ingredient and nutritive values were analyzed. Results revealed that total ash (TA), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber(ADF) contents for pelleted broiler litter (PBL) were much lower than those for pelleted broiler parent stock litter (PBPSL)(P0.0...

  11. Effects of sorghum on broilers gastrointestinal tract

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    MCA Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.

  12. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  13. Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Lisouski, Pavel; Ahrendt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    descriptors and, finally, predicted the individual broiler weights using a Bayesian Artificial Neural Network. Four other models for weight prediction were also evaluated. The system were tested in a commercial broiler house with 48,000 broilers (Ross 308) during the last 20 days of the breeding period...

  14. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus) Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid; and Ezureen Ezani

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have su...

  15. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

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    L. SABAU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  16. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore...

  17. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Cooperative Relationship between Broiler Processing Enterprises and Broiler Raisers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; ZHANG; Xia; ZHOU; Fei; QI

    2015-01-01

    The stability in the cooperative relationship between broiler processing enterprises and broiler raisers is a key factor restricting the performance of " company + farmers" business model in the broiler industry. Based on the survey data on seven cities in Shandong Province,from the perspective of broiler processing enterprises,this paper uses Logit-ISM model to reveal the factors influencing the stable relationship between broiler processing enterprises and broiler raisers as well as the hierarchy of these factors. Studies have shown that enterprise characteristics( enterprise scale,enterprise level,attitudes and behaviors),cognitive characteristics( transaction cost cognition,cognition of contract’s binding force,reputation mechanism cognition) and environmental characteristics( intermediary coordination) will affect the stability of cooperative relationship. And finally,some policy recommendations are set forth in order to promote the development of broiler industry.

  18. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

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    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  19. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-01-01

    Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08%) and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%). Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidios...

  20. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  1. Examination of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale presence and pathomorphological changes in broiler respiratory organs in intensive broiler production

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović P.; Jovanović M.; Živulj A.

    2012-01-01

    Three flocks of broilers from the epizootiological region of South Banat, Serbia were chosen for examination, one flock with manifestation of respiratory disorders and two control flocks without respiratory disorders. In the flock with manifested respiratory disorders which was marked as flock number one (flock 1), high seroprevalence of specific antibodies for O. rhinotracheale (46%) was found in 30-dayold broiler chickens. The symptoms presented were: dep...

  2. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

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    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  3. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

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    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  4. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key fact

  5. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  6. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF BROILER FARMS IN VOJVODINA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić, Nataša; Novković, Nebojša

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the efficiency of agricultural production is very important issue especially in developing countries. The major problem of the broiler production in Vojvodina region is low level of productivity and inefficiency in resource allocation and utilization. The objective of this study was to measure the economic efficiency of broiler farms using a nonparametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) which is used to quantify economic efficiencies of broiler farms in Vojvodina regi...

  7. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based o

  8. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

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    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  9. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

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    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  10. Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross × Ross 308 Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

  11. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of star

  12. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  13. SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL BASIS OF PREPARATION EKOFILTRUM IN BROILER PRODUCTION

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    V. Buyarov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes effectiveness of "Ekofiltrum" when included in the diet of broiler cross "Ross-308". The authors studied effect of additives on the zootechnical performance of poultry, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood, as well as meat quality of broiler chickens.

  14. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  15. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,

  16. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  17. Influence of Feed Additives in Quality of Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Khalafalla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of some feed additives on quality of broiler carcasses. A total of one hundred and eighty of one day old broiler chicks were reared and divided into six groups. Five groups were fed on treated rations (20 g of freshly minced of each of garlic and onion to 1 Kg of ration, 400mg of vitamin E in one liter of drinking water, B.subtilis 4 ×108 c.f.u was added in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, 10 g hot pepper to one Kg of ration and 50g zinc bacitracin added to the ration in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, and the sixth group used as control group. Broilers were slaughtered at age of 45 days to evaluate pH, moisture content, cooking loss, shear force and instrumental color. The feed additives (onion and garlic, Vit.E, hot pepper, B.subtilis and zinc bacitracin were decreased pH in broiler meat. Moisture did not influence by dietary supplementation. Cooking loss was decreased with storage of broiler meat. Vit.E, B.subtilis and hot Pepper groups increased tenderness in broiler meat. Onion and garlic and Vit.E increased lightness and yellowness of broiler meat. Zinc bacitracin and hot pepper decreased redness of broiler meat.

  18. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  19. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

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    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  20. Campylobacter Prevalence in the Broiler Supply Chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Brakel, van R.P.; Voet, van der H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a national control program, data on Campylobacter prevalence in the broiler supply chain in the Netherlands were gathered for 3 sampling points: departure of broiler farm and arrival and departure of the slaughterhouse. Monitoring data from this control program for 2002 to 2005 were analyzed t

  1. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  2. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  3. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  4. Feed restriction in broiler chickens production

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraei M.

    2012-01-01

    The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...

  5. Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.

  6. The broiler's last day of life. Influences of feed withdrawal, catching and transport on physiology and losses of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Before slaughter, broilers are subjected to several preslaughter management events such as feed withdrawal, catching, crating, transport, and lairage. The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality of the broilers on the

  7. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study of...

  8. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler......, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected...

  9. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Marjorie E; Boonstra-Blom, Anneke G; Jeurissen, Suzan H M

    2002-10-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore, the difference in immune response between layer- and broiler-type chickens of the same age was investigated, using TNP-KLH (trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin) as antigen without adjuvant. First different routes of immunization (intravenously, intramuscular, subcutaneous and ocular) were examined to find out which immunization route gives the highest antibody titers. The intravenous immunization route resulted in higher TNP-specific antibody responses than the other immunization routes tested and therefore this immunization route was used in both following experiments. In order to investigate the optimal dose of antigen needed for immunization, a dose-response curve in broiler- and layer-type chickens was completed. The humoral immune response was measured in serum by a TNP-specific ELISA and the in vitro cellular immune response by an antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assay. The antibody response of layer- and broiler-type chickens appeared to differ, not only in optimal dose and response, but also in kinetics of the response itself. Broiler chickens generated higher IgM anti-TNP titers whereas layer-type chickens generated higher IgG anti-TNP titers. This specific antibody response in broiler-type chickens did not last as long as in layer-type chickens. The TNP-specific cellular immune response was detectable in layer-type chickens, but not in broilers. Both types generate a non-specific cellular immune response, although this response in broilers is lower than in layer-type chickens. From these results, we conclude that broilers primarily respond to TNP-KLH with a high IgM antibody response whereas layer-type chickens respond with a high Ig

  10. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia;

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...... 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....

  11. Influence of a probiotic on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cardoso Bitterncourt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic product (composition: Lactobacillus acidophillus (3.5 × 10(11 CFU, Streptcoccus faecium (3.5 × 10(11 CFU and Bifidobacterium bifidum (3.5 × 10(11 CFU on broiler performance. A total of 1200 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age, and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (antibiotic, probiotic and control with 10 replicates of 40 birds each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality were evaluated. Concerning weight gain, in the periods of 0-7 and 0-14 days of age, the group fed the antibiotic product presented higher values as compared with the other treatments. However, in the periods of 0-21, 0-28 and 0-35 days of age, birds fed the antibiotic presented higher weight gain only in relation to the control group. Feed intake differences were detected only in the initial period of 0-7 days of age, with the group fed the antibiotic product presenting higher feed intake as compared with that fed the probiotic product, although these groups were not different from the control group. No statistical difference was detected in feed conversion ratio among treatments in any of the evaluated age intervals. Mortality was different only in the period of 0-14 days of age, which was higher in the control group as compared with that of the birds fed the probiotic product, but it was not different from the group receiving the antibiotic. Treatment with probiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium bifidum does not affect broiler performance.

  12. Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Shareef

    2010-01-01

    A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF), were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs...

  13. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.;

    2012-01-01

    for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less...... `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.......BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...

  14. Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria supplementation in broiler diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...

  15. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... processing, consumer food preparation,and the close-response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has supported the progress of risk assessment as a research discipline. The risk assessments are not only used to assess the human incidence of campylobacteriosis due...... to contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify...

  16. Inheritance of fertility in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olori Victor E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertility of a chicken's egg is a trait which depends on both the hen that lays the egg and on her mate. It is also known that fertility of an individual changes over the laying period. Methods Longitudinal models including both random genetic and permanent environmental effects of both the female and her male mate were used to model the proportion of fertile eggs in a pedigree broiler population over the ages 29-54 weeks. Results Both the male and the female contribute to variation in fertility. Estimates of heritability of weekly records were typically 7% for female and 10% for male contributions to fertility. Repeatability estimates ranged from 24 to 33%, respectively. The estimated genetic variance remained almost constant for both sexes over the laying period and the genetic correlations between different ages were close to 1.0. The permanent environment components increased substantially towards the end of the analyzed period, and correlations between permanent environment effects at different ages declined with increasing age difference The heritability of mean fertility over the whole laying period was estimated at 13% for females and 17% for males. A small positive correlation between genetic effects for male and female fertility was found. Conclusion Opportunities to improve fertility in broiler stocks by selection on both sexes exist and should have an impact throughout the laying period.

  17. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  18. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    KAO Lima; DJ de Moura; TMR Carvalho; LGF Bueno; RA Vercellino

    2011-01-01

    Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure) and litter conditions (new or built-up). The environ...

  19. Broiler Campylobacter Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Callicott, Kenneth A.; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Georgsson, Franklín; Reiersen, Jarle; Friðriksdóttir, Vala; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Michel, Pascal; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Hiett, Kelli L.; Needleman, David S.; Stern, Norman J.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler is...

  20. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project described in this thesis was to study starch digestion behaviour ...

  1. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, M.; Berk, J.; Ellendorff, F.; M. Wolf-reuter; Čop, D.; Holcman, A.; Štuhec, I.

    2003-01-01

    The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.). The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In t...

  2. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. PMID:26614253

  3. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupan, M.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.. The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In the intensive system on the floor animals rested statistically highly significantly more than in other two systems. However no differences in the behaviour of broilers in the stall were noticed, ifcompared to broilers in free range and those in the organic system. Comparison of the outdoor area showed that broilers rested statistically significantly more in the organic system. The reasons for different resting behaviour could be in leg weakness, body weight, group size, health problems, age, housing system, etc. Our research did not confirm our hypothesis that the older broilers rest more.

  4. Evaluation of the nutritive value of broiler and broiler parent stock litters after pelleting for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of poultry litter were collected in January-February 2009; 30 each from broiler and from broiler parent stock houses in the different parts of Thailand. The bedding material was rice hull. Both types of litter were pelleted as feed ingredient and nutritive values were analyzed. Results revealed that total ash (TA, crude protein (CP and acid detergent fiber(ADF contents for pelleted broiler litter (PBL were much lower than those for pelleted broiler parent stock litter (PBPSL(P0.05. The range of values in both groups was very large. Mean copper contents were very similar for both PBL and PBPSL samples (P>0.05. Estimations of metabolizable energy (ME werepredicted from rumen fluid-pepsin in vitro digestible organic matter content of the DM (ME-IV, and organic matter loss during 72h rumen incubation (ME-RI. ME-IV value for PBL and PBPSL was not significant (P>0.05, while the corresponding difference of ME-RI values was significant (P<0.05. The ranges within each of these means were large. ME contents were closely correlated with the sum of TA and ADF, the correlation coefficient for ME-IV was -0.870, and for ME-RI, -0.910. Useful estimations of ME of the litter samples could be made utilizing regression equations for either ME-IV or ME-RI,ME-RI being preferred for its slightly greater correlation coefficient, ME-RI (MJ/kg DM = 12.7-0.0105 (TA + ADF (g/kg DM.

  5. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14......, as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...... carcasses emphasizes the importance of implementing control measures in organic broiler production....

  6. Vertical Coordination in the Pork and Broiler Industries: Implications for Pork and Chicken Products

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in structure of the U.S. pork industry reflect, in many ways, past changes in the broiler industry. Production contracts and vertical integration in the broiler industry facilitated rapid adoption of new technology, improved quality control, assured market outlets for broilers, and provided a steady flow of broilers for processing. Affordable, high-quality chicken products have contributed to continual increases in U.S. chicken consumption, which has surpassed pork and beef on ...

  7. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  8. Pengaruh Berbagai Bahan Litter Terhadap Konsentrasi Ammonia Udara Ambient kandang dan Performan Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Ibrahim; Allaily Allaily

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different litter materials on ammonia concentration of the air ambient stall and broiler performance ABSTRACT. The study was conducted to observe the effect of ammonia concentration of broiler chicken coop air to the treatment various types of litter. High ammonia concentrations would interfere with performance of broiler chickens and become a problem for the environment. A good litter quality is expected to address the problem of ammonia that occur in the broiler chicken co...

  9. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  10. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  11. Typhaea stercorea (Coleoptera : Mycetophagidae), a carrier of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in a Danish broiler house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Olsen, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In December 1994, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) was accidentally introduced into a Danish broiler house by stocking an S. Infantis-infected broiler nock of 39,900 day-old chicks. At the time of the study, the infection had persisted through e broiler cycles. Typhaea stercorea...

  12. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32...

  13. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  14. Recovery of consciousness in broilers following combined dc and ac stunning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency pulsed DC water bath stunners and in the European Union broilers are electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency AC. DC stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of exsanguination and AC st...

  15. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...

  16. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  17. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  18. Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shareef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF, were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs, post-mortem findings, fecal oocyst excretion per gram, oocyt size, morphological characteristic of eggs, lesion score and schizonts size. The significance of AF as predisposing factor to coccidiosis infection was discussed.

  19. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  20. The Effects of Two Different Cleaning and Disinfection Programs on Broiler Performance and Microbiological Status of Broiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFC Burbarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.

  1. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  2. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding.

  3. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding. PMID:26259620

  4. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  5. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  6. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, O E; Pedersen, K; Jensen, L B; Madsen, M; Olsen, J E

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler flocks after the avoparcin ban has been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of VRE on broiler farms in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by avoparcin. Environmental samples were obtained from five broiler houses after depopulation, cleaning, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected to molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Forty-one PFGE-profiles were observed. VRE with indistinguishable or highly similar PFGE profiles were isolated from consecutive broiler flocks and from environmental samples from the houses in which the flocks were reared, whereas VRE-isolates from different broiler houses and from flocks reared in different houses appeared to be genetically unrelated. These findings indicated that VRE was transmitted between consecutive broiler flocks by clones of resistant bacteria surviving in the broiler houses despite cleaning and disinfection between rotations. Thus, the extensive occurrence of VRE in broiler flocks after the avoparcin ban may be explained by persistence of VRE in the broiler house environment. PMID:12523633

  7. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%, E. tenella (54.3%, E. necatrix (28.6%, and E. maxima (20% were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P0.05. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.

  8. How to assess fitness for transport of Danish broiler chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Lund, Vibe Pedersen; Dam Otten, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    for the veterinary authorities in that transport fitness is not very well defined. The aim of this project (2013-2016) is therefore to establish knowledge about useful indicators to assess broilers suitability for transport. The objective is to develop a practical protocol which can be applied to assess...... the transport fitness of a flock on-farm within 24 hours prior to harvesting. During 2015, a number of Danish broiler flocks will be visited within the last 24h before the birds are mechanically harvested and transported to slaughter at approx. 36-37 days of age. Each flock will be assessed at 3 different...... with recommendations for indicators that should be included in an assessment protocol performed prior to transport in order to perform an evaluation of the fitness for transport on broilers farms....

  9. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  10. Energy efficiency and econometric analysis of broiler production farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy consumption per 1000 bird for the broiler production in Yazd province, Iran. The data were collected from 44 farms by using a face-to-face questionnaire method during January–February 2010. The collected information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, economic analysis and stochastic frontier production function. The production technology of the farmer was assumed to be specified by the Cobb–Douglas (CD) production function. Total input energy was found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird)−1 while the output energy was 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird)−1. The values of specific energy and energy ratio were calculated at 71.95 MJ kg−1 and 0.15, respectively. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method. The MPP value showed the high impact of human labor and machinery energy inputs on output energy. Returns to scale (RTS) values for broiler were found to be 0.96; thus, there prevailed a decreasing RTS for the estimated model. The net return was found positive, as 1386.53 $ (1000 bird)−1 and the benefit to cost ratio from broiler production was calculated to be 1.38. The study revealed that production of meat was profitable in the studied area. -- Highlights: ► We determined the energy use efficiency (EUE) for the broiler production as 0.15, indicating inefficiency use of energy in these farms. ► Total input and output energies were found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird)−1 and 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird)−1, respectively. ► Cobb–Douglas (CD) frontier production function was found useful in developing econometric model for broiler production. ► The results of budgetary analysis indicate production of meat in broiler farms is profitable in the studied area.

  11. Fermented and unfermented palm kernel cake as broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P Ketaren

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available feed. Two hundred and ten, day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were allotted to 6 different diets containing either BIS or FBIS at 3 different levels (5, 10 and 15% and one control diet. The results showed that 5% BIS and 5% FBIS could be used in broiler diet without adversely affecting feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. FCR of those diets were significantly (P<0.05 better than the control diet. Carcass yields were not significantly affected by feeding of BIS nor FBIS. The FBIS diet produced less abdominal fat than the BIS diet.

  12. STUDY OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES OF SLAUGHTER PRODUCTS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotova I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For comparative evaluation of aroma-forming substances of primary and secondary products of slaughter broilers, we used the multi-channel gas analyzer "MAG-8" and the methodology "an electronic nose". The objects of study served as the heads and feet of chickens-broilers of cross "ROSS-308", subjected to hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of native tissue structure at 0,24 MPa. As a control sample when assessing the composition of the equilibrium gas phase above the heads and feet of broiler chickens used poultry, meat, broiler chickens, obtained by cutting of carcasses, with the natural ratio of bone and muscle tissue. The identification of volatile components of the equilibrium gas phase above the samples was carried out according to the following classes of organic com-pounds in accordance with the numbers of sensors in the matrix: 1 – hydrophilic compounds, water; 2 – alcohols, ketones; 3 – acid, water, light alcohols; 4 – ester; 5 – sulfur-containing compounds, esters; 6 – phenol, and other aromatic compounds; 7 – alcohols, nitrogen compounds, water; 8 – acid. The analysis shows that control and experimental samples do not have significant differences in the aromatic-skim com-pounds, ketones and sulfur-containing compounds. The comparison group of "control – leg" also has no significant differences according to the groups of compounds: ketones, alcohols, esters; nitrogen-containing compounds. The largest differences recorded for the sample "legs broiler chickens", and the moisture content and nitro-gen-containing compounds, this sample is superior and head, and the main raw mate-rial in the processing of broiler chickens. The results show that heads of broiler chickens, thermo-processed under pressure can be used to realize emulsified protein-fat products of the type Pasternak masses corresponding to the traditional products of poultry meat for sensormatics the aroma profile without the use of food additives. For

  13. Efficacy in the field of two anticoccidial vaccines for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared two attenuated anticoccidial vaccines, administered to broilers by spray into the incubator (88,000 males and 210,100 females. Vaccine A container five species of Eimeria and vaccine B three. Zootechnical performance was similar in the two groups, with mean lesion scores no higher than 1; vaccine A caused only duodenal lesions, while vaccine B also caused typhlitis. Maximum oocyst count was 23,000/g feces at age 28 days with vaccine A and 38,000 at 21 days with vaccine B. Broilers vaccinated with vaccine B had more frequent enteric symptoms, and C. perfringens isolation.

  14. Environmental and physiological variables during the catching of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de V Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC. Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.

  15. Commercial enzyme influence on broilers fed different levels of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi S.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...

  16. In-vitro cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 to broiler lymphocytes of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEP Zimmermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on broiler lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Histopaque density and cultured in 96-wellplates containing the evaluated AFB1 concentrations in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 39°C. Thereafter, MTT, PicoGreen, and reactive oxygen species assays were performed. Cell viability decreased in the presence of 10 µg/mL AFB1 at 48 h (p < 0.05 and of 10 and 20 µg/mL AFB1 at 72 h (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to the control (0 µg/mL. However, a dose-dependent increase in the cell-free DNA at 24 h was observed at 1, 10 and 20 µg/mL (p < 0.001. ROS formation significantly increased at 24 h at all concentrations (p < 0.001. The in-vitro results demonstrate that AFB1 is cytotoxic and causes biomolecular oxidative damage in broiler lymphocytes.

  17. Examination of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale presence and pathomorphological changes in broiler respiratory organs in intensive broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three flocks of broilers from the epizootiological region of South Banat, Serbia were chosen for examination, one flock with manifestation of respiratory disorders and two control flocks without respiratory disorders. In the flock with manifested respiratory disorders which was marked as flock number one (flock 1, high seroprevalence of specific antibodies for O. rhinotracheale (46% was found in 30-dayold broiler chickens. The symptoms presented were: depression, reduction in feed consumption and water intake, sneezing, mucosal nasal discharge and facial edema. Production results were below technological standards due to increased mortality, decreased growth range and increased number of stunted chickens. Autopsy found frequent changes in the trachea, air sacs and lungs, which were manifested as: tracheitis catarrhalis, aerosacculitis fibrinosa and pneumonia fibrinosa. In control flocks marked as flock number two (flock 2 and flock number three (flock 3 where 4 % and 8 % of seropositive chickens were found, there were no clinical signs which would indicate illness, and production results were much closer to technological standards as compared with flock 1. Autopsy found lower number of chickens with changed respiratory organs as compared with flock 1; in addition intensity of changes was lower than in flock 1. No case of airsacculitis was found in flocks 2 and 3, which was a frequent finding in flock 1.

  18. Risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Sunde, Marianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Norström, Madelaine

    2016-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 27 broiler farms including 182 broiler flocks was performed to determine risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks. Information regarding possible risk factors was collected by an online questionnaire and by samples obtained from broiler and parent flocks during the study period. Additional information was provided by the broiler production company. The prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in parent flocks and broiler flocks sampled in the study was estimated. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected in 13.8% of the parent flocks and 22.5% of the broiler flocks included in the study. A multivariable generalized linear model was used to estimate risk factors. The risk for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was associated with the status of the previous flock in the broiler house (odds ratio=12.7), number of parent flocks supplying the broiler flock with day-old chickens (odds ratio=6.3), routines for disinfection of floor between production cycles (odds ratio=0.1), and transport personnel entering the room where the broilers are raised (odds ratio=9.3). Our findings highlights that implementation of a high level of biosecurity with a minimal number of people entering the broiler house during production cycles, as well as rigorous cleaning and disinfection routines between production cycles will contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in broiler flocks provided that there is no selection pressure from antimicrobial use in the broiler production. PMID:27435654

  19. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Ersboll, A. K.; Heuer, Ole Eske;

    2001-01-01

    by the Danish Poultry Council were analysed. The three flock parameters were: kilogram broilers produced per square meter (per rotation), feed-conversion ratio (total kilogram feed used per rotation/total kilogram live weight per rotation) and total percent dead broilers ((number of dead broilers during...... the rotation/number of broilers put in the house per rotation) x 100). Data were analysed using a mixed model, allowing the correlation structures in the data to be taken into account. The analyses showed that kilogram broilers produced per square meter and percent dead broilers in total were not affected...

  20. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  1. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  2. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days, start

  3. Towards a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeschate, ten R.A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present thesis describes the development of a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers. This project was initiated to improve the efficiency of deposition of dietary nitrogen into animal product in order to reduce nitrogen excretion to the environment. The physiological feeding str

  4. Investigation of immune response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé;

    could limit the effects of the disease. In this study we focused on the impact of Eimeria maxima on different traits (e.g., weight gain, body temperature, blood composition, intestinal lesions scores, oocysts count) in two challenge experiments on commercial broilers (pilot then larger experiment...

  5. β-mannanase and mannan oligosaccharides in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ramos Sales Mendes de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the use of β-mannanase and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS to replace growth promoters in broiler diets. Four hundred male Cobb broiler chicks were used, with initial weight of 45±1g, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions of ten birds. The treatments were: basal feed; basal feed without growth promoter; basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase; basal feed without growth promoter + MOS; and basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase + MOS. The feed intake of the birds increased in response to dietary treatments compared to basal diet during the period 1-21 days of age. A higher weight gain and improved feed conversion was found at 42 days of age among birds that had received the basal diet without growth promoter + MOS. The absolute weight at slaughter, relative carcass and prime cuts except breast weights improved in response to dietary treatments compared to the basal diet at 42 days of age. No difference was observed in relative weight of the liver, while significant differences were found in the weight of heart, gizzard, and abdominal fat. It was concluded that β-mannanase and MOS can replace the growth promoters in broiler diets without compromising production and economic performance. However, the association of these products into the feed may cause negative interaction that reduces the broiler chickens' performance

  6. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.

  7. Immunosuppressant Effect of Long Term and Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline in Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jian-ming; ZHANG Ri-jun; SA Ren-na; PAN Shu-yuan; HUANG Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 270 Abore Acre male broilers to study the influence of dietary chlortetracycline (CTC) on the bursal, thymus and spleen weight index and T, B cell proliferation and antibody responses of broilers. Results show that 50mg/kg CTC had no significant inhibitory effect on thymus and spleen weight index, and T, B cell proliferation of broilers at 21 days old. 150mg/kg CTC had significant inhibitory effect on bursal, thymus and spleen, and T, B cell proliferation (P<0.05). Dietary CTC had a direct inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. 50mg/kg and 150mg/kg CTC had a significant inhibitory effect on the antibody responses to BSA (P<0.01). Results demonstrated that subtherapeutic and long term CTC had significant inhibitory effects on immune organs and antibody response. The immunosuppressant effect became higher when the level of CTC increased. 150mg/kg CTC increased the growth rate of broilers significantly.

  8. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  9. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  10. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Anna Bodil;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  11. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry a

  12. Electromagnetic scanning to estimate carcass lean content of Taiwan native broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Chen, L R; Huang, S C; Liu, C Y

    2002-07-01

    To estimate lean content of Taiwan native broiler carcasses accurately, objectively and rapidly, electrical conductivity measurements of broiler carcasses and other relative factors (carcass weight, length and temperature) were used in multiple linear regression analysis for lean prediction. Forty native broiler carcasses, with average market weight 2477.5±465.5 g, were scanned through a 10 MHz electromagnetic field created by an electromagnetic scanner (SA-3203) to measure the total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) index. After scanning, each broiler carcass was separated into wing, breast, leg and back. Each primal cut was dissected into lean, fat and bone. The weight, length, temperature and TOBEC index of broiler carcass were significantly correlated with lean weight of broiler carcass (Pindex showed higher coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.968) and lower coefficient of variation (CV=4.178) with an equation using beheaded carcass weight, temperature and TOBEC index as variables. PMID:22060853

  13. Epidemiology of Eimeria species in selected broiler farms of Khoy suburb, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fakhri; Yakhchali, M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is an economically-important disease of poultry production industry worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different Eimeria species in the farmed broilers of Khoy city, West Azarbaijan, North West Iran. A total of 26 broiler farms of different production capacities were arbitrarily selected and examined in 2013. In each of the farms, Litters of two broilers farms were randomly sampled twice a week and examined. T...

  14. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kirubakaran; Moorthy, M.; R. Chitra; G. Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatmen...

  15. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    RL Furlan; DE Faria Filho; PS Rosa; M Macari

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diet...

  16. PENGARUH TINGKAT PENAMBAHAN PROTEIN DARI KEPALA BROILER DAN LEVEL ENZIM BROMELIN TERHADAP KUALITAS KECAP MANIS

    OpenAIRE

    PANDI, NOPIANTI

    2012-01-01

    Nopianti Pandi (I41108003). Pengaruh Tingkat Penambahan Protein dari Kepala Broiler dan Level Enzim Bromelin terhadap Kualitas Kecap Manis. Dibawah bimbingan Prof. Dr. Ir. H. MS. Effendi Abustam, M.Sc selaku Pembimbing Utama dan Dr. Muhammad Irfan Said, S.Pt, M.P selaku Pembimbing Anggota. Kepala broiler merupakan salah satu limbah RPU (Rumah Potong Unggas) yang belum di proses dan dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Sisi lain, kepala broiler mempunyai nilai gizi yang tinggi yakni mengandung pr...

  17. CARNOSINE CONTENT AND MUSCLE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MALE AND FEMALE BROILER CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Helga Medić; Nives Marušić; Zlata Kralik; Manuela Grčević

    2011-01-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles ...

  18. Effects of perch availability on performance, carcass characteristics, and footpad lesions in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyma, Z.; Küçükyılmaz, K.; Orojpour, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the modern broiler industry, solutions are still being sought to improve conditions or eliminate problems related to issues such as animal welfare, health, and meat quality brought by intensive production systems. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study effects of perching on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and footpad lesions (FPLs) in broiler chickens. A total of 300 broiler chicks (Ross 308) were distributed into control and perch groups with thr...

  19. Iron and zinc availability to broiler chicken from mineral biofortified wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkaljevic, Dzana

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mineral biofortified wheat with fungal phytase addition on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) availability in broiler chicken breast muscle and liver, their excretion in feces and digestibility in intestines. Furthermore, possible beneficial effect on broiler performance was studied. 90 day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were placed in brooder cages and received commercial starter diet from day 1-7 posthatch and micromineral deficient s...

  20. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  1. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  2. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  3. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN TERNAK AYAM BROILER PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Hanum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this research are to (1 analyze profit and BEP of plasma farmers (2 analyze internal and external strategic factors that influence development of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (3 formulate the alternative strategies of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (4 formulate selected priority strategy to develop broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. This research uses descriptive method based on case study on broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. Based on BEP analysis, BEP (production of plasma farmers is in the range 79,91%-86,58% from chick-in capacity, and BEP (price is in the range of Rp 11.684 – Rp 12.191 per chicken on market price. PT. XYZ partnership’s position in IE matric was second quadrant (grow and builds. The results of SWOT analysis are: a vertical integration strategy through feedmill, breeding and chicken slaughterhouse, b improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers, c improvement in bio-security aspects of maintenance, and d improving the quality of technical staff and improving supervision. The priority strategy from QSPM analysis is improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers. The strategy to improve production capacity can be done by maximize or add their capacity, and add the new plasma farmers.   Keywords: Broiler Partnership, Internal Environment, External Environment, Internal-external, Improvement Priority

  4. Efficacy of T-2 toxin detoxifying agent in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy of the detoxifying agent Mycofix® Plus (MP in the prevention and/or alleviation in vivo adverse effects of T-2 toxin in broilers. In addition, the adsorbing potential of MP was estimated in vitro. Mean degradation levels of T-2 toxin with MP in vitro, as measured by HPTLC, varied from 26.06 to 31.02 % and the adsorption ability was elevated in acidic environment (pH 3. In vivo trial was performed on 160 one day old "Ross" broiler chicks and lasted for 21 days. Birds were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - positive control - 2 ppm T-2 toxin; Group 3 - 2 ppm T-2 toxin+2 kg/t MP; Group 4 - 2 kg/t MP. Broilers fed the diet containing 2 mg/kg of T-2 toxin without MP developed typical T-2 toxicosis. Birds that were fed the diet containing both T-2 and MP had better performances and no oral ulcerations as the dominant sign of T-2 toxicosis were observed. Histopathological examination of tissues originating from birds fed the diet containing T-2 toxin revealed degenerative changes in the oral and small intestine mucosa, necroses of enterocytes and hepatocytes, as well as depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa Fabricii. Immunohistochemical examination also revealed negative effects of T-2 toxin on cells proliferation in intestineal and bile duct mucosa, as well as on lymphocytes from bursa Fabricii. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver, intestine and bursa Fabricii of broilers fed a diet containing T-2 toxin and MP was mostly preserved. Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity reaction was weaker in broilers fed mixtures containing 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin.

  5. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  6. Manganese levels and the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in broilers with slipped tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K W; Lowther, D A

    1976-09-01

    Manganese deficiency in chickens results in perosis and a higher incidence of slipped tendon. Perosis is associated with a disorganization of the epiphyseal growth plates and changes in the chemical composition of the cartilage matrix. Male broilers with slipped tendons were selected from a commercial broiler farm over a 9 week growing period. Their growth rates, epiphyseal cartilage histology and tissue manganese concentrations were examined and compared with (a) normal broilers from the same farm, and (b) similar broilers raised on control and manganese deficient diets. Field broilers with slipped tendons showed no evidence of abnormality in the histological appearance of the proximal tibial growth plate at any of the ages examined. The manganese content of liver and epiphyseal cartilage from field broilers showing slipped tendon was comparable with that present in tissue from normal broilers wither from the field or raised on a chemically defined diey supplemented with managese. The slightly retared growth rate seen in the field broilers was attributed to feeding problems associated with the lameness condition. These results provide conclusive evidence that slipped tendon in field broilers is not dur to a manganese deficiency in the tissues, nor does it appear to be associated with abnormal proliferation of the chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. PMID:995818

  7. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  9. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1, 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se, respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  10. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  11. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  12. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann;

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock. The...... been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock was...... infected, and if the flock was reared in the autumn. Additionally, the main variables of the model were analysed by including a random effect at the house level. This resulted only in minor changes of the parameter estimates....

  13. Arcobacter cibarius sp nov., isolated from broiler carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houf, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; Coenye, T.;

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, non-spore-forming bacteria that gave a negative result in Arcobacter species-specific PCR tests but that yielded an amplicon in an Arcobacter genus-specific PCR test were isolated from 13 unrelated broiler carcasses. Numerical analysis of the pro......Twenty Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, non-spore-forming bacteria that gave a negative result in Arcobacter species-specific PCR tests but that yielded an amplicon in an Arcobacter genus-specific PCR test were isolated from 13 unrelated broiler carcasses. Numerical analysis.......0%) and Arcobacter nitrofigilis (95.0%). The levels of similarity to Campylobacter and Helicobacter species were below 88 and 87%, respectively. The isolates could be distinguished from other Arcobacter species by the following biochemical tests: catalase, oxidase and urease activities; reduction of nitrate; growth...

  14. Effect of Organic Acids Supplement on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kopecký

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate effect of organic acids on broiler performance. Totally 180 chickens of Ross 308 hybrid were divided to three groups. Experimental group no. 1 (n=60 received acetic acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Experimental group no. 2 (n=60 received citric acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Control group (n=60 received drinking water without any additives. The average body weight, feed consumption, mortality and carcass characteristics were analyzed and compared finally. The results showed no significant effects of diets with addition of organic acids (P<0.05 on body weight. Supplementation of citric acid caused decrease in total feed consumption. Addition of organic acids affected positive total mortality of broiler chickens. There were no significant effects of organic acids supplementation on carcass characteristics.

  15. Evaluation of vitamin E against deltamethrin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, U; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, K S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Kalakumar, B

    2003-10-01

    Deltamethrin toxicity was studied in broilers and vitamin E was evaluated for therapeutic management. Day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 chicks in each. Group 1 was maintained as control for 6 wks, group 2 was fed on deltamethrin (100 mg/kg feed) for 6 wks and group 3 was fed on deltamethrin for the first 4 wks and during the subsequent 2 wks with vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed) with out deltamethrin. Weekly body weights, feed conversion ratio, glutathione (GSH) concentration and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly (P biomarkers were increased significantly (P feed is useful in treating accidental toxicity. PMID:15266958

  16. Beneficial effects of adding lipase enzyme to broiler diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance

  17. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  18. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  19. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  20. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  1. Detection of broiler feeds contamination with Aflatoxins using rapid immunochromatographic test strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S.S. Khalaf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pellet broiler feed samples (started or finished were collected through October to December 2013, from 12 broiler flocks and 8 feed mills in Nineveh governorate, for the detection of Aflatoxins residue using total Aflatoxins rapid test strips kit. Results show that 3 (15% of the feed samples were positive while 17 feed samples (85% were negative to residual Aflatoxin.

  2. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  3. Starch digestion in the small intestine of broiler chickens differs among feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, A.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van de P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary starch is the major energy source for broiler chickens, and knowledge about its digestive behavior can be important. In a digestibility trial with 720 broiler chickens, site, rate and extent of starch digestion were measured for 12 feedstuffs. Starch digestion was determined using the slaugh

  4. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  5. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  6. Fatty acid digestion, synthesis and metabolism in broiler chickens and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.

    2012-01-01


    The impact of variation in the composition of dietary fat on digestion, metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids was studied in broiler chickens and in pigs. In young broiler chickens, digestion of unsaturated fatty acids was substantially higher compared with that of saturated fatty acids. Po

  7. Sensory Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Broiler Breast Fillets Deboned at Different Postmortem Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) deboned at 3 postmortem times. In each trial, 30 broiler carcasses (42d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Ten carcasses were hot-boned (about 3...

  8. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  9. Viscosity of dietary fibre in relation to lipid digestibility in broiler chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to identify the physicochemical properties of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) that are most relevant to the nutrition of the broiler chicken. More specifically, the mechanisms by which fibre viscosity can affect lipid digestibility in broiler chickens have been investigate

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens;

    1997-01-01

    . coil isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1), All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin, Only a few C.jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, Resistance...

  11. Impact of extended stun duration and voltage on the recovery of consciousness in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typical electrical stun duration for broilers in the United States is from 5 to 15 s (depending on voltage), but would be considerably longer if and when the kill-line stopped. The welfare and conscious/unconscious status of broilers within the stunner cabinet is a concern while the line is stopped...

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric;

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. ...

  13. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel;

    2013-01-01

    , forward selection and expanding of the number of observations used in the variance analysis along with the reduction of the number of parameters in the model. The unit of analysis was ‘broiler house’, meaning that all results from a broiler house were aggregated into one prevalence figure (number...

  14. CARNOSINE CONTENT AND MUSCLE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MALE AND FEMALE BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05. Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.

  15. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  16. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  17. Trends in Campylobacter incidence in broilers and humans in six European countries, 1997-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jore, S.; Viljugrein, H.; Brun, E.;

    2010-01-01

    in broilers and human campylobacteriosis in the period 2001-2007. In Iceland, there was a decreasing trend for campylobacteriosis in humans from 1999 to 2007, whilst the broiler trend for Campylobacter was stable from 2001 to 2004, then falling thereafter. In Norway, the human campylobacteriosis trend showed...

  18. Identification of campylobacteria isolated from Danish broilers by phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M; Bang, Dan; Lund, Marianne;

    2003-01-01

    To validate a phenotypic Campylobacter species identification method employed to identify campylobacters in broilers by comparison with campylobacterial species identification using various species-specific PCR analyses.......To validate a phenotypic Campylobacter species identification method employed to identify campylobacters in broilers by comparison with campylobacterial species identification using various species-specific PCR analyses....

  19. Energetical valoration of different feedstuffs for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Arca, J.F.; Pérez Alba, L. M.; Pérez Hernández, Manuel; Cejas Molina, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values of 8 feedstuffs were determined on 4 day periods. 14 days old broiler chickens were used. Each feedstuff (Maize-1, Maize-2, Soybean meal, Fishmeal, Corn gluten meal, White lupin seed meal, Sugar and Soybean oil) was substitued for part of a basal diet in varying ammounts, according to their normal use in commercial diets. Corrected for nitrogen retention AME values for the 8 feedstuffs in the same order as above are: 2948, 3106, 2197, 3515, 3332, 193...

  20. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, J.; Wagenberg, van, A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B; Brand, van den, MGJ Mark

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival ...

  1. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  2. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M;

    2013-01-01

    in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9·6 km and 13·5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety...... measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence....

  3. ASYMMETRIC PRICE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE U.S. BROILER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, John C.; Willett, Lois Schertz

    1996-01-01

    This study presents a testing methodology to analyze potential price asymmetries among the farm, wholesale, and retail levels of the U.S. broiler industry. Lag length, direction of causality and power of the integrators in the industry have allowed the wholesale price to become the center, causal price in the market. Asymmetric price transmissions, however, are limited. While downward movements in the wholesale price are passed on more fully to growers than increases in the wholesale price, o...

  4. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Kammon; Singh, J; Banga, H. S.; Sodhi, S.; Brar, R. S.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar®), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative change...

  5. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  6. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Z; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet dur...

  7. Paddy Straw as an Alternate Bedding Material for Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burning of agricultural residues especially paddy straw is now recognized as a major source of environmental concern in India. Burning of huge quantities of paddy straw annually leads to emission of obnoxious gases thus causing adverse impacts on, health of human, animal and bird population. This practice can be discouraged through its utilization as an alternate litter material to commonly used paddy husk which is now available at costly prices because of its use in different industries thus raising the cost of broiler production. This was evaluated through the experiment during winter season conducted on broiler chicks. Broiler chicks (n=144 were distributed into three treatment groups, each having 4 replicates of 12 chicks with equal sex and ratio and average group weight, and reared up to 42 days of age under similar conditions of housing and management except the variation in litter material. Paddy husk (PH, unchopped paddy straw (UPS and chopped paddy straw (CPS were used as different litter materials. The growth parameters tested in the experiment were body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER, EER and carcass characteristics (viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts. The litter type had no significant effect on body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and EER among all the treatments. The average body weight at 42 days of age was 1939, 1947 and 1960 g, respectively in PH, CPS, UCPS groups. The bedding type had no significant effect and no influence on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass, so it was concluded that paddy straw can be used as good bedding material for broiler chicks.

  8. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing....... Results: We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin...

  9. On-farm broiler welfare assessment and associated training

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, people who care for animals as stock keepers, stockmen, farmers, producers are placed in a position where they can greatly influence the quality of life of the animals they manage. This is particularly true in broiler chickens, where large numbers of animals can be cared for by comparatively small numbers of people. There is an international progression to start to assess poultry welfare on farm by looking at the animals themselves using (Animal Based Measures ABMs) rather t...

  10. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  11. MARKET CHOICES FOR BROILER CHICKEN MEAT IN THE OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Augustyńska-Prejsnar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.

  12. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.

  13. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  14. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26997344

  15. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

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    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  16. Multiphase feeding program for broilers can replace traditional system

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    Luciano Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broilers are traditionally managed with feeding programs that often consist of three or four phases. In this study we investigated whether a multiphase feeding program (14 phases of broilers based on the optimal mix of two feeds could replace a traditional four phase system while maintaining broiler performance. To evaluate this prposed program we measured variables of performance, carcass yield, and nitrogen excretion. In addition, we determined if the multiphase feeding program (14 phases would be equally effective regardless of bird gender. A total of 480 day-old Cobb chicks were used, with an average weight of 44.74 ± 0.16 g (females and 44.71 ± 0.11 g (males. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 animals per experimental unit. Results were analyzed separately in two periods (1–21 and 22–42 days as determined by slaughter date, as well as for the entire growth period (1–42 days. The multiphase program led to improvements in final body weight and average daily weight gain, in addition to an increase in breast yield.

  17. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

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    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  18. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

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    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  19. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July–August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark...... might also be influenced by season. A retrospective survey analysis was performed on 2001–2007 national surveillance data of the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in all conventional broiler flocks at slaughter, and in randomly sampled broiler meat at retail. There was a significant effect...... of season on the occurrence of Campylobacter in meat at retail; the largest effect was found for domestic chilled meat. Thus, the Campylobacter prevalence in Danish broiler flocks, which fluctuated with season, was found to be a strong predictor for the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh, chilled, Danish...

  20. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the conventional heating system for broiler chickens.

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella species in entire steps of a single integrated broiler supply chain in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Won; Ha, Jong-Su; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella species in an integrated broiler supply chain in Korea. A total of 1,214 samples from various steps of an integrated broiler production company including broiler breeder farms, broiler farms, broiler trucks, slaughterhouse, and retail chicken meats were collected and investigated. Salmonella was detected in 195 of the samples. The highest prevalence of Salmonella was observed in broiler transporting trucks (71.43%), followed by the slaughterhouse (63.89%) and broiler farms (16.05%). Salmonella Hadar was the most frequently isolated serotype (83.08%). All Salmonella Hadar isolates investigated in this study with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the same XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotype.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella species in entire steps of a single integrated broiler supply chain in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Won; Ha, Jong-Su; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella species in an integrated broiler supply chain in Korea. A total of 1,214 samples from various steps of an integrated broiler production company including broiler breeder farms, broiler farms, broiler trucks, slaughterhouse, and retail chicken meats were collected and investigated. Salmonella was detected in 195 of the samples. The highest prevalence of Salmonella was observed in broiler transporting trucks (71.43%), followed by the slaughterhouse (63.89%) and broiler farms (16.05%). Salmonella Hadar was the most frequently isolated serotype (83.08%). All Salmonella Hadar isolates investigated in this study with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the same XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotype. PMID:24795319

  3. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  4. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler flocks and broiler carcasses in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European Union regulations, from 5 February until 15 December 2008, sampling and analysis activities were conducted in Italy to assess the extent of contamination caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler chickens farmed nationwide. The survey involved 48 poultry slaughterhouses distributed across eleven regions of Italy, where the caeca and carcasses of 393 slaughter batches were sampled. A total of 284 batches (72.3% gave positive results for Campylobacter spp. as follows: 52.1% were contaminated by C. jejuni, 55.6% by C. coli and 1.1% by C. lari. C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated together in 37 batches (13% of positive results. Campylobacter spp. was isolated only from the caeca in 251 slaughter batches (63.9% including caecal isolates of C. jejuni (48.2%, C. coli (50.6%, and C. lari (1.2%. Carcasses from 182 batches (46.3% were contaminated by C. jejuni in 40.7% of cases, C. coli in 57.7% and the absence of C. lari from all batches examined. The contamination level observed in the carcasses ranged between 10 and 1.6 × 107 cfu/g.

  6. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual

  7. Alum and Rainfall Effects on Ionophores in Runoff from Surface-Applied Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Franklin, Dorcas; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (∼pH 9) vs. alum-amended litters (∼pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration ( runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application.

  8. Mean surface temperature prediction models for broiler chickens—a study of sensible heat flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Castro, Ariane Cristina; Vieira, Frederico Marcio Corrêa

    2014-03-01

    Body surface temperature can be used to evaluate thermal equilibrium in animals. The bodies of broiler chickens, like those of all birds, are partially covered by feathers. Thus, the heat flow at the boundary layer between broilers' bodies and the environment differs between feathered and featherless areas. The aim of this investigation was to use linear regression models incorporating environmental parameters and age to predict the surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas of broiler chickens. The trial was conducted in a climate chamber, and 576 broilers were distributed in two groups. In the first trial, 288 broilers were monitored after exposure to comfortable or stressful conditions during a 6-week rearing period. Another 288 broilers were measured under the same conditions to test the predictive power of the models. Sensible heat flow was calculated, and for the regions covered by feathers, sensible heat flow was predicted based on the estimated surface temperatures. The surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas can be predicted based on air, black globe or operative temperatures. According to the sensible heat flow model, the broilers' ability to maintain thermal equilibrium by convection and radiation decreased during the rearing period. Sensible heat flow estimated based on estimated surface temperatures can be used to predict animal responses to comfortable and stressful conditions.

  9. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  10. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  11. Necrotic enteritis in broilers: an updated review on the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbermont, L; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2011-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis and related subclinical disease have become economically significant problems for the broiler industry. Fortunately, scientific interest in this topic has grown: new C. perfringens virulence factors have been discovered and new insight gained about the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis. It has been shown that alpha toxin, for a long time thought to be the key virulence factor, is not essential for the development of the disease. Moreover, it is now clearly established that only certain C. perfringens strains are capable of inducing necrotic enteritis under specific conditions that predispose to the disease and they constitute only a minority in the intestinal tract of healthy chickens. A novel pore-forming toxin, NetB, has been identified in these virulent avian C. perfringens strains. Using a gene knockout mutant, it has been shown that NetB is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broilers. In addition to toxin production, other factors have been described that contribute to the ability of certain C. perfringens strains to cause necrotic enteritis in broilers. It has been suggested that proteolytic enzymes play an important role in the initial stages of necrotic enteritis since the villi are first affected at the level of the basement membrane and the lateral domain of the enterocytes. In field outbreaks of necrotic enteritis, a single clone of C. perfringens is dominant in intestines of all affected birds, as opposed to the mixture of different C. perfringens strains that can be isolated from healthy bird intestines. It has been proposed that bacteriocin production is responsible for the dominance of a single strain in necrotic enteritis cases. Furthermore, it has been shown that virulent strains are more able to adhere to extracellular matrix molecules than non-virulent strains. The current knowledge on the pathogenesis of the disease has been summarized in this short review.

  12. STRESS MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING VACCINATION AGAINST COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ali, Asim Aslam, Shakil Akhtar Khan, Haji Ahmad Hashmi and Kashif Aziz Khan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to detect the stress following vaccination (Eimeria vaccine against coccidiosis in broilers and its management by using multivitamins and aspirin. The parameters studied were heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein, serum glucose and serum cholesterol estimation, for three consecutive post vaccination days. At the end of experiment, on 42nd day, adrenal gland/body weight ratio and histopathology of adrenal gland was performed to assess any change. The results showed no statistically significant differenc among difference groups. However, the group that was given multivitamins showed maximum weight gain and minimum stress, while the aspirin therapy did not show any significant difference.

  13. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  14. PREVALENCE OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.

  15. Effect of enzymes on performances of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Lidija; Milošević N.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Bjedov S.; Rodić V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective of this research was to investigate the effect of addition of enzyme complex to diets of different nutritive value on performance of broiler chickens. In this trial 1200 chickens of Cobb 500 hybrid divided into 4 treatments with 8 repetitions were used: 1. Positive control; 2. Positive control with addition of 0,02% of enzyme complex; 3. Negative control (contains 0,3 MJ of energy, 0,1% of accessible P and 0,1% Ca less compared to group 1); 4. Negative control with addition of 0,02%...

  16. Measuring The Cost of Biosecurity at Broiler Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Lestari, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to know the ratio between investment and business scale in an effort to determine whether large-scale farms or small-scale farms invest more in biosecurity. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the average cost of biosecurity for large and small scale broiler farm was IDR 310.7/bird and IDR 1,340/bird respectively. The higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. Future work will include more variables in the economic analysis...

  17. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; R.A.E.Pym

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement to determine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth and carcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to 48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates each of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. ...

  18. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens;

    1997-01-01

    minor genotypic variation. Three different ribotypes were demonstrated when EcoRI was used for digestion of DNA. Two types were obtained by the use of HindIII. Nine different plasmids and seven different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A 180 kb plasmid was, however, only demonstrated in isolates...... which were protected from routine cleaning and disinfection. Subsequent inclusion of these areas into the sanitation programme resulted in the elimination of S. enterica ser. Tennessee from the hatchers, and a decreasing prevalence of S. enterica ser. Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks during...

  19. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe;

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  20. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated...... as the significant protective factor (P=0.0002). The fly screens were more effective towards the end of the rotations, where the influx of flies increases with increased need for ventilation. The statistical model predicts the prevalence of Campylobacter positive broiler flocks during summer in...

  1. Variation and pearson correlation coefficients of warner-bratzler shear force measurements within broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...

  2. The role of the commensal gut microbial community in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Erdi, G.; Boer, H.

    2005-01-01

    To understand the relationship between the gastrointestinal inhabiting microbial community and broiler health, a literature review is presented. The available information on the development of gut microbial community, the relationship between commensal microflora and digestive function, the role of

  3. Antibiotic use in Brazilian broiler and pig production: an indication and forecast of trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma-Bakker, M.H.; Bondt, N.; Neijenhuis, F.; Mevius, D.J.; Ruiter, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight in antibiotic use in relation to imported products the current use of antibiotics in pork and broiler production in Brazil are identified and trend forecasting of antibiotic use in the coming 3-5 years is performed.

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Plasmid Replicon Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates recovered from Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Kentucky has become the predominate serotype recovered from broiler slaughter in the United States and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has increased dramatically in this serotype. Relationships between AMR, genotype, and plasmid replicon types were characterized for 600 ...

  5. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... production, farm management procedures and farm conditions, climate data on mean temperature, sunshine hours, and precipitation, as well as data on Campylobacter status of broiler flocks. All together the study comprises data from more than 6000 flocks. The data were analysed using a generalized linear model...... explored by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selecting and eliminating variables in the model. Despite national differences in broiler production, common risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks were identified across all six countries...

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella in broilers at retail outlets, processing plants and farms in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusul, G; Khair, J; Radu, S; Cheah, C T; Yassin, R M

    1996-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among broilers retailed at wet-markets and processing plants. Litter and feed samples obtained from both broiler and breeder farms were also examined for Salmonella. A total of 158 out of 445 (35.5%) and 52 out of 104 (50.0%) broiler carcasses obtained from wet-markets and processing plants were contaminated with Salmonella, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 14 out of 98 (14.3%) samples of intestinal content. Litter samples from broiler and breeder farms were positive for Salmonella, 8/40 (20%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively. Salmonella isolates (230) belonging to 15 different serovars were isolated. Predominant serovars were S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. kentucky and S. blockley. PMID:8930704

  7. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P <0.001...... commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets.......The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...

  8. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  9. Sources of trophic action on performance and intestinal morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Sakamoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sources of trophic action (glutamine alone, glutamine associated with glutamic acid and yeast associated with vaccination against coccidiosis on the performance and morphometry of the small intestine of broilers. In the trial, 1,200 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 + 2 (trophic action x vaccination or not + control - free trophic factor factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 30 birds each. Vaccination negatively affected performance parameters and the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, but at the end of the experimental period, among the broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis, the group fed glutamine presented better recovery from epithelial losses of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control groups. Therefore, the dietary supplementation with the evaluated sources of trophic action could be a strategy to enhance the development of broilers submitted to vaccine stress, also considering the economic viability of the productive segment.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION MODEL TO INCREASE REVENUE OF BREEDER PARTNER IN THE PARTNERSHIP SYSTEM OF BROILERS AGRIBUSINESS IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    SUDIRMAN, INDRIANTY

    2015-01-01

    Research is located in South Sulawesi at districts which are the working area of broiler agribusiness partnership system, using a qualitative research approach based on expert judgment. This study aimed to identify alternative models of partnership that can increase the income of breeder partners in South Sulawesi. The findings indicate that the alternative model of partnership that can increase revenue of broiler farms in South Sulawesi include: (1) Partnership Model based on Broilers ...

  11. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  12. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongwei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC, hematocrit (HCT and haemoglobin (HGB of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG and blood urea nitrogen (BUN level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK and succinodehydrogenase (SDH in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1 cytoskeleton; 2 glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3 cell secretion; 4 cell apoptosis; 5 signal transduction; 6 immune and inflammatory response; and 7 cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated

  13. Distribution of alpha-amylase activity in selected broiler tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, D P; Wyatt, R D

    1986-02-01

    In an examination of broiler alpha-amylase, significant variation in the serum enzyme activity level was noted, adult levels were lower than those of young chicks. Analysis of alpha-amylase activity in various body fluids and tissues of 11-day and 7-week-old broilers indicated that the liver cannot be considered a source of alpha-amylase, although there was activity in both liver tissue and bile of 10 units/g wet weight and 35 units/100 ml, respectively. Fluid from the oral cavity had low levels of alpha-amylase activity, less than 100 units/100 ml, which decreased with age, indicating that the salivary glands may synthesize some alpha-amylase but are not a primary source. Sonication of the pancreatic homogenates was found to significantly increase the apparent activity of alpha-amylase 35-fold over unsonicated homogenates. The pancreas was the major source of alpha-amylase with activities ranging from 89 X 10(2) to 445 X 10(2) units/g wet weight. The level of activity increased with age of the bird. The electrophoretic zymograms of serum, liver, and pancreatic homogenates indicate a similar pancreatic origin for the alpha-amylase found in each tissue or fluid.

  14. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  15. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  16. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Skeleton Development of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lan-xia; SHI Zheng-xiang; WANG Xin-ying; GENG Ai-lian; LI Bao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty one-day-old AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (male and female for half), and put into two identical closed houses with different lighting programs. The first house was illuminated by using common incandescence light, and the second one was added with ultraviolet radiation light from the second week onwards. The birds lived in a floor with litters and free access to feed and water. Temperature, humidity and immune programs in the two houses were similar. The results showed that under ultraviolet radiation, the growth speed of skeleton increased (the shank length was significantly increased in the third week, P < 0.05; the leg muscle weight was significantly improved by 3.87%, P < 0.05); the skeleton quality improved (the density of skeleton mineralization was significantly increased by 6.11%, P < 0.01; serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity were all improved); and the growth performance was improved (feed conversion ratio was improved by 1.4% averagely; the uniformity of body weight, the shank length, the inclined body length and body height were significantly improved) in broiler chicken.

  17. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  18. Early feeding to modify digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro León T.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect on digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens by providing food in the first 48 hrs. after birth. Materials and methods. After incubating 300 fertile eggs from Hubbard breeding and immediately after hatching, the chicks were randomly assigned to treatments: fasting (from hatching to 48 hrs.; Hydrated Balanced Food (HBF from birth to 48 hrs.; commercial hydrating supplement (CHS from birth to 48 hrs. The diets were provided ad libitum. After 48 hrs. a commercial diet was fed. At birth and at 48 and 72 hrs. of age 30 chicks/treatment were sacrificed to determine the enzyme activity of maltase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, phytase, a-amylase, trypsin and lipase in samples of duodenal or pancreatic homogenate. Results. The supply of HBF or CHS during the first 48 hrs. of life increased the activity of maltase, sucrase and phytase in the first 3 days of life, with values between 1.2 and up to 4-fold compared to the control (p<0.05. Chickens that fasted for the first 48 hrs. had higher activity of the pancreatic enzymes a-amylase, trypsin, and lipase at 72 hrs. of life (p<0.05. Conclusions. The food supply in the first 48 hrs. after hatching increases the duodenal enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border during the first 3 days of age in broiler chickens.

  19. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter. PMID:26879673

  20. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  1. Nutritive activity of soluble rice brain arabinoxylans in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annison, G; Moughan, P J; Thomas, D V

    1995-07-01

    1. A soluble material (703 g/kg non-starch polysaccharide, 141 g/kg starch and 166 g/kg protein) of low viscosity (termed RB-NSP), was isolated in large quantities from defatted Australian rice bran using a mild alkaline extraction and ethanol precipitation. 2. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction of RB-NSP comprised arabinose (0.40 mol%), xylose (0.32 mol%) galactose (0.17 mol%), glucose (0.08 mol%) and mannose (0.03 mol%). 3. RB-NSP was included at graded concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg) in a sorghum/casein basal diet and the diet fed to male broilers in a classical balance trial to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME). The AME values recorded were 13.26, 13.85, 14.26 and 14.00 MJ/kg DM with a significant correlation (r = 0.65, P protein which were both high (0.98-0.99 and 0.88-0.89, respectively). 5. It was concluded that the RB-NSP may have been a substrate for hindgut fermentation in the broiler but that it possessed no anti-nutritive activity. PMID:7583378

  2. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF PHYTO-ADDITIVES IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.

  3. Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Kompiang

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30% . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm. Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage for 4 weeks. Increasing the level of cassapro significantly reduced body weight gain (P < 0.005, increased feed conversion ratio (FCR (P < 0.0005 with no effect on feed intake (P < 0.10 . Halquinol supplementation has no effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain (P <0.05 and improved the FCR (P < 0.01 . It is concluded that high level of cassapro in the ration will cause poorer performance of the birds, however it can be alleviated by halquinolsupplementation.

  4. Digestible valine requirements for broilers from 22 and 42 days old

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Ferreira Duarte; Otto Mack Junqueira; Carla Heloísa de Faria Domingues; Rosemeire da Silva Filardi; Liliana Longo Borges; Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment established different criteria to evaluate the requirements of digestible valine for broilers from 22 and 42 days of age, by different regression models (quadratic, exponential and Linear Response Plateau) and, in the case of statistical significance, the comparison of means byDuncantest at 5% probability. A total of 1,920 Cobb 500 male broilers were used and distributed in an entirely randomized experimental design, with 6 treatments (6 digestible valine levels: 0.7192, 0....

  5. Analisa Ekonomi Pengaruh Penambahan Imbuhan Pakan (Bio Mos) Kedalam Semak Bunga Putih (Chromolaena odorata) Terhadap Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Taruna Wijaya

    2010-01-01

    Taruna Wijaya Pinem: The Influence of Economic Analysis into the feed additive Shrubs White Flower (Chromolaena odorata) on Broilers. ARMYN HAKIM DAULAY under the guidance of the father as chairman of the commission Daulay supervisor and father of Sayed Omar as a member of the supervising committee. This study aims to determine the level of leaf powder using a white flower bush (Chromolaena odorata) with the addition of Feed Supplement (Bio-Mos) is economically used in broiler rations. The...

  6. Effect of Nutrition on Biomechanical Properties of Bone in Laying Hens and Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Leg problems have caused significant economic losses in poultry sector. Bone quality and strong is related to nutrition. In this review, effects of nutrition on bone strength are given to laying hens and broilers. For this, effects of some minerals and feed additives on bone quality were reviewed. Calcium, phosphorus, boron and some feed additives in feeding of hens and broilers are important to strong bone. In addition, the form of calcium resources must be considered in laying hens.

  7. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata) ON BROILER CHICKS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. AMASAIB; B.H. ABD ELRAHMAN; Abdelhameed, A A; B.A. ATTA ELMNAN; A.G. MAHALA

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition different levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on broiler chick’s performance. One hundred and twenty eight day old unsexed (Cobb) broiler chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were distributed randomly into 16 pens (8/pen) as replicates, in a complete randomized design. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. Feed and water were freely accessed. Feed intake, bo...

  8. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  9. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  10. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  11. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.; Merga, Y.; Cerda Cuellar, M.; Dolz, R.; Wieczorek, K.; Osek, J; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Wagenaar, J.; Bolder, N. M.; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning production, farm management procedures and conditions, climate data on mean temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, as well as data on Campylobacter status of broiler flocks. Overall, the study...

  12. Influence of age and strain on reproductive performance of the broiler breeder female

    OpenAIRE

    Alzenbarakji, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important source of high quality protein in the diet of most people in the world. Consequently, the increasing demand for this meat has made chicken meat production the most important growth sector among other meat species. This has been achieved by a half century of intensive genetic selection for growth traits; however, this was coupled with poor reproductive performance of broiler breeders. Ross 708 represents a broiler breeder strain that has been developed for breas...

  13. Poor welfare or future investment? Different growth pattern of broiler breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Calais, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The parental stock of meat type chickens (broiler breeders) are commonly feed restricted to decrease their rapid growth and the issues associated with it. Among these birds, chronic hunger and stress are the most prominent welfare concerns and mass heterogeneity within flocks a major management challenge. The present study compared small and large broiler breeders of the same age within a flock, with the hypothesis that small birds would show signs of poorer welfare indicated by higher cortic...

  14. Effects of Environmental Temperature and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on the Diurnal Feeding Pattern of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Hasan Rüştü

    2000-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the diurnal feeding patterns of broiler chickens given a choice between ascorbic acid (AA) supplemented and unsupplemented feeds under heated or unheated conditions. Broiler chickens were offered supplemented (with 200 mg AA/kg feed) and unsupplemented feeds, and the feeding behaviour for each feed was monitored by continuous recording of the weight of the feed container for 4 days under unheated (UH) and the next 4 days under heated (H) cond...

  15. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...... through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens...

  16. Effect of use of extruded corn in broiler feed on yield and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine the efficacy of the use of extruded feed in the diet of broiler chicks. The procedure of extruding corn causes significant physical-chemical changes in the kernel structure, which increases the nutritive value as the nutritive matter in the kernel becomes more readily available to the enzymes of the animal’s digestive tract. This procedure also increases hygiene safety as well as the sensory characteristics (taste of the feed. Investigations were carried out on 3000 chicks of the Ross 308 hybrid, which were divided into an experimental and a control group. The fattening period lasted 49 days. The composition of the broiler mix was identical in both groups, with extruded corn being used in the mix for the control group (O. Broilers fed the mix with extruded corn (O showed faster growth, lower mortality (20:96 and better feed conversion (2.04:2,13 kg/kg in comparison with the control group (K. Broilers of the experimental group (O also realized greater mass of the breast (696.6:657.6 g and legs (569.2:528.2 g, as well as a greater meat percentage in the breast and legs. The diet with extruded corn also resulted in an improved nutritive quality of the broiler meat (higher protein content and lower content of free lipids in broiler meat. The meat of broilers fed the mix with extruded corn (O was found to contain a higher protein content (23.35:22.58% in the breast, and in the legs (18.26:17.67%, and a lower content of free lipids (1,.40:2.42% in the breast, and in the legs (5.87:9.24% in comparison with the meat of broilers of the control group (K. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46012

  17. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC PREPARATES WITH DIFFERENT STRAIN ON MEAT PRODUCTION OF BROILER DUCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, J.; C. HRNČÁR; S. MINDEK

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of the probiotic preparates with different probiotic strain on the meat production of broiler duck females. The experiment realised in half-operation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage technology. Totally 45 one day broiler duck females hybrid PKR divided into three groups: control group - without addition ...

  18. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  19. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Pan

    Full Text Available Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks ("Meihuang" were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400-700 nm, WL; red LED strips (620 nm, RL; yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL; green LED strips (514 nm, GL; blue LED strips (455 nm, BL; and fluorescent strips (400-700 nm, FL. From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P 0.05. Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05. In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876 to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925 in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL, which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production.

  20. Effects of Mannan Oligosaccharide and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Pani Padihari; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Tarini Sahu; Manoj Kumar Gendley; Surendra Kumar Naik

    2014-01-01

    150 day old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates of 10 chicks in each to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gut morphology of broilers. The trial lasted for 6 weeks. For microscopic examination the representative samples of each segment of intestine were collected and fixed in the 10% buffered formalin. No significant difference was observed in treatments at length of different segments of int...

  1. Consumers' choice of broiler meat in Finland: the effects of country of origin and production methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pouta, Eija; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Heikkila, Jaakko; Isoniemi, Merja; Makela, Johanna; Paananen, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    Among consumers there is an increasing interest and concern about the ways food is produced. This calls for the poultry industry to differentiate their products and production methods to directions valued by the consumers. In this study we use choice experiment to analyse the importance of broiler production method and the country of origin for the Finnish consumers. In the experiment, we offer several alternatives for regular broiler, including products that have been produced using organic ...

  2. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    K.G Wiryawan; S. Luvianti; W. Hermana; S. Suharti

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp) used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC) of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E....

  3. Pathology of heart, lung, liver and kidney in broilers under chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to investigate pathological changes in broilers under chronic heat stress. Fifteen birds (n = 15, twenty-eight days old were kept at 33 + 1oC environmental temperature for 21 days. While broilers were maintained in environmental temperature at 33 + 1 oC, body temperature, respiratory rate and urine excretion rose. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions of heart, lung, liver and kidney were examined. Right atrium hypertrophy with excessive blood accumulation, heart enlargement and right ventricular hypertrophy were observed in 12 out of 15 broilers (80%. Congestion, edema and hyperemia in lung were present in all broilers. Yellow and pale livers were observed in 4 out of 15 broilers (26.67%. Kidneys were highly affected i.e. generalized edema and hemorrhage in subrenal capsule. Under microscopic examination of heart, massive myofibrillar degeneration with hemorrhage, general fatty degeneration /or/ vacuolation of myofibers and diffused myocarditis containing organisms were found in some areas. The principal histopathologic lesions in the lung were related to vein and arteriole massive congestion. Massive hemorrhage was largely observed in parabronchus and alveoli of all broilers. Liver cells showed “fatty degeneration” with dilation of sinusoid of all broilers. Besides, necrosis with heterophils and lymphocytes was observed in some parts of the liver, especially in the centritubular region. In the kidney, leukocytes such as heterophils accumulated in many inflammatory areas. Fatty degeneration was observed in renal tubular epithelia of all broilers. Glomeruli were damaged. A space between renal papillae increased and accumulated water. Moreover, ureters in 9 out of 15 (60% birds showed sac-like expansion “ureteral pseudobladder”. These sacs were filled with urine and similar to bladder in mammals.

  4. ESTIMATION OF THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF MEAT BROILER THROUGH MODERN METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA PÂRVU; R. BURLACU; IOANA ANDRONIE; VIOLETA SIMION; ADRIANA AMFIM

    2013-01-01

    In vivo experiments on broilers were conducted in order to elaborate a mathematical model for body synthesis, the experimental data being processed with Gompertz time functions and linear functions. The experiment used 166, Ross 308 day-old chicks through an experimental period of 42 days. The broilers received diets according to the growth period (1 – 14, 15 – 28, 29 – 42 days). The dietary energy and nutrient supply for group 1 (control) were according to the recommendation of Ross Breeders...

  5. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Sayrafi; Rasoul Shahrooz; Farhad Soltanalineja; Shaban Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate) on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each). Dietary treatments were as follow: ...

  6. The Influence of Naringin or Hesperidin Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Goliomytis, Michael; Kartsonas, Nikos; Maria A. Charismiadou; Symeon, George K.; Panagiotis E Simitzis; Stelios G Deligeorgis

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing broiler feed with hesperidin or naringin, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, breast meat quality and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. One of the groups served as a control (C) and was given commercial basal diets, whereas the other five groups were given the same diets further supplemented with naringin ...

  7. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  8. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  9. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  10. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  11. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Udang yang Diolah dengan Filtrat Air Abu Sekam dalam Ransum Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different levels of shrimp head waste (SHW substituting fish meal (FM in broiler diets. FM is the sole crude protein from animal sources. A control fish meal broiler diet and four different levels of SHW substituted for crude protein FM were fed to CP 707 Arbor Acres broiler strains from day old chick to four weeks of age. The crude proteins FM were replaced with 0 (R0; 25 (R1; 50 (R2; 75 (R3; and 100 (R4 percent of crude protein SHW. The five treatments were assigned to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were recorded to measure the performances. The results of Duncan’s revealed that feed consumption, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not significantly different with increasing level of SHW as substituted crude protein FM in broiler diets. However these parameters in bird fed 100 % SHW diets did not differ from those in birds fed 16 % FM (7.32% crude protein from FM. While body weight gain decreased with increasing levels of SHW in broiler diets (R4. The decrease body weight gain may be due to the decreased feed intake and amino acid in balance and the increased chitin content in the diet. The conclusion of this experiment that SHW can be used as a protein source in broiler diets up to 75% to replace FM.

  12. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in broilers and broiler hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingchen; Yu, Zezhong; Hou, Jiafa; Deng, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhenlei; Zhao, Zhiyong; Cui, Jun

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins belong to mycotoxins which are found in human foods and animal chow. We investigated the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2/HT-2 in broilers and chicken hepatocytes. Maize cultures of Fusarium poae was fed to broilers for 42 d, and the physiological index, biochemical index and expression of mRNAs related to oxidative stress were analyzed. Chicken hepatocytes were treated with different levels of T-2/HT-2, and the following parameters were detected: cell viability, GSH and MDA concentration, LDH leakage, activities of ALT/AST, ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vivo, high levels of mycotoxins (4 mg/kg T-2 and 0.667 mg/kg HT-2) in feed caused significant reductions in body weight, weight gain, and serum total protein, and significant increases in feed conversion ratio, ALP, ALT/AST activities, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vitro, cells treated with T-2/HT-2 showed reductions of GSH concentration and significant increases in LDH leakage, ALT/AST ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT activities, MDA concentration, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Consequently, F. poae culture material and T-2/HT-2 induced toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, respectively. PMID:26683309

  13. Spread of Extended Spectrum Cephalosporinase-Producing Escherichia coli Clones and Plasmids from Parent Animals to Broilers and to Broiler Meat in a Production Without Use of Cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Hasman, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the occurrence of extended spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)–producing Escherichia coli in a broiler production with no cephalosporin use and a low use of antimicrobials in general. Furthermore, it investigated whether the current consumption of aminopenicillins...... selects for ESC-producing E. coli and whether certain clones or plasmids spread from imported parent flocks to the meat. Materials and Methods: ESC-producing E. coli was isolated using MacConkey broth with 1 mg/L of ceftriaxone. ESC genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...... of ESC E. coli. Conclusions: ESC-producing E. coli from flocks of imported broiler parents spread clonally and horizontally to broiler meat (including potentially human pathogenic types) even in a country with no cephalosporin use. Use of aminopenicillins may influence the persistence of ESC-producing E...

  14. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  15. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF AERIEL DRIED PARTS OF SOME HERBS IN BROILER DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar, S., D. Namik, G. Fatih, A. Gokcimen and K. Selcuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determines possible antibacterial, antioxidant and growth-promoting effects of some selected herbs in broiler chickens. Ground aerial parts of Thymbra spicata, Origanum minutiflorum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mrytus communis, Salvia tomentosa and ground seed of Cumin were added to broiler diets at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/w. Volatile essential oil contents were analysed. Samples of blood, digesta and intestinal tissues were analysed to determine antioxidant activity, bacteria growth and intestinal histomorphology, respectively. The results showed that at 0-21 days of age the birds performed better on the diets up to 0.25% of herbal inclusion level. Increasing the inclusion level from 0.5 to 1.5% for Origanum minutiflorum, Thymbra spicata and partially for Rosmarinus officinalis increased feed consumption with lower weight gain and depressed efficiency of feed conversion, but not for Salvia tomentosa, Mrytus communis and Cumin. The results further showed that broilers could better perform on the diets up to 0.5% of inclusion level at 42 days. All levels (except 1.5% for Cumin and Salvia tomentosa did not cause any impairment in performance of broilers. High inclusion levels (0.5 to 1.5% reduced E. coli count. The selected herbs did not cause an oxidative stress at a given inclusion level. Of the plants Rosmarinus officinalis clearly demonstrated strong antioxidant effect. The high doses of Origanum minutiflorum caused depression in growth rate associated with shortened villus development of intestinal epithelium in broilers. However, increased growth rate with Cumin associated with longer villus and increased dry matter retention in broilers at 21 days were recorded. It was suggested that some of selected herbs can be incorporated up to 0.5% into broiler diets on account of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties

  16. Bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd on Broiler Chicken Fed in Difference Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwiloka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e.  T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation  turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that  quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17%  bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.

  17. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  18. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF BROILER TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS (Case Study at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip Prayugo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to (1 map the value chain in broiler at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk (CPI; (2 analyze the value chain governance in broiler at CPI; (3 analyze the margin of marketing at broiler industry both on farm or off farm; (3 analyze the gap between the expectation and the performance of consumers (farmers upon using products of CPI and (4 recognize factors influencing competitiveness in broiler industry; and (5 to formulate strategy for value chain upgrading at CPI in order to increase competitiveness of broiler. As revealed by the value chain analysis, the role of CPI in this value chain is highly significant. All poultry inputs (DOC, feed, veterinary medicine, and poultry equipments are supplied by CPI. As for downstream sector, CPI processes broiler into its derivatives. The type of value chain governance between feed supplier, DOC, and veterinary medicine, poultry equipment, and poultry derivates belongs to market value chain. Whereas the type of value chain governance between carcass supplier and restaurant belongs to captive value chain. Based on the margin of marketing analysis, the party that gains the lowest margin is farmer and the party that receives the highest margin is the processor. In gap analysis, the lowest attribute of competitiveness is the feed spending and the highest attribute is the spending on veterinary medicine for two months. Factors that influence the competitiveness in poultry industry are condition, demand, industry competition, main industries and supporting industries, and government’s role.Keywords: Value Chain, Competitiveness, Broiler, PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk, Margin of Marketing Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT Analysis

  19. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF COBB BROILERS GIVEN VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF MALUNGGAY (Moringa oleifera Lam. AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. PORTUGALIZA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the growth performance of Cobb broilers supplemented with varying concentrations of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract (MoALE via the drinking water. A total of four hundred day-old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups, replicated four times with twenty-five broilers per replicate. The growth performance of broilers was evaluated based on their feed consumption, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR and return of investment (ROI. Results of the study showed that at 90 mL MoALE (T3, the feed consumption of broilers was consistently lower than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. The live weight of broilers given 30 mL (T1, 60 mL (T2 and 90 mL (T3 MoALEs were significantly higher than the control group (T0 and this was also statistically significant (P<0.01. In terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR, the MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 were more efficient converter of feeds into meat than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. Furthermore, the return of investment (ROI of MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 was significantly higher (P<0.01 than the control group (T0 with a revenue per peso invested of Php 0.62 in T1 and T2, and Php 0.63 in T3 compared to Php 0.50 in T0.

  20. Reproducible infection model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske;

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to establish an infection and disease model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Previous experiments had failed to induce disease and only a transient colonization with challenge strains had been obtained. In the present study, two series of experiments...... were conducted, each involving four groups of chickens and each group kept in separate isolators. A coccidial vaccine given in 10 times the prescribed dosage was used to promote the development of necrotic enteritis. In the first experiment, cultures of C. perfringens were mixed with the feed at day 9......, 10, 11, and 12, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 10, while in the second experiment, C. perfringens cultures were mixed with the feed at day 17, 18, 19, and 20, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 18. Chickens were examined at day 9, 11, 12, and 15 (exp. 1), and at day 17, 18, 20...

  1. Reproducible Infection Model for Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske;

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to establish an infection and disease model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Previous experiments had failed to induce disease and only a transient colonization with challenge strains had been obtained. In the present study, two series of experiments...... were conducted, each involving four groups of chickens with each group kept in separate isolators. A coccidial vaccine given at 10 times the prescribed dosage was used to promote the development of necrotic enteritis. In the first experiment, cultures of C. perfringens were mixed with the feed at day 9......, 10, 11, and 12, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 10, whereas in the second experiment, C. perfringens cultures were mixed with the feed at day 17, 18, 19, and 20, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 18. Chickens were examined at day 9, 11, 12, and 15 ( Experiment 1), and at day 17...

  2. VENTILATION RATE AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS FROM BROILER CHICKEN HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KNÍŽATOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine emissions of greenhouse gases from broiler chicken house during one fattening period (i.e. 40 days. The greatest concentrations of water vapour (H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 were observed in the first ten days. Increasing emissions of all greenhouse gases were as a consequence of increasing ventilation rate, although their concentrations were decreasing. It was released 83.8 . 106 m3 polluted air containing 211 314 kg CO2, 5 kg N2O, 1 323 kg CH4 and 178 914 kg H2O over a period of whole fattening time.

  3. Performance of broilers fed diets containing natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of different probiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. A thousand and fifty one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 probiotics sources in the diet, 2 probiotics concentrations in drinking water and 1 control group, with 5 repetitions of 30 birds per parcel. The results showed better feed conversion (p<0.01 (1-21, 22-35 and 1-45 days and weight gain (p<0.05 (22-35 and 1-45 days in the control group in relation to the groups receiving probiotics. The use of Bacillus subtilis in the diet improved (p<0.05 feed conversion during the growing phase, but this was not seen in the following period. Thus, it was concluded that probiotics supplementation had no beneficial effects on the performance.

  4. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  6. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Regiane R.; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H. G.; Koolmees, Peter A.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperatur

  7. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  8. Effects of chlorine or chlorine dioxide during immersion chilling on recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses and chiller water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the microbiological impact of immersion chilling broiler carcasses with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Eviscerated, pre-chill commercial broiler carcasses were cut into left and right halves along the keel bone, and each half was rinsed (HCR) in 100 mL of 0.1% pept...

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P < 0.001). However, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were the same in all three dietary treatments. Furthermore, the foot pad condition of broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  10. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in the size of the populations of different groups of bacteria in the normal flora of the skin of processed broilers were examined after each of five consecutive washings with mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses was ...

  11. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  12. Comparison of sensory descriptive flavor profiles between cooked hot-boned and cold-deboned broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) that were either hot-boned or cold-deboned. Broiler carcasses (42-d old birds) were hot-boned (about 45 min postmortem), and cold-deboned 2 h postmortem (2h) and 2...

  13. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler f...

  14. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Development and Nutrient Digestibility During the Rearing Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatment

  15. A comparison of fluctuations of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, Betty G M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Havelaar, Arie H; Lipman, Len J A

    2015-01-01

    The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat. The aim of the study

  16. A comparison of fluctuations of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Havelaar, A.H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat.The aim of the stu

  17. Evaluation of the technical and economic impacts of high-density broiler production in an integrated system

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt GS

    2008-01-01

    This study included 35 farmers contracted by a broiler integrator company. Each farmer owned an average of seven poultry houses, housing six flocks per year per farmer, summing up 4.0 million broilers housed. Live performance was evaluated in flocks housed in three densities (D1

  18. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding s

  19. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.;

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul......) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi...

  20. Effects of Climate on Incidence of Campylobacter spp. in Humans and Prevalence in Broiler Flocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Mary Evans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    of sunlight on Campylobacter incidence in humans and broiler flocks by using lag dependence functions, locally fitted linear models, and cross validation methods. For humans, the best model included average temperature and sunlight 4 weeks prior to infection; the maximum temperature lagged at 4 weeks...... humidity predicted the incidence in humans equally well. For broiler flock incidence these factors explained considerably less. Future research should focus on elements within the broiler environment that may be affected by climate, as well as the interaction of microclimatic factors on and around broiler...... farms. There is a need to quantify the contribution of broilers as a source of campylobacteriosis in humans and to further examine the effect of temperature on human incidence after this contribution is accounted for. Investigations should be conducted into food consumption and preparation practices...

  1. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  2. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  3. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  4. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  5. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  6. Effects of Different Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Metabolic Rate of Nutrition in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongda

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of different protein levels on the growth performance and metabolic rate of nutrition in broilers. Total 360 healthy and weight closed local broilers of 3 weeks were chosen and then divided into three groups randomly by one factor. Each group contains three handlings, each handling consists of 40 broilers. The period of experiment was 7 weeks. The metabolic experiment was performed at the 7th week. Three different protein levels were used in broilers' diet. The levels of protein were 19%, 17.5% and 16%. The results showed that the different levels of protein in crude dietary had significant difference between 19% group and the other two groups. The average daily weight gain and daily efficiency were significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P0.05), and the metabolic rate of the impact of phosphorus was significantly different (P<0.05). The result showed that when protein level was 19%, the growth of the local broiler was the best.

  7. Spatial variability of enthalpy in broiler house during the heating phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. P. Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The thermal environment inside a broiler house has a great influence on animal welfare and productivity during the production phase. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property that has been proposed to evaluate the internal broiler house environment, for being an indicator of the amount of energy contained in a mixture of water vapor and dry air. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial variability of enthalpy in a broiler house during the heating phase using geostatistics. The experiment was conducted in the spring season, in a commercial broiler house with heating system consisting of two furnaces that heat the air indirectly, in the first 14 days of the birds' life. It was possible to characterize enthalpy variability using geostatistical techniques, which allowed observing the spatial dependence through kriging maps. The analyses of the maps allowed observing problems in the heating system in regions inside the broiler house, which may cause a thermal discomfort to the animals besides productive and economic losses.

  8. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  9. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health. PMID:27181580

  10. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

  11. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  12. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  13. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

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    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  14. Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher FedMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

  15. Efisiensi Penggunaan Energi Metabolis Ransum Berbasis Onggok yang Difermentasi Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pada Ayam Broiler

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    Wizna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok on the metabolism energy differences in the diets to the performance of broilers. Eighty unsexed three day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 20 pens (four chicks/pen. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments (3000, 2900, 2800 and 2700 kkal/kg for broilers of energy metabolism in diets and five replications. Measured variables were feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC. Results of the experiment indicated that feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC were not affected (P>0.05 by levels of metabolism energy in the diets for broilers. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok can be included up to 40% with energy metabolism 2700 kkal/kg in broilers diets and improved the efficiency of metabolizable energy.

  16. DIETARY FRUCTANS AND THEIR POTENTIAL BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOGUSŁAWSKA-TRYK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.

  17. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on the performance, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Senthilkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A biological trial was conducted for a period of seven weeks to study the effect of graded levels of tallow (saturated and sunflower oil (un saturated or combination of both on the production performance, carcass characteristics, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers. Materials and Methods: The experimental feeds were prepared by the addition of tallow (2% and 4% and sunflower oil (2% and 4% either alone or in combination of both (SF oil 1% + tallow 1% and SF oil 2% + tallow 2%. Results: Neither the fat source (sunflower oil or tallow nor their combinations had influenced the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, livability and carcass characteristics in broilers. However, at 49 days of age, broilers fed with tallow alone had higher (P<0.01 abdominal fat than the rest of the treatment groups. When compared to control and tallow alone fed groups, the broilers fed with sunflower oil alone and mixture of sunflower oil and tallow had significantly (P<0.01 lower total serum and meat cholesterol level. Conclusion: The data suggest that the abdominal fat yield, serum and meat total cholesterol level of commercial broilers are inversely proportional to the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 159-162

  18. The Strategic Application of Electrolyte Balance to Minimize Heat Stress in Broilers

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    JP Gamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several physiological and metabolic changes are triggered in broilers submitted to high environmental temperatures, resulting in performance losses. Feed formulation manipulation of the dietary electrolyte balance may be applied to reduce the negative impact of heat stress on broiler performance. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the manipulations of dietary electrolytes by combining changes in the electrolyte (Na++K+-Cl- balance (EB and in the [(K++Cl-/Na+] ratio (ER in broiler feeds. In total, 1575 male broilers between 21 and 46 days old were allotted to 15 treatments in a 5x3 factorial arrangement, consisting of five diets with different EB/ER combinations (150/3, 250/2, 250/3, 250/4, and 350/3. Birds were submitted to heat stress at 25 or 35 days old. Live performance, mortality rate, and carcass traits were evaluated. The strategic formulation of diets with different EB and ER improves live performance and minimize the effect of heat stress on broilers. Under thermoneutral conditions, an EB of 250 mEq/kg and an ER of 3 are recommended, whereas under heat stress, and EB of 350 mEq/kg and an ER of 3 should be applied.

  19. Evaluation of Size and Lesion Scores of Bursa Cloacae in Broiler Flocks in Algeria

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    S. Sellaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of IBD (infectious bursal disease are frequently observed among correctly vaccinated broiler flocks in Algerian Nord-East region. The present study aimed to search for the immunosuppression state as possible consequence of IBD. Our investigation focused on nine broilers flocks whom one suffering from IBD. Total of 400 bursa cloacae (bursa Fabricius were collected from broiler chickens during the rearing period or at slaughtering. The parameters of the bursa cloacae are evaluated: body weight ratio, index bursal, morphometric characteristics and the histopathological observations. The results obtained show that the weight and diameter of bursa Fabricius are not proportional to the age and weight of chickens. The weight and size of the bursa Fabricius were found lower than the accepted standards. According to the evaluation system in effect, 58 % of examined chickens belong to the poor category and 29 % to the excellent category. Such results indicate bursa atrophy and confirm state of immunosuppression which was suspected because of poor performances recorded in some broiler flocks. In conclusion, the bursa characteristics (body weight ratio, morphometric and histopathological studies are practical and not expensive tools for any field investigation to evaluate the immune status of broilers

  20. Evaluation of White Striping prevalence and predisposing factors in broilers at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elisa; Drigo, Michele; Longoni, Corrado; Pezzotti, Raffaele; Fasoli, Paolo; Recordati, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    White striping ( WS: ) is an alteration of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the direction of muscle fibers. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the predisposing factors to WS in commercial broilers of different weight reared in northern Italy. Fifty seven broiler flocks, including animals of medium- and heavy-weight, were grossly evaluated at slaughter for the presence of WS. For each flock, breeding data (mean BW at slaughter, ADG, sex, color of skin and fat, genetic line, age, antibiotic treatment, and prevalence of deep pectoral myopathy) were collected and statistically analyzed to assess their correlation with WS. Histology of breast fillets affected by different grades of WS was performed to evaluate potential differences between medium- and heavy-weight broilers. The overall prevalence of WS in medium- and heavy-weight broilers (mean BW 2.59 ± 0.13 kg and 3.64 ± 0.34 kg, respectively) was 70.2 ± 7.9% and 82.51 ± 8.5%, respectively, while the percentage of severe WS was 13.3 ± 7.1% and 25.7 ± 12.8%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between presence of WS, BW at slaughter, and ADG (Pearson correlation = 0.69, P animals. PMID:26112037

  1. Salmonellosis and Related Risk Factors in Broiler Flocks in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Seifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Prevention of foodborne pathogens is essential to control infectious diseases; Salmonella spp. is referred to as the most common causative agent of foodborne illnesses. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in broiler flocks in Mazandaran province, north of Iran and find the potential risk factors including: age, size of flock, strain, season, vaccination program and use of antibiotics. Materials and Methods From March 2012 to December 2013, a total of 50 flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacal samples were collected from each flock. Every five samples were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Thirteen flocks out of 50 (26% were positive for Salmonella species. Chances of Salmonella spp. detection was higher in flocks with lower age (P = 0.41. Increasing flock population was associated with increased chance of Salmonella spp. isolation (P = 0.21. The risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks was increased when no antibiotics were given to day-old chicks. There was no significant difference (P = 0.30 in the prevalence of salmonellosis among different broiler strains. Conclusions In the current study, six risk factors were assessed for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler flocks. Some of these factors contributed to the risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks.

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS THE DIETARY CORN BY-PRODUCTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study conducted in INCDBNA –BALOTESTI on 840 Ross- 308 broilers from hatching to 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control – C, and two experimental – GLU and GERM, with 280 broilers per group (3 groups ´ 2 replicates ´ 140 broilers. Three compound feeds formulations were used, one control and two experimental. The control diet was based on corn, soybean meal, full fat soy and fish meal; in the experimental groups the fish meal was replaced by corn gluten (GLU; in the other experimental group the full fat soy was replaced by corn germs (GERM. All compound feeds formulations were isoprotein, isocaloric and contained equal levels of total and digestible sulphur amino acids, lysine, calcium and available phosphorus, in agreement with the feeding requirements recommended for the intensive rearing of these performing hybrids. The broilers were phased feed with diets according to their age: start (0 – 14 days, growerdeveloper (15 – 28 days and finisher (29 – 42 days. The monitored productive parameters were: average daily feed intake (g; body weight evolution by growth stage (g; feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain; stock liveability (%; slaughtering yield and proportion of carcass parts (%, economic efficiency (%.

  3. Immunization of broiler chickens against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F

    2007-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins were alpha-toxin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase, and a hypothetical protein (HP). The current study investigated the role of each of these proteins in conferring protection to broiler chickens against oral infection challenges of different severities with virulent C. perfringens. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli and were used to immunize broiler chickens intramuscularly. Serum and intestinal antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All proteins significantly protected broiler chickens against a relatively mild challenge. In addition, immunization with alpha-toxin, HP, and PFOR also offered significant protection against a more severe challenge. When the birds were primed with alpha-toxoid and boosted with active toxin, birds immunized with alpha-toxin were provided with the greatest protection against a severe challenge. The serum and intestinal washings from protected birds had high antigen-specific antibody titers. Thus, we conclude that there are certain secreted proteins, in addition to alpha-toxin, that are involved in immunity to NE in broiler chickens. PMID:17634510

  4. Responses of broilers to Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive: The effect of different forms and levels of bioactives on performances of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feed additives are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promotors or to improve feed efficiency. Previous results showed that Aloe vera bioactives could improve feed efficiency in broilers. Therefore, a further study was designed in order to obtain optimum doses and application methods of bioactives for broiler chickens. Aloe vera was prepared in different forms (fresh gel, dry gel, fresh whole leaf or dry whole leaf. The aloe was supplemented into the feed with concentrations of 0.25; 0.5 and 1 g/kg (equal to dry gel. Standard diets with or without antibiotics were also included as control. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks and the performances were observed. Results showed that the aloe-bioactives did not significantly (P>0.05 affect final body weight of broilers as compared with the control. Supplementation of 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel significantly improved feed convertion by 4.7; 4.8 and 8.2%, respectively as compared with the control. This improvement was a result of reduction in feed intake or dry matter intake without reducing the weight gain. However, supplementation of whole aloe leafs could not improve feed convertion in boilers. It is concluded that the bioactives of Aloe vera could be used as feed supplement to improve feed efficiency in broilers with no deleterious effect on weight gain, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels and internal organs. The effective concentrations of aloe gell as a feed supplement based on dry matter convertion were from 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel.

  5. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest numbers of TI induction trial

  6. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH AND BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamdev Sethy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To access the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa supplementation on growth and blood chemistry of broiler chickens, seventy five day old straight run coloured synthetic broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups (25 chicks per group. Group I served as control (without any supplementation, where as birds in groups II and III were supplemented with 0.5% and 1.0% Curcuma longa powder respectively and the trail was lasted for 7 weeks, during which weekly body weight changes were recorded. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to study the blood profile of birds. The results indicated that addition of Curcuma longa powder caused significant (P0.05 effect on blood biochemical parameters of bird. The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary Curcuma longa powder to improve body weight and Hb concentration of broiler chickens.

  7. Inv A gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers

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    Thenmozhi Velayutham

    Full Text Available Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne source of Salmonella. In this preliminary study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. contamination of broiler carcasses, were determined. Sixty samples were collected from poultry carcasses from the commercial broiler slaughtering facility in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The presence of Salmonella spp in collected samples was assessed by performing the pre-enrichment and enrichment culture, followed by PCR assay. The primers were selected from the invA gene specific for the detection of Salmonella spp. In this study 8.3% of poultry carcasses were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. In order to provide a more accurate profile of the prevalence of Salmonella spp in broiler carcasses, it is pertinent to use inv A gene specific PCR method that could be considered as an appropriate alternative to conventional culture method. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 562-564

  8. Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Angen, Øystein; Chriel, M.;

    1999-01-01

    for analysis. Five factors and an interaction term were found significant by multivariate logistic regression analysis. An increased risk for S, typhimurium infection was associated with two parent flocks, one confirmed infected and one suspected of being infected with S. typhimurium, with two......A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection in Danish broiler flocks. The data included all broiler flocks slaughtered in 1995, and the epidemiological unit was the individual broiler...... of the hatcheries, and with five houses on the farm. An interaction between season anal the previously mentioned hatcheries, and a random effect at farm level was also found to be statistically significant. Twelve variables were not found to be associated with S, typhimurium infection: medication, growth promoters...

  9. Use of black pepper (Piper nigrum as feed additive in broilers diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum. A total of 250 (Rose 308 day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.

  10. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( Pchickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  11. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (Prectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  12. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B;

    2015-01-01

    negative; and litter delivered into the house close to the time of arrival of new chickens vs. storing litter on the farm. Furthermore, the data showed that a vertically based ventilation system (where most of the air is taken into the house through chimneys) constituted a higher risk than a horizontally......The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011, there...... were 25 Danish broiler farms visited, and a questionnaire was filled in by a veterinarian/consultant. In the second study, a similar questionnaire was distributed electronically to all Danish broiler farmers (n = 164) that were on record with an email address in the Quality Assurance System in the...

  13. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions...... cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low...... stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large number of data available to identify the significant variables. To a large extent, the country specific models identified risk factors that were...

  14. Seroprevalence of avian influenza (H9N2) in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.

  15. Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Wedderkopp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Through the national surveillance program for Campylobacter spp,, nine broiler chicken farms that were infected with Campylobacter jejuni in at least five rotations in 1998 were identified. One additional farm, located at the island of Bornholm where divided slaughter is used extensively, was also...... selected. Twelve broiler houses located on 10 farms were included in the study. The C,jejuni isolates collected from the selected houses during the surveillance were typed using fla typing and macrorestriction profiling (MRP), and a subset of the isolates, representing each of the identified clones...... with recurrent Campylobacter problems. The MRPs of clones belonging to fla type 1/1 serotype O:2 isolated from persistently infected flocks shared a high percentage of bands compared to the remaining isolates, indicating that some clones that have the ability to cause persistent infections in broiler farms...

  16. Effect of thatch on water-soluble phosphorus of pasture soil fertilized with broiler litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a thatch layer in established pastures could reduce the contact between broiler litter and soil, thus increasing the potential for surface runoff contamination with litter P. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effect of a thatch layer on the dynamics of water-soluble P in undisturbed cores taken from a pasture. Cores with and without a thatch layer received a surface application of broiler litter (5 t@hm-2) and were incubated at 25 oC for 56 d. The result showed that on the soil surface the contents of water soluble-P (39 kg@hm-2) of the cores with the thatch layer was higher than that (20 kg@hm-2) of the cores without the thatch layer. Therefore on well-established pastures fertilized with broiler litter, the presence of a thatch layer might lead to high concentrations of water-soluble P on the soil surface.

  17. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  18. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  19. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, A; Shankle, M W; Tewolde, H; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K R; McLaughlin, M R; Rowe, D E

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of broiler litter to no-till cotton could lead to degradation of water quality. Incorporation of broiler litter into the top surface soil (0.05 m) could alleviate this risk. A 2-yr field study was conducted on a silt loam upland soil to determine the effect of incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface on nutrient and bacterial transport in runoff. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments and three replications. Treatments were (i) unfertilized control; (ii) surface-appliedbroiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) without incorporation; (iii) surface-applied broiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) with immediate incorporation; and (iv) inorganic fertilizer N (urea ammonium nitrate, 32% N) and inorganic fertilizer P (triple superphosphate) at the recommended rate. Phosphorus was surface appliedat 25 kg ha(-1) and N was injected at 101 kg ha(-1) into the soil using a commercial liquid fertilizer applicator. Runoff was collected from small runoff plots (2.4 m by 1.6 m) established at the bottom side of main plots (13.7 m by 6.0 m). Incorporation of broiler litter reduced total N (TN), NO3-N, water soluble P (WSP), and total P (TP) concentrations in runoffby 35, 25, 61, and 64%, respectively, and litter-associated bacteria by two to three orders of magnitude compared with unincorporated treatment. No significant difference in total suspended solids (TSS) in runoffwas obtained between incorporated and unincorporated treatments. Incorporation of broiler litter into the surface soil in the no-till system immediately after application minimized the potential risk for surface nutrient losses and bacteria transport in runoff. PMID:21520764

  20. THE EFFECT OF BROILER BREEDER AGES ON THE QUALITIVE AND QUANTITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabodin Gharahveysi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler breeder age is one of the most important factors that affects on egg properties. However by increasing the age of broiler breeder flock, the quality of eggs and consequently the quality of their chick products would be changed. In order to study the effect of broiler breeder flock age on the various aspects of chick products, 300 fertilizable eggs were selected randomly, from 3 broiler breeder farms. Selected eggs were collected from broilers that were 30 (young, 36 (peak, 43(after peak, 53 (old, 60 (very old and 82 (molted weeks old. Collected eggs were stored during 3 to 4 days in the ambient temperature. Qualitive and quantitive aspects of eggs including egg weight, albumen height yolk, height thickness of egg shell, yolk color, Albumen and yolk PH and Hugh unit were studied. Trait Analysis was done by ANOVA procedure of SAS statistical software. To compare the means, Duncan test was used. The effects of age and breeder farms on the egg weight, yolk color, yolk and albumen PH, yolk and albumen height, shell egg thickness and Hugh unit were significant (p<0.05. The lowest difference was seen between the age of 53, 60 and 82 week old (p<0.05. Albumen PH and alkaline is increased by increase of age, but yolk PH is the variance. Influence of age on the traits including yolk and albumen height and Hugh unit was decreased and the color of yolk was faded by increasing age. According to obtained results from these research performances of ages of 53, 60 and 82 weeks are close together. We could conclude that older broiler breeder flocks are produce the better qualitive and quantitive properties of egg products. Since most poultry enough information about the quality of breeder chickens and the best age to have chickens, using the results of this study can be answered many questions.

  1. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  2. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  3. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  4. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  5. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  6. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  7. Changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus under different broiler production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Sylvia; Rogasik, Jutta; Schnug, Ewald

    2004-01-01

    In a field study, soils of four conventional free-range and organic broiler runs were analyzed for N and P concentrations in the years 2000 and 2001. Zones of different use intensity by broilers were identified on the free runs and mean zonal nutrient contents were compared with each other. Intensity of use by birds and spatial distribution of soil nutrient concentrations were found to be related to each other. Fecal N input by broilers resulted in accumulation of soil mineral nitrogen (N(min)) contents down to a 90-cm sampling depth. In highly frequented "hot spots," plant requirement as defined by the German "N-Basis-Sollwert" (110 kg/ha N(min)) for grassland was exceeded in all four cases. This implies an increased environmental risk of ammonia volatilization and nitrate leaching. Fecal P input by broilers resulted in accumulation of plant-available and thus mobile soil P (phosphorus extracted with calcium-acetate-lactate [P(CAL)] and phosphorus extracted with water [P(w)]) in the most intensely used zones. In these areas, soil P contents exceeded 90 mg/kg P(CAL) (upper limit of soil test P defined in Germany for optimum plant yield) by as much as 217 mg/kg, which indicates an enhanced risk of P loss from the soil via runoff or leaching. The conclusion might be drawn that, with regard to nutrient loss from free-run soils, intensive indoor production in a closed system may be more environmentally neutral than conventional free-range or organic production. However, to put this into perspective, the scope of the environmental risk connected with spatially limited point accumulation of nutrients should be considered. Furthermore, an environmental evaluation must also account for the fate and environmental effects of the broiler litter produced inside the broiler house. PMID:15356226

  8. Stressors Influence on Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Colonization in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Soliman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ileal loop assay. Changes in commensally intestinal microbial populations were determined using gel electrophoresis and alterations in ileal morphology were determined histologically. The results showed that attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissues increased by 1.5 logs (9.05 log10 Vs 7.59 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileal tissue; p = 0.0006 in broilers fasted for 24 h also, ileal tissues from birds subjected to 30°C for 24 h had increased the attachment of Salmonella enteritidis (8.77 log10 Vs 8.50 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileum; p = 0.01 compared with birds held at 23°C. Exposure to 30°C for 24 h also altered the microbial structure in the ileum and cecum. Where subjecting birds to 30°C for 24 h reduced the crypt depth (6.0 Vs 7.8 µm, respectively; p = 0.002, but it had no effect on villus height or villus: Crypt ratio. Conclusion: The findings of the experiment explained the mechanisms by which stressors alters the

  9. The Effects of Physical Texture of Feed and Feeding Regime on the Gizzards of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Bahri; YILDIZ, Hüseyin; BAHADIR, Ali

    2001-01-01

    The effects of physical texture of feed and feeding regimes in broiler's gizzards were observed. Firstly, chicks were divided into three groups. The chicks in groups A, B and C were fed on mash, mash + pellet and crumble + pellet respectively. These groups were exposed to ad libitum and meal feeding, and grit was added to this feed. On day fourty-two, the chicks were sacrificed and the characteristics of the gizzard were observed. The impact of adding grit to the broiler rations on the ...

  10. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  11. Histomorphology of bursa of Fabricius: effects of stock densities on commercial broilers

    OpenAIRE

    EC Muniz; VB Fascina; PP Pires; AS Carrijo; EB Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m²) from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group w...

  12. Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne N.; Carstensen, B.; Tornoe, N.;

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares four different sampling methods potentially applicable to detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks, based on collection of faecal samples (i) by hand, 300 fresh faecal samples (ii) absorbed on five sheets of paper (iii) absorbed on five pairs of socks (elastic cotton...... tubes pulled over the boots and termed 'socks') and (iv) by using only one pair of socks. Twenty-three broiler flocks were included in the investigation and 18 of these were found to be positive by at least one method. Seven serotypes of Salmonella with different patterns of transmission (mainly...

  13. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.;

    2015-01-01

    backwards elimination and forward selection. Due to the structure of the data, several models were explored, by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selection and elimination of variables in the model. The risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized with Campylobacter......This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...

  14. THE NUTRITIVE EFFECT OF SOME FUNGAL POLYSACCHARIDES USED ON BROILER FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA RUGEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the immunostimulant effect of an alcoholic total extract from Pleurotus ostreatus administered in 5 and 15% concentration to broiler chickens vaccinated against infectious bursal disease. The immunogen was represented by two vaccines (Biavac and Biaromvac used in infectious bursal disease prophylaxis. Vaccination was made at the age of seven days in four groups of broilers. Laboratory tests results showed that fungal extract have a stimulant action upon average daily gain, the most conclusive results being registered in group treated with 15% Pleurotus extract.

  15. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at t...

  16. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    An, B. K.; Kim, J.Y.; Oh, S T; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet wer...

  17. Influence of probiotic preparation YEASTURE-W on the productivity and meat quality of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Racevičiūtė-Stupelienė A.; Šašytė V.; Gružauskas R.; Šimkus A.

    2007-01-01

    Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. The objective of investigation was to research the effect of probiotic preparation YEASTURE-W for growth performance, meat and carcass quality of broiler chicks. The experiment was performed with 120 Hybro-PN broiler chickens 1 56-day-old, divided into 2 groups of 60 birds each. The both groups were fed crumbled feed mixtures ad libitum. The feed mixture of the experimental group was supplemented wi...

  18. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (Padipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors.

  19. INFLUENCE OF TWO PLANT EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM THYME AND CINNAMON ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. M. AL-KASSIE

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the use of essential oil (EO) in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoter. Different levels of EO derived from thyme and cinnamon were added to a standard diet to determine its effects on feed intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and blood constituents. Three hundred day-old broiler chicks (Arbor-Acres) were divided into five equal groups and treated as follows: No EO (control group), 100 ppm EO derived from thyme (group 2), 200 ppm EO deri...

  20. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Faixová Zita; Faix Štefan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03) supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetherole...

  1. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  2. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, ChickensNara; Lee, Sang-rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chicken...

  3. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...... effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni...

  4. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  5. The Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on the Vitamin A Storage in the Livers of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    SALMANOĞLU, Berrin

    2002-01-01

    The effect of AFB1 in feed on the liver and serum vitamin A and b-carotene levels and the ability of the liver to stor vitamin A in broiler chicks were investigated. Twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 4 groups with 5 each in the control group, group I, group II, and group III. The chicks of the control group and group I were fed ad libitum on broiler chick growing feed. The chicks of group II and group III were fed ad libitum on feed with AFB1 (4 ppm/kg) feed. On ...

  6. Neutrophils stimulation index in people under consumption of broiler chickens meat at pre-slaughter stress correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grabovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data about changes in neutrophils stimulation index in men blood after consumption of broiler chicken meat with the natural origin immunomodulators, introduced in feed before slaughter, is presented in this paper. Spleen extract biologically active substances were used as immunomodulators and anti-stressors during pre-slaughter period. Biologically active substances influence on putrescin, spermine and spermidine content in broiler chicken blood before slaughter and on some non-specific resistance indices in people was determined after consumption of broiler chicken meat. Two groups of broiler chickens at one month age were formed for the study. The spleen extract obtained with ultrasound application (I research group served as biologically active substances was added to the feed of broiler chickens in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. Blood polyamines such as putrescin, spermine and spermidine were determined by the method of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on the liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA. The second experiment was conducted on 10 people. We recruited 10 healthy male medical students (20 years old, on average after the National Medical license examination. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and anti-stressors have the most effective influence on total quantity of polyamines in broiler chicken blood. As a result of research, it is found that aerosol introduction of spleen extract into broiler chicken feed reliably increases total quantity of polyamines by 39% and, in particular, spermidine concentration by 34%, and spermine by 40% compared with broiler chickens of the control group. Some non-specific body resistance indices in men blood upon consumption of broiler chicken meat varied within the physiological norm. The neutrophils stimulation index increased in men blood (+0,82 after consumption of meat of broiler chickens to which spleen extract as immunomodulator and anti-stressor was

  7. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z.G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed inta...

  8. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dieta...

  9. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement to determine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth and carcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to 48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates each of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. All groups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein at day-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and 190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered for measurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in this study was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in terms of growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.Keyword

  10. Performance of female broiler breeders submitted to different feeding schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS de Avila

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Arbor Acres broiler breeders (1,296 females; 144 roosters was evaluated when submitted to the following treatments (T: T1 = feeding at 6:30 a.m. (control; T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 a.m. and 50% at 3:30 p.m. (dual feeding; T3 = feeding at 11:00 a.m.; and T4 = feeding at 3:30 p.m. Treatments were randomly distributed in 48 pens. There were 27 females and 3 males in each pen and 12 repetitions per treatment. Nutrition and management were as recommended for the commercial strain. It was evaluated age at first egg (AFE, total egg production (TEP, number of days with production above 80% (DAP80, laying peak (P, female mortality (MOR, and gross profit margin (GM per hen. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Student's t-Test. TEP of T1 (186.3±2.3 and T2 (186.5±1.5 were higher (p0.10 among treatments. GM per hen was better (p<0.05 in T1 and T2 hens. Control and dual treatments were more efficient than other treatments. It was concluded that it is possible to change conventional feeding management's by the dual feeding system.

  11. Evaluation of Immunodulatory effect of Stresroak Premix in Broiler Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.Gatne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory efficacy of polyherbal formulation Stresroak along with effect on performance in broiler chicken. Four hundred and fifty healthy days old chicks were randomly divided into three groups (each group consisting of 150 chicks. Group A served as a negative control while group B served as positive control supplemented with levamisole, a known immunomodulator @ 15 mg/kg body weight through water for four consecutive days from third day onwards. Group C birds supplemented with Stresroak were administered @ 1 kg /tone of feed for consecutively for 11 days i.e. 5 days before and 5 days after vaccination. Parameters under study were performance traits viz, body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, blood samples were collected at weekly interval for evaluation of various haematological, biochemical immunological and histopathological examination parameters. Results revealed that the antibody titre, total proteins and globulins were increased significantly in the birds receiving Stresroak as compared to untreated control group. Performance parameters were improved non-significantly as compared to untreated control (Group A. Histopathologically varying degrees of lympho-proliferative changes noted which reveals increase number of lymphocytes. It was concluded that Stresroak exhibits hematinic, hepato-protective and Immunomodulator properties [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 122-125

  12. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Aspergillus niger as an inoculant and mixing with urea and ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen sources. The nutritive value of the product was evaluated by feeding trial using 144 “Shaver Stabro” strain 3 days old chicks with 3 treatments i.e. 0 (control, 5.0 and 10.0% fermented cassava waste. The results showed that the true protein content of fermented cassava increased from 2.2 to 18.4%. The inclusion of fermented cassava waste up to 10% in chicken broiler ration for 4 weeks feeding did not affect the feed consumption, bodyweight gain, FCR, weight of liver and gibblets. All parameter results from 10% inclusion were not significantly different (P>0.05 with the control (0% inclusion.

  13. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    ; and SOF, high soluble fibre content) were each fed to 10 groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for CON, INF, and SOF, respectively) with all birds...... reaching commercial target weight at 15 weeks of age. Birds fed CON ate significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets INF and SOF, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Behavioural observations carried out at 14 weeks of age showed...... high levels of tail pecking in birds fed CON and almost none in birds fed SOF, whereas birds fed INF were intermediate. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed CON and never observed in birds fed INF. Birds on diet SOF appeared scruffier in their plumage, and the higher water content...

  14. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; YANG Guang; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs by experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 180 one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into three groups, and fed diets as follows: 1) Control(Cu 11.97 mg kg-1 diet), 2) Cu- toxic group Ⅰ (Cu 650 mg kg-1) and 3) Cu- toxic group Ⅱ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) for six weeks.Compared with the control, the growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P<0.05or P<0.01), the G0/G1 phase of cell cycles of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was higher (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the S phase and proliferating index were lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01)in both Cu-toxic group Ⅰ and Cu-toxic group Ⅱ. The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to the S phase, inhibited the growth and development of lymphoid organs.

  15. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement todetermine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth andcarcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicateseach of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. Allgroups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein atday-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered formeasurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in thisstudy was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in termsof growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.

  16. Effect of different probiotics on broiler carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the effect of different probiotics on carcass and meat quality of broilers. One thousand and fifty male Cobb chicks were distributed at one day of age in a randomized design with 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 probiotics, 2 levels of probiotics in drinking water and 1 negative control group, using 5 replications with 30 birds. Carcass yield was higher (p<0.05 in control birds. Nevertheless, the groups fed with probiotics showed higher (p<0.01 leg yield at 45 days of age. There was a significant decrease in color (lightness and increase in pH of breast muscle 5 hours after slaughter in the probiotics treated birds. In the sensory analysis, meat flavor and general aspect 72 hours after slaughter were better when probiotics were added in both water and diet. There were no differences in water holding capacity, cooking loss and shearing force among different probiotics or between them and the control. Thus, meat quality was better when probiotics were fed in the water and diet instead of only in the diet. Nevertheless, carcass and meat quality showed no alteration when the control group was compared to birds fed with probiotics, except for leg yield improvement in the latter.

  17. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on

  18. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Alessia; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Feltrin, Fabiola;

    2015-01-01

    We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR), ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-20......, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies....

  19. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saiyed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.

  20. Performans Ayam Broiler yang Diberi Berbagai Tingkat Protein Hewani Dalam Ransum (Performance of Broiler Applied by Various Levels of Animal Protein Diet)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunilas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is wanted to know the effect of application various level of animal protein diet to Performance of broiler. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consist 4 treatments and 6 replications. Therefore, there were 24 experiment units, and there were 5 DOC for each experiment unit. The parameters in this experiment are feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion. Result of this experiment showed that feed consumption and bo...

  1. A model for calculation of growth and feed intake in broiler chickens on the basis of feed composition and genetic features of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The model shown in the current publication is based on an equation system developed in a previous publication (Carré et al., 2015). An equation (D) describing protein deposition as a function of protein intake is added to this previous system, in order to obtain a complete description of growth and feed intake depending on feed composition and genetic features of broilers. A calculation is conducted for lean and fat lines with various dietary protein contents. Lean and fat lines are disti...

  2. Marginality and needs of dietary valine for broilers fed certain all-vegetable diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...

  3. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  4. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  5. MINERALIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM BROILER LITTER AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted during 2004-2005 to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (...

  6. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  7. A Multi-Level Analysis of Risk Factors for Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction We carried out a longitudinal study of the broiler industry in Iceland between May 2001 and September 2004. Using multi-level statistical methods, our objective was to determine which aspects of the birds, their management and/or their housing may be most useful for applying interventi...

  8. Farm-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter, thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness associated with poultry consumption. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors...

  9. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Kortes, H.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most pre

  10. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  11. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  12. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  13. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  14. NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF BROILERS AND LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ullah, M. Ashfaque, S.U. Rahman, M. Akhtar and A. Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred intestines pieces (100 each of broilers and layers of about 8 cm length were collected from the poultry sale shops in Faisalabad city. These pieces were opened, scratched and vigorously shaken into sterilized normal saline, the suspension was centrifuged and supernatants were subjected to spot haemagglutination with 2% chicken RBC’s. Out of 200 samples, 95% samples of layers and 75% of the broilers showed positive spot haemagglutination. Micro haemagglutination inhibition with Newcastle disease (ND antiserum revealed, 85 and 66 samples positive in layers and broilers respectively. A total of 10% samples of the layers and 9% of the broilers were not inhibited by ND antiserum suggesting other HA viruses. A total of 20 samples were used to isolate the virus in embryonated eggs (allantoic route. These isolates were confirmed as NDV by haemagglutination inhibition test. Five isolates were tested for intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI in day old chicks. The ICPI values obtained were 0.28, 0.31, 0.37, 0.38 and 0.46. The isolates were found to be lentogenic.

  15. The effect of different selenium levels on production performance and biochemical parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for animal and human. Supplementation of Se usually in livestock diet has been proved as effective element. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of selenium yeast on growth performance, slaughter performance, immune trait, oxidation resistance, meat quality and selenium content in tissue of broilers to comprehensively evaluate the effect of selenium. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres (AA broilers were selected and feeded with the diets of treatments supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, l.0 and 2.0 mg/kg organic selenium respectively. The trial period was 42 days and divided into two periods. Our results showed that effect of different levels of selenium on growth performance, slaughter performance, the immune status, drip loss and flesh had not significant difference (P>0.05. The activities of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, total superoxide dismutase (TSOD, the abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical (OH•, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and the content of GSH were significantly increased along with selenium level (P<0.05, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased with organic selenium level (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that organic selenium had no obvious effect on production performance of broilers, but significantly influenced the broiler oxidation resistance.

  16. Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50

  17. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  18. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile related to broiler breast meat color abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Lourenço Soares; Denis Fabrício Marchi; Makoto Matsushita; Paulo Donizeti Guarnieri; Adriana Aparecida Droval; Elza Iouko Ida; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of lipid oxidation on broiler breast meat (Pectoralis major m) color abnormalities. There were 27.0 % more lipid oxidation in PSE in relation to normal meat and 41.0 % more in relation to DFD-like meat (p

  19. Application of Chlorine Dioxide to Lessen Bacterial Contamination during Broiler Defeathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to escape of contaminated gut contents, the number of Campylobacter spp. recovered from broiler carcasses increases during feather removal. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is approved for use as an antimicrobial treatment during poultry processing. A chlorine dioxide generator was placed in a commerci...

  20. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broilers after consecutive washings in potassium hydroxide and lauric aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteria on skin of processed broilers were enumerated after each of five consecutive washes in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Breast skin was taken from carcasses obtained from a commercial processing facility, and skin was cut into 5 g samples. Portions of skin were washed using ...

  1. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  2. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, J A; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M; Wagenaar, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  3. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks: clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Graaf-Blois, Van de L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Westendorp, S.T.; Bergen, Van M.A.P.; Dwars, R.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. Objectives: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  4. Cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler farms-A cross-sectional investigation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Rösler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja

    2016-03-01

    In this investigation the farm prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in German broiler farms was evaluated. In total, 59 flocks on 34 broiler farms were sampled in four agricultural regions of Germany. Per broiler flock, three faecal samples, a pair of boot swabs and one dust sample were taken and examined for the presence of CREC. After pre-enrichment of sample material in Luria-Bertani-broth, the broth was streaked onto MacConkey agar containing 1mg/l cefotaxime (CTX). CREC isolates were detected in at least one sample from each flock resulting in a farm prevalence of 100%. The proportion of positive samples was high in all three sample types. Of 177 collective faecal samples 81.9% were positive, of 59 boot swabs and 59 dust samples 79.7% and 62.7% were positive. In conclusion, the prevalence of broiler farms with cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in Germany is very high. We suggest that the analysis of collective faecal samples is sufficient to determine the CREC farm status. In addition to other studies our study supports the finding that cefotaxime resistance is a good proxy for the presence of ESBL- or plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamases. PMID:26783199

  5. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  6. Effects of microbial agents on small intestinal structure and the quantity of cecal microorganisms in broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaodi NI; Xiuhui ZHONG; Haifeng WANG; Li XU; Shupeng WEI

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the significance and related mechanisms of microbial agents in modulating the growth of broilers, one-day-old Avian broilers were employed to investigate the effect of microbial agents on body weight, daily gain and feed efficiency at various stages. The birds in the experimental groups were given salmonella pullorum then fed with antibiotics to counteract it. The results showed that the average broiler weight of the oral microbial agent group at the age of 40 days was significantly increased by 16.58% from 1520g to 1772 g (P < 0.05). The feed conversion efficiency was decreased from 2.21 to 1.82 (P < 0.01). In the experimental group fed with microbial agents, microscopic observation revealed that the intestinal villi increased in number, length and orderliness. The intestinal wall became thickened. The glands in the intestine were developed, which would be beneficial to nutrient absorption. The effect of oral microbial agents was identical to that due to antibiotics. It was also observed that Lactobacillus dominated the cecal microorganisms in broilers.

  7. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  8. Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Mohammadamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

  9. Campylobacter and Salmonella control in broilers and the role of fermented feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fe

  10. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by fillet (pectoralis major) size. In each trial, 20 large fillets, 20 medium fillets and 20 small fillets (deboned at 6-8h postmortem from 6-week old birds) were obtained from a commercia...

  11. Effects of fillet weight on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of broiler breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by fillet (pectoralis major) weight. In each trial, 20 heavy fillets, 20 medium fillets and 20 light fillets (deboned at 6-8h postmortem from 6-week old birds) were obtained from a commer...

  12. Detection of antibiotic resistant Avibacterium paragallinarum from broiler chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Mousumi Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177

  13. Influence of Early Quantitative Feed Restriction on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan; CHAN Long

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of early quantitative feed restriction on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred 8-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to four groups randomly, with 50 broilers each. At the age of 8 days the broilers were restricted to 90%, 80% or 70% of the ad libitum intake for 7 days. When the restricion was finished, all birds received feed ad libitum again. The results showed that diet restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and daily gain during the restriction period (P <0.05). The birds restricted to 90% of the ad libitum intake showed the occurring of growth compensation in the 3rd week. The birds restricted to 80% and 70% of the ad libitum intake had growth compensation in the 4th week. No significant differences between the effects of the restriction and the control on final body weight,growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics (P >0.05).

  14. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vit

  15. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  16. Microbiology of Broiler Carcasses and Chemistry of Chiller Water as Affected by Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management SystemJ to recyc...

  17. Dietary divercin modifies gastrointestinal microbiota and improves growth performance in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D.; Sip, A.; Rawski, M.;

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity in the gastrointes...

  18. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  19. Sunflower meal and enzyme supplementation of the diet of 21- to 42-d-old broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAG de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of male broilers between 21 and 42 days of age fed diets supplemented with an enzyme blend (EB and containing graded levels of sunflower meal (SFM. In total, 1920 male Cobb broilers were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (four SFM dietary levels vs. three feed formulations with eight replicates of 20 birds each. Dietary SFM inclusion levels were 0, 8, 16, and 24%. Feed formulation included one negative control diet (NC formulated to supply broiler nutritional requirements, considering EB nutritional matrix values; a diet formulated as the first one, but with the addition of 0.5% EB (NC+EB; and the third diet (positive control - PC was calculated to supply broiler requirements. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. There was no effect of EB dietary supplementation on the evaluated performance or carcass parameters (p > 0.05. Increasing dietary addition of SFM reduced weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05. The best EEI was obtained with the NC+EB diet containing 8.0% SFM.

  20. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Van Den H.; Sosef, M.P.; Lourens, A.; Harn, Van J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design du

  1. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...

  2. Litter generated ammonia captured by activated carbon derived from broiler litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the production rate of broilers was 8.6 billion with a value of $23.2 billion (USDA 2012). Both CERCLA and EPCRA have reporting requirements for ammonia (NH3) of 100 lb of NH3/d or 18.3 tons/yr, a level that may affect large animal production facilities (NRC 2003). Although USEPA (2009) ha...

  3. Effects of pre-slaughter fasting on broiler welfare, meat quality, and intestinal integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REP Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA regulations establish 12 hours as the maximum pre-slaughter fasting period for broilers; however, many processing plants have considered this time is not sufficient, and consequently return the birds to the farms, with consequent economic losses and welfare problems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible effects of longer pre-slaughter fasting times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting times longer than those established by MAPA on broiler welfare, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity. Forty 42-d-old broilers were submitted to different pre-slaughter fasting times: group I: 6 hours, group II 9h, group III 12h, and group IV 15h. Bird welfare was assessed before slaughter. After sacrifice, intestinal samples were collected to assess their morphology and morphometrics, and the Pectoralis major muscle was analyzed for pH and color. There was no influence (p>0.05 of treatments on breast muscle pH or color.There were no significant changes in intestinal morphometrics (p<0.05. Bird behavior was affected (p<0.05, suggesting that welfare was impaired as fasting time increased, but no differences in the analyzed parameters were detected between broilers fasted for 12 or 15 hours. It was concluded that the behavioral differences between birds fasted for 12 and 15 hours are not sufficient to assert that those fasted for 15 hours were in worse welfare conditions.

  4. Hatching system and time effects on broiler physiology and posthatch growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel housing system for broilers was developed, named Patio (Vencomatic BV, Eersel, the Netherlands), in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined. In a Patio system, climate conditions differ from those provided in the hatchers currently in use. We compared the physiology of broile

  5. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  6. Comparison between linear and nonlinear systems of feed formulation for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Dadalt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously carried out to compare feed formulation models: a linear model for minimum cost with a nonlinear model for maximum profitability for one-to 42-d-old broilers. One-d-old male or female Cobb 500 broilers (n=2368 were allocated to one of the two trials according to sex. The experiments were performed simultaneously in an experimental poultry farm. Two housing densities were used: high density (HDH, with 14 birds/m2, and low density (LDH, with 10 birds/m2. The following treatments were evaluated: linear feed formulation and LDH (LF10; nonlinear formulation and LDH (NF10; linear formulation and HDH (LF14; and nonlinear formulation and HDH (NF14. A completely randomized design with four treatments of eight replicates each was applied. Performance and cost per kg of poultry were evaluated. Both formulation systems promoted similar broiler performance. However, the high-density feed using linear formulation reduced body weight in 42-d-old males, but not when nonlinear formulation was used. The NF10 treatment yielded the worst feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 and the lowest cost/kg broiler (p<0.05 for both sexes. The results demonstrate that the nutritional program that yields the best performance is not always the most economical one.

  7. Variations of clinical biochemical parameters of laying hens and broiler chickens fed aflatoxin-containing feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G

    1994-03-01

    Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (Phens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (PAST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.

  8. Mortality and growth performance of broilers given drinking water supplemented with chicken-specific probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Veldman, A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chic

  9. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  10. Comparison of Campylobacter Levels in Crops and Ceca of Broilers at Slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.

    2010-01-01

    considerable fraction of the poultry carcasses becomes contaminated with Campylobacter by cross-contamination from the digestive tract of colonized broilers at slaughter. Campylobacter in the crop may serve as a possible source of cross-contamination, because the crop may contain high numbers of Cam

  11. The effect of broiler market age on performance parameters and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt GS

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, 35 farmers contracted by an integration company were selected. Each farmer owned an average of seven poultry houses, and housed six flocks per year, with a total of 4.0 million housed broilers. Birds were grouped into 5 market ages (MA1=

  12. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  13. National surveillance of Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter in Denmark in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    of the period the broiler houses were left empty between flocks (download period; 6 days or more) (OR = 1.6, P slaughter was found. Separating the flocks into batches for slaughter elevated the dock prevalence from 0.41 after the first...... hatch had been slaughtered to 0.46 after all batches had been slaughtered....

  14. Cross-contamination with Salmonella on a broiler slaughterhouse line demonstrated by use of epidemiological markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.E.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, M.;

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate contamination of surfaces on a poultry slaughter line from infected poultry and subsequent cross-contamination of non-infected poultry. Methods and Results: A broiler slaughterhouse was investigated for the presence of Salmonella on 17 defined points over two 1-week periods...

  15. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  16. Cytokine responses in broiler lines that differ in susceptibility to malabsorption syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Balk, F.R.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. Based on earlier studies it was hypothesised that there is an immunological basis for the differences in susceptibility to malabsorption syndrome (MAS). A study was conducted to investigate base-line and MAS-induced cytokine levels in the intestine of broilers that differ in MAS susceptibility. 2

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Asap Cair Melalui Air Minum Terhadap Kualitas Karkas Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisji Liana Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available (The Effect of Wood Vinegar Through to The Drinking Water on The Quality of Broiler Chicken Carcass ABSTRACT. This aims of this research was to determine the percentage of carcass, commercial carcass parting and meat bone ratio (breast, thigh and wing of broiler consumed wood vinegar. This research was assigned into used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 different treatments and each 3 replicates. The treatments were dose of wood vinegar, R0 = water + 0% wood vinegar, R1 = water + 0.25% wood vinegar, R2 = water + 0.5% wood vinegar, R3 = water + 0.75% wood vinegar, R0 = water + 1% wood vinegar. The observed parameters were percentage of carcass, commercial sliced carcass parting and meat bone ratio. The results showed that wood vinegar in the drinking water did gave not significantly (P>0,05 effect to the percentage of carcass, commercial sliced carcass parting and meat bone ratio of broiler chickens. It is concluded that Liquid wood vinegar can be used for broiler chickens until 1%.

  18. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Wiryawan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight Walp used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E. coli, R2 = R1 + 1% bay leaves, R3 = R1 + 2% bay leaves, R4 = R1 + 3% bay leaves, R5 = R1 + antibiotic. The data were analyzed with analysis of variance. The variables observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality, and total colony of E. coli in broiler excreta. The results showed that the use of bay leaves up to 3% in the ration increased broiler performance by increasing feed consumption and body weight gain, depressing the number of E. coli in excreta, and reducing mortality compared to the other treatments, but it did not affect the feed conversion ratio.

  19. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.

    2003-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding ( preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive cor

  20. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  1. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  2. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  3. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van S.; Ehlhardt, D.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies, a lack of agreement in measurements of plasma corticosterone concentrations and heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as physiological indices of stress, caused by hunger and frustration in restricted-fed broiler breeders, was observed. It could be suggested that the differences bet

  4. EFFECT OF INDUCED TOXIC PATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF PHARMACEUTICAL AGENTS AND HEAVY METALS ON BROILER BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly Subha

    2013-01-01

    The indiscriminate and injudicious use of second generation fluoroquinolones viz., enrofloxacin produced anemia, leucopenia, hypoglycaemia, hypoproteinemia, increased enzymatic activity and hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects in broiler chickens. Exposure to heavy metals results in congestion and hemorrhages in the lungs, tubular degeneration in kidneys and occasional hemorrhages in the brain. The present article was conducted to review the various pharmaceutical, physiological and toxicopath...

  5. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to hemorrhages in muscles: The effect of stock and rearing temperature regimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranen, R.W.; Scheele, C.W.; Veerkamp, C.H.; Lambooy, E.; Kuppevelt, van T.H.; Veerkamp, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and a

  6. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79–23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1...

  7. Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Lowe, J.C.; McKeegan, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals w

  8. Detection of Salmonella Serotypes by Overnight Incubation of Entire Broiler Carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a human bacterial pathogen that has been associated with poultry and poultry products. There are multiple ways to sample broiler chicken carcasses for the prevalence of Salmonella. A common method in the USA is a whole carcass rinse and culture of an aliquot of the rinse. The object...

  9. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.;

    2000-01-01

    A feeding experiment was carried out over 42 d with four groups of broiler chickens fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation, 20 mg zinc bacitracin, 60 mg salinomycin, or both feed additives in combination. During the fifth week of the experiment, four chickens from each pe...

  10. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty...

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  12. Effect of Different Oligosaccharides on Immunity, and Cecal Microflora in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; SHAN An-shan

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four Avin broilers (1 d old) were randomly divided into six treatments, with three replicates of eight birds each to investigate the effect of different oligosaccharides on index of immune organ, cecal weight and microflora in broilers. The control group (Group Ⅰ) was fed with corn-soybean meal as basal diet, and the trial groups (group Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ ) were fed with basal diet plus 0.1% manoligosaccharides (MOS), 0.3% soybean-oligosaccharides (SBOS), 0.3% fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 0.3% α -glucooligosaccharides(α -GOS) and 0.03% chlortetracycline (CTC), respectively. The results showed that oligosaccharides supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased bifidobacteria concentration ofyoung broilers and did not affect on bifidobacteria or escherichia coli concentration of the birds ( P >0.05). Cecal weights of 21 d old broilers fed with FOS and α -GOS were significantly (P <0.05) increased, higher than those with MOS and SBOS, but addition of oligosaccharides had no effect on the birds. The effect of oligosaccharides on the cecal length was the same as on the cecal weights. Oligosaccharides supplement did not affect on indexes of immune organs.

  13. Role of hybrid forecasting techniques for transportation planning of broiler meat under uncertain demand in thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of numerous problems experiencing in supply chain management is the demand. Most demands are appeared in terms of uncertainty. The broiler meat industry is inevitably encountering the same problem. In this research, hybrid forecasting model of ARIMA and Support Vector Machine (SVMs are developed to forecast broiler meat export. In addition, ARIMA, SVMs, and Moving Average (MA are chosen for comparing the forecasting efficiency. All the forecasting models are tested and validated using the data of Brazil’s export, Canada’s export, and Thailand’s export. The hybrid model provides accuracy of the forecasted values that are 98.71%, 97.50%, and 93.01%, respectively. In addition, the hybrid model presents the least error of all MAE, RMSE, and MAPE comparing with other forecasting models. As forecasted data are applied to transportation planning, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of optimal value of forecasted value and actual value is 14.53%. The hybrid forecasting model shows an ability to reduce risk of total cost of transportation when broiler meat export is forecasted by using MA(2, MA(3, ARIMA, and SVM are 50.59%, 60.18%, 68.01%, and 46.55%, respectively. The results indicate that the developed forecasting model is recommended to broiler meat industries’ supply chain decision.

  14. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  15. APPLICATION OF THE STOCHASTIC PROFIT FRONTIER MODEL TO ESTIMATE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SMALL-SCALE BROILER PRODUCTION IN THE GREATER ACCRA REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond K. DZIWORNU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied the stochastic profit frontier model to estimate economic efficiency of 199 small-scale commercial broiler producers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Farm-level data was obtained from the producers through a multi-stage sampling technique. Results indicate that broiler producers are not fully economically efficient. The mean economic efficiency was 69 percent, implying that opportunity exist for broiler producers to increase their economic efficiency level through better use of available resources. Age of producer, extension contact, market age of broiler and credit access were found to significantly influence economic efficiency in broiler production. Policy measures directed at these factors to enhance economic efficiency of broiler producers are recommendable.

  16. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwean-Lardner, Karen; Vermette, Catherine; Leis, Marina; Classen, Henry L

    2016-01-01

    Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender.

  17. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schwean-Lardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender.

  18. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwean-Lardner, Karen; Vermette, Catherine; Leis, Marina; Classen, Henry L

    2016-01-01

    Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender. PMID:27120624

  19. Effects of Dietary Male and Female Ferula Eleaochytris Powder on Growth Performance and Body Components of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Duru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary addition of male and female Ferula eleaochytris powder (FEP on growth performance and body components of broilers (Ross-308. Treatment groups were allocated to 5 dietary in which 0 (control, 5 g and 10 g male FEP, 5 g and 10 g female FEP doses per kg commercial broiler diet. In total, 80 male broiler chicks (1-d old in which 16 animals in each group were used in study. Body weight gain and feed intake were monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Forty two days old broiler chicks were slaughtered to determine the possible changes in body components. The results of the study indicated that FEP had no effect on any parameters. However; the weight of the control group gave higher values than 5 g male Ferula group. In conclusion the measured parameters had no effect between all groups.

  20. The effect of RGB monochromatic and polychromatic LED lighting on growth performance, behavior, and development of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Waldirene B. B.; Barnabé, Janice M. C.; da Silva, Tatiana P. N.; Pandorfi, Héliton; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Souza, Wellington S.

    2014-03-01

    Growth performance, behavior, and development of broilers reared under red, green, and blue monochromatic and/or multicolor LED-based illuminants is investigated. The lighting treatments were performed on a 24h lighting basis during six weeks. Monochromatic red(630 nm), green(520 nm), and blue(460 nm), and simultaneous blue-green, and whitelight housing illumination was employed. Bodyweight, food consumption, and behavior were monitored and compared amongst light treatments. The behavioral data showed that broilers reared under green lighting presented the lowest respiratory rate (87 mov. min-1) while those under red lighting presented the highest (96 mov. min-1). Results also showed that broilers under blue and/or green monochromatic illumination exhibited up to 6%, and 8.9 % increase in final bodyweight when compared to those under red or white-light, respectively. The highest feed intake, and lowest body weight gain was observed in broilers reared under blue and red illumination, respectively.

  1. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    of oocysts than males (45% more; pforaging activity. No eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...

  2. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  3. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  4. Insect and legume-based protein sources to replace soybean cake in an organic broiler diet: Effects on growth performance and physical meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, Florian; Gelencsér, Tobias; Stamer, Andreas; Amsler, Zivile; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Protein sources other than soybean for the diets of poultry are needed for agricultural systems in temperate regions to help avoid some negative social and ecological impacts of large-scale soybean imports from overseas. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of alternative protein sources in diets for slow-growing organic broiler chicken. Four experimental broiler diets were tested against a commercial feed for organic broiler chicken fattening (control), containing 255 ...

  5. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatic cells of broiler chicken supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Y. Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks w...

  6. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality

    OpenAIRE

    Loyau, Thomas; Berri, Cecile; Bedrani, Larbi; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Duclos, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; RIDEAU, Nicole; Everaert, N.; Yahav, S.; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8 degrees C, 5...

  7. EFFECT OF MAXIGRAIN SUPPLEMENT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, ECONOMIC INDICES AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT-STRESS BROILERS FED THREE DIETARY FIBRE SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    S.G. ADEMOLA; M. D. SHITTU; M.O. AYANSOLA; T.E. LAWAL; G.O. TONA

    2013-01-01

    The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade) of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and...

  8. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids) in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Karadas, F.; ERDOĞAN, S.; Kor, D; G Oto; Uluman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: seleniu...

  9. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  10. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  11. Molecular cloning and ontogenesis expression of fatty acid transport protein-1 in yellow-feathered broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Song; Jiaying Feng; Lihua Zhou; Gang Shu; Xiaotong Zhu; Ping Gao; Yongliang Zhang; Qingyan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is one of the important transporter proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. To study the relationship between FATP-1 mRNA expression and fat deposition, chicken (Gallus gallus) FATP-1 sequence was first cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Tissue samples of chest muscle, leg muscle, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat were collected from six male and six female broilers each, at 22 days, 29 days, and 42 days, respectively. The tissue specificity and ontogenesis expression pattern of the FATP-1 mRNA of yellow-feathered broilers was studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the fat deposition laws in different tissues were also compared. A 2,488 bp cDNA sequence of chicken FATP-1 was cloned by RACE (GenBank accession no. DQ352834), including 547 bp 3' end untranslated region (URT) and 1,941 bp open reading frame (ORF). Chicken FATP-1 encoded 646 amino acid residues, which shared 83.9% and 83.0% identity with those of human and rat, respectively. The results of quantitative PCR demonstrated a constant FATP-1 mRNA expression level in the chest muscle and subcutaneous fat of both male and female broilers at three stages, whereas the expression level of the FATP-1 mRNA in the leg muscle at 42 days was significantly higher than that at 22 days or 29 days. In the abdominal fat of male broilers, the gene expression significantly increased with age, whereas the female broilers showed a dramatic downregulation of FATP-1 expression in abdominal fat at 42 days. This suggested a typical tissue-and gender-specific expression pattern of chicken FATP-1, mediating the specific process of fatty acid transport or utilization in muscle and adipose tissues.

  12. Effects of Oridonin on growth performance and oxidative stress in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X C; Wu, Q J; Song, Z H; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhang, T Y; Wang, C; Wang, T

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oridonin (ORI) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 384 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 treatments with 6 replicate cages per treatment and 8 birds per replicate. There were 4 dietary treatments: the control group (birds fed the basal diet), the ORI 50 group, the ORI 80 group, and the ORI 100 group (the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, and 100 mg/kg oridonin, respectively). Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 250 μg/kg BW LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline at 16, 18, and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily weight gain (ADG), the average daily feed intake (ADFI), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens (P 0.05). LPS stimulation increased the relative weight of the spleen and bursa (P AOC) and catalase (CAT) were dramatically attenuated by oridonin in both the serum and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LPS down-regulated the mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and CAT in the liver (P < 0.05), However, oridonin inclusion increased the liver mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, and GPx1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the dietary oridonin supplementation at an optimum dose of 100 mg/kg improves the antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in MDA and the increase in total SOD activities and mRNA expression levels of the liver antioxidant genes, although the effects on growth performance was negligible. PMID:27143760

  13. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard-Nicodème, M; Keita, A; Quesne, S; Amelot, M; Poezevara, T; Le Berre, B; Sánchez, J; Vesseur, P; Martín, Á; Medel, P; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry meat is the major source of human campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in European broiler flocks is 71%. Despite considerable efforts, there is still no effective strategy available to prevent or reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. This study tested a wide variety of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter shedding in primary poultry production. Twelve additives containing organic or fatty acids, monoglycerides, plant extracts, prebiotics, or probiotics were tested. For each additive, broilers contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni were fed with an additive free diet (control group) or with a supplemented diet (treated group) and Campylobacter loads compared at three sampling times. No treatment was able to prevent broiler colonization by Campylobacter, and there was a high degree of variation in contamination among the birds. At 14 d of age, eight treatments significantly decreased the colonization level compared to the control group by a maximum of 2 log10 CFU/g. At 35 d of age, three of these treatments still had a significant effect with a maximum reduction of 1.88 log10 CFU/g for a probiotic. At 42 d of age, only one short-chain fatty acid was still significantly efficient with a mean reduction over 2 log10 CFU/g. In addition, a probiotic and a prebiotic-like compound significantly decreased the contamination by a maximum of 3 log10 CFU/g, only at the 42-d sampling period. This study gives promising results regarding the use of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter infection in flocks. Nevertheless, a global approach, combining intervention measures at the different steps of the broiler meat production chain could have a greater impact on the reduction of public health risk. PMID:26706356

  14. Performance of an animal-based test of thirst in commercial broiler chicken farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Buijs, S; Federici, J F; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2014-06-01

    Animal-based measures of thirst are currently absent from animal welfare monitoring schemes due to the lack of a well-validated indicator applicable for on-farm use. In the present study, an on-farm test based on voluntary water consumption from an unfamiliar open drinker was validated in a (semi-)commercial setting. To investigate the effect of thirst on water consumption, we subjected 4 flocks of 1,500 broilers to either 0 or 12 h of water deprivation and subsequently measured the amount of water that small subgroups consumed after the deprivation period (first experiment). Broilers that were water deprived before the test drank more than control broilers (P Brazil. After a pretreatment water consumption test, the birds were subjected to 0 or 6 h of water deprivation, and a posttreatment water consumption test was conducted. Only in Brazil, deprived birds drank significantly more than controls in the posttreatment water consumption test (P Brazil than in Belgium (P Brazil, but not in Belgium. These results indicate that the water consumption test is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between control and 12 h deprived flocks, and in Brazil even between control and 6 h deprived birds. The location of the test within the house did not affect the amount of water consumed in either experiment, suggesting that this variable does not have to be standardized. However, the amount of water consumed by broilers able to drink freely for a long period depended on indoor climatic variables (in Brazil only) and possibly genotype. This suggests that these variables need to be considered when interpreting the test outcome in terms of the thirst level experienced by the broilers.

  15. Potential of Local Microalgae as A Natural Antioxidant to Produce Asuh Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvia Salvia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed quality for food safety. To produce ASUH (safe, healthy, whole and halal food from  broiler , it should be fed with quality ration that free from chemical residues derived from synthetic antioxidants such as BHT, BHA and antibiotic for the meat  contained  residue that will cause negative effect.  Microalgae has the potential to be used as natural supplement because it contains nutrients, antioxidant,  cholesterolemic effect and plant growth regulator. Ojectives of this study is to  exploit natural antioxidant substance in local microalgae extract as  natural supplement for broiler.  This research used local microalgae collected from water of the pond located around chicken farm in Nagari Mungka, 50 Kota District. DPPH free radical absorbance method used to test antioxidant activity, while ascorbic acid (Vitamin C used as comparison, and was tested to broiler to oversee its performance.  Best concentration tested to broilers and its performances was observed.  The result of study ; Local microalgae extract  has ability to inhibit DPPH free radical  by  concentration at 80 mg/ml  which is equal to 6 mg/ml   of Vitamin C. The performance  after giving  microalgae as antioxidant is better than Vitamin C because it contains nutrition and others secondary metabolic  such as antimicrobial, cholesterolimic effect and plant growth regulator. Local microalgae is potential as source of natural antioxidants for producing ASUH broiler meat

  16. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting.

  17. Effects of Urea and Copper Sulphate on Some Serum Biochemical and Meat Parameters in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rasool, M. Tariq Javed*, Masood Akhtar1, S. Shabbir Bhatti, M. N. Shahzad and Riaz Hussain2

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed some of the serum enzymes, urea and creatinine to understand the pathological changes occurring in different organs of broilers due to urea and copper. The feeding for 15 days at or higher than 2% urea + 1gm copper sulphate caused significant rise in serum ALT, AST, AKP and creatinine. With further increase in time of 15 days, the levels of urea and LDH also increased significantly, this was seen even in birds fed 1% urea + 250 mg copper sulphate. We found increase in serum urea even in 1% urea fed birds and in all other groups where combination was used, however, serum creatinine increased significantly (P<0.05 only in birds fed 2% urea+1 gm copper sulphate or higher than these levels. The combined use of urea and copper sulphate resulted in changes in moisture, ash, crude protein and potassium in thigh and breast meat of broilers. The results of the present study suggest damaging effects of higher levels of urea and copper, alone or together and change in meat quality with lower protein contents and higher salt levels in meat of broilers. Thus the use of urea and copper sulphate together is not recommended in broilers, especially at 1% urea and 250mg copper sulphate or higher. The results of the study can be helpful to poultry farmers, pathologists and nutritionists who are involved in augmentation the meat quality and also to general public with special reference to people having hypertension as the meat salt levels may be higher with use of the these compounds in the broiler ration.

  18. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  19. Performance, abdominal fat deposition and bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Potença

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Animal-based measures (ABM can be used effectively in the on-farm evaluation of broiler welfare in relation to laws, codes of practice, quality assurance schemes, management and also partly for ante-mortem inspection. Some ABM can also be taken post-mortem at the slaughterhouse. Non-animal-based measures can be used when the association between them and the welfare outcome is strong and when they are more efficient than ABM as a means to safeguard welfare. They can also be useful predictors of welfare in broilers. The choice of animal-based measures will depend upon the specific objectives of the assessment. The full list is comparable to a ‘toolbox’, from which the appropriate set of measures can be selected. The Welfare Quality® protocol provides information on the majority of the welfare outcomes for the main factors identified in the EFSA Scientific Opinions but not those where time limitation prevents it. There is a lack of research on the use of ABM on-farm and in the slaughterhouse to assess pain, frustration, boredom and other negative or positive emotional states in the standard broiler. There are limited management options to prevent poor welfare when the flock is still in the house e.g. to improve the ventilation system. The same applies to negative consequences arising from genetic selection. There is a need for more systematic flock monitoring and surveillance programmes in the broiler industry. Visual inspection has a very high potential to improve animal welfare in broiler production when a range of appropriate ABM is used in the slaughterhouse. Benchmarking can be used to document welfare changes over time, including automatic monitoring and assessment systems. Attention should also be paid to initial and ongoing training of assessors in the field and in the abattoir to ensure valid and robust measurements.

  1. Risk factors associated with Salmonella status of broiler flocks delivered to grow-out farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, V V; Bailey, R H; Hubbard, S A; Magee, D L; Byrd, J A; Robert, W W

    2011-06-01

    In a prospective field observational study in the southeastern USA, we sampled gastrointestinal (GI) tracts from chicks of 65 broiler flocks delivered to conventional grow-out farms for rearing. The flocks were hatched at seven broiler hatcheries. The mean within-flock prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 6.5% and ranged from 0% to 86.7%. Of the 65 flocks studied, 25 (38.5%) had at least one Salmonella-positive sample. Accounting for confounding variability among the hatcheries and broiler companies, we tested whether the probability of detecting Salmonella in GI tracts of the chicks delivered was associated with certain characteristics of parent breeder flocks; hatchery production volume; hatchery ventilation system; hatchery egg-room conditions; egg incubation, candling, hatching, eggshell and bird separation, and bird-processing procedures; management of hatchery-to-farm transportation; day of week of hatch; weather conditions during transportation; or season of the hatch. Two risk factor models were adopted. The first model indicated that a greater number of parent flocks, manual separation of eggshell and bird, and a greater amount of fluff and feces on tray liners used during hatchery-to-farm transportation at delivery were associated with increased probability of detecting Salmonella in chick GI tracts, whereas a greater number of birds in the delivery vehicle was associated with decreased probability. The second model indicated that broiler flocks hatched on Tuesdays versus either Mondays or Thursdays (with no hatches on Wednesdays, Fridays or week-ends), increased average hatchability of the eggs from the parent flocks, and greater amounts of fluff and feces on the transport tray liners at delivery were all associated with increased probability of detecting Salmonella in chick GI tracts. The results of this study suggest potential management decisions to lessen Salmonella contamination of broilers supplied by commercial hatcheries and areas for

  2. Eating patterns of broiler chickens fed insoluble grit, and its effect on intake variation, retention time, performance and gizzard development

    OpenAIRE

    Itani, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    In a field trial, the current study tested the effects of insoluble granite grit stones supplemented to broiler chickens on growth performance and gizzard stimulation. Particle size distribution and variation in the amount of grit retained in the gizzards were also examined at different age intervals. 880-day-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly and equally to 11 floor pens and maintained on a commercial pelleted diet. The trial consisted of two treatments: a control, or no-grit group (...

  3. STATIC AND DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF POOLED BROILER CONTRACTS: RELATIVE-PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS VS. FIXED-PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanguo; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2004-01-01

    With the broiler industry as a backdrop, this paper develops theoretical models to compare optimal incentives of pooled relative-performance and fixed-performance contracts in static and dynamic models that account for both adverse selection and moral hazard. In spite of some growers' complaints about the relative-performance contracts used in the broiler industry, model results largely justify the popularity and superiority of relative performance contracts relative to fixed performance cont...

  4. Response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge stored at various length of time

    OpenAIRE

    I.A.K Bintang; A.P. Sinurat; T Purwadaria

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger stored at different length of time. The research was carried out in Research Institute for Animal Production Ciawi, Bogor. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 245 day old broiler chicks with 5 replicates. They were allotted to 7 diets containing one control without palm oil sludge (R0), 5 and 10% of fresh-fermented palm oil ...

  5. The Prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a Free-Range Broiler Breeder Flock Was Primarily Affected by Flock Age

    OpenAIRE

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D.; Ruth Layton; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correl...

  6. Identification and Characterization of Potential Performance-Related Gut Microbiotas in Broiler Chickens across Various Feeding Trials▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Torok, Valeria A.; Hughes, Robert J.; Mikkelsen, Lene L.; Perez-Maldonado, Rider; Balding, Katherine; MacAlpine, Ron; Percy, Nigel J.; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Three broiler feeding trials were investigated in order to identify gut bacteria consistently linked with improvements in bird performance as measured by feed efficiency. Trials were done in various geographic locations and varied in diet composition, broiler breed, and bird age. Gut microbial communities were investigated using microbial profiling. Eight common performance-linked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified within both the ilea (180, 492, and 564–566) and ceca (140–142...

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation with different forms and levels of organic chromium on broilers meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Keleman Svetlana P.; Kevrešan Slavko E.; Supić Boriša; Perić Lidija; Strugar Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of supplementation with the three different preparations of organic chromium complexes: the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex with chromium; chromium (III)­lysine and chromium picolinate, on broilers meat quality. In every preparation supplementing broilers diet chromium was present at the three different levels: 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The meat quality was monitored with respect to the following parameters: the contents of fat, protein, minerals and wat...

  8. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L.; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L. X. N.; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence differe...

  9. Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the Norwegian Broiler Production

    OpenAIRE

    Solveig Sølverød Mo; Jannice Schau Slettemeås; Einar Sverre Berg; Madelaine Norström; Marianne Sunde

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been detected in the Norwegian broiler production, despite the fact that antimicrobial agents are rarely used. The genetic mechanism responsible for cephalosporin resistance is mainly attributed to the presence of the bla CMY-2 gene encoding a plasmid-mediated AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare bla CMY-2 containing Escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal flora of broilers ...

  10. Pemberian Tepung Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) dalam Ransum Sebagai Bahan Antibakteri Escherichia coli terhadap Organ Dalam Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hermana; D. I. Puspitasari; K.G Wiryawan; S. Suharti

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the utilization of bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) in the diets as antibacterial agent and its effect on the weight viscera organ of broilers. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. One hundred and eighty birds of five week-old broiler were used in the present experiment, and thirty six birds were decapitated to measure the weight of viscera. On day four, ex...

  11. Pulmonary Vascular Pressure Profiles in Broilers Selected for Susceptibility to Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome: Age and Gender Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, R. F.; Eanes, M. L.; Hamal, K. R.; Anthony, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Broilers that are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) have an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) when compared with PHS-resistant broilers. Two distinctly different syndromes, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), both are associated with increases in PAP. Pulmonary arterial hypertension occurs when the right ventricle must elevate the PAP to overcome increased resistance to flow through restrictive pulmonary arteriole...

  12. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  13. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  14. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.

  15. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  16. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  17. Profil Hematologi dan Pertambahan Bobot Badan Harian Ayam Broiler yang Diberi Cekaman Panas pada Suhu Kandang yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito Sugito

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The profile of hematology and broiler daily body weight gain which treated with heat stress at different cage temperature ABSTRACT. A research have been conducted to find the impact of heat stress at 3 level of cage temperature on hematology profile and broiler daily body weight gain. Sixteen broilers (strain Cobb at the age of 20 days were randomly divided to 4 groups. First group was control group that treated without given heat stress (KL. Second, third, and fourth groups were treated with heat stress in cages with temperature, respectively 33 ± 1oC, 36 ± 1oC, and 39 ± 1oC. Heat stress was given 4 hours daily during 7 days consecutively. The result indicated that cage temperature up to 36 ± 1oC has not significantly affected hematology profile and broiler daily body weight gain. The impact of increasing temperature have been found at cage temperature of 39 ± 1oC after 7 days of treatment, which were the increasing number of leucocytes, decreasing number of erythrocytes, and decreasing of broiler daily body weight gain. The broiler of the age above 20 to 27 days that exposed heat stress during 4 hour per day in the cage temperature of 39 ± 1oC can obtain heat stress in serious level.

  18. Factors that impact the financial performance of broiler production in southern states of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the financial performance of broiler chicken production in Southwest of Paraná state in Brazil, as well as to study the relationship of these factors with the social-economic situation of poultry farmers. Data were obtained from a questionnaire applied to broiler chicken farmers between February and March, 2011. The questionnaire included 39 questions relative to farmer's age, family size, land possession, capital invested in broiler farming, gross income per flock, training and broiler farming experience, production size, credit needs, technical service, labor, production problems, and bird weight at slaughter. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The relationship between production data and financial performance was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient, at 95% confidence level. Approximately 64.84% of the interviewed broiler farmers in Paraná state presented medium to low financial performance. Factors such as education level, facility size, labor, gross income per flock, and average bird weight at slaughter had a positive impact on financial performance. The production problems that most affected the broiler production were environmental challenges, poor feed conversion, as well as management problems and low-quality chicks.

  19. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  1. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This assessment relates the percentage of broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases to different Salmonella prevalences in broiler flocks in the European Union. It considers the contribution and relevance of different Salmonella serovars found in broilers to human salmonellosis. The model deve...

  2. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  3. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

    2001-07-01

    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  4. Environmental augmentation with bacteriophage prevents colibacillosis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, F A; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Zhou, Z Y; Donoghue, A M

    2014-11-01

    way to prevent colibacillosis in broiler chickens. PMID:25214555

  5. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  6. Live Performance, Carcass Yield, and Welfare of Broilers of Different Genetic Strains Reared at Different Housing Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JNT Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the performance, carcass yield and quality, and physiological stress indicators of broilers of three genetic strains reared at three housing densities for 29 days. A total of 828 day-old male chicks, with average initial weight of 40.0± 2.0g were used. Three genetic strains (Cobb 500, Ross 808, and Ross 508, with 276 birds each and three housing densities (17, 19, and 21 broilers/m² were tested. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 23 birds each, was applied. The following responses were evaluated: performance parameters (average weekly body weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, physiological stress indicators (blood glucose levels, blood cell counts, and carcass yield and quality (dermatosis, bruising, dermatitis, and femoral degeneration scores. Average weekly body weight (BW and daily weight gain (DWG were not influenced by rearing density (p≥0.05, but Cobb 500 broilers were the heaviest during the analyzed period. In the second week, Ross 508 birds showed better feed conversion ratio (FCR when housed at the density of 17 broilers/m² (p≤0.001, whereas the best FCR of Ross 808 and Cobb 500 broilers was obtained at 21 broilers/m² (p≤0.001. Carcass yield was not influenced by the treatments (p≥0.05. Physiological stress indicators were not affected by the treatments, and remained within normal ranges (p≥0.05. Dermatosis scores (scratches increased (p≤0.05 when housing density increased from 17 to 19 broilers /m².

  7. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  8. Phylogeny and S1 Gene Variation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Detected in Broilers and Layers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Gurel, Aydin; Ozturk, Gulay Yuzbasioglu; Bamac, Ozge Erdogan; Aydin, Ozge; Britton, Paul; Monne, Isabella; Cetinkaya, Burhan; Morgan, Kenton L; Faburay, Bonto; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri

    2016-09-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is recognized as an important global pathogen because new variants are a continuous threat to the poultry industry worldwide. This study investigates the genetic origin and diversity of AvCoV-IBV by analysis of the S1 sequence derived from 49 broiler flocks and 14 layer flocks in different regions of Turkey. AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in 41 (83.6%) broiler flocks and nine (64.2%) of the layer flocks by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. In addition, AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in the tracheas 27/30 (90%), lungs 31/49 (62.2%), caecal tonsils 7/22 (31.8%), and kidneys 4/49 (8.1%) of broiler flocks examined. Pathologic lesions, hemorrhages, and mononuclear infiltrations were predominantly observed in tracheas and to a lesser extent in the lungs and a few in kidneys. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S1 sequences of the detected AvCoV-IBVs (including isolates) revealed that 1) viruses detected in five broiler flocks were similar to the IBV vaccines Ma5, H120, M41; 2) viruses detected in 24 broiler flocks were similar to those previously reported from Turkey and to Israel variant-2 strains; 3) viruses detected in seven layer flocks were different from those found in any of the broiler flocks but similar to viruses previously reported from Iran, India, and China (similar to Israel variant-1 and 4/91 serotypes); and 4) that the AVCoV-IBV, Israeli variant-2 strain, found to be circulating in Turkey appears to be undergoing molecular evolution. In conclusion, genetically different AvCoV-IBV strains, including vaccine-like strains, based on their partial S1 sequence, are circulating in broiler and layer chicken flocks in Turkey and the Israeli variant-2 strain is undergoing evolution. PMID:27610718

  9. Featherless and feathered broilers under control versus hot conditions. 2. Breast muscle development and growth in pre- and posthatch periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yair; Cahaner, Avigdor; Halevy, Orna

    2014-05-01

    Breast meat yield (% of BW) of featherless broilers (sc/sc) is higher than that of their feathered sibs (+/sc) and contemporary broilers (+/+) under hot temperature (32°C) conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that the advantage to the featherless broiler condition with respect to breast meat yield and quality is due to differences in muscle development during pre- and posthatch periods. Broilers from the 3 genetic groups were reared under normal (26°C) and hot (32°C) conditions and slaughtered on d 29 and 47. Evaluation of myofiber diameter (mean and distribution) and blood-vessel density in breast muscle sections sampled on these days revealed that the fluctuations in breast muscle yields of the different genetic groups under different temperature conditions and the better muscle growth of the featherless broilers are due to changes in muscle hypertrophy and vascularization. In addition, the featherless broilers presented continuous satellite cell proliferation and a slower rate of differentiation compared with the feathered broilers on immediate posthatch period, suggesting a higher reserve of myogenic progeny cells that will contribute to later muscle hypertrophy. In the embryos, breast muscle yield was higher for the featherless versus feathered counterparts between embryonic day (E) 15 and E20. This was manifested in a shift toward higher myofiber diameters in the featherless embryos on E18, and a higher number of myoblasts, which could be explained by higher insulin-like growth factor-I levels in the muscle tissue and lower triiodothyronine levels in the plasma on E17. Together, the data show the advantage of being featherless under hot conditions with regard to breast muscle growth and hypertrophy, and overall performance. Moreover, featherless embryos had increased breast muscle weight compared with their feathered counterparts, likely due to a higher proliferation rate of myoblasts and higher muscle hypertrophy.

  10. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  11. Development of a seroprevalence map for avian influenza in broiler chickens from Comunidad Valenciana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and implement a seroprevalence map based on business intelligence for low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in broilerchickens in Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). The software mapping tool developed for this study consisted of three main phases: data collection, data analysis and data representation. To obtain the serological data, the authors analysed 8,520 serum samples from broiler farms over three years. The data were represented on a map of Comunidad Valenciana, including geographical information of flock locations to facilitate disease monitoring. No clinical signs of LPNAI were reported in the studied flocks. The data from this study showed no evidence of contact with LPNAI in broiler flocks and the novel software mapping tool proved a valuable method for easily monitoring on the serological response to avian influenza information, including geographical information.

  12. ECONOMICAL AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF AVIARIES FOR THE INTEGRATION OF BROILERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial investment projects are characterized by uncertainties. When quantified, these will determine the probability of their occurrence and the condition of risk. This information might be analyzed via simulation of Monte Carlo Method, which will establish the level of associated risk. To understand the financial risks of broiler production in integration system, cash flow models for aviaries were formulated with different technological levels. Using deterministic techniques, the value of the main economic viability indicators were calculated, which were incorporated to the risk through a probabilistic model of pseudo-random numbers, generated with Monte Carlo Method. The uncertainties associated to financial projects show that broiler production in different integration systems is economically viable. However, the best financial return and smallest risk are obtained with an aviary which contains low technological level and the least financial investment.

  13. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. effect on muscle growth of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Khan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the aqueous seed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek on the weight of breast, thigh and leg of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e., A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of fenugreek @ 10, 20 and 30 ml/L, respectively while group A served as a control. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. The data showed that weight of breast, thigh and leg were significantly (P<0.05 heavier in group C compared to control. It was concluded from this study that Trigonella foenum-graecum at the rate of 30 ml/L aqueous extract has a beneficial impact on the growth of these muscle tissues.

  14. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne;

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006...... and nalidixic acid resistances were detected in all flocks. The numbers of E. coli resistant to these drugs were higher in plates from parent flocks than in those from offspring flocks. A broiler parent flock without any history of quinolone usage tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, although...... and mutations responsible for these types of resistance. References DANMAP 2005. 2006. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark. Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen, Denmark, ISSN 1600-2032. Olesen, I., H. Hasman...

  15. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl;

    2008-01-01

    houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms.......0078) and with the outdoor temperature (P houses constitutes a considerable risk for infection of broilers with C. jejuni and C. coli....

  16. Multidrug resistance and ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. isolated from broiler processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziech, Rosangela Estel; Lampugnani, Camila; Perin, Ana Paula; Sereno, Mallu Jagnow; Sfaciotte, Ricardo Antônio Pilegi; Viana, Cibeli; Soares, Vanessa Mendonça; Pinto, José Paes de Almeida Nogueira; Bersot, Luciano dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Salmonella spp. isolated from conveyor belts of broiler cutting rooms in Brazilian broiler processing plants. Ninety-eight strains of Salmonella spp. were analyzed. Multidrug resistance was determined by the disk diffusion test and the susceptibility of the isolated bacteria was evaluated against 18 antimicrobials from seven different classes. The double disk diffusion test was used to evaluate ESBL production. Of the 98 strains tested, 84 were multidrug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were against nalidixic acid (95%), tetracycline (91%), and the beta-lactams: ampicillin and cefachlor (45%), followed by streptomycin and gentamicin with 19% and 15% of strain resistance, respectively. By contrast, 97% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. 45% of the strains were positive for the presence of ESBL activity. In this study, high rates of multidrug resistance and ESBL production were observed in Salmonella spp.

  17. Effects of probiotic on the intestinal morphology with special reference to the growth of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probiotic (Protexin) increases the growth rate in broilers. It must interfere with the intestinal cell morphology and absorption. The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewed tissues in the body and is renewed by a process of continuous cell division. This study was carried out with an aim to establish a link between the use of probiotic doses, growth rate, and intestinal cell proliferation by measuring the length and weight of the intestine and intestinal crypt cell proliferation (CCP) of broiler chicks. The results revealed significant increase in intestinal CCP but no effect was observed on the intestinal weight and length. The increase in CCP has also no significant influence towards growth factor. The increased weight gain in this study is associated with more feed consumption which is observed with Protexin dose 1.0 g / 10 kg of feed. Furthermore, feed consumption reduced beyond this dose may lead to reduced weight gain. (author)

  18. In ovo injection of vitamin E on post-hatch immunological parameters and broiler chicken performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Salary; Fatemeh Sahebi-Ala; Majid Kalantar; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in ovo injection (IOI) of vitamin E (VE) on serum post-hatch immunological parameters and broiler chicken performance. Methods: Fertile eggs (n=400) were distributed into four groups of 100 eggs. On 14th day of incubation, two groups were injected with 0.5 mL of 15 or 30 mg VE dissolved in physiology serum. Rest two groups were used as sham control (injected with 0.5 mL physiology serum) and un-injected control. The hatched chickens from each group were randomly assigned to four replications of 12 chickens and reared under standard condition. Results:Hatchability percentage was apparently increased (P Conclusions:Broiler chicken performance did not affect with IOI of VE, while hatchability and post-hatch immunity status were boost up by IOI of 30 mg/egg VE.

  19. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONDITIONS IN BROILERS ELECRICAL STUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vecchini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of broiler stunning using different voltage and current frequency and the consequences on meat quality are reported. Loss of sensitivity was controlled in fifteen batches of medium and heavy broilers (i.e. corneal reflex, time for recover tension of neck muscles, quick beat of wings, head movements and frequency of these signs was related to the theoretical (calculated current that passed through the bird bodies. Prevalence of defects like pectoral muscles haemorrhages and coracoid’s or furculum’s fractures are not higher when frequency of current was reduced from 350 to 250 Hz and voltage maintained at 70-75 Volts, but the frequency of birds showing corneal reflex change from 91 to 33 percent and time for recover tension of neck muscles significantly increase. Any sign of reduced bleeding was observed and meat quality was similar in batches stunned at 250 and 350 Hz.

  20. Different criteria of feed formulation for broilers aged 43 to 49 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Araújo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate different formulated feeds for broilers from 43 to 49 days of age. Six hundred male Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely at random experimental design with 3 treatments (3 different criteria of feed formulation and 4 repetitions per treatment, with 50 birds each. Diets were formulated with different criteria of digestible amino acid inclusion (methionine, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine, according to the profiles recommended by Baker and Chung (1992, Degussa (1997 and Rostagno (2000 Live performance and carcass yield were evaluated in birds fed the different diets from 43 to 49 days of age. The profile established by Degussa (1997 resulted in best live performance. All profiles supplied the nutritional requirements of the birds for adequate carcass yield, but Degussa (1997 profile resulted in highest breast yield.