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Sample records for broiler multi-stage setter

  1. Environmental conditions in broiler multi-stage setter: a case study Condições ambientais em incubadora de múltiplo estágio: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Gigli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of one day-old chick production is one of the most important segments in the poultry production business. Broiler chicken incubation environment needs to be homogeneous and adequate so hatchability and final product quality are not affected. This research aimed at evaluating environmental conditions inside a multi-stage setter in a commercial hatchery house. The incubator was split into six areas and data loggers placed in the geometric center to register temperature and relative humidity data; carbon dioxide concentration and number of colony forming units (CFU of fungi were also sampled and analyzed; Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used for statistical analysis; significant differences in temperature and relative humidity distribution inside the incubator (p 0.05. Fungi incidence varied from average to good. Critical points were detected in all areas inside the setter.A produção de pintinhos de um dia é um dos segmentos mais importantes da cadeia avícola. O ambiente de incubação de frangos de corte precisa ser homogêneo e adequado de modo a não afetar a eclodibilidade e a qualidade do produto final. Avaliaram-se as condições de ambiência no interior de incubadora de estágio múltiplo durante um lote de produção em incubatório comercial. A incubadora foi dividida em seis quadrantes em cujo centro geométrico foram colocados registradores de valores de temperatura e umidade relativa. A concentração de dióxido de carbono, bem como o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU de fungos também foram amostradas nos mesmos locais; o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para análise estatística. Foram detectadas diferenças na distribuição de temperatura e umidade relativa no interior da incubadora (p 0,05. A incidência de fungos variou de média a boa. Pontos críticos foram detectados em todas as áreas dentro da incubadora.

  2. Impacto das variáveis ambientais em incubatório de estágio múltiplo de frangos de corte Impact of environmental variables in multi setter incubation in broiler's production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Baracho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a quantificar as características de resposta produtiva de pintos de corte provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais, em incubatório de regime de estágio múltiplo. Para tal, foram monitorados três lotes de ovos férteis em incubatório comercial, verificando o impacto das seguintes variáveis ambientais: temperatura, velocidade do ar, umidade relativa, concentração de dióxido de carbono e presença de fungos. O acompanhamento de pintos provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais distintas (Cobb® e Avian® foi feito em três lotes, quando também foram coletados dados de perdas. A análise de componentes principais foi empregada para associar as variáveis de ambiente, produção e perdas, observando a magnitude dos vetores. Os resultados mostraram que o ambiente de incubação influenciou diretamente no desempenho (qualidade, incidência de anormalidades e mortalidade das duas linhagens de frango de corte. Ambas as linhagens apresentaram perdas produtivas relacionadas à baixa temperatura de incubação na incubadora e no nascedouro, mostrando que a temperatura de incubação é o fator mais importante para que sejam alcançados índices produtivos ótimos.This research aimed to quantify the characteristics of the productive response of pullets from two distinct genetic strains in multi setter incubator. For this three batches of fertile eggs were monitored in a commercial incubator verifying the impact of the following environmental variables: temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration and presence of fungi. The follow up was done in three flocks of broiler pullets from two commercial genetic strains (Cobb® and Avian® also along with the data of losses. The principal components analysis was used for associating the variables of environment, production and losses by observing the magnitude of the vectors. Results showed that the environment of incubation influenced the performance

  3. Genetics and epidemiology of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter

    OpenAIRE

    Ziener, Martine Lund; Dahlgren, Stina; Thoresen, Stein Istre; Lingaas, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders, whereas symmetrical onychomadesis is a rare claw disease in the general dog population. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in a birth cohort of 291 Gordon setters at eight years of age. Further, to describe the age at diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the 68 Gordon setters and 51 English setters included in the DLA study. Finally, to elucidate potential ass...

  4. Genetics and epidemiology of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, Martine Lund; Dahlgren, Stina; Thoresen, Stein Istre; Lingaas, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders, whereas symmetrical onychomadesis is a rare claw disease in the general dog population. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in a birth cohort of 291 Gordon setters at eight years of age. Further, to describe the age at diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the 68 Gordon setters and 51 English setters included in the DLA study. Finally, to elucidate potential associations between dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II and hypothyroidism and/or symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter. In the birth cohort of eight years old Gordon setters, 2.7 % had hypothyroidism and 8.9 % had symmetrical onychomadesis, but only one out of these 291 dogs (0.3 %) had both diseases. Mean age at diagnosis of hypothyroidism for dogs included in the DLA study was 6.4 years (95 % CI: 5.6-7.2 years) in the Gordon setters and 7.7 years (95 % CI: 7.2-8.2 years) in the English setters. The DLA alleles most associated with hypothyroidism in the Gordon setter and English setter were DLA-DQB1*00201 (OR = 3.6, 95 % CI: 2.1-6.4, p < 0.001) and DLA-DQA1*00101 (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI: 1.3-6.6, p < 0.001), respectively. In the Gordon setter, the haplotype DLA-DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 was significantly associated with both symmetrical onychomadesis (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI: 1.7-5.2, p < 0.001) and with protection against hypothyroidism (OR = 0.3, 95 % CI: 0.2-0.5, p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism is a complex disease where DLA genes together with other genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the Gordon setter, one DLA haplotype that was associated with protection against hypothyroidism was also associated with symmetrical onychomadesis. These findings indicate that closely linked genes, instead of or together with the DLA genes themselves, may be associated with hypothyroidism and symmetrical

  5. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...... in a multi-stage marketing context. This understanding assists managers in assessing and balancing different aspects of multi- stage marketing. The triadic perspective also offers avenues for further research.......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...

  6. Determinants of Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixated cultural outlook was recognized as being the motivating factor for patronage of traditional bone setters. Need for enlightenment campaign of the public against patronage of traditional bone setters is emphasized. A gradual phasing out of traditional bone setting with a road map towards making orthodox fracture ...

  7. MultiSETTER: web server for multiple RNA structure comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Petr; Hoksza, David; Svozil, Daniel

    2015-08-12

    Understanding the architecture and function of RNA molecules requires methods for comparing and analyzing their tertiary and quaternary structures. While structural superposition of short RNAs is achievable in a reasonable time, large structures represent much bigger challenge. Therefore, we have developed a fast and accurate algorithm for RNA pairwise structure superposition called SETTER and implemented it in the SETTER web server. However, though biological relationships can be inferred by a pairwise structure alignment, key features preserved by evolution can be identified only from a multiple structure alignment. Thus, we extended the SETTER algorithm to the alignment of multiple RNA structures and developed the MultiSETTER algorithm. In this paper, we present the updated version of the SETTER web server that implements a user friendly interface to the MultiSETTER algorithm. The server accepts RNA structures either as the list of PDB IDs or as user-defined PDB files. After the superposition is computed, structures are visualized in 3D and several reports and statistics are generated. To the best of our knowledge, the MultiSETTER web server is the first publicly available tool for a multiple RNA structure alignment. The MultiSETTER server offers the visual inspection of an alignment in 3D space which may reveal structural and functional relationships not captured by other multiple alignment methods based either on a sequence or on secondary structure motifs.

  8. Experiments for Multi-Stage Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize...... the required number of experimental runs, we suggest using mirror image pairs of experiments at each stage following the first. As the design criterion, we consider their projectivity and mainly focus on projectivity 3 designs. We provide the methodology for generating these designs for processes with any...

  9. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  10. Interconnected levels of multi-stage marketing: A triadic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. ...

  11. Reasons for patronage of traditional bone setters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Egbeji Abang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze the different reasons why patients with fractures patronize traditional bone setters (TBS and their impression of the outcome of the treatment by the TBS. Materials and Methods: A 24 month prospective observational study was conducted from February 2012 to January 2014. All the patients were recruited from the orthopedics outpatient clinic. The demographic data of each patient, the type of injury, presentation to hospital or not, reasons for leaving the hospital, reasons for patronage of the TBS and their impression of the outcome of TBS′ treatment, effect of educational background on patronage of TBS and reason for presenting to hospital for orthodox treatment. Data Analysis: Analysis was done with SPSS software Version 20. Results: A total 79 patients were recruited for the study and they had different reasons for patronizing TBS. These reasons include an external locus of decision making in 19 (24.1% patients, and greater faith in TBS compared to orthodox medicine in 16 (20.3%. Twelve (15.2% believed that TBS are more competent than orthodox medical practitioners while another group 11 (13.9% considered the fees of TBS cheaper than those in the hospital. The delay in treatment in the hospital, forceful removal of patients from hospital against their will and nonsatisfaction with hospital treatment accounted for 5 (6.3%. Poor attitude of hospital staff, fear of amputation, and patients being unconscious during the injury accounted for 2 (2.5%. Their ages ranged from 17 to 83 years, with mean age of 36.8 ± 11.8 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Conclusions and Recommendations: With recent advancements in the practice of orthopedics and trauma, there is still a very high patronage of the TBS by most of our patients. This is largely due to the dependence of the patients on their sponsors for treatment, while the influence of cultural and religious beliefs continues to

  12. Multi Staged Gasification Systems - A New Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.B.; Koidl, F.; Kreutner, G.; Giovannini, A. (MCI - Univ. of Applied Science for Environmental-, Process- and Biotechnology, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)); Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Hofbauer, H. (Austrian Bioeneregy Centre, Graz (Austria)); Gruber, F. (GE Jenbacher, Jenbach (Austria)); Krueger, J. (SynCraft Engineering, Schwaz (Austria))

    2008-10-15

    Multi-staged fixed bed (MFB) gasification systems represent one of the most promising and effective methods of transforming solid biomass into power and heat (CHP). The underlying magic of this gasification process is, that a clean producer gas suitable for gas engines at high cold-gas efficiency rates can be produced. These two attributes allow multi-staged gasification systems to minimize the efforts for gas cleaning, while maximizing the energy retrieval out of the biomass. Though already demonstrated in small-scale, MFB gasification becomes a challenge when thinking of commercial-sized plants above 150kW{sub el}. In such a dimension especially the pressure loss over the char bed and bulk instabilities become the major process obstacles. After years of investigation the MCI developed a new process pathway which allows avoiding these bottle necks while maintaining the advantages of MFB systems. The core of the new staged alignment is the combination of a partial-oxidation-accelerator with a floating-bed-reduction-reactor. The process has already achieved technical proof of concept during ongoing investigations at a 250 kW{sub th} pilot plant in Jenbach and will be upscaled to demonstration plant size as soon as sufficient long time experience is gained

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about the Traditional Bone Setters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of traditional bone setters can no longer be denied in this environment as some of the complications resulting from their treatment are still seen commonly in orthopaedic surgical practice. This study was undertaken at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria to find out about knowledge, attitude ...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Broiler Production Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the cost implications of raising broilers under the battery cage and deep litter system of poultry production. The data used in the study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of broiler farmers in Edo State from October– December, 2013. A multi-stage sampling process was used to select the 211 ...

  15. Fenomena Kerak Dalam Desalinasi Dengan Multi Stage Flash Distillation (Msf)

    OpenAIRE

    Alimah, Siti

    2006-01-01

    SCALING PHENOMENA IN DESALINATION WITH MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF). Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonat calcium (CaC03), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH)2) dan sulphate calcium (CaS04). CaC03 dan Mg(OH)2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reactio...

  16. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms

  17. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brezina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algorithms for transportation problem etc. and heuristics approaches (e.g. evolutionary techniques were developed. This article considers Multi-stage transportation problem with capacity limit that reflects limits of transported materials (commodity quantity. Discussed issues are: theoretical base, problem formulation as way as new proposed algorithm for that problem.

  18. 76 FR 19747 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Grundfos Pumps Manufacturing Corporation (Multi-Stage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... (Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pumps); Allentown, PA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the multi-stage centrifugal pump... status for activity related to the manufacturing of multi-stage centrifugal pumps at the Grundfos Pumps...

  19. Mortgage Loan Portfolio Optimization Using Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the Danish mortgage loan system and propose several models to reflect the choices of a mortgagor as well as his attitude towards risk. The models are formulated as multi stage stochastic integer programs, which are difficult to solve for more than 10 stages. Scenario...... reduction and LP relaxation are used to obtain near optimal solutions for large problem instances. Our results show that the standard Danish mortgagor should hold a more diversified portfolio of mortgage loans, and that he should rebalance the portfolio more frequently than current practice....

  20. Dynamics of multi-stage infections on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sherborne, N; Kiss, I Z

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of infectious diseases with a non-exponentially distributed infectious period. This is achieved by considering a multi-stage infection model on networks. Using pairwise approximation with a standard closure, a number of important characteristics of disease dynamics are derived analytically, including the final size of an epidemic and a threshold for epidemic outbreaks. Stochastic simulations of dynamics on networks are performed and compared to the results of pairwise models for several realistic examples of infectious diseases to illustrate the role played by the number of stages in the disease dynamics. The agreement between the pairwise and simulation methods is excellent in the cases we consider.

  1. Familial non-rcd1 generalised retinal degeneration in Irish setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Boevé, M H; Stades, F C; van Oost, B A

    2003-03-01

    Four Irish setters were diagnosed with bilateral retinal degeneration and cataracts at an age ranging from six to 11 years. In three of these dogs, progressive night blindness was reported from an age of eight to 11 years. In the fourth dog, aged six, no signs of visual impairment had been noticed. In all four dogs, the rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1) mutation was excluded as a cause, using an allele-specific PCR. From their three-generation pedigrees, a familial relationship was detected in three out of four dogs, which were also related to four additional Irish setter dogs with a history and clinical signs suggestive of late-onset progressive retinal degeneration. These results suggest the existence of a possibly hereditary, late-onset, progressive retinal atrophy in the Irish setter breed, that is distinct from rcd1.

  2. Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency: presence of the Cys36Ser beta-2 integrin mutation in an affected US Irish Setter cross-breed dog and in US Irish Red and White Setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureman, Polly; Whiteley, Mary; Giger, Urs

    2002-01-01

    Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in the presence of marked leukocytosis. The disease was 1st described in the mid-1980s in a cross-breed Irish Setter Dog in the United States. It results from a defective beta-2 subunit of heterodimeric leukocyte adhesion proteins. The causative mutation for CLAD in Irish Setter Dogs from Europe has been identified as a missense mutation at base pair position 107 in the beta-2 integrin subunit gene (ITGB2) that results in an amino acid change from cysteine to serine at amino acid 36 (Cys36Ser) in the beta-2 integrin subunit protein. In the current work, the originally described dog with CLAD has been genetically tested and shown to have the same mutation as the European Irish Setters. This suggests that the mutation has been in the Irish Setter population for many generations spanning more than 2 decades. A related breed, the Irish Red and White Setter, has a history of interbreeding with Irish Setters and shares a common ancestry with the Irish Setter breed. DNA from Irish Red and White Setters residing in the United States was screened either by sequencing or by the newly developed restriction enzyme test for the Irish Setter Cys36Ser CLAD mutation. Seven of 54 dogs tested (13%) were found to be carriers of the Irish Setter CLAD mutation. Five of these were directly related to a sire from the UK, demonstrating the importation of an allele from another continent and establishing the need for genetic testing in this breed in the United States.

  3. Interconnected levels of Multi-Stage Marketing – A Triadic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other...

  4. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  5. Multi-stages decision voice print recognition in telecommunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Fa Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the cepstrum and pitch parameter, a VQ voice print recognition (i.e. speaker identification method was realized and used in telecommunication. In this paper, we analyzed the characteristic of long-time LPCCEP and the pitch parameter for text-independent speaker identification. Considering the different contribution of each LPC cepstrum component, the weight was added to modify the distortion measurement. Based on the improved vector quantification (VQ, we constructed the speaker individual model and the system was training shorter, the response real time and the data memory smaller. A simple pitch measurement was introduced and applied in multi-stage decision to raise system robustness. The test results show that using about 10 seconds voice, in 60 speakers set, the correct identification rate is above 95%.

  6. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  7. Fully Automated Operational Modal Analysis using multi-stage clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Eugen; Janser, Frank; Khatibi, Akbar A.; Orifici, Adrian C.

    2017-02-01

    The interest for robust automatic modal parameter extraction techniques has increased significantly over the last years, together with the rising demand for continuous health monitoring of critical infrastructure like bridges, buildings and wind turbine blades. In this study a novel, multi-stage clustering approach for Automated Operational Modal Analysis (AOMA) is introduced. In contrast to existing approaches, the procedure works without any user-provided thresholds, is applicable within large system order ranges, can be used with very small sensor numbers and does not place any limitations on the damping ratio or the complexity of the system under investigation. The approach works with any parametric system identification algorithm that uses the system order n as sole parameter. Here a data-driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) method is used. Measurements from a wind tunnel investigation with a composite cantilever equipped with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGSs) and piezoelectric sensors are used to assess the performance of the algorithm with a highly damped structure and low signal to noise ratio conditions. The proposed method was able to identify all physical system modes in the investigated frequency range from over 1000 individual datasets using FBGSs under challenging signal to noise ratio conditions and under better signal conditions but from only two sensors.

  8. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  9. Heat efficiency of multi-stage zeolite systems for low temperature drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Bartels, P.V.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the evaluation of multi-stage adsorption dryers with air dehumidification by zeolite and alumina pillared clay. In a multi-stage dryer product is dried in a number of succeeding stages and for each stage the air is dehumidified by the adsorbent. The exhaust air from each stage is

  10. Financial reporting fraud: are standards' setters and external auditors doing enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Rasha; Higson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Following the fraud scandals in large companies like Enron, WorldCom, and Xerox, investors’ concern about fraud in general and fraudulent financial reporting in particular increased and is on the rise. In response to these concerns, auditing standards setters have issued fraud standards that have expanded what is required of the external auditors in relation to fraud detection. However, regardless of these efforts, academic research studies indicate that more efforts are still needed from aud...

  11. Bodypart Recognition Using Multi-stage Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhennan; Zhan, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhigang; Liao, Shu; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2015-01-01

    Automatic medical image analysis systems often start from identifying the human body part contained in the image; Specifically, given a transversal slice, it is important to know which body part it comes from, namely "slice-based bodypart recognition". This problem has its unique characteristic--the body part of a slice is usually identified by local discriminative regions instead of global image context, e.g., a cardiac slice is differentiated from an aorta arch slice by the mediastinum region. To leverage this characteristic, we design a multi-stage deep learning framework that aims at: (1) discover the local regions that are discriminative to the bodypart recognition, and (2) learn a bodypart identifier based on these local regions. These two tasks are achieved by the two stages of our learning scheme, respectively. In the pre-train stage, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is learned in a multi-instance learning fashion to extract the most discriminative local patches from the training slices. In the boosting stage, the learned CNN is further boosted by these local patches for bodypart recognition. By exploiting the discriminative local appearances, the learned CNN becomes more accurate than global image context-based approaches. As a key hallmark, our method does not require manual annotations of the discriminative local patches. Instead, it automatically discovers them through multi-instance deep learning. We validate our method on a synthetic dataset and a large scale CT dataset (7000+ slices from wholebody CT scans). Our method achieves better performances than state-of-the-art approaches, including the standard CNN.

  12. Multi-Stage Recognition of Speech Emotion Using Sequential Forward Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liogienė Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensive research of speech emotion recognition introduced a huge collection of speech emotion features. Large feature sets complicate the speech emotion recognition task. Among various feature selection and transformation techniques for one-stage classification, multiple classifier systems were proposed. The main idea of multiple classifiers is to arrange the emotion classification process in stages. Besides parallel and serial cases, the hierarchical arrangement of multi-stage classification is most widely used for speech emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a sequential-forward-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification scheme. The Sequential Forward Selection (SFS and Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS techniques were employed for every stage of the multi-stage classification scheme. Experimental testing of the proposed scheme was performed using the German and Lithuanian emotional speech datasets. Sequential-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification outperformed the single-stage scheme by 12–42 % for different emotion sets. The multi-stage scheme has shown higher robustness to the growth of emotion set. The decrease in recognition rate with the increase in emotion set for multi-stage scheme was lower by 10–20 % in comparison with the single-stage case. Differences in SFS and SFFS employment for feature selection were negligible.

  13. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  14. Strategies and limits in multi-stage single-point incremental forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-stage single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is a state-of-the-art manufacturing process that allows small-quantity production of complex sheet metal parts with vertical walls. This paper is focused on the application of multi-stage SPIF with the objective of producing cylindrical cups...... with vertical walls. The strategy consists of forming a conical cup with a taper angle in the first stage, followed by three subsequent stages that progressively move the conical shape towards the desired cylindrical geometry. The investigation includes material characterization, determination of forming......-limit curves and fracture forming-limit curves (FFLCs), numerical simulation, and experimentation, namely the evaluation of strain paths and fracture strains in actual multi-stage parts. Assessment of numerical simulation with experimentation shows good agreement between computed and measured strain and strain...

  15. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  16. Axial liquid mixing in a gas-liquid Multi-Stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    Data on interstage liquid mixing are reported for a gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC). A dynamic method using heat as a tracer was applied for water, n-octane and monoethylene glycol as liquids both with and without the presence of a dispersed gas phase (air). In all cases, the axial

  17. The Effects of Routing and Scoring within a Computer Adaptive Multi-Stage Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examined the overall effects of routing and scoring within a computer adaptive multi-stage framework (ca-MST). Testing in a ca-MST environment has become extremely popular in the testing industry. Testing companies enjoy its efficiency benefits as compared to traditionally linear testing and its quality-control features over…

  18. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...

  19. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  20. Multi-Stage Optimization-Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2017-01-01

    cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...

  1. Influence of slot width on the performance of multi-stage overtopping wave energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Jungrungruengtaworn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the influence of slot width of multi-stage stationary floating overtopping wave energy devices on overtopping flow rate and performance. The hydraulic efficiency based on captured crest energy of different device layouts is compared with that of single-stage device to determine the effect of the geometrical design. The results show optimal trends giving a huge increase in overtopping energy. Plots of efficiency versus the relative slot width show that, for multi-stage devices, the greatest hydraulic efficiency is achieved at an intermediate value of the variable within the parametric range considered, relative slot width of 0.15 and 0.2 depending on design layouts. Moreover, an application of adaptive slot width of multi-stage device is investigated. The numerical results show that the overall hydraulic efficiency of non-adaptive and adaptive slot devices are approximately on par. The effect of adaptive slot width on performance can be negligible. Keywords: Wave energy converter, Overtopping, Multi-stage, Slot width

  2. Strain Paths and Fractures in Rotational Symmetric Multi Stage Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    A multi stage strategy, which allows forming of SPIF parts with vertical walls, is investigated with emphasis on strain paths and fracture strains. Whereas downwards movement of the tool pin results in deformation close to plane strain upwards moving tool results in biaxial strains. A good correl...

  3. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, L.D.; Marin, L.M.; Visscher, J.T.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF) in a multi-stage filtration (MSF) plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It

  4. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  5. Automated simultaneous assembly of multi-stage testing for the uniform CPA examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination are offered as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination will be offered as an adaptive multi-stage test (MST)

  6. Hispanic College Students' Views of Effective Middle-School Teachers: A Multi-Stage Mixed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Don P.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    In this multi-stage mixed-analysis study, the views of 437 Hispanic college students enrolled at two Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the Southwest of the USA were obtained concerning characteristics of effective middle-school teachers. Through the method of constant comparison (qualitative phase), 38 themes were determined to be present in…

  7. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  8. Does the Standard-Setter's Opinion Matter? An Analysis of the Impact of the IASB Letter's Disclosure on the Stock Returns of European Banks with Greek Bond Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristina Zardo Calvi; Fernando Caio Galdi

    2014-01-01

      This study investigates whether there is evidence that the letter issued and disclosed to the market by the international accounting standard-setter the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB...

  9. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  10. Fibre Bragg Grating as a Multi-Stage Structure Health Monitoring Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    the different life stages and support a better design of the wind turbine blades. The characteristics and functionality of fibre Bragg grating sensors are briefly introduced. Their application as multi-stage structure health monitoring sensors for polymer laminate composite is then described......There is a clear need to implement models and measurement systems through the entire life of the wind turbine blade. In this chapter will be presented some work conducted to implement optical fibres as a multi-stage sensor, capable to measure different structural properties, and link them with all....... At the manufacturing stage, where the sensors can measure several parameters of infusion and curing, sensor feedback can help control the process, avoid residual strain, and contribute to the product certification; and then in operation where cracks can be detected and monitored. Experimental mechanical testing...

  11. Perspectives in musculoskeletal injury management by traditional bone setters in Ashanti, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edusei, Anthony K; Owusu-Ansah, Frances E; Dogbe, Joslin A; Morgan, Julia; Sarpong, Kofi

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of the services of traditional bone setters (TBS) in Ghana as an alternative health care requires exploration and documentation of the perspectives of providers and users. To explore and document the perspectives of providers and users of the services of TBS in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in the Ashanti region, Ghana. From the social constructivist and qualitative approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore the perspectives of eight TBS and 16 users of their services, selected purposively through snowballing. Thematic content analysis (TCA) was employed. High recovery rate, warm reception, prompt attention, and the relatively lower charges, are reported to motivate the patronage of the services of TBS for the management of fractures in the legs, arms, ribs, joint bones dislocations, waist and spinal cord problems. The TBS combined traditional and orthodox procedures, using plant and animal-based materials, beliefs, spirituality (God-given) and physical therapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries. No adverse experience was reported by either the providers or users of the traditional management methods. With plant and animal-based materials, TBS are observed to combine traditional and orthodox procedures to confidently manage musculoskeletal injuries to the satisfaction of their highly motivated patrons. Although over 60% of the TBS attribute the healing power behind their practice to God, the rest do not discount the role of spiritual therapy. Further studies expanded to include the perspectives of non-users of the services of the TBS will authenticate the findings of this study.

  12. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Fogarassy, Zs. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mihailescu, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Szekeres, A., E-mail: szekeres@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Bakalova, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures. • 800 °C seed film boosts the next growth of crystalline structures at lower temperature. • Two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibit randomly oriented wurtzite structures. • Band gap energy values increase with deposition temperature. • Correlation was observed between single- and multi-stage AlN films. - Abstract: We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN “seed” layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4–2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0–5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  13. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems

    OpenAIRE

    H?bl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the ?processing time weighted production lead time? for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation an...

  14. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  15. Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Mankowski, Michal

    2017-07-22

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree correspond to pairs (donor, recipient) and two nodes (pairs) are connected by an edge if these pairs can exchange kidneys. Weight functions can characterize the number of exchanges, the importance of exchanges, or their compatibility.

  16. Leucocyte and erythrocyte counts during a multi-stage cycling race ('the Milk Race').

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, P; McCarthy, D A; Passfield, L; Shaker, H A; Wade, A J

    1995-01-01

    Venous blood samples were taken from eight competitors in mid-evening after a racing day, and in the early morning before the next day's race, three times during the course of the Milk Race, 1992. These were used to gather information about the changes in circulating leucocyte levels in response to the exceptionally high sustained daily workload required during a major multi-stage race. The primary objective was to provide knowledge of 'normal' values against which future clinical judgements ...

  17. Aerodynamic Analysis and Three-Dimensional Redesign of a Multi-Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the introduction of three-dimension (3-D blade designs into a 5-stage axial compressor with multi-stage computational fluid dynamic (CFD methods. Prior to a redesign, a validation study is conducted for the overall performance and flow details based on full-scale test data, proving that the multi-stage CFD applied is a relatively reliable tool for the analysis of the follow-up redesign. Furthermore, at the near stall point, the aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that significant separation exists in the last stator, leading to the aerodynamic redesign, which is the focus of the last stator. Multi-stage CFD methods are applied throughout the three-dimensional redesign process for the last stator to explore their aerodynamic improvement potential. An unconventional asymmetric bow configuration incorporated with leading edge re-camber and re-solidity is employed to reduce the high loss region dominated by the mainstream. The final redesigned version produces a 13% increase in the stall margin while maintaining the efficiency at the design point.

  18. Application of multi-stage Monte Carlo method for solving machining optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the overall machining performance implies optimization of machining processes, i.e. determination of optimal machining parameters combination. Optimization of machining processes is an active field of research where different optimization methods are being used to determine an optimal combination of different machining parameters. In this paper, multi-stage Monte Carlo (MC method was employed to determine optimal combinations of machining parameters for six machining processes, i.e. drilling, turning, turn-milling, abrasive waterjet machining, electrochemical discharge machining and electrochemical micromachining. Optimization solutions obtained by using multi-stage MC method were compared with the optimization solutions of past researchers obtained by using meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g. genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm and teaching learning based optimization algorithm. The obtained results prove the applicability and suitability of the multi-stage MC method for solving machining optimization problems with up to four independent variables. Specific features, merits and drawbacks of the MC method were also discussed.

  19. Determining optimal sample sizes for multi-stage randomized clinical trials using value of information methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew; Kowgier, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Traditional sample size calculations for randomized clinical trials depend on somewhat arbitrarily chosen factors, such as Type I and II errors. An effectiveness trial (otherwise known as a pragmatic trial or management trial) is essentially an effort to inform decision-making, i.e., should treatment be adopted over standard? Taking a societal perspective and using Bayesian decision theory, Willan and Pinto (Stat. Med. 2005; 24:1791-1806 and Stat. Med. 2006; 25:720) show how to determine the sample size that maximizes the expected net gain, i.e., the difference between the cost of doing the trial and the value of the information gained from the results. These methods are extended to include multi-stage adaptive designs, with a solution given for a two-stage design. The methods are applied to two examples. As demonstrated by the two examples, substantial increases in the expected net gain (ENG) can be realized by using multi-stage adaptive designs based on expected value of information methods. In addition, the expected sample size and total cost may be reduced. Exact solutions have been provided for the two-stage design. Solutions for higher-order designs may prove to be prohibitively complex and approximate solutions may be required. The use of multi-stage adaptive designs for randomized clinical trials based on expected value of sample information methods leads to substantial gains in the ENG and reductions in the expected sample size and total cost.

  20. Perspectives in musculoskeletal injury management by traditional bone setters in Ashanti, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Edusei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The popularity of the services of traditional bone setters (TBS in Ghana as an alternative health care requires exploration and documentation of the perspectives of providers and users. Objective: To explore and document the perspectives of providers and users of the services of TBS in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Methods: From the social constructivist and qualitative approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore the perspectives of eight TBS and 16 users of their services, selected purposively through snowballing. Thematic content analysis (TCA was employed. Results: High recovery rate, warm reception, prompt attention, and the relatively lower charges, are reported to motivate the patronage of the services of TBS for the management of fractures in the legs, arms, ribs, joint bones dislocations, waist and spinal cord problems. The TBS combined traditional and orthodox procedures, using plant and animal-based materials, beliefs, spirituality (God-given and physical therapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries. No adverse experience was reported by either the providers or users of the traditional management methods.Conclusion: With plant and animal-based materials, TBS are observed to combine traditional and orthodox procedures to confidently manage musculoskeletal injuries to the satisfaction of their highly motivated patrons. Although over 60% of the TBS attribute the healing power behind their practice to God, the rest do not discount the role of spiritual therapy. Further studies expanded to include the perspectives of non-users of the services of the TBS will authenticate the findings of this study.

  1. A motion study of a manipulator for transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hansen, Casper

    2013-01-01

    of milliseconds. A high speed camera was used in the experiments with high resolution to show the details of the motion while enabling to detect any unwanted movement within milliseconds. Importantly, increasing the frequency of image capturing within the movement is another beneficial feature in the high speed...... together. A motion study of the system gives an overview of different steps and movements inside the multi stage former. Significantly, increasing the production rate increases the acceleration and also causes the time frame tight. The time limitations put overlaps on the moving parts in terms...

  2. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...... comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry...

  3. Promotions and incentives: the case of multi-stage elimination tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Wibral, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Promotion tournaments play an important role for the provision of incentives in firms. In this paper, we extend research on single-stage rank-order tournaments and analyze behavior in multi-stage elimination tournaments. The main treatment of our laboratory experiment is a two-stage tournament in which equilibrium efforts are the same in both stages. We compare this treatment to a strategically equivalent one-stage tournament and to another two-stage tournament with a more convex wage structu...

  4. Numerical Simulation of One-Phase Flow to Multi-Stage Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Khamidullin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of numerical simulation of one-phase flow near multi-stage fractured horizontal well in oil reservoir. Differential models for flows within reservoir and within fractures are formulated separately on the basis of Darcy's law. Numerical approximations of these models are performed using the finite volume method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then assembled into the single system to avoid an iterative coupling of numerical solutions for problems in the reservoir and fractures. Different solution methods for coupled ill-conditioned systems of linear equations are examined.

  5. Micro Agenda Setters: The Effect of Social Media on Young Adults’ Exposure to and Attitude Toward News

    OpenAIRE

    Donghee Yvette Wohn; Brian J Bowe

    2016-01-01

    Social media services like Facebook and Twitter are playing an increasingly large role as sources of news. This article investigates the ways the composition of social media networks affects people’s exposure to and attitude toward news. Focus groups (N = 31) and in-depth interviews (N = 15) with young adults of varying ethnicity and country of origin showed that people’s networks on social media function as micro agenda setters. The characteristics of people in one’s network can facilitate n...

  6. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, L.; Stan, G. E.; Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Mihailescu, N.; Szekeres, A.; Bakalova, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2016-06-01

    We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN "seed" layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4-2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0-5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  7. Development of a Multi-Stage Electroosmotic Flow Pump Using Liquid Metal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Injection of liquid metal into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS channel can provide a simple, cheap, and fast method to fabricate a noncontact electrode for micro electroosmotic flow (EOF pumps. In this study, a multi-stage EOF pump using liquid metal noncontact electrodes was proposed and demonstrated for high-flow-velocity applications. To test the pumping performance of this EOF pump and measure the flow velocity, fluorescent particles were added into deionized (DI water to trace the flow. According to the experimental results, the pump with a five-stage design can drive a water flow of 5.57 μm/s at 10 V, while the PDMS gap between the electrode and the pumping channel is 20 μm. To provide the guidance for the pump design, parametric studies were performed and fully discussed, such as the PDMS gap, pumping channel dimension, and stage number. This multi-stage EOF pump shows potential for many high-flow-velocity microfluidic applications.

  8. Modelling and Control of the Multi-Stage Cable Pulley-Driven Flexible-Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, the major loss throughout the system elements, and the typical inertial dynamics of the robot. Next, a task space impedance controller based on limited information about the angle and the current of the motors is designed. The motor current is used to infer the transmitted torque, by which the motor inertia may be modulated. The motor angle is employed to estimate the stationary distal robot link angle and the robot joint velocity. They are used in the controller to generate the desired damping force and to shape the potential energy of the flexible joint robot system to the desired configuration. Simulation and experimental results of the controlled system signify the competency of the proposed control law.

  9. Benchmarking and performance enhancement framework for multi-staging object-oriented languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Yousef

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on verifying the readiness, feasibility, generality and usefulness of multi-staging programming in software applications. We present a benchmark designed to evaluate the performance gain of different multi-staging programming (MSP languages implementations of object oriented languages. The benchmarks in this suite cover different tests that range from classic simple examples (like matrix algebra to advanced examples (like encryption and image processing. The benchmark is applied to compare the performance gain of two different MSP implementations (Mint and Metaphor that are built on object oriented languages (Java and C# respectively. The results concerning the application of this benchmark on these languages are presented and analysed. The measurement technique used in benchmarking leads to the development of a language independent performance enhancement framework that allows the programmer to select which code segments need staging. The framework also enables the programmer to verify the effectiveness of staging on the application performance. The framework is applied to a real case study. The case study results showed the effectiveness of the framework to achieve significant performance enhancement.

  10. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  11. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  13. Flow analysis in a return channel of a multi-stage centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Hur, Nahm Keon; Moshfeghi, Mohammad [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, In Sik [Dooch Pump, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Flow recirculation is an unpleasant and even hazardous phenomenon that can cause mechanical damage in turbomachinery and has to be prevented during their operations. We numerically studied the effects of return channel blade curvature on reducing the recirculation of flow inside the return channel vanes of a multi-stage centrifugal pump. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed for a wide range of volumetric flow rates. The standard k-ε turbulence model was adopted as the turbulence model, and the impeller rotation simulated employing the Multiple reference frames (MRF) method. First, a baseline model together with five different modified geometries for return channel was studied and compared using a two-stage pump framework. The results reveal that decreasing the curvature of the return channel blade makes smooth streamlines and eliminates the flow recirculation inside the return channels. As the second part, two return channels with the highest pump performance were selected to be used in the simulation of a multistage pump. The simulations of the multi-stage pump show that the flow inside the baseline return channel includes considerable areas of flow recirculation, while the modified return channels again have attached flow stream. It is concluded that the return channels with the smooth curvatures and outlet blade angles above 90° remove the flow recirculation inside the return channels, resulting in higher pump efficiencies.

  14. Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. J.; Li, G. D.; Wang, Y.; Cui, Y. R.; Yin, G.; Peng, S.

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG κ-ε turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed.

  15. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  16. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  17. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  18. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  19. Generation of High Pressure Oxygen via Electrochemical Pumping in a Multi-Stage Electrolysis Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, John A (Inventor); Green, Robert D (Inventor); Farmer, Serene (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An oxygen pump can produce high-purity high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen ions (O(2-)) are electrochemically pumped through a multi-stage electrolysis stack of cells. Each cell includes an oxygen-ion conducting solid-state electrolyte between cathode and anode sides. Oxygen dissociates into the ions at the cathode side. The ions migrate across the electrolyte and recombine at the anode side. An insulator is between adjacent cells to electrically isolate each individual cell. Each cell receives a similar volt potential. Recombined oxygen from a previous stage can diffuse through the insulator to reach the cathode side of the next stage. Each successive stage similarly incrementally pressurizes the oxygen to produce a final elevated pressure.

  20. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2015-08-19

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a result, we analyze three different parameterizations for elastic VTI media in terms of the influence of the S-waves on the gradient direction for c13, the spatial coverage of gradient direction and the degree of trade-offs between the parameters. Based on the dependency results, we design a multi-stage elastic VTI FWI strategy to enhance both the spatial coverage of the FWI and the robustness to the trade-offs among the parameters as well as FWI for the c13 structure.

  1. Adaptive contrast weighted learning for multi-stage multi-treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yebin; Wang, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) are sequential decision rules that focus simultaneously on treatment individualization and adaptation over time. To directly identify the optimal DTR in a multi-stage multi-treatment setting, we propose a dynamic statistical learning method, adaptive contrast weighted learning. We develop semiparametric regression-based contrasts with the adaptation of treatment effect ordering for each patient at each stage, and the adaptive contrasts simplify the problem of optimization with multiple treatment comparisons to a weighted classification problem that can be solved by existing machine learning techniques. The algorithm is implemented recursively using backward induction. By combining doubly robust semiparametric regression estimators with machine learning algorithms, the proposed method is robust and efficient for the identification of the optimal DTR, as shown in the simulation studies. We illustrate our method using observational data on esophageal cancer. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  2. A Bayesian multi-stage cost-effectiveness design for animal studies in stroke research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyan; Ning, Jing; Huang, Xuelin

    2016-07-08

    Much progress has been made in the area of adaptive designs for clinical trials. However, little has been done regarding adaptive designs to identify optimal treatment strategies in animal studies. Motivated by an animal study of a novel strategy for treating strokes, we propose a Bayesian multi-stage cost-effectiveness design to simultaneously identify the optimal dose and determine the therapeutic treatment window for administrating the experimental agent. We consider a non-monotonic pattern for the dose-schedule-efficacy relationship and develop an adaptive shrinkage algorithm to assign more cohorts to admissible strategies. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed design by comparing it with two standard designs. These simulation studies show that the proposed design yields a significantly higher probability of selecting the optimal strategy, while it is generally more efficient and practical in terms of resource usage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Generation of High Pressure Oxygen via Electrochemical Pumping in a Multi-stage Electrolysis Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, John A (Inventor); Green, Robert D (Inventor); Farmer, Serene (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An oxygen pump can produce high-purity high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen ions (O.sup.2-) are electrochemically pumped through a multi-stage electrolysis stack of cells. Each cell includes an oxygen-ion conducting solid-state electrolyte between cathode and anode sides. Oxygen dissociates into the ions at the cathode side. The ions migrate across the electrolyte and recombine at the anode side. An insulator is between adjacent cells to electrically isolate each individual cell. Each cell receives a similar volt potential. Recombined oxygen from a previous stage can diffuse through the insulator to reach the cathode side of the next stage. Each successive stage similarly incrementally pressurizes the oxygen to produce a final elevated pressure.

  4. Nonlinear resonances in a multi-stage free-electron laser amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S. [Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Takayama, K. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A two-beam accelerator (TBA) is a possible candidate of future linear colliders, in which the demanded rf power is provided by a multi-stage free-electron laser (MFEL). After if amplification in each stage, a driving beam is re-accelerated by an induction unit and propagates into the next stage. Recently it has been recognized that the multi-stage character of the MFEL causes resonances between its periodicity and the synchrotron motion in an rf bucket. Since the synchrotron oscillation is strongly modulated by the resonance and at the worst a large fraction of particles is trapped in the resonance islands, the nonlinear resonances in the FEL longitudinal beam dynamics can lead to notable degradation of the MFEL performance, such as output fluctuation and phase modulation which have been big concerns in the accelerator society. The overall efficiency of the MFEL and the quality of the amplified microwave power are key issues for realizing the TBA/FEL Particularly the rf phase and amplitude errors must be maintained within tolerance. One of significant obstacles is an amplification of undesired modes. If a small-size waveguide is employed, the FEL resonance energies for undesired higher order modes shift very far from that for a fundamental mode; so it is possible to prevent higher order modes from evolving. Such a small-size waveguide, however, gives a high power density in the FEL. Simulation results have demonstrated that the nonlinear resonances occur in die FEL longitudinal motion when the power density exceeds some threshold. An analytical method for studying the nonlinear resonance in the TBA/FEL is developed based on the macroparticle model which can describe analytically the drastic behaviors in the evolutions of the phase and amplitude. In the theory the basic 1D-FEL equations are reduced to a nonlinear pendulum equation with respect to the ponderomotive phase.

  5. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of uterine fibroids in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Jeff, Janina M; Wise, Lauren A; Gallagher, C Scott; Wellons, Melissa; Hartmann, Katherine E; Jones, Sarah F; Torstenson, Eric S; Dickinson, Scott; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Rohland, Nadin; Allen, Alexander; Reich, David; Tandon, Arti; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Mancuso, Nicholas; Im, Hae Kyung; Hinds, David A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Morton, Cynthia C; Kenny, Eimear E; Edwards, Todd L; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2017-10-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors of the uterus affecting up to 77% of women by menopause. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and account for $34 billion annually in the United States. Race/ethnicity and age are the strongest known risk factors. African American (AA) women have higher prevalence, earlier onset, and larger and more numerous fibroids than European American women. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fibroid risk among AA women followed by in silico genetically predicted gene expression profiling of top hits. In Stage 1, cases and controls were confirmed by pelvic imaging, genotyped and imputed to 1000 Genomes. Stage 2 used self-reported fibroid and GWAS data from 23andMe, Inc. and the Black Women's Health Study. Associations with fibroid risk were modeled using logistic regression adjusted for principal components, followed by meta-analysis of results. We observed a significant association among 3399 AA cases and 4764 AA controls at rs739187 (risk-allele frequency = 0.27) in CYTH4 (OR (95% confidence interval) = 1.23 (1.16-1.30), p value = 7.82 × 10-9). Evaluation of the genetic association results with MetaXcan identified lower predicted gene expression of CYTH4 in thyroid tissue as significantly associated with fibroid risk (p value = 5.86 × 10-8). In this first multi-stage GWAS for fibroids among AA women, we identified a novel risk locus for fibroids within CYTH4 that impacts gene expression in thyroid and has potential biological relevance for fibroids.

  6. Developments of low cost coated conductors by multi-stage CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashima, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: Kashima.Naoji@chuden.co.jp; Watanabe, T.; Mori, M.; Suda, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Yamada, Y. [ISTEC-SRL, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8567 (Japan); Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [ISTEC-SRL, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    A low cost and a high-speed production process must be required for a realization of a YBCO coated conductor, especially in the electric power field applications. A multi-stage CVD is one of the most promising processes for manufacturing a coated conductor with a low cost and a high-speed production. Recent progress in developments of long YBCO coated conductors by multi-stage MO-CVD process and their properties would be described. The 203-m-long IBAD substrate (PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO/HastelloyC) was used for preparing the long YBCO tape. The tape traveling speed at the each passing was 50 m/h and number of passing was 14 times. We applied a 12-stage CVD hot-wall chamber system for preparing YBCO layer. As a result, the end-to-end I{sub c} of 92.8 A (77 K self-field, 1 {mu}V/cm criteria) was obtained. The I{sub c}(A) x L(m) value corresponded to 18.8 kA. The n-value of the tape remained 15.5. Then we measured the I{sub c} distribution for longitudinal direction at 0.5 m intervals. The obtained data showed us that the average I{sub c} was roughly 140-150 A, however, we confirmed some low I{sub c} regions, which is about 65-100 A. The origin of the low I{sub c} regions was summarized. Concerning a high performance YBCO development, we achieved I{sub c} of 294 A/cm by introducing a multi-temperature and composition control process.

  7. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined wit...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  8. Micro Agenda Setters: The Effect of Social Media on Young Adults’ Exposure to and Attitude Toward News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Yvette Wohn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media services like Facebook and Twitter are playing an increasingly large role as sources of news. This article investigates the ways the composition of social media networks affects people’s exposure to and attitude toward news. Focus groups (N = 31 and in-depth interviews (N = 15 with young adults of varying ethnicity and country of origin showed that people’s networks on social media function as micro agenda setters. The characteristics of people in one’s network can facilitate negative effects such as echo chambers and spirals of silence but can also unfold new perspectives and create awareness of topics not covered by legacy media.

  9. Space needs of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Koene, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate about the space needs and requirements of broiler chickens, The aims of this study were to measure the amount of floor area a six-week-old broiler occupies for different behaviours and to use the obtained results in two models to estimate the number of birds that can be

  10. Multi-stage subunit vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an alternative to the BCG vaccine or a BCG-prime boost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Soleimanpour, Saman

    2018-01-01

    More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants. The results revealed that multi-stage subunit vaccines induced a wide variety of immune-responses to all forms of TB, including CD8 + T-cell-mediated cytolytic and IFN-γ responses comparable to those induced by the BCG. They could potentially be used as a booster vaccine to improve the efficacy of the BCG. Expert commentary: Multi-stage TB-vaccines could boost BCG-primed immunity, decrease bacterial loads and provide efficient protection against progressive TB-infection, especially in the latent phase. These types of vaccines administered before and after TB-infection can act as pre-exposure, post-exposure and even therapeutic vaccines. In the near future, these vaccines could provide a new generation of prime-vaccines or BCG prime-boosters.

  11. Suicide Prevention among High School Students: Evaluation of a Nonrandomized Trial of a Multi-Stage Suicide Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcasso, Gina; Hilt, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. Suicide screening programs aim to identify mental health issues and prevent death by suicide. Objective: The present study evaluated outcomes of a multi-stage screening program implemented over 3 school years in a moderately-sized Midwestern high school. Methods: One hundred ninety-three…

  12. Multi-stage responsive 4D printed smart structure through varying geometric thickness of shape memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; Zhao, Yue; An, Jia; Chua, Chee Kai; Liu, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have gained a presence in additive manufacturing due to their role in 4D printing. They can be printed either in multi-materials for multi-stage shape recovery or in a single material for single-stage shape recovery. When printed in multi-materials, material or material-based design is used as a controlling factor for multi-stage shape recovery. However, when printed in a single material, it is difficult to design multi-stage shape recovery due to the lack of a controlling factor. In this research, we explore the use of geometric thickness as a controlling factor to design smart structures possessing multi-stage shape recovery using a single SMP. L-shaped hinges with a thickness ranging from 0.3–2 mm were designed and printed in four different SMPs. The effect of thickness on SMP’s response time was examined via both experiment and finite element analysis using Ansys transient thermal simulation. A method was developed to accurately measure the response time in millisecond resolution. Temperature distribution and heat transfer in specimens during thermal activation were also simulated and discussed. Finally, a spiral square and an artificial flower consisting of a single SMP were designed and printed with appropriate thickness variation for the demonstration of a controlled multi-stage shape recovery. Experimental results indicated that smart structures printed using single material with controlled thickness parameters are able to achieve controlled shape recovery characteristics similar to those printed with multiple materials and uniform geometric thickness. Hence, the geometric parameter can be used to increase the degree of freedom in designing future smart structures possessing complex shape recovery characteristics.

  13. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  14. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  15. Optimum and Controllable Multi-stage Proton Acceleration Manipulated by Double Beam Image Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of ultra-intense laser technology, laser intensity can increase up to the order of 1022 W/cm2 in the laboratory. Ion beams in the MeV range and even the GeV range, driven by terawatt or petawatt lasers, exhibit ultra-short pulse duration, excellent emission, and ultra-high peak current. Thus, they can potentially be applied in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, proton imaging, and pre-accelerators for conventional acceleration devices. However, the generation of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams for realistic applications is still an experimental challenge. Here, the optimum and controllable two-stage proton acceleration is realized for the first time by a novel double beam image (DBI) technique in experiment. Two laser pulses are successfully tuned on two separated foils with both spatial collineation and time synchronizing, resulting in spectrum tailoring and an energy increase at the same time. Such a novel DBI technique can help us to realize the optimum two-stage acceleration in a feasible way, which opens the door for the exact manipulation of multi-stage acceleration to further improve the energy and spectra of particle beams.

  16. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results...... of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations...... in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated...

  17. Thermodynamic performance of multi-stage gradational lead screw vacuum pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Shiwei; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of dry mechanical vacuum pump, the twin-screw vacuum pump has an outstanding pumping performance during operation, widely used in the semiconductor industry. Compared with the constant lead screw (CLS) vacuum pump, the gradational lead screw (GLS) vacuum pump is more popularly applied in recent years. Nevertheless, not many comparative studies on the thermodynamic performance of GLS vacuum pump can be found in the literature. Our study focuses on one type of GLS vacuum pump, the multi-stage gradational lead screw (MGLS) vacuum pump, gives a detailed description of its construction and illustrates it with the drawing. Based on the structural analysis, the thermodynamic procedure is divided into four distinctive processes, including sucking process, transferring (compressing) process, backlashing process and exhausting process. The internal mechanism of each process is qualitatively illustrated and the mathematical expressions of seven thermodynamic parameters are given under the ideal situation. The performance curves of MGLS vacuum pump are plotted by MATLAB software and compared with those of the CLS vacuum pump in the same case. The results can well explain why the MGLS vacuum pump has more favorable pumping performance than the CLS vacuum pump in saving energy, reducing noise and heat dissipation.

  18. Rigging Test Bed Enables Development of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Brandeau, Erich J.; Gallon, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project developed a Parachute Deployment System (PDS) for use on its Supersonic Flight Dynamics Tests (SFDT). The PDS involves a multi-stage pilot driven extraction of a supersonic parachute. The uncertainties and complexities of developing the design for the lines and rigging of the PDS were addressed through testing in the Rigging Test Bed (RTB). The RTB provided a facility capable of simulating a variety of extraction scenarios with full scale hardware on the ground. Through more than 100 tests conducted in the facility, a wealth of data and experience were gained that fueled the PDS development. The utility of this testing and the lessons learned are presented in this paper. The goal is to inform the development of similar systems in the future and highlight the value and flexibility this type of testing offers rapid hardware development. The RTB provided a great compliment to the analytical models greatly compressing what would have otherwise been a very lengthy analytical effort or potentially much expanded flight test campaign.

  19. Prediction of maximal aerobic power from the 20-m multi-stage shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickland, Michael K; Petersen, Stewart R; Bouffard, Marcel

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the 20-m multi-stage shuttle run (SR) test to predict VO2max in young adults. VO2max was measured during a graded treadmill test in 60 men and 62 women (mean age 25.3 and 25.1 years, respectively). Each subject was familiarized with the SR procedure and the completed the SR test to predict VO2max on a separate day. The mean terminal SR stage was 9.5 for men and 7.8 for women. The regression equations of Léger et al. (1988) and Léger and Gadoury (1989) systematically underpredicted VO2max for both males and females (p < 0.05). New regression equations were developed from present data to predict VO2max for males: Y = 2.75X + 28.8 (r2 = 0.77, SEE = 4.07 ml.kg-1.min-1); and for females: Y = 2.85X + 25.1 (r2 = 0.66, SEE = 3.64 ml.kg-1.min-1), where X equals the last half-stage of the SR completed. We suggest that these gender-distinct equations provide more accurate predictions of VO2max from the SR.

  20. Semantic segmentation based on multi-stage region-level clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoying; Zhou, Hongyu

    2013-10-01

    In the field of remote-sensed image segmentation, it is very important to obtain semantic results. However, in high resolution remote sensed images, different complex patterns always have components with the same spectrum, which makes it rather difficult to extract such patterns only through traditional clustering methods. In this paper, a novel multi-stage region-level clustering method is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, the initial oversegmentation is obtained by using the Mean Shift algorithm, based on which a region adjacent graph (RAG) is built; Then, FCM is employed to get the spectral-based segmentation result; After that, the context clues for each region is calculated according to the label and size of neighboring regions, followed by the second FCM clustering on each set of regions with the same label to distinct regions with the same spectrum but belongs to different objects; Rearranging all of these clustering results to form the finial processing unit, this algorithm goes a step further to calculate more accurate context clues, and use the third FCM to obtain the final segmentation result. Experiments on the high resolution remote-sensed images have shown the superiority to the competitions.

  1. Energy management in multi stage evaporator through a steady and dynamic state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Om Prakash; Manik, Gaurav; Mohammed, Toufiq Haji [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2017-10-15

    Increasing energy demand, high cost of energy and global warming issues across the globe require energy intensive industries, such as paper mills to improve energy efficiency. Multi-stage evaporators used to concentrate the black liquor in such mills form its most energy consuming unit and require a strong understanding of steady and unsteady state behavior to ensure energy savings. The modeling of nonlinear heptads’ effect system yielded a set of complex nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that are analyzed using Interior-point method and state space representation. Dynamic response of product concentration and system vapor temperatures along with system stability and controllability have been explored by disturbing the flow rate, concentration and temperature of feed, and fresh steam flow rate. Simulations predict that steam flow rate, feed flow rate and its concentration invariably are major controlling factors (in decreasing order) of vapor temperature and product concentration. The interactive behavior between different effects translates into slower responses of the effects with increasing separation from disturbance source. This steady state and transient study opens many new explanations to this relatively less explored area and helps to propose and implement industrial PID controllers to reduce steam consumption and control product quality.

  2. Lymphoma diagnosis in histopathology using a multi-stage visual learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Noel; Moradi, Mehdi; Matasar, Matt; Sveda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Smith, John R.

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a multi-stage image enhancement, segmentation, and classification approach for lymphoma recognition in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides of excised human lymph node tissue. In the first stage, the original histology slide undergoes various image enhancement and segmentation operations, creating an additional 5 images for every slide. These new images emphasize unique aspects of the original slide, including dominant staining, staining segmentations, non-cellular groupings, and cellular groupings. For the resulting 6 total images, a collection of visual features are extracted from 3 different spatial configurations. Visual features include the first fully connected layer (4096 dimensions) of the Caffe convolutional neural network trained from ImageNet data. In total, over 200 resultant visual descriptors are extracted for each slide. Non-linear SVMs are trained over each of the over 200 descriptors, which are then input to a forward stepwise ensemble selection that optimizes a late fusion sum of logistically normalized model outputs using local hill climbing. The approach is evaluated on a public NIH dataset containing 374 images representing 3 lymphoma conditions: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Results demonstrate a 38.4% reduction in residual error over the current state-of-art on this dataset.

  3. Multi-stage identification scheme for detecting damage in structures under ambient excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chunxiao; Hao, Hong; Li, Zhong-Xian

    2013-04-01

    Structural damage identification methods are critical to the successful application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures. The dynamic response of civil engineering structures is usually characterized by high nonlinearity and non-stationarity. Accordingly, an improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method which is adaptive, output-only and applicable to system identification of in-service structures under ambient excitations is developed in this study. Based on this method, a multi-stage damage detection scheme including the detection of damage occurrence, damage existence, damage location and the estimation of damage severity is developed. In this scheme, the improved HHT method is used to analyse the structural acceleration response, the obtained instantaneous frequency detects the instant of damage occurrence, the instantaneous phase is sensitive to minor damage and provides reliable damage indication, and the damage indicator developed based on statistical analysis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum detects damage locations. Finally, the response sampled at the detected damage location is continuously analysed to estimate the damage severity. Numerical and experimental studies of frame structures under ambient excitations are performed. The results demonstrate that this scheme accomplishes the above damage detection functions within one flow. It is robust, time efficient, simply implemented and applicable to the real-time SHM of in-service structures.

  4. A Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network Problem by Using Hybrid Priority-Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu

    Today remanufacturing problem is one of the most important problems regarding to the environmental aspects of the recovery of used products and materials. Therefore, the reverse logistics is gaining become power and great potential for winning consumers in a more competitive context in the future. This paper considers the multi-stage reverse Logistics Network Problem (m-rLNP) while minimizing the total cost, which involves reverse logistics shipping cost and fixed cost of opening the disassembly centers and processing centers. In this study, we first formulate the m-rLNP model as a three-stage logistics network model. Following for solving this problem, we propose a Genetic Algorithm pri (GA) with priority-based encoding method consisting of two stages, and introduce a new crossover operator called Weight Mapping Crossover (WMX). Additionally also a heuristic approach is applied in the 3rd stage to ship of materials from processing center to manufacturer. Finally numerical experiments with various scales of the m-rLNP models demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  5. Optimal phasing of district heating network investments using multi-stage stochastic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Stephane Claude Lambert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most design optimisation studies for district heating systems have focused on the optimal sizing of network assets and on the location of production units. However, the strategic value of the flexibility in phasing of the inherently modular heat networks, which is an important aspect in many feasibility studies for district heating schemes in the UK, is almost always neglected in the scientific literature. This paper considers the sequential problem faced by a decision-maker in the phasing of long-term investments into district heating networks and their expansions. The problem is formulated as a multi-stage stochastic programme to determine the annual capital expenditure that maximises the expected net present value of the project. The optimisation approach is illustrated by applying it to the hypothetical case of the UK’s Marston Vale eco town. It was found that the approach is capable of simulating the optimal growth of a network, from both a single heat source or separate islands of growth, as well as the optimal marginal expansion of an existing district heating network. The proposed approach can be used by decision makers as a framework to determine both the optimal phasing and extension of district heating networks and can be adapted simply to various, more complex real-life situations by introducing additional constraints and parameters. The versatility of the base formulation also makes it a powerful approach regardless of the size of the network and also potentially applicable to cooling networks.

  6. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  7. Vibration-based angular speed estimation for multi-stage wind turbine gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Cédric; Leclère, Quentin; Antoni, Jérôme; Guillaume, Patrick; Helsen, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Most processing tools based on frequency analysis of vibration signals are only applicable for stationary speed regimes. Speed variation causes the spectral content to smear, which encumbers most conventional fault detection techniques. To solve the problem of non-stationary speed conditions, the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is estimated. Wind turbine gearboxes however are typically multi-stage gearboxes, consisting of multiple shafts, rotating at different speeds. Fitting a sensor (e.g. a tachometer) to every single stage is not always feasible. As such there is a need to estimate the IAS of every single shaft based on the vibration signals measured by the accelerometers. This paper investigates the performance of the multi-order probabilistic approach for IAS estimation on experimental case studies of wind turbines. This method takes into account the meshing orders of the gears present in the system and has the advantage that a priori it is not necessary to associate harmonics with a certain periodic mechanical event, which increases the robustness of the method. It is found that the MOPA has the potential to easily outperform standard band-pass filtering techniques for speed estimation. More knowledge of the gearbox kinematics is beneficial for the MOPA performance, but even with very little knowledge about the meshing orders, the MOPA still performs sufficiently well to compete with the standard speed estimation techniques. This observation is proven on two different data sets, both originating from vibration measurements on the gearbox housing of a wind turbine.

  8. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  9. A study on a multi-stage hybrid gasifier-engine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S.C.; San Shwe Hla; Hoang-Luang Pham [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on a multi-stage hybrid biomass-charcoal gasification to produce low tar content gas for engine application using coconut shell as a fuel. The performance of a gasifier-engine system consisting of the hybrid biomass-charcoal gasifier, a gas cleaning/cooling system and a diesel engine is also discussed. The lowest tar content found in hybrid coconut shell-charcoal gasification was 28 mgNm{sup -3}. Using a spray tower, producer gas could be cooled down to 40{sup o}C; almost tar-free gas was obtained after cooling the producer gas from the hybrid gasifier system. A three-cylinder Perkins diesel engine was tested at a constant speed of 1500 rpm on diesel alone and dual fuel modes of operation. A maximum of 81% of the total heat energy input was replaced by the producer gas at an electricity generation of 11.44 kWe. (author)

  10. Sample size calculations for evaluating treatment policies in multi-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2010-12-01

    Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs are used to evaluate treatment policies, also known as adaptive treatment strategies (ATS). The determination of SMAR sample sizes is challenging because of the sequential and adaptive nature of ATS, and the multi-stage randomized assignment used to evaluate them. We derive sample size formulae appropriate for the nested structure of successive SMAR randomizations. This nesting gives rise to ATS that have overlapping data, and hence between-strategy covariance. We focus on the case when covariance is substantial enough to reduce sample size through improved inferential efficiency. Our design calculations draw upon two distinct methodologies for SMAR trials, using the equality of the optimal semi-parametric and Bayesian predictive estimators of standard error. This 'hybrid' approach produces a generalization of the t-test power calculation that is carried out in terms of effect size and regression quantities familiar to the trialist. Simulation studies support the reasonableness of underlying assumptions as well as the adequacy of the approximation to between-strategy covariance when it is substantial. Investigation of the sensitivity of formulae to misspecification shows that the greatest influence is due to changes in effect size, which is an a priori clinical judgment on the part of the trialist. We have restricted simulation investigation to SMAR studies of two and three stages, although the methods are fully general in that they apply to 'K-stage' trials. Practical guidance is needed to allow the trialist to size a SMAR design using the derived methods. To this end, we define ATS to be 'distinct' when they differ by at least the (minimal) size of effect deemed to be clinically relevant. Simulation results suggest that the number of subjects needed to distinguish distinct strategies will be significantly reduced by adjustment for covariance only when small effects are of interest.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus removed from a subsurface flow multi-stage filtration system purifying agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-06-14

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying. The results showed that the system was made adaptive to variation of inflow quality and quantity, and had good removal for dissolved total nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total phosphorus, and the average removal rate was 27%, 36%, 32%, and 48%, respectively. Except nitrate ([Formula: see text]), other forms of nitrogen and phosphorus all decreased with the increase of stages. Nitrogen was removed mainly in particle form the first stage, and mostly removed in dissolved form the second and third stage. Phosphorus was removed mainly in particulate during the first two stages, but the removal of particulate phosphorus and DTP were almost the same in the last stage. An approximate logarithmic relationship between removal loading and influent loading to nitrogen and phosphorus was noted in the experimental system, and the correlation coefficient was 0.78-0.94. [Formula: see text]: ammonium; [Formula: see text]: nitrite; [Formula: see text]: nitrate; DTN: dissolved total nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; DTP: dissolved total phosphorus; TP: total phosphorus; PN: particulate nitrogen; PP: particulate phosphorus.

  12. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2017-03-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  13. Determination of Process Parameters in Multi-Stage Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing by FE Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Ravi; Manohar, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, analysis has been carried to simulate manufacturing of a near hemispherical bottom part with large depth by hydro-mechanical deep drawing with an aim to reduce the number of forming steps and to reduce the extent of thinning in the dome region. Inconel 718 has been considered as the material due to its importance in aerospace industry. It is a Ni-based super alloy and it is one of the most widely used of all super alloys primarily due to large-scale applications in aircraft engines. Using Finite Element Method (FEM), numerical simulations have been carried out for multi-stage hydro-mechanical deep drawing by using the same draw ratios and design parameters as in the case of conventional deep drawing in four stages. The results showed that the minimum thickness in the final part can be increased significantly when compared to conventional deep drawing. It has been found that the part could be deep drawn to the desired height (after trimming at the final stage) without any severe wrinkling. Blank holding force (BHF) and peak counter pressure have been found to have a strong influence on thinning in the component. Decreasing the coefficient of friction has marginally increased the minimum thickness in the final component. By increasing the draw ratio and optimizing BHF, counter pressure and die corner radius in the simulations, it has been found that it is possible to draw the final part in three stages. It has been found that thinning can be further reduced by decreasing the initial blank size without any reduction in the final height. This reduced the draw ratio at every stage and optimum combination of BHF and counter pressure have been found for the 3-stage process also.

  14. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  15. Due-date assignment for multi-server multi-stage assembly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we attempt to present a constant due-date assignment policy in a multi-server multi-stage assembly system. This system is modelled as a queuing network, where new product orders are entered into the system according to a Poisson process. It is assumed that only one type of product is produced by the production system and multi-servers can be settled in each service station. Each operation of every work is operated at a devoted service station with only one of the servers located at a node of the network based on first come, first served (FCFS) discipline, while the processing times are independent random variables with exponential distributions. It is also assumed that the transport times between each pair of service stations are independent random variables with generalised Erlang distributions. Each product's end result has a penalty cost that is some linear function of its due date and its actual lead time. The due date is calculated by adding a constant to the time that the order enters into the system. Indeed, this constant value is decided at the beginning of the time horizon and is the constant lead time that a product might expect between the time of placing the order and the time of delivery. For computing the due date, we first convert the queuing network into a stochastic network with exponentially distributed arc lengths. Then, by constructing an appropriate finite-state continuous-time Markov model, a system of differential equations is created to find the manufacturing lead-time distribution for any particular product, analytically. Finally, the constant due date for delivery time is obtained by using a linear function of its due date and minimising the expected aggregate cost per product.

  16. Canine hereditary ataxia in old english sheepdogs and gordon setters is associated with a defect in the autophagy gene encoding RAB24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryline Agler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia.

  17. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the yield of the flotation column (91.41% was much higher than that of the mechanical flotation cell (50%. In the presence of hydrophobic graphite, the seriously entrained gangue restricted further improvement in the quality and economic value of the graphite ore. Therefore, multi-stage flotation circuits were employed to diminish this entrainment. Multi-stage flotation circuits using the two flotation devices further decreased the ash content of the graphite ore to ~8%, while the yield when using the flotation column was much higher than that obtained from the mechanical flotation cell employed. On the other hand, the ash removal efficiency of the flotation column was 3.82-fold higher than that observed for the mechanical flotation cell. The Cleaner 3 flotation circuit using the flotation column decreased the ash content in graphite from 15.43% to 7.97% with a yield of 77.53%.

  18. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC). PMID:26218470

  19. Influence of thoracic conformation and genetics on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in Irish setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, D; Yi, Q; Glickman, N W; Glickman, L T

    1998-01-01

    Body measurements, history of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV), and other data were obtained for 155 Irish setters at the 1994 National Specialty Show. The dogs ranged in age from 6.5 months to 12.4 years (mean+/-standard deviation [SD], 3.6+/-2.6 years); 11 (7%) of the dogs had histories of GDV. Gastric dilatation-volvulus risk increased 33% for each year of age (p of 0.01). Dogs with the deepest thorax relative to width (ratio range, 1.61 to 1.85) had a significantly greater GDV risk than those with the shallowest thorax (ratio range, 1.20 to 1.50); the odds ratio was 8.45; the 95% confidence limits were 1.44 to 49.57; and the p value equaled 0.02. Having a relative (particularly a parent) with GDV also increased GDV risk. Five-generation pedigrees yielded a significantly higher mean coefficient of relationship for the 11 dogs with GDV than for the 11 dogs without GDV.

  20. Validation of multi-stage telephone-based identification of cognitive impairment and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Helena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many types of research on dementia and cognitive impairment require large sample sizes. Detailed in-person assessment using batteries of neuropyschologic testing is expensive. This study evaluates whether a brief telephone cognitive assessment strategy can reliably classify cognitive status when compared to an in-person "gold-standard" clinical assessment. Methods The gold standard assessment of cognitive status was conducted at the University of Southern California Alzheimer Disease Research Center (USC ADRC. It involved an examination of patients with a memory complaint by a neurologist or psychiatrist specializing in cognitive disorders and administration of a battery of neuropsychologic tests. The method being evaluated was a multi-staged assessment using the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-modified (TICSm with patients and the Telephone Dementia Questionnaire (TDQ with a proxy. Elderly male and female patients who had received the gold standard in-person assessment were asked to also undergo the telephone assessment. The unweighted kappa statistic was calculated to compare the gold standard and the multistage telephone assessment methods. Sensitivity for classification with dementia and specificity for classification as normal were also calculated. Results Of 50 patients who underwent the gold standard assessment and were referred for telephone assessment, 38 (76% completed the TICS. The mean age was 78.1 years and 26 (68% were female. When comparing the gold standard assessment and the telephone method for classifying subjects as having dementia or no dementia, the sensitivity of the telephone method was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.36, 1.00, the specificity was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.89,1.00. Kappa was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.000. Considering a gold-standard assessment of age-associated memory impairment as cognitive impairment, the sensitivity of the telephone approach is 0.38 (95

  1. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  2. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps

  3. Pendulous Crop in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD Ebling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPendulous crop is a physiological disorder, which etiology is still unknown and it is characterized by abnormal dilation of the crop of poultry. This article aims at reporting a case of high incidence of pendulous crop in male and female broilers Cobb 500, as well as to discuss its possible causes and consequences. In an experiment with broilers performed at the experimental facilities of Laboratório de Ensino Zootécnico of UFRGS, a high incidence (9.5% of pendulous crop was observed. Genetic predisposition is the most frequently documented and accepted cause of that condition. Despite presenting the same live weight as normal broilers, birds with pendulous crop had lower carcass weight due to dehydration and malnourishment, and should be culled after diagnosis. Therefore, further studies on the origin and control of this physiological disorder are warranted.

  4. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF THICK GALLIUM NITRIDE LAYERS BY METHOD OF MULTI-STAGE GROWTH ON SUBSTRATES WITH COLUMN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Mynbaeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with processes of formation and transformation of defects during multi-stage growth of thick gallium nitride layers with hydride vapor phase epitaxy on GaN/Al2O3 substrates with buried column pattern formed with the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Methods. The growth of initial GaN layers was performed with the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. On the surface of the initial layers columns with the height of 800 nm were generated by means of ion etching. These columns were overgrown with 3-4 µm-thick GaN layers. On thus formed substrate multi-stage growth of GaN layers was performed with the use of hydride vapor-phase epitaxy. The total thickness of GaN layers was 100-1500 µm. The grown layers were studied by optical and electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Main Results. Density of threading dislocations in the layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy was (3-6·107 cm-2, that was one order of magnitude lower than in the used substrate, and two to three orders lower than dislocation density in typical GaN layers grown on commercial sapphire substrates. Raman spectroscopy data were indicative of low level of mechanical stress in the layers and their high structural uniformity. It was established that under multi-stage growth conditions, non-catastrophic cracks (those that do not cause sample destruction are able to transform into macropores and appear to be an important structural element, serving to stress relaxation in the bulk of thick gallium nitride layers grown on foreign substrates. Practical Relevance. The results of the study can be used in the development of III-nitride heterostructures for optoelectronics and high-power and high-frequency microelectronics.

  6. Malabsorption syndrome in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Balk, F.R.M.; Post, J.; Hemert, van S.; Zekarias, B.; Stockhofe, N.

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial disease that causes intestinal disorders in broilers due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract with different infectious agents. The exact aetiology is unknown, although several viruses are isolated from MAS affected chickens. None of these

  7. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A multi-stage color model revisited: implications for a gene therapy cure for red-green colorblindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C; Kuchenbecker, James A; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a 'multi-stage color model' to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson's Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined in a later opponent organization, which has been the accepted dogma in color vision. DeValois' model attempts to satisfy the long-remaining question of how the visual system separates luminance information from color, but what are the cellular mechanisms that establish the complicated neural wiring and higher-order operations required by the Multi-stage Model? During the last decade and a half, results from molecular biology have shed new light on the evolution of primate color vision, thus constraining the possibilities for the visual circuits. The evolutionary constraints allow for an extension of DeValois' model that is more explicit about the biology of color vision circuitry, and it predicts that human red-green colorblindness can be cured using a retinal gene therapy approach to add the missing photopigment, without any additional changes to the post-synaptic circuitry.

  9. Removal of hazardous gaseous pollutants from industrial flue gases by a novel multi-stage fluidized bed desulfurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, C.R. [State Pollution Control Board, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India); Adapala, Sivaji [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Meikap, B.C., E-mail: bcmeikap@che.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2009-06-15

    Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds are generated as primary pollutants from the major industries such as sulfuric acid plants, cupper smelters, catalytic cracking units, etc. and cause acid rain. To remove the SO{sub 2} from waste flue gas a three-stage counter-current multi-stage fluidized bed adsorber was developed as desulfurization equipment and operated in continuous bubbling fluidization regime for the two-phase system. This paper represents the desulfurization of gas mixtures by chemical sorption of sulfur dioxide on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of the multi-stage fluidized bed reactor are of high mass transfer and high gas-solid residence time that can enhance the removal of acid gas at low temperature by dry method. Experiments were carried out in the bubbling fluidization regime supported by visual observation. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent (lime) flow rate, superficial gas velocity, and the weir height on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed are reported. The results have indicated that the removal efficiency of the sulfur dioxide was found to be 65% at high solid flow rate (2.0 kg/h) corresponding to lower gas velocity (0.265 m/s), wier height of 70 mm and SO{sub 2} concentration of 500 ppm at room temperature.

  10. Studies of the impact of prerotation problem of the secondary impeller on performance of multi-stage centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, L. L.; Wu, P.; Jiang, Q. L.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In engineering practice, part of the multi-stage centrifugal pumps is designed without space guide vanes due to the size restrictions and the volute is distorted much in shape. In these pumps, tangential velocity of the fluid at the outlet of the first-stage impeller is so great that it has caused a prerotation problem which will affect the inlet flow conditions of the secondary impeller leading to serious efficiency and head decline of the secondary impeller. The head problem of the second stage in multi-stage centrifugal pumps caused by prerotation at the entrance of the second stage was analyzed and the internal hydraulic performance was optimized by setting clapboards in the volute in this paper. CFD numerical simulation method combined with experiment was applied to predict the effect of internal clapboards on the performance of the centrifugal pump. The original prototype was transformed according to the simulation result and tested to verify the optimization work. The experiment result shows that hydraulic performance is remarkably improved compared with the original one and the prerotation problem is basically solved.

  11. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  12. Treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids by a novel multi-staged UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, S; Harada, H; Ohashi, A; Torimura, S

    2005-12-01

    Treatment of artificial wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids comprised of soybean processing waste and pig fodder was studied using a novel multi-staged upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The reactor consisted of three compartments, each containing a gas solid separator. The wastewater had chemical oxygen demand of approximately 21600 mg l(-1), suspended solids of 12800 mg l(-1), and an ammonia concentration of 945 mg l(-1). A continuous experiment without effluent circulation showed that the multi-staged reactor was not that effective for the treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids. However, operation of the reactor with circulation of effluent enabled the reactor to achieve organic removal of 85% and approximately 70% methane conversion at loading rates of between 4.0 to 5.4 kg-chemical oxygen demand per cubic meter per day, meaning that the reactor was more effective when effluent was circulated. Morphological investigation revealed that the crude fiber in the sludge was partially degraded and that it had many small depressions on its surface. Evolved biogas may have become caught in these depressions of the fibers and caused washout of the sludge.

  13. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M D; De Silva, T; Uneri, A; Jacobson, M W; Goerres, J; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J H

    2017-06-07

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm-i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  14. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs’ production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  15. A new method in predicting productivity of multi-stage fractured horizontal well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generally accomplished technique for horizontal wells in tight gas reservoirs is by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, not to mention, the flow characteristics of a horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures are very intricate. Conventional methods, well as an evaluation unit, are difficult to accurately predict production capacity of each fracture and productivity differences between wells with a different number of fractures. Thus, a single fracture sets the minimum evaluation unit, matrix, fractures, and lateral wellbore model that are then combined integrally to approximate horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. This paper presents a new semi-analytical methodology for predicting the production capacity of a horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. Firstly, a mathematical flow model used as a medium, which is disturbed by finite conductivity vertical fractures and rectangular shaped boundaries, is established and explained by the Fourier integral transform. Then the idea of a single stage fracture analysis is incorporated to establish linear flow model within a single fracture with a variable rate. The Fredholm integral numerical solution is applicable for the fracture conductivity function. Finally, the pipe flow model along the lateral wellbore is adapted to couple multi-stages fracture mathematical models, and the equation group of predicting productivity of a multi-stage fractured horizontal well. The whole flow process from the matrix to bottom-hole and production interference between adjacent fractures is also established. Meanwhile, the corresponding iterative algorithm of the equations is given. In this case analysis, the productions of each well and fracture are calculated under the different bottom-hole flowing pressure, and this method also contributes to obtaining the distribution of pressure drop and production for every

  16. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Jacobson, M. W.; Goerres, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm—i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  17. PATIENT-CENTRED SCREENING FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY, A MULTI-STAGE DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL DESIGNED FOR NONIMMUNOLOGISTS: 2011 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID and other colleagues have updated themulti-stage expert-opinion-based diagnostic protocol for non-immunologists incorporating newly defined primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. The protocol presented here aims to increase the awareness of PIDs among doctors working in different fields. Prompt identification of PID is important for prognosis, but this may not be an easy task. The protocol therefore starts from the clinical presentation of the patient. Because PIDs may present at all ages, this protocol is aimed at both adult and paediatric physicians. The multi-stage design allows cost-effective screening for PID of the large number of potential cases in the early phases, with more expensive tests reserved for definitive classification in collaboration with a specialist in the field of immunodeficiency at a later stage.

  18. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  19. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  20. Multi-stage optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2017-06-16

    We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  1. Dual-mode hydrodynamic railing and arraying of microparticles for multi-stage signal detection in continuous flow biochemical microprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochol, Ryan D; Corbett, Daniel; Hesse, Sarah; Krieger, William E R; Wolf, Ki Tae; Kim, Minkyu; Iwai, Kosuke; Li, Song; Lee, Luke P; Lin, Liwei

    2014-04-21

    Continuous flow particulate-based microfluidic processors are in critical demand for emerging applications in chemistry and biology, such as point-of-care molecular diagnostics. Challenges remain, however, for accomplishing biochemical assays in which microparticle immobilization is desired or required during intermediate stages of fluidic reaction processes. Here we present a dual-mode microfluidic reactor that functions autonomously under continuous flow conditions to: (i) execute multi-stage particulate-based fluidic mixing routines, and (ii) array select numbers of microparticles during each reaction stage (e.g., for optical detection). We employ this methodology to detect the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), via a six-stage aptamer-based sandwich assay.

  2. An Integrated, Multi-Stage, Multi-Scale Framework for Achieving Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    a major role because it provides the opportunity to perform the same tasks in a more sustainable way, new/novel unit operations can be generated (Lutze et al, 2013) and more sustainable processes can be designed (Babi et al., 2014). An integrated, multi-stage, multi-scale, computer-aided framework has...... is analysed using economic and sustainability analyses in order to identify process limitations (hot-spots) that are translated into intensification design targets. In stage 3, an integrated task-phenomena-based synthesis-intensification method is embedded and applied (Babi et al., 2015) that consists......The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, etc., in order to remain competitive through the design and operation of more sustainable chemical and biochemical processes. These required reductions can be addressed through process synthesis...

  3. Analysis of a Multi-component Multi-stage Malaria Vaccine Candidate--Tackling the Cocktail Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boes

    Full Text Available Combining key antigens from the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle in the context of a multi-stage-specific cocktail offers a promising approach towards the development of a malaria vaccine ideally capable of preventing initial infection, the clinical manifestation as well as the transmission of the disease. To investigate the potential of such an approach we combined proteins and domains (11 in total from the pre-erythrocytic, blood and sexual stages of P. falciparum into a cocktail of four different components recombinantly produced in plants. After immunization of rabbits we determined the domain-specific antibody titers as well as component-specific antibody concentrations and correlated them with stage specific in vitro efficacy. Using purified rabbit immune IgG we observed strong inhibition in functional in vitro assays addressing the pre-erythrocytic (up to 80%, blood (up to 90% and sexual parasite stages (100%. Based on the component-specific antibody concentrations we calculated the IC50 values for the pre-erythrocytic stage (17-25 μg/ml, the blood stage (40-60 μg/ml and the sexual stage (1.75 μg/ml. While the results underline the feasibility of a multi-stage vaccine cocktail, the analysis of component-specific efficacy indicates significant differences in IC50 requirements for stage-specific antibody concentrations providing valuable insights into this complex scenario and will thereby improve future approaches towards malaria vaccine cocktail development regarding the selection of suitable antigens and the ratios of components, to fine tune overall and stage-specific efficacy.

  4. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  5. Multi-state, multi-stage modeling of nest-success suggests interaction between weather and land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Leech, David I; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Many factors may affect daily nest survival. We present a novel multi-state, multi-stage model to estimate daily survival for each nest stage, daily hatching probability and probability that a failed nest died during a specific stage when stage of failure is unknown. The model does not require that hatching date be known. We used data from a large citizen science dataset to demonstrate the application of this approach, exploring the impact of laying dates, weather conditions, conserved soil moisture, soil carbon, habitat type and urbanization on failure rates of common blackbird (Turdus merula) nests. Models selected and estimates of nest success were similar to those of the simpler logistic exposure method, but accounted for additional uncertainty. Simulations suggest the multi-state approach performs better when incubation mortality is affected by nest age, but not when incubation mortality is assumed constant. Both approaches worked best when date of incubation initiation was known for all nests first visited during the incubation stage. Daily blackbird survival probabilities were higher in human rural habitat than in urban or countryside habitats supporting the hypothesis that these intermediate habitats offer a better balance between low food availability in urban areas and high predation rates in the wider countryside. Nest success was influenced more by recent precipitation in urban habitats, but by a longer-term measure of water availability, soil moisture, in non-human dominated habitats, indicating that climatic change is likely to alter relationships between habitat and breeding success (and their temporal scale) by influencing the trade-off between food availability and predation rates. The multi-state, multi-stage model developed here may be helpful to other researchers modelling ecological processes in which transition probabilities between multiple stages are of interest. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  7. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  8. The gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in the gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Data on the volumetric liquid-side gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, k(L)a, in a Multi-stage Agitated Contractor (MAC) are reported for three gas-liquid systems (air-water, helium-n-octane, and air-Monoethylene Glycol (MEG)). k(L)a (s(-1)) was determined using a dynamic method with moderately

  9. Towards an RTS,S-based, multi-stage, multi-antigen vaccine against falciparum malaria: progress at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heppner, D. Gray; Kester, Kent E.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Tornieporth, Nadia; Ofori, Opokua; Lyon, Jeffrey A.; Stewart, V. Ann; Dubois, Patrice; Lanar, David E.; Krzych, Urszula; Moris, Philippe; Angov, Evelina; Cummings, James F.; Leach, Amanda; Hall, B. Ted; Dutta, Sheetij; Schwenk, Robert; Hillier, Collette; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Ware, Lisa A.; Nair, Lalitha; Darko, Christian A.; Withers, Mark R.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Polhemus, Mark E.; Fukuda, Mark; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Gettyacamin, Montip; Diggs, Carter; Soisson, Lorraine; Milman, Jessica; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Garçon, Nathalie; Tucker, Kathryn; Wittes, Janet; Plowe, Christopher V.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Duombo, Ogobara K.; Pau, Maria G.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Ballou, W. Ripley; Cohen, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Malaria Vaccine Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is to develop a licensed multi-antigen, multi-stage vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum able to prevent all symptomatic manifestations of malaria by preventing parasitemia. A secondary goal is to limit

  10. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, S.L.; Roeffen, W.; Singh, S.K; Tiendrebeogo, R.W.; Christiansen, M.; Beebe, E.; Carter, D.; Fox, C.B.; Howard, R.F.; Reed, S.G.; Sauerwein, R.; Theisen, M.

    2016-01-01

    A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment of the

  11. Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

  12. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Mariela; Vinicio Sánchez, René; Cabrera, Diego; Zurita, Grover; Li, Chuan

    2015-09-18

    There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  13. Multi-stage filtering for improving confidence level and determining dominant clusters in clustering algorithms of gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Deris, Safaai; Othman, Razib M

    2013-09-01

    A drastic improvement in the analysis of gene expression has lead to new discoveries in bioinformatics research. In order to analyse the gene expression data, fuzzy clustering algorithms are widely used. However, the resulting analyses from these specific types of algorithms may lead to confusion in hypotheses with regard to the suggestion of dominant function for genes of interest. Besides that, the current fuzzy clustering algorithms do not conduct a thorough analysis of genes with low membership values. Therefore, we present a novel computational framework called the "multi-stage filtering-Clustering Functional Annotation" (msf-CluFA) for clustering gene expression data. The framework consists of four components: fuzzy c-means clustering (msf-CluFA-0), achieving dominant cluster (msf-CluFA-1), improving confidence level (msf-CluFA-2) and combination of msf-CluFA-0, msf-CluFA-1 and msf-CluFA-2 (msf-CluFA-3). By employing double filtering in msf-CluFA-1 and apriori algorithms in msf-CluFA-2, our new framework is capable of determining the dominant clusters and improving the confidence level of genes with lower membership values by means of which the unknown genes can be predicted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Risk-Constrained Multi-Stage Decision Making Approach to the Architectural Analysis of Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Pavone, Marco; Balaram, J. (Bob)

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel risk-constrained multi-stage decision making approach to the architectural analysis of planetary rover missions. In particular, focusing on a 2018 Mars rover concept, which was considered as part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign, we model the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase and the rover traverse phase as four sequential decision-making stages. The problem is to find a sequence of divert and driving maneuvers so that the rover drive is minimized and the probability of a mission failure (e.g., due to a failed landing) is below a user specified bound. By solving this problem for several different values of the model parameters (e.g., divert authority), this approach enables rigorous, accurate and systematic trade-offs for the EDL system vs. the mobility system, and, more in general, cross-domain trade-offs for the different phases of a space mission. The overall optimization problem can be seen as a chance-constrained dynamic programming problem, with the additional complexity that 1) in some stages the disturbances do not have any probabilistic characterization, and 2) the state space is extremely large (i.e, hundreds of millions of states for trade-offs with high-resolution Martian maps). To this purpose, we solve the problem by performing an unconventional combination of average and minimax cost analysis and by leveraging high efficient computation tools from the image processing community. Preliminary trade-off results are presented.

  15. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  17. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cerrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  18. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  19. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  20. A re-appraisal of the reliability of the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Kevin L; Rogers, Louise

    2007-06-01

    Most studies that have set out to quantify the test-retest reliability of the multi-stage shuttle run test (MSSRT) have typically used inappropriate statistics (correlation coefficients) and/or one of two possible calculation methods for deriving predictions of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and have not considered the impact of habituation on performance in the MSSRT and whether its reliability improves beyond a single repeat trial. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the MSSRT over three trials. Thirty-five healthy and active university games players (22 males and 13 females) performed the MSSRT on three occasions, 1 week apart. Individual total numbers of completed shuttles were recorded and estimated VO2max values were derived via established equation and table methods. Analysis revealed that the overall mean VO2max score from the equation method (52.5 +/- 7.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) was significantly higher than that for the table (46.9 +/- 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), whilst the mean trial 2 and trial 3 scores were significantly higher than that for trial 1, but not different to each other. The Limits of Agreement for the table method were -1.4 +/- 5.0 (trial 1-trial 2) and 0.0 +/- 5.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (trial 2-trial 3), and for the equation method -1.1 +/- 4.7 (trial 1-trial 2) and 0.0 +/- 5.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (trial 2-trial 3). These results suggest that systematic bias is eliminated after the first trial (due to habituation), but a considerable amount of random error remains, regardless of the type of score calculated. Hence, among our sample, the MSSRT does not appear to be reliable enough for the purpose of monitoring changes in VO2max due to non-random reasons.

  1. Validity of 20 meter multi stage shuttle run test for prediction of maximum oxygen uptake in Indian female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Das, P; Debnath, P; Chatterjee, P

    2008-01-01

    The 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test (20-m MST) has not yet been used by Indian scientists and validity of the test has not been studied for use with any of the Indian population. The purpose of this study was to validate the applicability of the 20-m MST in Indian adult female. For application of direct method cross over design was followed. For validity of the results repeatability was used. 32 female university students (age range 20.4 approximately 24.8 years) from three different universities of West Bengal, India were recruited for the study. Direct estimation of VO2 max comprised treadmill exercise followed by expired gas analysis by scholander micro-gas analyzer whereas VO2 max was indirectly predicted by the 20-m MST. Paired t-test, Pearson's product moment correlation, linear regression statistics and Bland and Altman approach for limit of agreement were adopted for statistical analysis of the data. The difference between the mean (SD) VO2 max values of direct measurement (VO2 max = 32.84 +/- 2.92 ml/kg/min) and the 20-m MST (SPVO2 max = 32.60 +/- 3.40 ml/kg/min) was statistically insignificant (p>0.10). Limits of agreement analysis also suggest that the 20-m MST can be applied for use with the studied population. The results suggest that the application of the present form of the 20-m MST be justified in the studied population. For better prediction of VO2 max a new equation has been computed based on present data for use with Indian female university students.

  2. Validity of 20 meter multi-stage shuttle run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Indirect protocols for determination of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of VO2max have been developed to avoid the complicated experimental protocol of direct VO2max estimation especially in clinical setting. 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test (SRT) is one of such indirect protocols developed in Western population. Eighty eight (88) sedentary young healthy female university students (Age 22.8 +/- 1.79 years, Body height 159.0 +/- 4.28 cm and Body mass 52.47 +/- 4.17 kg) of same socio-economic background were recruited in the study by simple random sampling from University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India to validate the applicability of SRT in the studied population. They were randomly separated into "study group" (N=58) on which the existing experimental protocol of SRT was tested and "confirmatory group" (N = 30) on which the modified equations were validated. VO2max of each participant was determined by direct procedure and indirect SRT method. The difference between the mean values of directly measured VO2max and indirectly predicted VO2max (PVO2max) in the "study group" was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Limit of agreement analysis revealed poor confidence level for application of current method of SRT in the studied population. However, VO2max was significantly correlated with age (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), body height (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), speed (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) and PVO2max (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). Modified norms in the form of simple and multiple regression equations were applied in the Confirmatory Group. Results suggested a good agreement of the modified equations of SRT in this population with substantially small SEE. Hence, the currently proposed modified norms are recommended to predict VO2max in the studied population.

  3. Measured maximal oxygen uptake in a multi-stage shuttle test and treadmill-run test in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A R; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C

    2005-09-01

    The aims of the study were: i) to compare the measured maximal oxygen uptake (MVO2max) during the 20 m multi-stage shuttle test (MST) with MVO2max during an incremental treadmill-run test (TRT), and ii) to establish the reliability of MVO2max during MST, in trained athletes. 8 well-trained endurance-athletes (END) and 8 athletes involved in team games (GAM) performed the MST twice (i.e. MST1 and MST2) and the TRT once, in 3 separate sessions. MVO2maxx attained in the MST and TRT was measured using a portable respiratory analyser (model K4 RQ, Cosmed). MVO2max attained in the MST and TRT were significantly different for the END athletes (4.1+/-0.28 vs 4.45+/-0.31 Lxmin-1, P0.05). The 95% limits of agreement for MVO2max in the MST in Lxmin-1 were -0.67 to 0.27. MVO2max in MST1 and MST2 were not significantly different for END athletes (4.18+/-0.39 vs 4.1+/-0.28 Lxmin-1, P>0.05) and GAM athletes (4.01+/-0.55 vs 4.01+/-0.51 Lxmin-1, P>0.05). Reliability indicators for MVO2max in Lxmin-1 for MST test-retest were: typical error (TE)=0.14, coefficient of variation (CV)=3.5 and intra-class correlation (ICC)=0.90. MVO2max in the MST was lower than that measured in the TRT for the END athletes but not for the GAM athletes. Sport-specificity was an important consideration, especially when testing END athletes for VO2max. MVO2max in the MST showed acceptable levels of reproducibility.

  4. Multi-stage sampling for large scale natural resources surveys: A case study of rice and waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale sample surveys to estimate abundance and distribution of organisms and their habitats are increasingly important in ecological studies. Multi-stage sampling (MSS) is especially suited to large-scale surveys because of the natural clustering of resources. To illustrate an application, we: (1) designed a stratified MSS to estimate late autumn abundance (kg/ha) of rice seeds in harvested fields as food for waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) investigated options for improving the MSS design; and (3) compared statistical and cost efficiency of MSS to simulated simple random sampling (SRS). During 2000?2002, we sampled 25?35 landowners per year, 1 or 2 fields per landowner per year, and measured seed mass in 10 soil cores collected within each field. Analysis of variance components and costs for each stage of the survey design indicated that collecting 10 soil cores per field was near the optimum of 11?15, whereas sampling >1 field per landowner provided few benefits because data from fields within landowners were highly correlated. Coefficients of variation (CV) of annual estimates of rice abundance ranged from 0.23 to 0.31 and were limited by variation among landowners and the number of landowners sampled. Design effects representing the statistical efficiency of MSS relative to SRS ranged from 3.2 to 9.0, and simulations indicated SRS would cost, on average, 1.4 times more than MSS because clustering of sample units in MSS decreased travel costs. We recommend MSS as a potential sampling strategy for large-scale natural resource surveys and specifically for future surveys of the availability of rice as food for waterfowl in the MAV and similar areas.

  5. Multi-Stage 20-m Shuttle Run Fitness Test, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Velocity at Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradisis Giorgos P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run fitness test (20mMSFT is a popular field test which is widely used to measure aerobic fitness by predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max and performance. However, the velocity at which VO 2 max occurs (vVO 2 max is a better indicator of performance than VO 2 max, and can be used to explain inter-individual differences in performance that VO 2 max cannot. It has been reported as a better predictor for running performance and it can be used to monitor athletes’ training for predicting optimal training intensity. This study investigated the validity and suitability of predicting VO2max and vVO2max of adult subjects on the basis of the performance of the 20mMST. Forty eight (25 male and 23 female physical education students performed, in random order, a laboratory based continuous horizontal treadmill test to determine VO2max, vVO 2 max and a 20mMST, with an interval of 3 days between each test. The results revealed significant correlations between the number of shuttles in the 20mMSFT and directly determined VO 2 max (r = 0.87, p<0.05 and vVO 2 max (r = 0.93, p<0.05. The equation for prediction of VO 2 max was y = 0.0276x + 27.504, whereas for vVO 2 max it was y = 0.0937x + 6.890. It can be concluded that the 20mMSFT can accurately predict VO 2 max and vVO 2 max and this field test can provide useful information regarding aerobic fitness of adults. The predicted vVO 2 max can be used in monitoring athletes, especially in determining optimal training intensity.

  6. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  7. Does the standard-setter's opinion matter? An analysis of the impact of the IASB letter's disclosure on the stock returns of European banks with Greek bond exposurea/ Opiniao do normatizador importa? Analise do impacto da divulgacao da carta do IASB nos retornos das acoes dos bancos Europeus com exposicao em titulos gregos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calvi, Cristina Zardo; Galdi, Fernando Caio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether there is evidence that the letter issued and disclosed to the market by the international accounting standard-setter the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB...

  8. Complications and co-morbidities in radiographs of patients in traditional bone setters' homes in Ogwa, Edo State, Nigeria: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Kenneth C

    2012-09-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are common in developing countries, but access to high quality orthopedic care is not. Traditional bone setters (TBS) serve to fill the gap, but the nature and quality of their treatment are largely understudied. Traditional bone setting in Idunmunkpaghan clan of Ogwa community, Edo State, Nigeria, was founded by Odion Ekhimere between about 1680 and 1705. The TBS practice in this community is studied to find out the complications and co-morbidities associated with it. A prospective community-based study of the patients admitted in the traditional bone setters' homes was done at Ogwa over a -2-year period by studying the admission and discharge radiographs of patients treated in the community and by interviewing the TBS and patients. Ninety patients with radiographs of the lesion sites were followed up from admission to discharge at the TBS homes, comprising 53 males (53.89%) and 37 females (41.11%) with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Sixty five patients (72.2%) had fracture or dislocation. Forty four of the 65 patients (67.7%) with fracture/dislocation had complications including mal-union 31(70.4%), secondary osteoarthritis 8 (18.2%), non-reduction of dislocation 7 (11.9%), non-union 8 (18.2%), and others 12 (27.2%). Co-morbidities were identified in 15 patients (16.7%) and included severe osteoarthritis 7 (46.7%), diabetic foot ulcer 4 (26.7%), severe hypertension with cardiomegaly 4 (26.7%), metastatic carcinoma of the prostate 3 (20.0%), septic arthritis 2 (13.3%), pulmonary tuberculosis 1 (6.7%) and others 3 (20.0%). The practice of traditional bone setting is well established in Idunmunkpaghan clan in Ukpogo quarter of Ogwa. Education and training of the TBS is the key to reduction of complications and co-morbidities seen in their practices as they have high patronage and the patients have high regards for them and will continue to patronize them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich ePöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to the demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public.The advantages of open access, public peer review and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmo¬sphe¬ric Chemistry and Physics (ACP and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU and the open access publisher Copernicus.The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the life sciences and economics. Multi-stage open peer review can be flexibly adjusted to the needs and peculiarities of different scientific communities. Due to the flexibility and compatibility with traditional structures of scientific publishing and peer review, the multi-stage open peer review concept enables efficient evolution in scientific communication and quality assurance. It has the potential for swift replacement of hidden peer review as the standard of scientific quality assurance, and it provides a basis for open evaluation in

  10. Multi-staged repair of contaminated primary and recurrent giant incisional herniae in the same hospital admission: a proposal for a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, K; Shrestha, A; Basu, S

    2014-02-01

    Repair of primary and recurrent giant incisional herniae is extremely challenging and more so in the face of surgical field contamination. Literature supports the single- and multi-staged approaches including the use of biological meshes for these difficult patients with their associated benefits and limitations. This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective study of five patients who were successfully treated through a multi-staged approach but in the same hospital admission, not previously described, for the repair of contaminated primary and recurrent giant incisional herniae in a district general hospital between 2009 and 2012. Patient demographics including their BMI and ASA, previous and current operative history including complications and follow-up were collected in a secure database. The first stage involved the eradication of contamination, and the second stage was the definitive hernia repair with the new generation-coated synthetic meshes. Of the five patients, three were men and two women with a mean age of 58 (45-74) years. Two patients had grade 4 while the remaining had grade 3 hernia as per the hernia grading system with a mean BMI of 35 (30-46). All patients required extensive adhesiolysis, bowel resection and anastomoses and wash out. Hernial defect was measured as 204* (105-440) cm(2), size of mesh implant was 568* (375-930) cm(2) and the total duration of operation (1st + 2nd Stage) was 354* (270-540) min. Duration of hospital stay was 11* (7-19) days with a follow-up of 17* (6-36) months. We believe that our multi-staged approach in the same hospital admission (for the repair of contaminated primary and recurrent giant incisional herniae), excludes the disadvantages of a true multi-staged approach and simultaneously minimises the risks and complications associated with a single-staged repair, can be adopted for these challenging patients for a successful outcome (* indicates mean).

  11. A multi-stage curing technique toward improved dimensional infidelity of curve-shaped composites manufactured with vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Kai Jin

    The occurrence of dimensional infidelity during the curing process is detected as curved composites are being released from the mold after full consolidation. On the other hand, the lengthy cure cycle, thermal spiking and non-uniform consolidation in thick composite manufacturing are often strong deterrents to widespread industrial implementation. Therefore, a multi-stage curing technique is implemented and its outcome toward the spring-in phenomenon is investigated in this research. The composite processing technique of stage curing is useful for assessing the effects of thermal spiking, non-uniform consolidation and fiber wrinkling on mechanical integrity for thick composite structures. However, the prediction of spring-in behavior for a multi-stage curing process is still a relatively unexplored area in engineering research. As a result, a compatibility model based on the residual stress that builds up at each curing stage is performed in our study. Since the resin provides a lubricant effect between each curing stage, a partial slipping interface factor w is introduced to our numerical simulation model. The newly developed multi-stage curing model shows good agreement with the experimental results under Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process.

  12. Analysis of Non-Enzymatically Glycated Peptides: Neutral-Loss Triggered MS3 Versus Multi-Stage Activation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Yang, Feng; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-10-15

    Non-enzymatic glycation of tissue proteins has important implications in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has been shown to outperform collision-induced dissociation (CID) in sequencing glycated peptides by tandem mass spectrometry, ETD instrumentation is not yet available in all laboratories. In this study, we evaluated different advanced CID techniques (i.e., neutral-loss triggered MS3 and multi-stage activation) during LC-MSn analyses of Amadori-modified peptides enriched from human serum glycated in vitro. During neutral-loss triggered MS3 experiments, MS3 scans triggered by neutral-losses of 3 H2O or 3 H2O + HCHO produced similar results in terms of glycated peptide identifications. However, neutral losses of 3 H2O resulted in significantly more glycated peptide identifications during multi-stage activation experiments. Overall, the multi-stage activation approach produced more glycated peptide identifications, while the neutral-loss triggered MS3 approach resulted in much higher specificity. Both techniques offer a viable alternative to ETD for identifying glycated peptides when that method is unavailable.

  13. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  14. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  15. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  16. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K

    2016-01-01

    A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment...... of the sexual-stage protein Pfs48/45-6C genetically fused to GMZ2, an asexual vaccine antigen in advanced clinical development. To select the most suitable vaccine formulation for downstream clinical studies, GMZ2.6C was tested with various immune modulators in different adjuvant formulations (stable emulsions...

  17. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  18. A multi-stage ultra-endurance run over 1,200 km leads to a continuous accumulation of total body water

    OpenAIRE

    Beat Knechtle; Brida Duff; Ingo Schulze; Götz Kohler

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean +/- SD, 43.8 +/- 6.2 years, 73.8 +/- 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 +/- 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 +/- 1.8 kg.m(-2)). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body wat...

  19. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...... pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  20. Data Driven Broiler Weight Forecasting using Dynamic Neural Network Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Simon Vestergaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Riisgaard-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the dynamic influence of environmental broiler house conditions and broiler growth is investigated. Dynamic neural network forecasting models have been trained on farm-scale broiler batch production data from 12 batches from the same house. The model forecasts future broiler weight...

  1. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  2. Pollutant removal in a multi-stage municipal wastewater treatment system comprised of constructed wetlands and a maturation pond, in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, A; Barceló-Quintal, I; Moeller, G E

    2011-01-01

    A multi-stage municipal wastewater treatment system is proposed to comply with Mexican standards for discharge into receiving water bodies. The system is located in Santa Fe de la Laguna, Mexico, an area with a temperate climate. It was designed for 2,700 people equivalent (259.2 m3/d) and consists of a preliminary treatment, a septic tank as well as two modules operating in parallel, each consisting of a horizontal subsurface-flow wetland, a maturation pond and a vertical flow polishing wetland. After two years of operation, on-site research was performed. An efficient biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (94-98%), chemical oxygen demand (91-93%), total suspended solids (93-97%), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (56-88%) and fecal coliform (4-5 logs) removal was obtained. Significant phosphorus removal was not accomplished in this study (25-52%). Evapotranspiration was measured in different treatment units. This study demonstrates that during the dry season wastewater treatment by this multi-stage system cannot comply with the limits established by Mexican standards for receiving water bodies type 'C'. However, it has demonstrated the system's potential for less restrictive uses such as agricultural irrigation, recreation and provides the opportunity for wastewater treatment in rural areas without electric energy.

  3. Friend Spleen Focus-Forming Virus Activates the Tyrosine Kinase sf-Stk and the Transcription Factor PU.1 to Cause a Multi-Stage Erythroleukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cmarik

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies in humans typically involve two types of genetic changes: those that promote hematopoietic cell proliferation and survival (often the result of activation of tyrosine kinases and those that impair hematopoietic cell differentiation (often the result of changes in transcription factors. The multi-stage erythroleukemia induced in mice by Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV is an excellent animal model for studying the molecular basis for both of these changes. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for the multi-stage erythroleukemia induced by Friend SFFV. In the first stage of leukemia, the envelope protein encoded by SFFV interacts with and activates the erythropoietin (Epo receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase sf-Stk in erythroid cells, causing their Epo-independent proliferation, differentiation and survival. In the second stage, SFFV integration into the Sfpi1 locus activates the myeloid transcription factor PU.1, blocking erythroid cell differentiation, and in conjunction with the loss of p53 tumor suppressor activity, results in the outgrowth of malignant cells. In this review, we discuss the current level of understanding of how SFFV alters the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells and results in the development of erythroleukemia. Our knowledge of how SFFV causes erythroleukemia in mice may give us clues as to how the highly related human retrovirus XMRV causes malignancies in humans.

  4. Multi-stage Mass Spectrometry of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Its Vinyl Succinimide Copolymer Formed upon Exposure to Sodium Hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Torimura, Masaki; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The degradation routes of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) exposed to sodium hypochlorite (bleach) have been previously investigated using chemical analyses such as infrared spectroscopy. So far, no reports have proposed mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative tool despite its capability to provide molecular and structural information using its single stage electrospray (ESI) or matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and multi stage (MS (n) ) configurations, respectively. The present study thus reports on the characterization of PVP after its exposure to bleach by high resolution MALDI spiralTOF-MS and Kendrick mass defect analysis providing clues as to the formation of a vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl succinimide copolymeric degradation product. A thorough investigation of the fragmentation pathways of PVP adducted with sodium and proton allows one main route to be described-namely the release of the pyrrolidone pendant group in a charge remote and charge driven mechanism, respectively. Extrapolating this fragmentation pathway, the oxidation of vinyl pyrrolidone into vinyl succinimide hypothesized from the single stage MS is validated by the detection of an alternative succinimide neutral loss in lieu of the pyrrolidone release in the ESI-MS (n) spectra of the aged PVP sample. It constitutes an example of application of multi-stage mass spectrometry for the characterization of the degradation of polymeric samples at a molecular level.

  5. Multi-Staged NDVI Dependent Snow-Free Land-Surface Shortwave Albedo Narrowband-to-Broadband (NTB Coefficients and Their Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrowband-to-broadband conversion is a critical procedure for mapping land-surface broadband albedo using multi-spectral narrowband remote-sensing observations. Due to the significant difference in optical characteristics between soil and vegetation, NTB conversion is influenced by the variation in vegetation coverage on different surface types. To reduce this influence, this paper applies an approach that couples NTB coefficient with the NDVI. Multi-staged NDVI dependent NTB coefficient look-up tables (LUT for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Polarization and Directionality of Earth’s Reflectance (POLDER and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were calculated using 6000 spectra samples collected from two typical spectral databases. Sensitivity analysis shows that NTB conversion is affected more by the NDVI for sensors with fewer band numbers, such as POLDER and AVHRR. Analysis of the validation results based on simulations, in situ measurements and global albedo products indicates that by using the multi-staged NDVI dependent NTB method, the conversion accuracies of these two sensors could be improved by 2%–13% on different NDVI classes compared with the general method. This improvement could be as high as 15%, on average, and 35% on dense vegetative surface compared with the global broadband albedo product of POLDER. This paper shows that it is necessary to consider surface reflectance characteristics associated with the NDVI on albedo-NTB conversion for remote sensors with fewer than five bands.

  6. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  7. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  8. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more

  9. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  10. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  11. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  12. Fused Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-stage immunogens with an Fc-delivery system as a promising approach for the development of a tuberculosis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavat, Arman; Soleimanpour, Saman; Farsiani, Hadi; Sadeghian, Hamid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. Currently, the Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available licensed TB vaccine, which has low efficacy in protection against adult pulmonary TB. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against TB needs global attention. In the present study, a novel multi-stage subunit vaccine candidate from culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) and heat shock protein X (HspX) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fused to the Fc domain of mouse IgG2a as a selective delivery system for antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was produced and its immunogenicity assessed. The optimized gene constructs were introduced into pPICZαA expression vectors, and the resultant plasmids (pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:His) were transferred into Pichia pastoris by electroporation. The identification of both purified recombinant fusion proteins was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Then the immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins with and without BCG was evaluated in BALB/c mice by assessing the level of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β cytokines. Both multi-stage vaccines (CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a and CFP-10:HspX:His) induced Th1-type cellular responses by producing high level of IFN-γ (272 pg/mL, p<0.001) and IL-12 (191 pg/mL, p<0.001). However, the Fc-tagged recombinant protein induced more effective Th1-type cellular responses with a low level of IL-4 (10 pg/mL) compared to the CFP-10:HspX:His group. The production of IFN-γ to CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a was markedly consistent and showed an increasing trend for IL-12 compared with the BCG or CFP-10:HspX:His primed and boosted groups. Findings revealed that CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a fusion protein can elicit strong Th1 antigen-specific immune responses in favor of protective immunity in mice and could provide new insight for introducing an effective multi-stage subunit vaccine against TB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in two integrated broiler operations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jong Su; Seo, Kwang Won; Kim, Yeong Bin; Kang, Min Su; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Young Ju

    2018-01-01

    Vertical integration of the broiler industry allows producers to combine different biosecurity and sanitation practices, housing technologies, and feeding regimens to improve food safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella, to determine the source of Salmonella contaminants, and to reveal the relationships between isolates at each step in the vertically integrated broiler production system in two representative integrated broiler companies in Korea. A total of 2148 samples were collected from 2 broiler breeder hatcheries, 14 broiler breeder farms, 3 broiler hatcheries, 16 broiler farms, 8 broiler transporting trucks and 6 slaughterhouses belonging to representative integrated broiler companies, and 205 (9.5%) of these samples were positive for Salmonella. The Salmonella prevalence in broiler hatcheries (34.0%) and broiler transporting trucks (62.5%) was higher (P broiler breeder hatchery (0.8%) was lower (P broiler breeder hatchery, and broiler hatcheries and broiler farms.

  14. A MULTI-STAGE ULTRA-ENDURANCE RUN OVER 1,200 KM LEADS TO A CONTINUOUS ACCUMULATION OF TOTAL BODY WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m-2. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis decreased by 3.9 kg (p < 0.05, skeletal muscle mass (anthropometric method decreased by 2.0 kg (p < 0.05 whereas percent total body water increased by 6.1 % (p < 0.05 by the end of the race. Ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function

  15. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads...... to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...

  17. Relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Davis, A.J.; Calhoun, M.C.; Dowd, M.K.; Dale, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cottonseed meal in poultry diets has been avoided in large part because of fear of gossypol toxicity. Gossypol exists naturally as a mixture of 2 enantiomers that exhibit different biological activities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers on broilers. In the first experiment, 3-d-old broilers were fed a standard diet containing 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg of gossypol from gossypol acetic acid per kilogram of...

  18. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  19. Applicability of a “Multi-Stage Pulse Labeling” 15N Approach to Phenotype N Dynamics in Maize Plant Components during the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Oliveira Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HighlightsThis work utilizes “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N applications, primarily during reproductive growth stages, as a phenotyping strategy to identify maize hybrids with superior N use efficiency (NUE under low N conditions.Research using labeled isotopic N (15N can precisely quantify fertilizer nitrogen (N uptake and organ-specific N allocation in field crops such as maize (Zea mays L.. The overall research objective was to study plant N uptake patterns potentially correlated with N use efficiency (NUE in field-grown maize hybrids using a “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N phenotyping strategy with an emphasis on the reproductive period. Five hybrids varying in NUE were compared under zero N fertilizer application (0N plus a moderate rate of 112 kg N ha−1 (112N in 2013 (2 locations and 2014 growing seasons. The equivalent of 3.2 (2013 to 2.1 (2014 kg of 15N ha−1, as labeled Ca(15NO32, was injected into soil on both sides of consecutive plants at multiple stages between V14 and R5. Aboveground plant biomass was primarily collected in short-term intervals (4–6 days after each 15N application in both years, and following a single long-term interval (at R6 after 15N injection at R1 in 2014. Averaged across hybrids and site-years, the moderate N rate (112N increased absolute 15N uptake at all stages; however, plants in the 0N treatment allocated proportionally more 15N to reproductive organs. Before flowering, short-term recovery of 15N (15Nrec totaled ~0.30 or 0.40 kg kg−1 of the 15N applied, and ~50% of that accumulated 15Nu was found in leaves and 40% in stems. After flowering, plant 15Nrec totaled ~0.30 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, and an average 30% of accumulated 15Nu was present in leaves, 17% in stems, and the remainder—usually the majority—in ears. At the R5 stage, despite a declining overall rate of 15N uptake per GDD thermal unit, plant 15Nrec represented ~0.25 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, of which ~65% was allocated

  20. Effects of broiler feed medications on Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny L; Byrd, J Allen; Bailey, Richard H; Wills, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    This pilot analysis was conducted with data from 52 conventional grow-out broiler flocks in a prospective field observational study in the southeastern United States during 2003-2006. Each flock was sampled for Salmonella 1 wk before the end of grow-out, upon arrival at the processing plant, and during processing (prior to and immediately after carcass chilling). The broiler litter was sampled on the day of bird harvest. The grow-out feeding programs, including the medications delivered in feed, were surveyed with questionnaires completed by the broiler managers and feedmill managers. Each detail of the feeding program was tested for statistical association with the frequency of Salmonella in the flock at each sampling point, after accounting for variation in Salmonella frequency between the farms, broiler complexes, and companies. Significant associations were found between Salmonella frequency in the broiler flock pre- and postharvest and the inclusion of feeds containing individual coccidiostats and other antimicrobial growth promoters, days on feed, and total consumption of feeds containing these products, as well as with practices such as a mash feed and a nonmedicated withdrawal feed. The analysis provided testable hypotheses for how broiler feed medications impact the frequency of Salmonella in the flocks.

  1. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thoefner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission...... hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were...... chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types...

  2. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  3. Reduction of Phosphorus Pollution from Broilers Waste through Supplementation of Wheat Based Broilers Feed with Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Megeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to reduce phosphorus pollution from broilers waste by supplementing phytase enzyme in broilers fee. Two hundred two-week-old broilers (Hubbard were selected and randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups, one control group (without phytase and two trial groups (group A with 300 U/kg phytase and group B with 600 U/kg phytase. Each group was composed of 5 replicates with 10 chicks. Broilers fed the control diet (without phytase gained weight slower (P 0.05 reduces excreta P and Ca level. Phytase addition did not affect excreta pH. The presence of phytase in feed mixtures significantly (P > 0.05 improves the body weight gain and feed intake of broiler chickens.

  4. Subject Review Article : Broiler litter as feed for ruminants - Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, growth rate, milk production and feed efficiency were higher in animals (sheep, goats and cattle) fed broiler litter-based diet than in animals fed control diet (without broiler litter). This paper reviews the nutritional value, health hazard, processing techniques and factors affecting the acceptability of broiler litter as ...

  5. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  6. Econometric analysis of the determinants of broiler carcass weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate rationale behind the choice of feeding method in broiler management; identifying the variables that influence carcass weights of broilers as well as comparing the mean carcass weights of broilers raised under feed restriction and ad libitum in FUTO Farm, Owerri, Nigeria. Data were collected ...

  7. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  8. Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Lisouski, Pavel; Ahrendt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    descriptors and, finally, predicted the individual broiler weights using a Bayesian Artificial Neural Network. Four other models for weight prediction were also evaluated. The system were tested in a commercial broiler house with 48,000 broilers (Ross 308) during the last 20 days of the breeding period...

  9. Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broiler starters were fed the same starter diet, while broiler finishers were equally fed the same finisher diet. Water and feeds were served ad-libitum. The FPLE is a valuable protein and mineral supplement for broiler chickens. One to five minutes heat treatment of FPLE reduced the concentrations of phytate and tannin ...

  10. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicks Fed Soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematology and serum biochemical responses of broiler chicks to soybean subjected to varying toasting periods were assessed using ninety 4-week old broilers. In the 28-days trial, broilers were assigned to soybean subjected to five toasting times of 0 minutes as control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes as treatment 1, 2, 3, 4 and ...

  11. Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler chicks. PN Onu, LLC Ugwu, MO Otuma, EN Uchewa. Abstract. An experiment was conducted with 63 day-old Anak broiler chicks to investigate the growth response of broilers fed diets containing different energy sources. Three experimental diets were ...

  12. Patients with acute abdominal pain describe their experiences of fundamental care across the acute care episode: a multi-stage qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangland, Eva; Kitson, Alison; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    To explore how patients with acute abdominal pain describe their experiences of fundamental care across the acute care episode. Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common conditions to present in the acute care setting. Little is known about how patients' fundamental care needs are managed from presentation to post discharge. A multi-stage qualitative case study using the Fundamentals of Care framework as the overarching theoretical and explanatory mechanism. Repeated reflective interviews were conducted with five adult patients over a 6-month period in 2013 at a university hospital in Sweden. The interviews (n = 14) were analysed using directed content analysis. Patients' experiences across the acute care episode are presented as five patient narratives and synthesized into five descriptions of the entire hospital journey. The patients talked about the fundamentals of care and had vivid accounts of what they meant to them. The experiences of each of the patients were influenced by the extent to which they felt engaged with the health professionals. The ability to engage or build a rapport was identified as a central component across the fundamental care elements, but it varied in visibility. Consistent pain management, comfort, timely and accurate information, choice and dignity and relationships were identified as essential fundamental care needs of patients experiencing acute abdominal pain regardless of setting, diagnosis, or demographic variables. These were variously achieved and the patients' narratives raised areas for improvement in several areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Discovery by organism based high-throughput screening of new multi-stage compounds affecting Schistosoma mansoni viability, egg formation and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Alessandra; Lalli, Cristiana; Gimmelli, Roberto; Nizi, Emanuela; Andreini, Matteo; Gennari, Nadia; Saccoccia, Fulvio; Harper, Steven; Bresciani, Alberto; Ruberti, Giovina

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected parasitic diseases affecting humans and animals, is caused by the Platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are the only trematodes to have evolved sexual dimorphism and the constant pairing with a male is essential for the sexual maturation of the female. Pairing is required for the full development of the two major female organs, ovary and vitellarium that are involved in the production of different cell types such as oocytes and vitellocytes, which represent the core elements of the whole egg machinery. Sexually mature females can produce a large number of eggs each day. Due to the importance of egg production for both life cycle and pathogenesis, there is significant interest in the search for new strategies and compounds not only affecting parasite viability but also egg production. Here we use a recently developed high-throughput organism-based approach, based on ATP quantitation in the schistosomula larval stage of Schistosoma mansoni for the screening of a large compound library, and describe a pharmacophore-based drug selection approach and phenotypic analyses to identify novel multi-stage schistosomicidal compounds. Interestingly, worm pairs treated with seven of the eight compounds identified show a phenotype characterized by defects in eggshell assemblage within the ootype and egg formation with degenerated oocytes and vitelline cells engulfment in the uterus and/or oviduct. We describe promising new molecules that not only impair the schistosomula larval stage but also impact juvenile and adult worm viability and egg formation and production in vitro.

  14. Loss of p19(Arf facilitates the angiogenic switch and tumor initiation in a multi-stage cancer model via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle B Ulanet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arf tumor suppressor acts as a sensor of oncogenic signals, countering aberrant proliferation in large part via activation of the p53 transcriptional program, though a number of p53-independent functions have been described. Mounting evidence suggests that, in addition to promoting tumorigenesis via disruptions in the homeostatic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis of overt cancer cells, genetic alterations leading to tumor suppressor loss of function or oncogene gain of function can also incite tumor development via effects on the tumor microenvironment. In a transgenic mouse model of multi-stage pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis (PNET driven by inhibition of the canonical p53 and Rb tumor suppressors with SV40 large T-antigen (Tag, stochastic progression to tumors is limited in part by a requirement for initiation of an angiogenic switch. Despite inhibition of p53 by Tag in this mouse PNET model, concomitant disruption of Arf via genetic knockout resulted in a significantly accelerated pathway to tumor formation that was surprisingly not driven by alterations in tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis, but rather via earlier activation of the angiogenic switch. In the setting of a constitutional p53 gene knockout, loss of Arf also accelerated tumor development, albeit to a lesser degree. These findings demonstrate that Arf loss of function can promote tumorigenesis via facilitating angiogenesis, at least in part, through p53-independent mechanisms.

  15. Machine Learning Multi-Stage Classification and Regression in the Search for Vector-like Quarks and the Neyman Construction in Signal Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Robert Matthew

    A search for vector-like quarks (VLQs) decaying to a Z boson using multi-stage machine learning was compared to a search using a standard square cuts search strategy. VLQs are predicted by several new theories beyond the Standard Model. The searches used 20.3 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CLs upper limits on production cross sections of vector-like top and bottom quarks were computed for VLQs produced singly or in pairs, Tsingle, Bsingle, Tpair, and Bpair. The two stage machine learning classification search strategy did not provide any improvement over the standard square cuts strategy, but for Tpair, Bpair, and Tsingle, a third stage of machine learning regression was able to lower the upper limits of high signal masses by as much as 50%. Additionally, new test statistics were developed for use in the Neyman construction of confidence regions in order to address deficiencies in c...

  16. Multi-Stage Plasma Thruster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    thrnste.r. is derived in Appendix C and indicates scaling of ablation-fed plasma thrusters with endo- or exo- thermic fuel slabs. IV.l. ACCELERATION OF... insulator to initiate ablation for mass-addition. PI, e15 mass (and a means of initiating current flow in the second-stage). The kinetic energy of the PPT...mechanism establishing the discharge distribution. With proper insulation , acceleration of the plasma will cease slightly beyond the end of the rails and

  17. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Jens Peter; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types contributed to the first week mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...... of broiler houses at the farm, the type of ventilation system, the presence of the anteroom and boot security, etc.) identified, two broiler health-associated characteristics: (i) broiler age and (ii) the average weight per bird at abattoir had the highest impact on the increased prevalence of Campylobacter...

  19. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  20. Restoration of eroded stratal thickness in key periods of tectonic change in a multi-stage superimposed Tarim Basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an area of 56×104 km2, the Tarim Basin is the largest inland basin in China and is also generally acknowledged as one of the most important areas for potential oil and gas exploration. On the basis of data from 22 regional seismic profiles and 40 drilling wells, 15 important first-order and second-order regional unconformities were defined. Almost all the main unconformities are superimposed unconfomities. Since the Cambrian, 5 key periods of tectonic change have occurred during the evolution of the Tarim Basin. The total eroded stratal thickness of the above-mentioned unconformities was calculated by using the method of virtual extrapolation of seismic reflection. The results indicate that the total eroded stratal thickness of different periods is quite different in different locations of the basin. Taking the Upper-Middle Ordovician as an example, its thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated into individual stages i.e. its thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated to different tectonic periods. Otherwise, as for the specific period of tectonic change, the underlying strata were, respectively eroded and thus the thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated into individual intervals. Taking the Early Hercynian period as an example, the eroded stratal thickness was calculated into individual intervals to calculate the ratio of intervals of various ages occupying the total eroded thickness. The results show that for the same stratum, its degree of erosion is quite different in different periods and at different locations, due to the varying influence of tectonic movement. The unconformities of some key periods of tectonic change have different controls on the degree of erosion and the eroded range of the individual period of the underlying strata which are the typical characteristics of multi-stage superimposition of unconformities in the Tarim Basin.

  1. Neurotensin-Conjugated Reduced Graphene Oxide with Multi-Stage Near-Infrared-Triggered Synergic Targeted Neuron Gene Transfection In Vitro and In Vivo for Neurodegenerative Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Wei-Chen; Kang, Yi-Da; Chu, Chao-Yi; Liao, Wen-Lin; Chen, You-Yin; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Delivery efficiency with gene transfection is a pivotal point in achieving maximized therapeutic efficacy and has been an important challenge with central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this study, neurotensin (NT, a neuro-specific peptide)-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles with precisely controlled two-stage near-infrared (NIR)-laser photothermal treatment to enhance the ability to target neurons and achieve high gene transfection in neurons. First-stage NIR laser irradiation on the cells with nanoparticles attached on the surface can increase the permeability of the cell membrane, resulting in an apparent increase in cellular uptake compared to untreated cells. In addition, second-stage NIR laser irradiation on the cells with nanoparticles inside can further induce endo/lysosomal cavitation, which not only helps nanoparticles escape from endo/lysosomes but also prevents plasmid DNA (pDNA) from being digested by DNase I. At least double pDNA amount can be released from rGO-PEI-NT/pDNA under NIR laser trigger release compared to natural release. Moreover, in vitro differentiated PC-12 cell and in vivo mice (C57BL/6) brain transfection experiments have demonstrated the highest transfection efficiency occurring when NT modification is combined with external multi-stage stimuli-responsive NIR laser treatment. The combination of neuro-specific targeting peptide and external NIR-laser-triggered aid provides a nanoplatform for gene therapy in CNS diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  3. Direct analysis of Salvia divinorum leaves for salvinorin A by thin layer chromatography and desorption electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-05-15

    Salvia divinorum is widely cultivated in the US, Mexico, Central and South America and Europe and is consumed for its ability to produce hallucinogenic effects similar to those of other scheduled hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD. Salvinorin A (SA), a kappa opiod receptor agonist and psychoactive constituent, is found primarily in the leaves and to a lesser extent in the stems of the plant. Herein, the analysis of intact S. divinorum leaves for SA and of acetone extracts separated using thin layer chromatography (TLC) is demonstrated using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. The detection of SA using DESI in the positive ion mode is characterized by several ions associated with the compound - [M+H](+), [M+NH(4)](+), [M+Na](+), [2M+NH(4)](+), and [2M+Na](+). Confirmation of the identity of these ions is provided through exact mass measurements using a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. The presence of SA in the leaves was confirmed by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) of the [M+H](+) ion using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Direct analysis of the leaves revealed several species of salvinorin in addition to SA as confirmed by MS(n), including salvinorin B, C, D/E, and divinatorin B. Further, the results from DESI imaging of a TLC separation of a commercial leaf extract and an acetone extract of S. divinorum leaves were in concordance with the TLC/DESI-MS results of an authentic salvinorin A standard. The present study provides an example of both the direct analysis of intact plant materials for screening illicit substances and the coupling of TLC and DESI-MS as a simple method for the examination of natural products. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 – 10.2, CO – 45.8, N2 – 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 – 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  5. Multi-Stage Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Sugar-Conjugated β-Turn Structures to be Used as Probes in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Chiara; Auberger, Nicolas; Rentier, Cédric; Papini, Anna Maria; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lavielle, Solange; Vinh, Joëlle

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic sugar-modified peptides were identified as antigenic probes in the context of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a mechanistic study on the fragmentation of different glycosylated analogs of a synthetic antigenic probe able to detect antibodies in a subpopulation of multiple sclerosis patients. In particular the N-glucosylated type I' β-turn peptide structure called CSF114(Glc) was used as a model to find signature fragmentations exploring the potential of multi-stage mass spectrometry by MALDI-LTQ Orbitrap. Here we compare the fragmentation of the glucosylated form of the synthetic peptide CSF114(Glc), bearing a glucose moiety on an asparagine residue, with less or non- immunoreactive forms, bearing different sugar-modifications, such as CSF114(GlcNAc), modified with a residue of N-acetylglucosamine, and CSF114[Lys7(1-deoxyfructopyranosyl)], this last one modified with a 1-deoxyfructopyranosyl moiety on a lysine at position 7. The analysis was set up using a synthetic compound specifically deuterated on the C-1 to compare its fragmentation with the fragmentation of the undeuterated form, and thus ascertain with confidence the presence on an Asn(Glc) within a peptide sequence. At the end of the study, our analysis led to the identification of signature neutral losses inside the sugar moieties to characterize the different types of glycosylation/glycation. The interest of this study lies in the possibility of applyimg this approach to the discovery of biomarkers and in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases.

  6. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    2003-01-01

    and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth...... quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year....... In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish...

  7. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  8. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  9. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... days (OR = 5.0, 1.2 important biosecurity measure for production of campylobacter-free broilers....

  10. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  11. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ± 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ± 1.5, 123.2 ± 0.7 and 124.8 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000–1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-grabens that developed under ∼N–S extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of N–S shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins ∼100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic basement structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia's multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long

  12. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  13. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  14. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  15. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  16. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  17. Improving broiler lifestyle: a CFD approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Humbert, U

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available detrimental effects and can negatively influence the growth or health of the broiler. These houses make use of different combinations of heaters, fans and inlets to warm, cool and ventilate the house. This needs to happen within very specific parameters...

  18. Use of NGS in Commercial Broiler Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development and evolution of next generation sequencing technologies, these powerful tools can be applied to a variety of aspect of commercial broiler production, especially in respect to food safety issues. NGS technologies allow for a deeper understanding of the complex microbiota inhere...

  19. Sweet lupins as a feedstuff for broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of sweet white lupins (Lupinus a/bus variety. Buttercup) for broilers up to 8weeks of age. Two isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter (0- 4weeks) and finisher. (4 - 8 weeks) diets were formulated with one containing no lupins and the other 400 g lupins/kg.

  20. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 136. 136. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler chicks fed diets varying in energy : protein ratio.

  1. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The effects of varying E:P ratios on the intestinal function of poultry are less well ... were formulated using maize, maize gluten, soyabean meal, sunfower meal, soya protein isolate, fish meal and vegetable oil. ... Table 1 Effects of varying dietary energy:protein ratios on the biological performance of broiler chicks. Energy (MJ.

  2. Effect of probiotics on broiler meat quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... natives for substituting these traditional growth promoters have been evaluated and probiotics have ... example, conducted a 6 week growth performance study with broilers and found that live weight gain .... whole yeast (WY) or Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract. (YE). However, the present results differ ...

  3. Scoring biosecurity in European conventional broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Limbergen, T; Dewulf, J; Klinkenberg, M; Ducatelle, R; Gelaude, P; Méndez, J; Heinola, K; Papasolomontos, S; Szeleszczuk, P; Maes, D

    2018-01-01

    Good biosecurity procedures are crucial for healthy animal production. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of biosecurity on conventional broiler farms in Europe, following a standardized procedure, thereby trying to identify factors that are amenable to improvement. The current study used a risk-based weighted scoring system (biocheck.ugent ®) to assess the level of biosecurity on 399 conventional broiler farms in 5 EU member states. The scoring system consisted of 2 main categories, namely external and internal biosecurity, which had 8 and 3 subcategories, respectively. Biosecurity was quantified by converting the answers to 97 questions into a score from 0 to 100. The minimum score, "0," represents total absence of any biosecurity measure on the broiler farm, whereas the maximum score, "100," means full application of all investigated biosecurity measures. A possible correlation between biosecurity and farm characteristics was investigated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participating broiler farms scored better for internal biosecurity (mean score of 76.6) than for external biosecurity (mean 68.4). There was variation between the mean biosecurity scores for the different member states, ranging from 59.8 to 78.0 for external biosecurity and from 63.0 to 85.6 for internal biosecurity. Within the category of external biosecurity, the subcategory related to "infrastructure and vectors" had the highest mean score (82.4), while the subcategory with the lowest score related to biosecurity procedures for "visitors and staff" (mean 51.5). Within the category of internal biosecurity, the subcategory "disease management" had the highest mean score (65.8). In the multivariate regression model a significant negative correlation was found between internal biosecurity and the number of employees and farm size. These findings indicate that there is a lot of variation for external and internal biosecurity on the participating broiler farms

  4. Produksi dan Pemasaran Komoditas Broiler di Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptana Saptana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of broiler industry can be a basis for the economic growth and employment opportunities. There are three broiler breeding patterns i.e. independent breeders, internal-business partnerships, and external-business partnerships. This research aims to analyze broiler production and marketing in West Java Province. The research objectives are: (1 to analyze the performance of each broiler breeding farm; (2 to analyze the market structure of broilers; (3 to evaluate the marketing margin of broilers; and (4 to study market integration of broilers. The method used in this study was a survey method using structured questionnaires. The primary and secondary data used in this study were analyzed using the broiler breeding feasibility analysis, R/C ratio, marketing margin, and market integration analysis. The results showed that: (1 broiler breeding business in various patterns remains profitable and has an effective return to capital in moderate level, (2 both independent and plasma broiler breeders face an oligopolistic market structure, and the brokers also confronts oligopolistic market structure in dealing with the core enterprise through specific prices, and (3 retailers receive the biggest profit margin per unit of output, while the inter-regional wholesalers receive the largest total margin due to its large sales turnover, and (4 broiler markets are not integrated. In summary it can be concluded that broiler farming in various business patterns is profitable; however, and the marketing system is inefficient.Keywords: R/C ratio, market structure, marketing margins, market integration, broilerABSTRAKPengembangan komoditas broiler dapat menjadi basis pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pemerataan kesempatan kerja jika dikelola dengan baik. Paling tidak terdapat tiga pola usaha ternak broiler yakni usaha ternak mandiri, kemitraan usaha internal dan kemitraan usaha eksternal. Tujuan penelitian adalah (1 mmenganalisis kinerja usaha ternak broiler; (2

  5. Multi-level, Multi-stage and Stochastic Optimization Models for Energy Conservation in Buildings for Federal, State and Local Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Billy Ray

    projects (Chapter 3). Returns from implemented ECM projects are used to fund additional ECM projects. In these cases, fluctuations in energy costs and uncertainty in the estimated savings severely influence ECM project selection and the amount of the appropriation requested. A risk aversion method proposed imposes a minimum on the number of "of projects completed in each stage. A comparative method using Conditional Value at Risk is analyzed. Time consistency was addressed in this chapter. This work demonstrates how a risk-based, stochastic, multi-stage model with binary decision variables at each stage provides a much more accurate estimate for planning than the agency's traditional approach and deterministic models. Finally, in Chapter 4, a rolling-horizon model allows for subadditivity and superadditivity of the energy savings to simulate interactive effects between ECM projects. The approach makes use of inequalities (McCormick, 1976) to re-express constraints that involve the product of binary variables with an exact linearization (related to the convex hull of those constraints). This model additionally shows the benefits of learning between stages while remaining consistent with the single congressional appropriations framework.

  6. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based

  7. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  8. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S. A.; Van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Veldman, Kees T.; Kalupahana, Ruwani S.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102) and wet markets (n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance. PMID:29186018

  9. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  12. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  13. Effect of incubation system on the development of intestinal villi, metabolism, and performance of one- to forty-day-old broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Pacheco Villanueva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of the incubation system ― multiple-stage (MS and single-stage (SS ― on the characteristics at hatching, intestinal morphology, metabolism, and performance of Cobb-500 chickens from 1 to 40 d of age. A total of 1,968 fertile eggs were incubated in two setters under commercial conditions. Birds hatched in SS were longer than those hatched in MS, and the females had higher relative intestinal weight compared with males. However, at hatching, there were no differences in BW and yolk-free body mass from incubation system or sex. In the period from 1-40 d, the birds hatched in SS were heavier, had higher weight gain and better adjusted feed conversion, without differences in feed intake and feed conversion. This result is due mainly to MS females, which always, although in some periods only numerically, exhibited worse responses than the other treatment, lowering the average MS bird performance. Sex influenced the duodenal villi height in chickens at 0 d; females showed larger villi than males. Moreover, the birds hatched in SS had deeper crypts than those hatched in MS. At 7 d, because males had higher feed intake, the differences in duodenal villi height found at hatching disappeared, leaving only a gender effect on jejunum crypt depth: females showed deeper crypts. As regards the metabolism coefficients of nutrients from 5 to 7 d, females were more efficient in metabolizing energy and showed higher apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen values than males, with no differences caused by the incubation system. The best incubation conditions are obtained with the single-stage system, based on the improved broiler performance (2.98%, especially in the females (5.04%.

  14. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, all test broiler starter diets had superior (P<0.05) CP and amino acids profile compared with the NRC recommendation for broilers aged 3-6 weeks. ... It was opined that the limitation has the potential of affecting the performance of birds, especially if not compensated for by other amino acids that were surplus in the ...

  15. Performance of broiler chickens fed South African sorghum-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of sorghum variety and xylanase on performance of broiler chickens. In Experiment 1A, a total of 240 day-old Ross broiler chickens were assigned to a 2 (sex) × 3 (sorghum variety) × 2 (with or without xylanase) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized ...

  16. Growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers on acidified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of acidifer in a blood meal based diet on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. One hundred and eighty un-sexed 4-week old broiler chicks raised on a common starter diet were randomly distributed into four experimental diets of 3 replicates and ...

  17. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  18. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial proce...

  19. Supplementation of broiler feed with leaves of Vernonia amygdalina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticoccidial efficacy of the herbal mixture of Vernonia amygdalina (VA 10%) and Azadirachta indica (AI 10%) was tested against naturally infected broiler coccidiosis. A total of 100 four week old broilers naturally infected with coccidiosis were divided into five treatment groups based on the number of coccidian oocyst they ...

  20. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  1. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  2. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,

  3. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)

  4. A Trial Diagnosis of Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuyi

    Ascites syndrome is currently a serious disease issue for the global chicken industry. Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder frequently found in fast growing broilers including abdominal distention and standing fluid collection in chicken abdomen. It is one of the most common nutrition metabolic disorders. In this study, the clinical diagnosis technology of broiler ascites symptoms mainly included the trial inquiry of feeders and administrators, local observation, detection of farm gas and faeces and pathological autopsy. The study investigated the case of broiler ascites syndrome of local commercial broiler chickens at the age of 4-5 weeks to reduce outburst of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Through the trial clinical diagnosis of broiler ascites symptoms and pathological autopsy and observation, it came to the definite diagnosis of broiler ascites. Subsequent investigation found that the rearing houses were closed and sealed with poor ventilation and a high breeding density and much ammonia gas. Under the comprehensive management and drug treatments, there were 800 chickens found ill and later came back to normal from illness after the treatments, except for the death of 38 sick chickens. The appetite and drink of broiler chicken came to normal gradually.

  5. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  6. Performance And Economic Analysis Of Broiler Starter Fed Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial involving 300, day-old Hubbard broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance and economic analysis of broiler starters fed dried rumen digesta meal at dietary levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% respectively. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ...

  7. Abrupt or gradual increases in photoperiod for broiler breeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broiler breeders transferred from closed rearing to curtain-sided adult accommodation (similar to that in which a large proportion of broiler breeders are housed) respond similarly to abrupt and gradual increases in daylength as do birds maintained throughout in controlled environment accommodation, and modern ...

  8. Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop contents may serve as important sources of Salmonella carcass contamination within processing plants. This study, evaluated the effect of feed withdrawal before the slaughtering time on Salmonella existence in the crops of broilers from ten commercial broiler flocks reared in individual houses. Crops were collected ...

  9. Assessment of the nutrient contents of broiler starter and finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, estimated chemical scores of analyzed diets revealed a generally high trend, methionine plus cystine appeared limiting in the broiler starter diets compared with recommended levels for birds aged 1-3 weeks; threonine, valine or isoeucine may be limiting in some broiler finisher diets when compared with ...

  10. Digestibility And Hematological Parameters Of Broiler Chickens Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of replacing synthetic lysine (SL) with blood meal (BM) on apparent nutrients digestibility and hematological responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty (150) unsexed Anak broiler chicks were used. There were five diets with diet (T1) containing 0.10% SL and ...

  11. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  12. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and ...

  13. Biomarkers and weight changes in broiler chicks ( Gallus domesticus )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomarkers and weight changes in broiler chicks ( Gallus domesticus ) exposed to livestock feed containing residues of phostoxin and actellic pesticides. ... The results of the biochemical analysis of the blood samples of the broilers chicks exposed to sublethal doses of phostoxin and actellic over a 49 day period of exposure ...

  14. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyze the effects of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on the performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. Three hundred and sixty oneday- old Abor Aerec broilers were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, adding genetically modified (GM) ...

  15. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.; Hill, A.; Rosenquist, H.; Brynestad, S.; Fetsch, A.; Logt, van der P.; Fazil, A.; Christensen, B.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Borck, B.; Havelaar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial

  16. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.; Hill, A.; Rosenquist, H.; Brynestad, S.; Fetsch, A.; van der Logt, P.; Fazil, A.; Christensen, B.; Katsma, E.; Borck, B.; Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial

  17. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  18. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  19. ( Jatropha curcas ) on the gut morphology of broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study conducted to evaluate the effect of Jatropha curcas leaf extract on the gut morphology of broiler chickens, one hundred and fifty day old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five treatments, each replicated five times, with six birds per replicate over a period of forty two days. The birds were allocated ...

  20. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  1. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  2. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van A.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare.

  3. Performance and internal organ characteristics of finisher broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing maize as a major source of energy with wild yam (Anchomanes difformis) meal (WYM) in the diets of finisher broiler. One hundred and eighty (180) finisher broilers were fed on five experimental diets formulated such that the maize in diet 1 (control) was ...

  4. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...

  5. Effects of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of graded levels of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out using complete randomized design. Commercial starter and finisher diets were used for the experiment which lasted for eight weeks. The folic ...

  6. Working for food under conditions of varying motivation in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Zimmerman, P.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broiler chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus, have been selected for rapid weight gain and appear to be continously hungry. If this is so, then energy that broilers invest in obtaining food should be insensitive to their level of feed restriction. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the maximum

  7. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  8. Sexual dimorphism in the growth pattern of broilers under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among three dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous high and low energy straight-run diets and a conventional broiler diet) and two housing conditions (the cage and deep litter) to study the comparative growth patterns between the male and female ...

  9. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish si...... situation is screening broiler houses with fly nets....

  10. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  11. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of meals of sweat potato and cassava varieties formulated with soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler ... Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- supplemented diets than diets containing cottonseed meal as ..... sweet potato and a protein supplement to broiler and crossbred poultry. Papua ...

  12. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  13. Field study on broilers' first-week mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Boerjan, M.; Rielt, van J.

    2009-01-01

    In the Dutch poultry meat production chain, first week mortality (FWM) of the chicks is an important measure to quality and is therefore highly related to the price of the chicks that the broiler farm has to pay to the hatchery. Therefore, next to the total number of broiler eggs produced per hen

  14. Response of broiler chickens to feed supplemented with claybased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight week study was carried out to evaluate the effects of MFeed®, a nanotechnology growth promoter as feed additive in the diets of broiler chickens. Two hundred, day old Marshal broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomised design to five dietary treatments supplemented with MFeed® at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ...

  15. Performance, carcass and blood indices of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of graded levels of sun-dried raw wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) corms as partial replacement for maize in the diet of finishing broiler chickens was carried out in a feeding trial that lasted for four weeks. One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old broilers were used. . The birds were ...

  16. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  17. Organsweight and performance characteristics of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Broiler chickens, burning, flames and fumes, organ weights and performance, simulated crude petroleum. La performance des poulets de chair exposé aux flammes et aux fumées de la combustion du pétrole brut à des distances variables au cours d'une période quotidienne de 16 heures a été évaluée pendant ...

  18. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  19. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14....

  20. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nauta, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14.8-24.7) for conventional carcasses. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species. The difference in prevalence was obvious in all quarters of the year. Contamination of organic and conventional broiler carcasses was more likely to occur in the warmer summer months, in this case in the third quarter, as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65 log 10 cfu/g and 2.1±0.93 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler carcasses emphasizes the importance of implementing control measures in organic broiler production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the volleyball setter behaviour in through taped analysis of body angles Estudio del comportamiento de la colocadora en voleibol a través del análisis cinemático de ángulos corporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study analyses the setting in volleyball of two setters that play at the highest level of Spanish volleyball, in order to find opponent's movements pattern that may be predict where the ball will be set. A descriptive research design has been done by kinematical analysis through cinematographic techniques. The results indicate that relationships between the wide angle view of some body segments' and different setting tendencies can be established. Results show that analysis of wider angles of elbow, shoulder and hip segments can be useful to anticipate the setting of quick attack in volleyball.
    KEY WORDS: Motor Behaviour, Volleyball, Kinematical Analysis, Anticipation, Setting

    Este trabajo analiza el movimiento de colocación en voleibol, en dos colocadoras que militan en la máxima categoría del voleibol español, con el propósito de encontrar patrones de movimiento que nos de indicios de por donde se realizará la colocación. Se ha realizado un diseño de investigación descriptivo mediante un análisis cinemático a través de técnicas fotogramétricas. Con los datos obtenidos se han podido establecer relaciones entre la amplitud de ciertos ángulos de segmentos corporales y las diferentes tendencias de colocación. Los resultados nos indican que la mayor amplitud de los ángulos de los segmentos codo, hombro y cadera nos pueden servir para anticipar la colocación de primeros tiempos en voleibol.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: Comportamiento motor, voleibol, análisis cinemático, anticipación, colocación.

  2. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Alamo, A Gutierrez; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A; de Ayala, P Perez; Villamide, M J

    2009-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets containing 55% of each wheat sample (3 cultivars, one of them from 2 origins). Starch and protein digestion were calculated from the remaining starch and protein in 4 segments of the small intestine and in excreta, using chromic oxide as a marker. Mean retention time was measured in each segment, which enabled calculations of digestion rates. In the second experiment, 2,600 chickens were assigned to 5 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (with KDS from 1.80 to 2.56 h(-1)) and growth performance was determined (1 to 34 d). In 3 treatments, dietary starch was provided each by the wheat cultivars (same origin), whereas in the other 2 treatments, 25 and 50% of the wheat starch with the highest KDS was substituted by pea starch. Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus in the cecal chyme and glucose in the blood (glycemic index) were measured in broilers at d 19 and 25, respectively. Starch was gradually digested along the small intestine, mainly in the jejunum (48.5 and 80.4% at proximal and distal jejunum) where the largest differences among wheat samples were found. Starch digestion rate varied with origin (from 1.96 to 2.56 h(-1)) and cultivar (from 2.17 to 2.56 h(-1)). Crude protein digestion rate (average 2.21 h(-1)) was not affected by either cultivar or origin. Broiler growth and feed conversion ratio improved in a quadratic way with KDS. The maximum broiler performance was observed with KDS around 2.2 h(-1). Blood glucose response (glycemic index) was not affected by KDS; therefore, it cannot be used to predict broiler performance. In conclusion, the rate of starch digestion varies among wheats, depending on both genetic and environmental conditions of the grain, and

  3. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  4. Improved Performance of Broilers and Broiler Breeders Associated with an Amended Vaccination Program Against Reovirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Herdt, Peter; Broeckx, Marlies; Van Driessche, Filip; Vermeiren, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Geert; Van Gorp, Stefaan

    2016-12-01

    A vertically integrated monitoring program was set up for breeders hatched in 2013 and their offspring to detect differences in performance related to the reovirus vaccination schedule. Within the same organization in Belgium, 17 breeder flocks were vaccinated with one dose of live and one dose of inactivated reovirus vaccine, while 14 flocks received two doses of inactivated vaccine without live priming. The hatchability of the eggs produced by these birds was examined. Further, the daily growth, feed conversion, mortality, slaughterhouse condemnation, production index, and antibiotic use were monitored in 110 broiler flocks derived from the breeders. All gathered data were examined statistically. In eggs obtained from breeders vaccinated twice with inactivated reovirus vaccine, a significant 2.88% higher hatchability rate was observed. The progeny broiler flocks of these breeders showed a significant 18.2% lower mortality during the fattening period. Although not statistically significant, the slaughterhouse condemnation rate was 10.1% lower as well. The results may indicate that-under the epidemiologic conditions of this study-double administration of inactivated reovirus vaccine in broiler breeders can at least contribute to higher hatchability of breeder eggs and lower broiler mortality.

  5. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler......, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected......-isolates from different broiler houses and from flocks reared in different houses appeared to be genetically unrelated. These findings indicated that VRE was transmitted between consecutive broiler flocks by clones of resistant. bacteria surviving in the broiler houses despite cleaning and disinfection between...

  6. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  7. Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleman S.M. Beski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In poultry nutrition, most attention is given to protein products, due to the importance of protein as a major constituent of the biologically active compounds in the body. It also assists in the synthesis of body tissue, for that renovation and growth of the body. Furthermore, protein exists in form of enzymes and hormones which play important roles in the physiology of any living organism. Broilers have high dietary protein requirements, so identification of the optimum protein concentration in broiler diets, for either maximizing broiler performance or profit, requires more knowledge about birds' requirements for protein and amino acids and their effects on the birds' growth performance and development. It also requires knowledge about the protein sources available that can be used in poultry diets. The broad aim of this review is to highlight the importance of some of the available high-quality specialized protein products of both animal and plant origins which can be explored for feeding broiler chickens. Minimization of the concentration of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs and supplementation with immunologically active compounds are the main focus of gut health-promoting broiler diets. These diet characteristics are influenced by feed ingredient composition and feed processing. The general hypothesis is that these protein products are highly digestible and devoid of or contain less ANFs. Feeding these products to broiler chicks, especially at an earlier age, can assist early gut development and digestive physiology, and improve broiler growth performance and immunity.

  8. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock......A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica infection in Danish broiler production. The study was based on information in the antemortem database (AM database) where data were available for all broiler Becks slaughtered over the 2...

  9. Densitometric and biochemical values of broiler tibias at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, F R; Sagula, A L; Junqueira, O M; Pereira, G T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the normal values of bone radiographic density (BRD) by using the optical densitometry in radiographic images and the biochemical values represented by serum calcium, ash percentage, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) from tibia ash of Cobb broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age. A total of 14 broilers were used for densitometric analysis, and 15 were used for biochemical dosages. The BRD values increased (P aviculture, allowing us to compare, subsequently, pathological and physiological values or results of broilers fed with different diets.

  10. Influence of a probiotic on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cardoso Bitterncourt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic product (composition: Lactobacillus acidophillus (3.5 × 10(11 CFU, Streptcoccus faecium (3.5 × 10(11 CFU and Bifidobacterium bifidum (3.5 × 10(11 CFU on broiler performance. A total of 1200 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age, and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (antibiotic, probiotic and control with 10 replicates of 40 birds each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality were evaluated. Concerning weight gain, in the periods of 0-7 and 0-14 days of age, the group fed the antibiotic product presented higher values as compared with the other treatments. However, in the periods of 0-21, 0-28 and 0-35 days of age, birds fed the antibiotic presented higher weight gain only in relation to the control group. Feed intake differences were detected only in the initial period of 0-7 days of age, with the group fed the antibiotic product presenting higher feed intake as compared with that fed the probiotic product, although these groups were not different from the control group. No statistical difference was detected in feed conversion ratio among treatments in any of the evaluated age intervals. Mortality was different only in the period of 0-14 days of age, which was higher in the control group as compared with that of the birds fed the probiotic product, but it was not different from the group receiving the antibiotic. Treatment with probiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium bifidum does not affect broiler performance.

  11. Prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis in broiler farms in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Zafer; Guven, Esin; Akcay, Aytac; Kar, Sirri; Nalbantoglu, Serpil; Cakmak, Ayse

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Eimeria spp. oocysts in fecal samples collected from 1,108 broiler houses in six regions, representing about 12% of all broiler farms in Turkey, was studied using the modified McMaster method. The age of the chickens in the 1,108 pens varied from 1 to 50 days. Oocysts were found in 602 (54.3%) of these broiler houses, and the mean OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) in those samples was 36,498.7 (50-952,000). No indication of clinical coccidiosis or other clinically evident infection or wide mortality was encountered in any of the pens studied. Further study showed that the age of the chickens, the occurrence of diarrhea on the houses and the density of broiler breeding in the area correlated with subclinical coccidiosis prevalence.

  12. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) meal diets. HF Defang, A Teguia, J Awah-Ndukum, A Kenfack, F Ngoula, F Metuge ...

  14. Effects of a novel carbohydrate fraction on broiler performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    based feed ingredient (natural carbohydrate fraction (NCF) isolated from a specific strain of yeast) on broiler chickens, and to examine its mode of action. The trial was set up as a complete randomized design with three treatments and eight.

  15. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  16. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  17. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pullorum infections in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Liesbeth M; Decostere, Annemie; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Maes, Dominiek; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2007-05-10

    Four groups of 23 one-day-old broiler chickens were each inoculated by gavage with a different Helicobacter pullorum strain isolated from humans or poultry. As a control, a fifth group of eight animals was inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Faecal samples were collected weekly and tested for the presence of H. pullorum DNA using PCR. At 1, 8, 15, 22 and 42 days postinoculation, birds were euthanized and samples from the liver and intestinal tract were histologically, immunohistochemically and bacteriologically examined. The samples were also tested for the presence of H. pullorum DNA by PCR. All animals remained clinically healthy throughout the experiment although mild lesions in the caeca were present in animals inoculated with H. pullorum. In all H. pullorum-inoculated groups, DNA of this bacterium was detected in faecal samples until 42 days postinoculation. The main site of colonization was the caecum. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the bacterium was closely associated with the caecal epithelial cells. It was concluded that H. pullorum may colonize the caecum of broilers and is excreted in their faeces until slaughter age. This implies that chicken meat might constitute a source of infection for human beings.

  18. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  19. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project de...

  20. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  1. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-08-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Performance of broilers fed enzyme-supplemented tigernut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was set up to study the effects of replacing maize with tigernut meal (TGN) at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100 per cent levels, with 0.10 per cent enzyme supplementation of all levels, on performance characteristics and carcass yield in broiler chicken for 8 weeks (56 days). A total of 200 Anak-2000 breed of broilers ...

  3. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing the Choice of type of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Return on Investment (RI) for Brood-and-Sell broiler enterprise was 0.62 while that of Brood-and-finish Broiler enterprise was 0.58. This indicates that a one naira investment in Brood-and-Sell enterprise realized a profit of 62k while that of Brood-and-finish enterprise realized 58k implying that on the basis of this analysis, ...

  4. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that

  5. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  6. THE EFFECT OF BEE POLLEN ON BROILER BREAST AND THIGH MEAT COLOUR L a b

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hascík; Ibrahim Elimam; Juraj Cubon; Lenka Trembecká; Jana Tkácová; Miroslav Krocko; Miroslava Kacániová

    2014-01-01

      The present study was aimed to investigate the impact of the addition bee pollen as supplements diet into the broiler feed mixture on broiler breast and thigh meat colour such as L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values...

  7. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled. It is apparent that the market prices for broilers at the time of this study are not fully reflected in the quantitative and qualitative measurements included in this study. It appears that consumers may be placing significant value on more intangible attributes associated with broilers marketed as organic and free-range chicken than on those attributes measured in

  8. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Anja B; de Jong, Ingrid C; van de Weerd, Heleen A; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems). However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  10. Reasons for Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    people, ranging from the uneducated to the very highly educated group in the society. ... on patronage of TBS and reason for presenting to hospital for orthodox ..... regretted ever seeking help from them, though few were still indecisive.

  11. Reasons for Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communities that TBS are better at fracture treatment than orthodox practitioners and that there is a supernatural influence in their management of fractures.[3] Most patients with fractures present first to the traditional bonesetters before coming to the hospital;[4] it is therefore apt that we do not ignore this level of care.

  12. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...... this study emphasize the need to manage depopulation of broiler houses as quickly as possible and in one batch only....

  13. Effect of Bedding Material on Dust and Ammonia Emission from Broiler Houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Riel, van J.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia emission, Bedding material, Broilers, Dust emission The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bedding materials on fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) and ammonia emissions from broiler houses. The effects on broiler performance and footpad lesions were also studied. The

  14. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  15. Effects of β-Mannanase on broiler performance, gut morphology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... gut morphology and some blood proteins and leucocytes of broilers provided with diets based on corn and soybean meal. Broiler chickens ... necessary for successful poultry production. Among potential factors reducing ... feed efficiency in broilers (Couch et al., 1967; Ray et al., 1982; Verma and McNab, ...

  16. Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vanrompay, D.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Iben, C.; Leitgeb, R.; Schiavone, A.; Prola, L.; Janssens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens.

  17. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  18. Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted using Anak Red broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of grading the nutritive value of full fat soyabean meal diet based with either fishmeal or Blaick soldier fly larvae meal for broiler production. The average live weight gains of broilers fed an all vegetable protein, fishmeal and larvae meal diets ...

  19. The effect of chemical treatment on life broilers before slaughter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, effect of chemical treatment (surface and oral) using chlorine and TH4 of life broilers before slaughter and slaughter conditions on bacterial and keeping quality of broiler meat was investigated. The objectives were to improve both bacterial and keeping quality of broiler meat and to identify critical control points ...

  20. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality of broiler meat during refrigerated and frozen storage. ... Abstract. Experiment 1 was carried out with 220 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of 11 different levels of vitamin E supplementation (viz. 0 to 200 mg a-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) on the ...

  1. Bacterial successions in the Broiler Gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and an increased bacterial diversity was observed. Lactobacillaceae (mainly Lactobacillus) represented most of the Firmicutes at all ages and in all segments of the gut except the ceca...... of crop, gizzard, ileum and ceca in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29 and 36 days). Of the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Since there was no significant influence of diets on bacterial....... The development of a “mature” microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from 15-22 days. A striking increase in the relative abundance of L. salivarius (17-36%) and clostridia (11-18%), and a concomitant decrease of L. reuteri was found in the ileum after d 15. De-conjugated bile salts increased...

  2. Bacterial successions in the Broiler Gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving diets based on wheat (WBF), maize (MBF), and maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% (CKMS-15) or 30% (CKMS-30) crimped kernel maize silage. The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions in the contents...... of crop, gizzard, ileum and ceca in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29 and 36 days). Of the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Since there was no significant influence of diets on bacterial...... diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and an increased bacterial diversity was observed. Lactobacillaceae (mainly Lactobacillus) represented most of the Firmicutes at all ages and in all segments of the gut except the ceca...

  3. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  4. Bioequivalence of three florfenicol preparations in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husamettin Ekici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the bioequivalence of three different preparations of florfenicol using non-drugged broiler chickens. A total of 28 broiler chickens aging 30-day were divided into four equal groups; these were Group I, II, III, and IV. The birds of Group I (for effective substance were given intravenous (i.v. administration of florfenicol dosed at 40 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.. The birds of Group II (for reference drug, Group III (for test-1 drug, and Group IV (for test-2 drug received florfenicol preparations with water (dosed at 40 mg/kg b.wt. through intracrop administration. Blood samples were collected periodically from the birds of all four groups, and blood plasma was separated. Levels of florfenicol and its metabolite (florfenicol amine in the plasma were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In this study, the limit of detection (LOD for florfenicol and florfenicol amine were recorded as 0.017 and 0.78 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the recovery of florfenicol and florfenicol amine were 83.4-84.6 and 82.2-83.8%, respectively. Based on the values of area under the curve (AUC, maximum concentration (Cmax, and time to maximum concentration (Tmax, test-1 drug was found to be acceptable, whereas test-2 drug was remained below the acceptable limits (80-125% of AUC and Cmax. Thus, it was concluded that test-1 drug was bioequivalent as compared to the reference drug.

  5. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  6. Sound analysis to model weight of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ilaria; Tullo, Emanuela; Carpentier, Lenn; Berckmans, Dries; Butterworth, Andy; Vranken, Erik; Norton, Tomas; Berckmans, Daniel; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-09-01

    The pattern of body weight gain during the commercial growing of broiler chickens is important to understand growth and feed conversion ratio of each flock.The application of sound analysis techniques has been widely studied to measure and analyze the amplitude and frequency of animal sounds. Previous studies have shown a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.001) between the frequency of vocalization and the age and weight of broilers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and validate a model that describes the growth rate of broiler chickens based on the peak frequency of their vocalizations and to explore the possibility to develop a tool capable of automatically detecting the growth of the chickens based on the frequency of their vocalizations during the production cycle. It is part of an overall goal to develop a Precision Livestock Farming tool that assists farmers in monitoring the growth of broiler chickens during the production cycle. In the present study, sounds and body weight were continuously recorded in an intensive broiler farm during 5 production cycles. For each cycle the peak frequencies of the chicken vocalizations were used to estimate the weight and then they were compared with the observed weight of the birds automatically measured using on farm automated weighing devices. No significant difference is shown between expected and observed weights along the entire production cycles; this trend was confirmed by the correlation coefficient between expected and observed weights (r = 96%, P value ≤ 0.001).The identified model used to predict the weight as a function of the peak frequency confirmed that bird weight might be predicted by the frequency analysis of the sounds emitted at farm level. Even if the precision of the weighing method based on sounds investigated in this study has to be improved, it gives a reasonable indication regarding the growth of broilers opening a new scenario in monitoring systems in broiler houses. © 2017

  7. The Effects of Two Different Cleaning and Disinfection Programs on Broiler Performance and Microbiological Status of Broiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFC Burbarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.

  8. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Moon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat.

  9. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  10. Effect of Different Proportion of Lucerne Meal in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We carried the feeding experiment with broiler chickens ROSS 308. The experiment was contained from two groups. In each group were 100 pcs broiler chickens. We research in the experiment the efficiency of lucerne meal with proportion 2% and 6% in feed mixtures. The lucerne meal contains protein 164 g per kg, fiber 257 g per kg, lysine 6.95 g per kg, methionine 2.4 g per kg, methionine + cysteine 4.1 g per kg, threonine 6.66 g per kg, thryptophane 2.1 g per kg, metabolizable energy 4.0 MJ per kg and carotenoids content 293.0 mg per kg. The broilers body weight was increased 1738.4 g in group with proportion of lucerne meal 2% in feed mixtures. The proportion of proportion 6% lucerne meal in feed mixtures decreased a body weight of the broiler chickens on level 1552.8 g. The differences of body weight between groups of the broiler chickens were statistically significant (P<0.05. Lucerne meal contains fiber, which increases the overall percentage of fiber in the compound, resulting in worse feed utilization.

  11. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  12. Improvement of a multi-stage model for the modeling of a functionalized nursing bed as support for the sensor-assisted function-alization of furniture in the hospital and care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzig Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of preparation-free functionalized furniture based patient monitoring systems for use in the area of home- or stationary- care is often empirically driven. In particular, functionalization of furniture by means of different sensors is strongly affected by this development methodology. As a result, the systems are often not extensive-ly extendable or cannot be optimized because basic mechanisms are not comprehensible. In order to support development or optimization, a modelling approach is often useful. Thus, using a more comprehensive approach the required sensitivity of the sensors as well as their position in the system can be derived from a simulation model. In order to solve this problem, a multi-stage model was introduced at the BMT conference in 2014 by the authors, which allows the designer to model the entire system. The model has been extended and improved in the meantime and the achieved progress is presented in this work. The presented modelling approach can be divided into three main components. These are the person under supervision, the furniture (in our case a nursing bed and the sensors (force measuring cells which are modelled separately. In this work the main focus will be on improving the modelling of the human movement process and its implementation. Furthermore, the modelling of the sensor behavior in the nursing bed is described in detail with regard to their oscillation behavior and the influence on the model.

  13. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer.

  14. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms...... and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places...

  15. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharekhani, Jamal; Sadeghi-Dehkordi, Zivar; Bahrami, Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%), E. tenella (54.3%), E. necatrix (28.6%), and E. maxima (20%) were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P 0.05). This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary. PMID:26464948

  16. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%, E. tenella (54.3%, E. necatrix (28.6%, and E. maxima (20% were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P0.05. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.

  17. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  18. The Influence of Concentrace Mineral Drops on Performance Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Mugiyono

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted in Experimental Farm Faculty of Animal Husbandry Unsoed from July 1 st until August 15 th, 1996. The purpose want to study the influence of CMD supplementation in drinking water consists of M0 = control; M1 = 0.5 drops/1000 cc, M2 = 1 drops/1000 cc; M3 = 1.5 drops/1000 cc and M4 = 2 drops/1000cc. The performance observed were growth, body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, drinking water consumption; and income over feed and mineral cost (IOFMC. The research involved 100 broiler chickens divided that CMD supplementation until 2 drops/1000cc did not significantly affect on the performance of broiler chickens except in income over feed and mineral cost (P<0.05. (Animal Production 1(2: 56-62 (1999 Key Words: broiler, concentrace mineral drops, performance.

  19. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  20. Footpad Dermatitis in Broilers: Differences between Strains and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BB Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pododermatitis, also known as "bumblefoot", is an inflammatory lesion of the footpad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic strain and sex on the incidence of footpad lesions in broilers. The experiment was carried out at São Paulo State University, using 480 broilers distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement (2 strains X2 sexes, with four replicates of 30 broilers each, totaling 16 experimental units. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and livability were evaluated at 21, 35 and 42 days of age; production efficiency factor was determined at the end of the rearing period. On day 42, the footpads of 100 broilers were grossly examined and assigned a lesion score in a 1-3 scale (Almeida Paz & Martins, 2014. Three samples per score within treatment were collected for microscopic evaluation. Analysis of variance was applied and performance parameter means were compared by Tukey's test. Footpad lesion incidence was analyzed by the c2 test using SAS (version8.2. Ross(r broilers presented higher feed intake during all evaluated periods, and higher weight gain only in the period 1 to 21 days compared with Cobb(r broilers. On the other hand, Cobb(r presented better feed conversion ratio in the periods of 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days. The incidence of foot pad lesions was statistically different (p< 0.05 between strains and sexes, but there were no interactions between these factors. The lesion scores assigned were compatible with the histopathological results, showing that the higher the score, the more severe were the dermal and epidermal lesions.

  1. Iron requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, Diogo; Vieira, Sergio Luiz; Angel, Clara Roselina; Stefanello, Catarina; Kindlein, Liris; Ebbing, Marco Antonio; Simões, Cristina Tonial

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate Fe requirements of broiler breeders. One-hundred-fifty-six Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens were individually placed in electrostatically painted cages at 22 weeks. The study was composed of an adaptation phase, in which hens were fed corn-soy-wheat bran diets until 35 wks. An Fe deficient mash diet (24.6 ppm Fe) was provided from 35 to 46 wk in order to induce a partial body Fe depletion. A production phase followed from 47 to 70 wk when hens were fed 6 diets with increasing Fe sulfate supplementation, which, upon analyses had 24.6, 48.6, 74.3, 99.6, 125.6, and 148.2 ppm Fe. Thirty hatching eggs from each treatment were randomly collected in the last wk of each production period and incubated. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were analyzed from 6 hens as well as all hatched chicks per treatment. Analyses of production and hatching data were conducted using quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line (BL), and exponential asymptotic (EA) models. Effects of dietary Fe were observed for total eggs and total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe content, and hen and chick hematocrit and hemoglobin (P < 0.05). These responses to added Fe were optimized when dietary Fe were 96.8, 97.1, 130.6, 122.6, 120.0, and 125.0 ppm (QP) and 76.4, 89.3, 135.0, 128.4, 133.8, and 95.0 ppm (BL) for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe content, and hen and chick hematocrit and hemoglobin, respectively. Optimization with the EA model was obtained for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe, and hen and chick hemoglobin at 97.9, 111.0, 77.9, and 96.3 ppm Fe for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe, and hen and chick hemoglobin, respectively. Adequate Fe levels are needed to maintain egg production as well as hatching chicks' indexes. Fe concentration in the yolk and diet are positively influenced. The average of all Fe requirement estimates obtained in the present study was 106 ppm total Fe, whereas averaged values for BL, QP, and EA models were 107, 113, and 97 ppm Fe, respectively. © 2017

  2. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only...... minor genotypic variation. Three different ribotypes were demonstrated when EcoRI was used for digestion of DNA. Two types were obtained by the use of HindIII. Nine different plasmids and seven different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A 180 kb plasmid was, however, only demonstrated in isolates...

  3. Efficacy in the field of two anticoccidial vaccines for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared two attenuated anticoccidial vaccines, administered to broilers by spray into the incubator (88,000 males and 210,100 females. Vaccine A container five species of Eimeria and vaccine B three. Zootechnical performance was similar in the two groups, with mean lesion scores no higher than 1; vaccine A caused only duodenal lesions, while vaccine B also caused typhlitis. Maximum oocyst count was 23,000/g feces at age 28 days with vaccine A and 38,000 at 21 days with vaccine B. Broilers vaccinated with vaccine B had more frequent enteric symptoms, and C. perfringens isolation.

  4. Application OF LIBS To Estimate The Age Of Broiler Breeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Z. Abdel; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known spectrochemical elemental analysis technique. In our investigations of the LIBS spectra it has been found that there is a remarkable correlation between the ionic to atomic spectral lines emission ratio and the surface hardness of eggshell for two Different Broiler Breeder at different age. The proposed technique has been applied successfully in poultry science to estimate the age of broiler breeders by measuring the surface hardness of their eggshell. The experiments have been performed on two different strains, Arbor Acres plus (AAP) and Hubard Classic (HC), and the results were satisfactory.

  5. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  6. Environmental and physiological variables during the catching of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de V Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC. Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.

  7. ANALISIS PENAWARAN AYAM PEDAGING (BROILER DI TINGKAT PETANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIUS HARTONO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan usaha peternakan ayam pedaging (broiler untuk meningkatkan produksi daging sangat dirasakan manfaatnya, terutama untuk mensubstitusi ternak sapi dan kerbau impor, yang populasinya menurun serta untuk menyediakan daging bagi masyarakat dengan harga murah, sehingga konsumsi protein hewani mereka dapat meningkat pula. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh harga ayam pedaging, harga DOC, harga pakan ayam, harga obat-obatan, dan upah tenaga kerja terhadap penawaran ayam pedaging. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif, sementara data dikumpulkan dengan metode survai. Sebanyak 60 responden dipilih sebagai sampel penelitian yang ditentukan secara purposif di antara 200 peternak ayam pedaging di Kecamatan Suruh, Kabupaten Semarang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan berbagai variabel independen yang meliputi harga ayam pedaging, harga DOC, harga pakan ayam, harga obat-obatan, dan upah tenaga kerja berpengaruh terhadap penawaran ayam pedaging, yang dianalisis dengan model fungsi penawaran trans log, dan secara individual masing-masing variabel independen tersebut mempunyai koefisien regresi 0,3688; 1,7079; -2,9779; 5,2588 dan 3.6565. THE ANALYSIS OF BROILER SUPPLY FARMING SUMMERY ABSTRACT Developing of broiler farming For increase meat production is assumed to be useful, especially to supply the substitution of beef and buffalo cattle import, in which their population decrease, besides to supply meat for society which low price so that their animal protein consumption can increase. The aim of this study was to know the effect of DOC price, woof chicken price, drug price, labor wage and broiler price to broiler supply. The descriptive method was used in this research, while the data was collected using survey method. The 60 respondents were selected purposively among the 200 of broiler farming at Suruh Sub District, Semarang regency. The results of this study indicated that on the

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...... in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9·6 km and 13·5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety...

  9. Multi-Stage Maximum Likelihood Target Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Vxs 1 Rx. + Vys1 Ryi (89) cRsi + VxtRxi + VytRyi 7 where c is the average speed of sound. 8 c. Compute the frequency residual 9 (RESfi ) : 10 RESf...16 respect to the sensor associated with the ith 17 measurement: 18 f = Fb cRs1 + VxsiRx, + VysiRy1 (313) cRsi + VxtRx, + VytRy1 19 5.) Compute the

  10. Shielded multi-stage EMI noise filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Fugate, David Lee

    2016-11-08

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise filter embodiments and methods for filtering are provided herein. EMI noise filters include multiple signal exclusion enclosures. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures contain filter circuit stages. The signal exclusion enclosures can attenuate noise generated external to the enclosures and/or isolate noise currents generated by the corresponding filter circuits within the enclosures. In certain embodiments, an output of one filter circuit stage is connected to an input of the next filter circuit stage. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures can be chambers formed using conductive partitions to divide an outer signal exclusion enclosure. EMI noise filters can also include mechanisms to maintain the components of the filter circuit stages at a consistent temperature. For example, a metal base plate can distribute heat among filter components, and an insulating material can be positioned inside signal exclusion enclosures.

  11. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  12. PERAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DALAM PENYULUHAN PEMELIHARAAN AYAM BROILER DI DESA TANRARA KECAMATAN BONTONOMPO SELATAN KABUPATEN GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Pebrianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a picture of how the role of the local government in the counseling of medical care of broiler chickens in the village of Tanrara, South Bontonompo District, Regency of Gowa and analysis counseling medical care of broiler chicken farms. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative , Data is collected using a technical field research, library research and data searches on line. The data were then analyzed qualitatively to explain or describe the data examined of the field, both primary data obtained from interviews, as well as from secondary data. The results of this study indicate that the Agency's role in the maintenance of broiler chickens counseling is to provide education to farmers (educational roles, provide assistance to farmers, as a facilitator for the farmers, as well as help increase the productivity of resources and ranchers. Counseling of medical care of broiler chickens may improve outcomes farm broiler chickens caused by could encourage increased production and productivity of poultry broiler, encourage availability  broiler chickens is always stable on the market, local goverment encourage increased incomes and welfare of broiler breeders as well as help the marketing of chicken broiler widespread.     Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh gambaran tentang bagaimana peran Dinas Perikanan, Kelautan, dan Peternakan dalam penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler di Desa Tanrara Kecamatan Bontonompo Selatan Kabupaten Gowa serta ananlisis mengenai penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler. Tipe penelitian yang dipergunakan adalah diskriptif kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan teknis field research library research dan penelusuran data on line. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis secara kualitatif dengan menjelaskan atau menggambarkan data yang diteliti dari lapangan, baik data primer yang diperoleh dari hasil wawancara, maupun dari data sekunder. Hasil penelitian ini

  13. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1 of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.

  14. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  15. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    left and right scores was lower than 1 (FPD: 0.73 and HB: 0.57), and both left and right FPD and HB must, therefore, be evaluated. High prevalences of FPD, but also HB, were achieved in the field trial, but lower prevalences may be sufficient for genetic evaluations and would be less detrimental......This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB...... were subjectively scored at ~4, 5, and 7 wk on a scale from 0 through 5. Genetic parameters were estimated in 2 lines based on a larger data set. The overall agreement of repeated FPD and HB scores was high (0.66 to 0.86) and the scoring system was, therefore, considered reliable. Kendall's tau between...

  16. Risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Sunde, Marianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Norström, Madelaine

    2016-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 27 broiler farms including 182 broiler flocks was performed to determine risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks. Information regarding possible risk factors was collected by an online questionnaire and by samples obtained from broiler and parent flocks during the study period. Additional information was provided by the broiler production company. The prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in parent flocks and broiler flocks sampled in the study was estimated. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected in 13.8% of the parent flocks and 22.5% of the broiler flocks included in the study. A multivariable generalized linear model was used to estimate risk factors. The risk for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was associated with the status of the previous flock in the broiler house (odds ratio=12.7), number of parent flocks supplying the broiler flock with day-old chickens (odds ratio=6.3), routines for disinfection of floor between production cycles (odds ratio=0.1), and transport personnel entering the room where the broilers are raised (odds ratio=9.3). Our findings highlights that implementation of a high level of biosecurity with a minimal number of people entering the broiler house during production cycles, as well as rigorous cleaning and disinfection routines between production cycles will contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in broiler flocks provided that there is no selection pressure from antimicrobial use in the broiler production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zietz, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2010-07-30

    Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the naturally occurring flavonoids in kale. A total of 71 flavonoid glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)) method. Of these 71 flavonol glycosides, 27 were non-acylated, 30 were monoacylated and 14 were diacylated. Non-acylated flavonol glycosides were present as mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. This is the first time that the occurrence of four different fragmentation patterns of non-acylated flavonol triglycosides has been reported in one matrix simultaneously. In addition, 44 flavonol glycosides were acylated with p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, hydroxyferulic or sinapic acid. While monoacylated glycosides existed as di-, tri- and tetraglycosides, diacylated glycosides occurred as tetra- and pentaglycosides. To the best of our knowledge, 28 compounds in kale are reported here for the first time. These include three acylated isorhamnetin glycosides (isorhamnetin-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-feruloyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-O-diglucoside) and seven non-acylated isorhamnetin glycosides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Vaccination with recombinant adenovirus expressing multi-stage antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by the mucosal route induces higher systemic cellular and local mucosal immune responses than with other vaccination routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is a cause of congenital disease and abortion in humans and animals. Various vaccination strategies against toxoplasmosis in rodent models have been used in the past few decades; however, effective vaccines remain a challenge. A recombinant adenovirus vaccine expressing ubiquitin-conjugated multi-stage antigen segments (Ad-UMAS derived from different life-cycle stages of T. gondii was constructed previously. Here, we compared the immune responses and protection effects in vaccination of mice with Ad-UMAS by five vaccination routes including intramuscular (i.m., intravenous (i.v., subcutaneous (s.c., intraoral (i.o., and intranasal (i.n.. Much higher levels of T. gondii-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in the sera of the intraoral and intranasal vaccination groups on day 49 compared with controls (p < 0.05. The percentages of CD8+ T-cells in mice immunized intranasally and intraorally were larger than in mice immunized intramuscularly (p < 0.05. The highest level of IL-2 and IFN-γ was detected in the group with nasal immunization, and splenocyte proliferation activity was significantly enhanced in mice immunized via the oral and nasal routes. Furthermore, the higher survival rate (50% and lower cyst numbers observed in the intraoral and intranasal groups all indicate that Ad-UMAS is far more effective in protecting mice against T. gondii infection via the mucosal route. Ad-UMAS could be an effective and safe mucosal candidate vaccine to protect animals and humans against T. gondii infection.

  19. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations. PMID:23320854

  20. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per

  1. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  2. performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    density and L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. .... treatment were frozen immediately at ~4 °C. The meat was separated manually from the bone and then homogenized using a ..... activated protein kinase in muscle during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 270 ...

  3. Broiler walking ability and toe asymmetry under harsh rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological asymmetry has been described as a potential broiler welfare indicator, for interpreting the birds' ability to cope with the challenges that may affect its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of morphological asymmetry data to estimate broiler walking ability and welfare.dBroilers werefed diets supplemented or not with vitamin D. Toes were measured when birds were 42 and 49 days old using digital caliper.the left and right sides of the following four bilateral traits (tarsometatarsus length, outer toe length, mid toe length, and back toe length were measured twice on intact alive birds by two different researcherh. Data from right and left sides were compared in the two treatments using the Student t-test, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the total asymmetry found as a result of the total sum of the differences in the measurements. Asymmetry data were comparedwith the total numberof leg lesions. Mid toe and tarsometatarsus asymmetry resultswere considered as actual fluctuating asymmetry, and presented normal distribution (Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p >0.05. However, back toe and outer toe measurements were not normally distributed, as determined by the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05, indicating anti-asymmetry; when comparing right with left limb,results were significantly different fron zero (t-Student, p <0.05 indicating directional fluctuating asymmetry.The welfare of broilers withwalking difficulty due to the presence of severe asymmetry in limbs is poor.

  4. Changes of Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens with Cold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mohsen

    HDL-c) of the M.TRP- and. H.TRP-fed birds was .... thigh meat was measured on a spectrophotometer (Unico-2400, Japan) at a wavelength of 410 nm. The data were ..... activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites. Poult. Sci.

  5. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolera...

  6. Investigation of immune response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé

    could limit the effects of the disease. In this study we focused on the impact of Eimeria maxima on different traits (e.g., weight gain, body temperature, blood composition, intestinal lesions scores, oocysts count) in two challenge experiments on commercial broilers (pilot then larger experiment...

  7. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  8. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy

  9. Enhancement of broiler performance and immune response by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    662. Ma A, Shi W, Niu X, Wang M, Zhong X (2009). Effects of Echinacea purpurea extract on the immunological response to infectious bursal disease vaccine in broilers. Front. Agr. China. 3:1-5. Maass N, Bauer J, Paulicks BR, ...

  10. Effect of supplementing fungi degraded cowpea seedhull in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of inclusion of fungi degraded cowpea seedhull was investigated in a broiler study that lasted for eight weeks. The degraded seedhull was included at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in a Completely Randomized Design experiment. The performance characteristics and heamatological parameters were evaluated.

  11. Performance Characteristics And Muscle Fat Contents Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 8.08, 12.12 and 16.16% dietary inclusion of POS. it was concluded that 8% dietary inclusion of POS was most beneficial considering muscle fat and economic returns. Keywords: Palm oil sludge, maize, broiler chickens, performance, carcass fat. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol. 4 (2) 2006: pp.

  12. IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS TO LOCAL IBD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vaccine was administered using different routes; intramuscular, subcutaneous and oral. 10- day old broiler was randomly sampled from a group of 40 for the presence of IBD antibodies using qualitative and quantitative agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). The maternal antibodies in the chicks were variable, low and ...

  13. Erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old Ross breed broiler finisher birds were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal on erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3 , T4 and T5 with 24 birds per ...

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of starter broiler chicks fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) one week old unsexed Cobb starter broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five experimental treatment diets of 24 birds each in a completely randomize design. The birds were divided into three replicates of 8 birds each, and were offered experimental diets contained 0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and ...

  15. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two basal feeds (118 and 175 g protein/kg) with similar balanced amino acid mixtures were appropriately blended to produce six experimental diets differing in protein. These were fed for six weeks to 180 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 26 w of age. A 13 h photoperiod was applied. Half the ...

  16. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all

  17. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, Anja B.; Jong, de Ingrid; Weerd, van de Heleen A.; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of

  18. Fibrillar Collagen Organization Associated with Broiler Wooden Breast Fibrotic Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G; Clark, Daniel L; Tonniges, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-01

    Wooden breast (WB) is a fibrotic myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Birds with WB are phenotypically detected by the palpation of a hard p. major muscle. A primary feature of WB is the fibrosis of muscle with the replacement of muscle fibers with extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen. The ability of a tissue to be pliable and stretch is associated with the organization of collagen fibrils in the connective tissue areas surrounding muscle fiber bundles (perimysium) and around individual muscle fibers (endomysium). The objective of this study was to compare the structure and organization of fibrillar collagen by using transmission electron microscopy in two fast-growing broiler lines (Lines A and B) with incidence of WB to a slower growing broiler Line C with no phenotypically detectable WB. In Line A, the collagen fibrils were tightly packed in a parallel organization, whereas in Line B, the collagen fibrils were randomly aligned. Tightly packed collagen fibrils arranged in parallel are associated with nonpliable collagen that is highly cross-linked. This will lead to a phenotypically hard p. major muscle. In Line C, the fibrillar collagen was sparse in its distribution. Furthermore, the average collagen fibril diameter and banding D-period length were altered in Line A p. major muscles affected with WB. Taken together, these data are suggestive of different fibrotic myopathies beyond just what is classified as WB in fast-growing broiler lines.

  19. Impact of nutrition on welfare aspects of broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive performance, broiler breeders are feed restricted during the rearing period and, to a lesser extent, during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry and suffer from

  20. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  1. Genetic Variation among Broiler Genotypes in susceptibility to colibacillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Stegeman, J.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Selection for reduced susceptibility to colibacillosis in broilers may contribute to the prevention of colibacillosis. Such selection should focus on the responses to Escherichia coli rather than the associated primary agent(s). The purpose of the current study was to examine whether genetic

  2. Performance, organ growth and economics of finisher broiler fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, organ growth and economics of finishing broilers. The harvested neem leaves were chopped and air dried under room temperature for ten days until they became crispy while retaining ...

  3. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  4. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When these data were pooled with previously reported data for female broilers, growth and feed conversion efficiency post 21 d and through to depletion for constant 8-h and birds transferred from 8 to 16 h at 20 d were significantly superior to constant 16-h birds. Constant 8-h birds ate about half their feed during the dark ...

  5. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    were significantly influenced in almost all the groups, with the exception of Group D. Group D received the diet supplemented with 0.5% CLA, which prevented (P < 0.05) the vaccine induced decrease in performance. Table 2 The effects of dietary treatments on body weight recorded on a weekly basis in male broiler.

  6. Identification of avian Mycoplasma species in commercial broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sera were tested for MG and MS antibody responses by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test and by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) Synbiotics kit. It was found that M. gallisepticum antibodies in broiler flocks detected by SPA and by ELISA tests were 10.47 and 19.76%, whereas M. synoviae were 7.86 and ...

  7. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to study the effect of nigella seed oil as an alternative to the antibiotic, avilamycin, on growth, digestibility, muscle fatty acid profile and some physiological parameters in broiler chickens. Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were divided into a control group and two treatment ...

  8. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two (finisher phase), broilers were fed with the finisher diets from 5-8 weeks and tolerated 15% rice offal inclusion in their diets with significant growth. In all experiments there was increase in feed intake as the level of rice offal increased. Keywords: Rice offal, chicken diets, starter phase, finisher phase. The Zoologist Vol.

  9. broiler finishers fed with processed mottle mucuna beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or reduce the adverse effects of the anti nutritionalfactors One hundred and thirty. five (135) chicks (Lehman strain), at 28 ... Attempts to reduce cost of feeding broilers and to ensure sustainable supply of feed include utilization of feed ingredients ..... Kumasi: Cita Printing Press Ltd. Okorie, JD. (1983). A Guide to Livestock ...

  10. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was no beneficial effect of .... All diets were prepared and fed in mash form. Birds were fed ad libitum from wooden ..... The results of this study showed no in- fluence of diet on the sizes of giblets, viscera.

  11. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  12. Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 9· week long study, three hundred 5-day-old Cobb-100 commercial broiler chicks were fed five isocaloric diets containing 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 pet cent crude protein respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Feed intake, final body weight and body weight gain significantly (P

  13. Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary energy levels remain constant. S A Osei, K Effah-Baah. Abstract. (Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 1987-90, 20-23: 21-24). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Physico - chemical chyme conditions and mineral absorption in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der J.D.

    1993-01-01


    In the Netherlands the efficiency of mineral absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals is a topic of interest to reduce the mineral concentration in animal manure. This study was done with broilers. It was focused on physico-chemical chyme conditions. These

  15. Diagnosis of Broiler Livers by Classifying Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Fagertun, Jens; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The manual health inspection are becoming the bottleneck at poultry processing plants. We present a computer vision method for automatic diagnosis of broiler livers. The non-rigid livers, of varying shape and sizes, are classified in patches by a convolutional neural network, outputting maps...

  16. Effects of a novel carbohydrate fraction on broiler performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    bacterial populations, gut morphology, effectiveness of digestion and feed utilization. It has been ... dietary mannan can protect the gastro-intestinal tract in ways other than just removing undesirable bacteria. ... a consistent improvement in piglet, sow, broiler and turkey performance (Hooge, 2004a; b; Miguel et al.,. 2004 ...

  17. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of various graded levels of rice offal diets on broilers were investigated in two experiments, a starter phase and a finisher phase. In each experiment, rice offal was fed at graded levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% in a completely randomized design. In experiment one (starter phase) day old chicks were fed with starter ...

  18. Performance and haematological indices of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Azadirachta indica (neem), Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata leaf meals as natural feed supplements on performance and haematology of broilers were evaluated. Two hundred and sixty-four 1 day-old Arbor acre chicks were divided randomly into six treatments and four replicates. Treatment 1 ...

  19. Response Of Finisher Broilers To Antibiotic and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 – day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the response of finisher broilers to antibiotic (neocloxin) and enzyme (Roxazyme G) supplemented diets. Three experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 had neither enzyme nor antibiotic supplementation. Diets 2 and 3 contained antibiotic and enzyme ...

  20. Exploring the economic potential of reducing broiler lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, É; Silvera, A M; Hansson, H; Saatkamp, H W; Blokhuis, H J

    2017-08-01

    1. The present study was designed first to explore the potential economic benefits of adopting management practices to reduce lameness in broiler farms, and second to explore farmers' possible perceptions of this potential in the Swedish context. The likely financial effects were addressed using a normative economic model, whereas a questionnaire-based survey was used to obtain in-depth knowledge about the perceptions of a group of broiler farmers in Sweden. 2. The three alternative practices (out of 6 tested) which realised the greatest improvements in gross margin and net return to management compared to the conventional practice were feeding whole wheat, sequential feeding and meal feeding. 3. The model showed that the negative effect of feeding whole wheat on feed conversion rate was outweighed by the effect of a low feed price and the associated decrease in feed costs. The price of wheat played a major role in the improvement of economic performance, whereas the reduction of lameness itself made a relatively minor contribution. 4. Apparently, the surveyed farmers do not recognise the potential of the positive effects of changing feed or feeding practices on both broiler welfare and farm economics although their implementation can be of great importance in the broiler sector where profit margins are very tight.​.

  1. Broiler performance and bone strength minimally affected by either a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two genotypes of male broilers were given 12 h of daily illumination; as a conventional photoperiod, with the final hour at reduced illuminance to simulate dusk, or with 1 h of the light given during the middle of the night. The lighting modifications had no significant effect on any performance variable or on tibial breaking ...

  2. Histopathologic and apoptotic effect of nanosilver in liver of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver nanoparticles can destroy bacteria, viruses and fungi; therefore, it is recommended as a disinfectant and can be used as a drug in the treatment of some non-curable viral disease in livestock. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nanosilver induced toxicity on the liver of broiler chickens.

  3. Genetic improvement for production and health in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of present thesis was to optimize the genetic improvement of production and health traits in broilers. The genetic correlations among abdominal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular fat showed that there is a high genetic correlation between abdominal and subcutaneous fat (0.54), whereas

  4. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... overconsumption of protein and energy. Various estimates of the daily intake of protein required by broiler breeders to support egg production have been made by researchers in the past, these varying from 16.5 g/d, for individually housed breeders. (Pearson & Herron, 1982) to 22 g/d (Waldroup et al., ...

  5. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  6. Oral treatment of Eimeria tenella -infected broilers using aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, wild Ganoderma species of mushroom grows in abundance during the rainy season. Studies were conducted to evaluate the haematological parameters and the histopathology lesions in organs of broilers treated with aqueous extract of wild Ganoderma sp. Blood and organs were collected for haematology and ...

  7. Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that extending post-hatch deprivation of feed and water had a significant negative impact on bird performance. Broilers deprived for 48 h had lower body weights, average daily gains and feed intakes compared to the control and to a lesser extent to the other treatments. Average daily gain, daily feed ...

  8. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...

  9. Performance of starting broiler chicks on sandbox ( Hura crepitans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of raw and cooked Sand box (Hura crepitans) seed meal for broiler chickens . Sand box seeds (100kg) were divided into two batches, the first batch was milled raw undicorticated with a hammer mill to produce raw sandbox meal, the second batch was ...

  10. Dressed and internal organ weights of broilers fed toasted pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toasted seeds of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical legume grown in Nigeria were investigated to determine its effect on the dressed weight and internal organ weight characteristics of broilers. The dry, brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100°C for 15minutes, cooled, made into a meal and stored in ...

  11. Performance of broilers' finishers fed graded levels of Cassava peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to determine the performance of broiler finisher fed cassava peel -maggot meal mixture as partial or total replacement for maize. Thirty birds each were randomly allotted to each of 4 dietary treatments, replicated thrice in a completely randomized design in which the maize fraction of the diet was ...

  12. The mechanical properties of broiler chicken bones affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors evaluated the effect of diet with different Zn levels on mechanical properties of bones in 120 broilers of Ross 308 hybrid, from 2 to 42 days of age, which were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 60 chickens each. The first group (Zn50) was fed commercial basal diet with no Zn additives (zinc content- 50 mg/kg ...

  13. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Hillebrand, S.J.W.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Pieterse, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning

  14. Effects of a novel carbohydrate fraction on broiler performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to determine the effects of a natural yeast-based feed ingredient (natural carbohydrate fraction (NCF) isolated from a specific strain of yeast) on broiler chickens, and to examine its mode of action. The trial was set up as a complete randomized design with three treatments and eight replicates (38 ...

  15. Nutrient Retention and Haematological Indices of Broiler Starters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 285. ABSTRACT: Studies were ... protein on nutrient retention and haematological parameters of broilers at the starter phase. Apparent crude protein, crude fibre .... digestibility of GNC, which was earlier reported by Oluyemi and Roberts ...

  16. Stress in Broiler Chickens Due to Acute Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chloupek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress effects from acute noise exposure were monitored in a group of ROSS 308 broiler chickens (n = 80, aged 42 days. The experiment simulated slaughterhouse sounds to which the broilers were exposed for 10 min in the test enclosure. Effects of acute noise exposure at two different levels (80 dB and 100 dB were evaluated on the basis of examinations of selected biochemical plasma indicators and tonic immobility tests. Noise stimuli of both 80 dB and 100 dB intensities for 10 min induced a significant elevation in plasma corticosterone levels. Broilers that were exposed to noise stimuli of 100 dB also exhibited a significant increase in the cholesterol level and total protein level. Exposure to noise stimuli did not influence the glucose level and triglyceride concentrations. The duration of tonic immobility was not affected by noise stimuli in our experiment. However, noise exposure at a 100 dB level decreased the number of attempts to induce tonic immobility in broilers.

  17. Assessment of microbial profile of selected proprietary broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal isolates recovered include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium spp, Mucor spp, and Penicillium notatum. Total microbial ... Keywords: Broiler, Feeds, Quality control, Bacteria, Fungi, Mycotoxins ...

  18. Dutch Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Broiler Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes Dutch consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value

  19. Efficiency of sepiolite in broilers diet as uranium adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana; Krstic, Nikola [University of Belgrade, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Milijan [University of Belgrade, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Janackovic, Djordje [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Row Materials, Belgrade (Serbia); Mirilovic, Milorad [University of Belgrade, Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-15

    The use of phosphate mineral products in animal nutrition, as a major source of phosphor and calcium, can lead to uranium entering the food chain. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effect of natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid for broilers after oral intake of uranium. The broilers were contaminated for 7 days with 25 mg/uranyl nitrate per day. Two different adsorbents (natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid) were given via gastric tube immediately after the oral administration of uranium. Natural sepiolite reduced uranium distribution by 57 % in kidney, 80 % in liver, 42 % in brain, and 56 % in muscle. A lower protective effect was observed after the administration of sepiolite treated with acid, resulting in significant damage of intestinal villi in the form of shortening, fragmentation, and necrosis, and histopathological lesions on kidney in the form of edema and abruption of epithelial cells in tubules. When broilers received only sepiolite treated with acid (no uranyl nitrate), shortening of intestinal villi occurred. Kidney injuries were evident when uranium concentrations in kidney were 0.88 and 1.25 μg/g dry weight. It is concluded that adding of natural sepiolite to the diets of broilers can reduce uranium distribution in organs by significant amount without adverse side effects. (orig.)

  20. Response of Broilers to Different Sources of Vitamin C | Bolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of broilers to different sources of vitamin C was investigated using a completely randomized experimental design. Vitamin C concentration in the baobab pulp was determined to be 250mg/100g baobab pulp. Feed intake, weight gain, feed utilization efficiency and mortality were not different (P<0.05) for the ...

  1. Assessment of toxic elements in selected Nigeria broiler feeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentrations of some toxic elements Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co, Sr, La, Sm, Th and Se in some selected Nigeria broiler feed samples. Each sample (A, B, C, and D) represents certain brand of the feeds. The work was carried using the Nigeria Research ...

  2. Towards a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeschate, ten R.A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present thesis describes the development of a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers. This project was initiated to improve the efficiency of deposition of dietary nitrogen into animal product in order to reduce nitrogen excretion to the environment. The physiological

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 96, four weeks old broiler birds of Anak strain were subjected to 42 days feeding trial at the poultry unit of Imo State Polytechnic Teaching and Research Farm, Umuagwo in Ohaji/Egbema LGA of Imo State, Nigeria to determine the effect of sun-dried cattle plasma (SDCP) on their performance and carcass ...

  4. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the soaked seeds were sun-dried and milled. The remaining part were cooked, sun-dried and milled. The second batch was cracked, soaked in water for 48 hours and cooked before sun drying and milling. Both meals were analyzed for their proximate composition and included in broiler starter diets at 20% dietary ...

  5. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale,

  6. Meat quality characteristics of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...

  7. Performance of broilers on furazolidone additive | Wekhe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty Anak broiler chicks of both sexes were fed furazolidone (additive) in feed to study their growth/weight gain response. The birds were grouped into four, A, B, C, and D of 30 chicks each Treatments B, C and D were administered with furazolidone in feed at the following dosage rates: 0.008%, 0.004% ...

  8. Repeatability estimates of growth traits in arbor acre broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) Arbor Acre broiler chickens fed four different diets containing 0 (control), 4, 6, and 8% (unconventional) probiotics enhanced Moringa Oleifera seed meal (PEMOSM) were used to estimate repeatability (R) of growth traits during the starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher phases (5-7weeks). The traits considered ...

  9. Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed High Fibre Sunflower Seed Cake Diets. ... 05) differences were in liveweight, plucked and dressing percentages at the starter and finisher phases. Reduction in abdominal fat deposition was obtained at the starter and finisher phases while gizzard weights ...

  10. Broiler meat quality: Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue are important meat quality parameters. They contribute substantially to the nutritional characteristics of meat. A number of studies has been conducted on the effect of different factors on the protein and lipid content of broiler meat. Given the above, the subject matter of the present paper ...

  11. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  12. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  13. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mulberry leaf powder compared to other diets during week 1 and 2. No mortality was recorded in broilers fed diet containing up to 30% mulberry leaf powder. In conclusion, this study showed that mulberry leaf powder can substitute up to 30% of commercial feed without any adverse effect on the feed intake, growth, FCR ...

  14. Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders in the Start Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tremarin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fast-growing Brazilian aviculture requires studies to improve zootechnical performance indexes for broiler breeders. The purpose of this study was to assess different feeding programs for broiler breeders on performance and development of digestive organs. A total of 48,000, 1d-old, Cobb 500 broiler breeders were divided into two sheds with 24,000 birds each. The experiment was randomized in block design, considering each shed a block, with 4 treatments and 6 replications per treatment with 2,000 birds in each. Treatments consisted of: Shed 1 T1 = starter feed; T2 = T1 + probiotics; Shed 2 T3 = pre-starter feed; T4 = T3 + probiotics. The productive performance characteristics (bird weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion, the development of digestive organs (gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and small bowel as well as the small bowel length were assessed weekly for all experimental groups, in samples of 10 birds per treatment. The best feed conversion and weight gain were observed with pre-starter feed in the first 7 days of age, with or without probiotic. Small bowel, gizzard and proventriculus development at 28 days was better for birds on pre-starter feed compared to those on starter feed alone. It is possible to conclude that broiler breeders on pre-starter feed during the first 7 days of age are likely to show better physical and productive performances in the adult phase.

  15. Physiological response of heat stressed broiler chickens to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing the drinking water of broilers reared under natural heat stress with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ascorbic acid (AA) on physiological response was investigated. A 200, one-day Arbor acre chicks were randomly allotted to five treatments in ...

  16. Observation on the growth of hubbard parent stock broilers raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to monitor the effect of feed manipulation on the growth and development of male and female line Hubbard broiler parent stock reared under tropical open sided poultry house without any form of cooling system or any temperature regulating mechanism. A total of 255 females and 105 males for the ...

  17. Supplementation of plant protein with amino acids for broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Azzawi, I.I.

    1964-01-01

    A diet of sesame oilmeal, maize and barley supplemented with adequate lysine 0.50-0.78 (in total 1.18%-1.23% of the diet) was a suitable diet for fast growing chickens to produce broilers weighing approximately 1 kg in 7 weeks. The average feed intake per unit gain in the 7th week was 2.149 for

  18. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  19. The Microbiologic Quality of the Air in Broiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the microbiologic quality of air in broiler houses. The number of bacteria (mesophile, staphylococci, streptococci and gram-negatives and fungi was determined in 6 broiler houses with chicken of different ages (1-6 weeks old through specific methods. The results were statistically processed by using the SPSS software, version 17. The number of bacteria and fungi varied in the 6 broiler houses, ranging from 2.25 x 105 to 2.17 x 106 for the total number of mesophilic bacteria, between 3.5 x 104 – 1.27 x 106 for staphylococci, 7.4 x 104 – 5.01 x 105 for streptococci, 3.5 x 103 – 1.53 x 104 for gram-negatives and from 1.67 x 104 to 8.13 x 104 for fungi, respectively. The number of bacteria and fungi were significantly lower for the younger chicken (p < 0.05. The proportions of groups with hygienic significance within the total mesophilic bacteria number were: 15.7% - 68.6% staphylococci, 6.7% - 45.6% streptococci and 0.2% - 4.5% gram-negatives. The comparative appraisal of the microbiologic quality in the broiler houses showed better air quality in the youngest chicken’s house (one week of age. The obtained results indicate the necessity for increased ventilation and for air disinfection during the chicken’s fattening period.

  20. Estimating the impact of environmental conditions on hatching results using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatching results are directly related to environmental and biological surroundings. This research study aimed at evaluating the influence of incubation environmental conditions on hatchability and one-day-old chickling quality of five production flocks using multivariable analysis tool. The experiment was carried out in a commercial hatchery located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental variables such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and number of colony forming units of fungi were recorded inside a broiler multi-stage setter, a hatcher after eggs transference, and a chick-processing room. The homogeneity of parameter distribution among quadrants inside the setter, the hatcher, and the chick room was tested using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis, and the fit analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis was applied using the Main Component Technique in order to identify possible correlations between environmental and production parameters. Three different groups were identified: the first group is represented by temperature, which was positively correlated both with good hatchability and good chick quality; the second group indicates that poor chick quality was positively correlated with air velocity and relative humidity increase. The third group, represented by carbon dioxide concentration and fungi colonies forming units, presented strong positive association with embryo mortality increase.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...... of organic broiler production provide a high prevalence of Campylobacter positive flocks. Antimicrobial resistance was scarce among Campylobacter isolates from all rearing systems. Significance and Impact of the Study: Organic broiler flocks constitute a strong potential for introduction of Campylobacter...

  2. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  3. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and lameness in broilers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on a specific cause of lameness known as bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broilers. Rapid increases in body weight impose excessive torque and shear stress on structurally immature epiphyseal and physeal cartilage, primarily in the proximal femora, proximal tibiae, and flexible thoracic vertebrae. Excessive mechanical stress creates osteochondrotic clefts among the chondrocytes of susceptible growth plates. These wound sites are colonized by hematogenously distributed opportunistic bacteria, culminating in the gross abscesses and necrotic voids that are pathognomonic for terminal BCO. Lameness attributable to characteristic BCO lesions can be reproduced by rearing broilers on wire flooring to create persistent footing instability and physiological stress, without the need to inoculate the birds with pathogenic bacteria that presumably are present but quiescent within the bird's microbial communities or in the environment. Experiments using the wire-flooring model revealed innate differences in the susceptibility of broiler lines to BCO, and demonstrated that BCO incidences can be reduced by prophylactically providing probiotics in the feed, by prophylactically adding 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 to the drinking water, or by therapeutically adding the antibiotic enrofloxacin to the drinking water. Hatchery and chick quality issues clearly influence the susceptibility of broilers to BCO. When broilers remain in a sitting posture for prolonged periods, the major arteries supplying their legs may be compressed. These episodes of inadequate blood flow may prevent chondrocyte maturation and trigger focal necrosis, thereby making the epiphyseal and physeal cartilage highly susceptible to osteochondrosis and BCO. Much remains to be revealed regarding the pathogenesis of BCO. Further revelations will be facilitated by the availability of the now-validated wire-flooring models that consistently trigger high incidences of BCO in experimental

  4. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN TERNAK AYAM BROILER PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Hanum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this research are to (1 analyze profit and BEP of plasma farmers (2 analyze internal and external strategic factors that influence development of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (3 formulate the alternative strategies of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (4 formulate selected priority strategy to develop broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. This research uses descriptive method based on case study on broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. Based on BEP analysis, BEP (production of plasma farmers is in the range 79,91%-86,58% from chick-in capacity, and BEP (price is in the range of Rp 11.684 – Rp 12.191 per chicken on market price. PT. XYZ partnership’s position in IE matric was second quadrant (grow and builds. The results of SWOT analysis are: a vertical integration strategy through feedmill, breeding and chicken slaughterhouse, b improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers, c improvement in bio-security aspects of maintenance, and d improving the quality of technical staff and improving supervision. The priority strategy from QSPM analysis is improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers. The strategy to improve production capacity can be done by maximize or add their capacity, and add the new plasma farmers.   Keywords: Broiler Partnership, Internal Environment, External Environment, Internal-external, Improvement Priority

  5. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  6. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Richard H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58 and upon arrival for processing (n = 56 by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56 and post-chilling points (n = 54. Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56. Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.

  7. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  8. The effect of genotype on production and slaughter properties of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Petričević V.; Pavlovski Z.; Škrbić Z.; Lukić M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective of the research was to investigate the effect of genotype on production and slaughter properties of broiler chickens. The usual technology of broiler production was implemented, therefore fattening lasted 42 days. Trial included total of 2070 broiler chickens of following hybrids: Cobb 500, Ross 308 and Hubbard Classic. Chickens of genotypes Cobb 500 and Ross 308 realized significantly higher average body masses compared to Hubbard chickens. The h...

  9. Featherless and feathered broilers under control versus hot conditions. 1. Breast meat yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yair; Halevy, Orna; Cahaner, Avigdor

    2014-05-01

    The improved genetic potential of contemporary commercial broilers cannot be fully expressed under hot conditions that depress growth rate, decrease breast meat yield, and reduce meat quality. The negative heat effects are attributed to the insulating feather coverage, which, under high ambient temperatures (AT), hinders dissipation of the excessive internally produced heat. Accordingly, featherless broilers (sc/sc), their feathered sibs (+/sc), and contemporary broilers (+/+) were subjected to control AT (26°C) and hot AT (32°C) to test the hypothesis that lack of feathers contributes to higher breast muscle yield and better meat quality, especially under hot conditions, and that differences related to lack of feathers are related to cardiovascular capacity. In 2 similar trials, the superior genetic background of the contemporary broilers was manifested under control conditions; their mean BW was about 15% higher than the means of the featherless broilers and their feathered sibs. The hot conditions depressed BW of the 2 feathered groups by approximately 25%, with hardly any effect on featherless broiler BW. Breast meat yield (% of BW) in the featherless broilers was higher than in those with feathers, especially under the hot AT. Furthermore, the featherless broilers were characterized by superior meat quality as indicated by lower drip loss, lower lightness, and higher redness. The superior meat quality of the featherless broilers could be explained by their larger hearts and higher hematocrit values, suggesting superior cardiovascular capacity to supply oxygen and nutrients to the breast muscles. On the practical side, the results clearly indicate that modern featherless broilers can reach normal BW, as well as yield and quality of breast meat, under hot conditions as well. It appears that broiler meat production in hot regions and climates can be substantially improved by introducing the featherless gene into contemporary commercial broiler stocks. This has

  10. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    JPL de Sousa; LFT Albino; RGMV Vaz; KF Rodrigues; GF Da Silva; LN Renno; VRSM Barros; IN Kaneko

    2015-01-01

    The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r) broilers, with 161...

  11. Immunomodulatory Activity of Meniran Extracts (Phyllanthus Niruri Linn.) on Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Aldi, Yufri; Rasyadi, Yahdian; Handayani, Dian

    2014-01-01

    Broilers chickens are highly susceptible to many diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Therefore to solve these problem we can use alternative medicine by administration of immunostimulatory compounds that can prevent disease in broiler chickens. One of the plants that can enhance the immune system is meniran. The study effect of immunomodulatory test from ethanol extract of meniran herbs (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) has been conducted in broiler chickens with carbon clearance method. The st...

  12. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatmen...

  13. Response of broiler to skip a day (SAD) feeding | Oyedeji | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty day-old broilers were used to investigate the response of broilers to skip-a-day feeding regime. Broiler chicks were either fed ad libitium or subjected to 1,2,3,4 or 5 week skip-a-day feeding thereafter fed ad libitium to market age. Result at market age showed that feed intake was significantly ...

  14. Effect of different levels of L-carnitine and lysine-methionine on broiler blood parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Hosseintabar; Mohammad Dadashbeiki; Mehrdad Bouyeh; Alireza Seidavi; René van den Hoven; Sandra Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objetive. In the present study a completely randomized 3×3 factorial design was used to analyze the effects of different levels of L-Carnitine, lysine(Lys) and methionine (Met) on the blood concentrations of energy, protein and lipid metabolites of male broiler chickens. Materials and methods. A total of 270 newly hatched male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 9 groups (ten broilers per replicate and three replicates per treatment). The control group was fed a bas...

  15. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  16. Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase- and AmpC-ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Dutch broilers and broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Goot, van der J.A.; Fabri, T.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Smith, H.E.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli at Dutch broiler farms and in farmers and to compare ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates from farmers and their animals. Methods Twenty-five to 41

  17. Associations among gait score, production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen, K E; David, B; Moe, R O; Poulsen, H D; Young, J F; Granquist, E G

    2017-05-01

    Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in Norwegian broiler chickens. Gait score (GS) was used to assess walking ability in 59 different commercial broiler flocks (Ross 308) close to the slaughter d, 5,900 broilers in total, in 3 different geographical regions. In each flock, 100 arbitrary broilers were gait scored and 10 random broilers were culled to harvest tibias. Abattoir registrations on flock level were collected after slaughter. A total of 24.6% of the broilers had moderate to severe gait impairment. The broilers were sampled in 2 stages, first slaughterhouse/region, and then owner/flock. The final models showed that impaired gait is associated with first-week mortality (P broiler industry in Norway, although the mean slaughter age is only 31 d and the maximum allowed animal density is relatively low. Impaired walking ability could not be predicted by the welfare indicators footpad lesion score, total on-farm mortality, and decreasing DOA prevalence. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between first-week mortality and gait score. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Changes in selected biochemical indices resulting from various pre-sampling handling techniques in broilers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chloupek, Petr; Bedanova, Iveta; Chloupek, Jan; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    .... This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling...

  20. Effect of air deflectors on fan performance in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses with a dropped ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air velocity is a critical design parameter for modern commercial broiler houses, owing to the beneficial effects of increased cooling on live performance and thermal comfort in broiler chickens. As a result, design velocities have increased over the last 15 years and broiler growers have installed ...

  1. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydes Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1 stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2 adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility, three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival, and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival. Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1 Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the

  2. The vapor-phase multi-stage CMD test for characterizing contaminant mass discharge associated with VOC sources in the vadose zone: Application to three sites in different lifecycle stages of SVE operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M L; Mainhagu, J; Morrison, C; Carroll, K C

    2015-08-01

    Vapor-phase multi-stage contaminant mass discharge (CMD) tests were conducted at three field sites to measure mass discharge associated with contaminant sources located in the vadose zone. The three sites represent the three primary stages of the soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations lifecycle-pre/initial-SVE, mid-lifecycle, and near-closure. A CMD of 32g/d was obtained for a site at which soil vapor SVE has been in operation for approximately 6years, and for which mass removal is currently in the asymptotic stage. The contaminant removal behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggests that there is unlikely to be a significant mass of non-vapor-phase contaminant (e.g., DNAPL, sorbed phase) remaining in the advective domains, and that most remaining mass is likely located in poorly accessible domains. Given the conditions for this site, this remaining mass is hypothesized to be associated with the low-permeability (and higher water saturation) region in the vicinity of the saturated zone and capillary fringe. A CMD of 25g/d was obtained for a site wherein SVE has been in operation for several years but concentrations and mass-removal rates are still relatively high. A CMD of 270g/d was obtained for a site for which there were no prior SVE operations. The behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggest that non-vapor-phase contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL) may be present in the advective domains. Hence, the asymptotic conditions observed for this site most likely derive from a combination of rate-limited mass transfer from DNAPL (and sorbed) phases present in the advective domain as well as mass residing in lower-permeability ("non-advective") regions. The CMD values obtained from the tests were used in conjunction with a recently developed vapor-discharge tool to evaluate the impact of the measured CMDs on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and implementation of an on-line monitoring system for the detection of the surge limit of multi stage axial compressors. Final report; Ueberwachungssystem zur Pumpgrenzdetektion in vielstufigen Axialverdichtern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, H.; Niehuis, R.

    2003-07-01

    A monitoring system for the prediction of the stability limit of a multi-stage axial compressor has been developed. Based on the pressure fluctuations in the casing above a first compressor rotor the approach to the search limit can be detected. By means of a computer system equipped with a digital signal processor board the dynamic pressure signals are picked up and analyzed. Based on FFT-Spectra suitable parameters for the estimation of the stability limit can be calculated. Measurement data from various test runs at different gas turbine compressors demonstrated the reliability of the system. Mean issue of the system is the a ability of real time detection which allows an application in industrial environment. In order to guarantee the long term stability and security the soft ware has been programmed so that a permanent self control as well as a control by a connected host computer is possible. By means of these control mechanism the proper function of the measurement transducers the data acquisition and the communication with the host computer is assured. This guarantees a high operational reliability which also allows a safe integration in a gas turbine control system. The soft ware is based on the programming environment DASYLAB in order to provide a maximum of user friendliness The up to date test with the system on the gas turbine tests field of Siemens have been performed successfully. A long term test in a power plant has not jet been carried out. (orig.) [German] Es wurde ein Ueberwachungssystem entwickelt, das die Voraussage der Stabilitaetsgrenze eines mehrstufigen Axialverdichters ermoeglicht. Basierend auf den Druckfluktuationen ueber dem ersten Verdichterlaufrad koennen Aussagen ueber die Annaeherung an die Pumpgrenze getroffen werden. Mit Hilfe eines Rechnersystems mit integrierter Signalprozessorkarte werden die dynamischen Drucksignale aufgenommen und verarbeitet. Basierend auf einer FFT-Analyse werden geeignete Parameter bestimmt, die die

  4. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  5. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  6. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1, 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se, respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  8. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  9. Spread of Extended Spectrum Cephalosporinase-Producing Escherichia coli Clones and Plasmids from Parent Animals to Broilers and to Broiler Meat in a Production Without Use of Cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Hasman, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    selects for ESC-producing E. coli and whether certain clones or plasmids spread from imported parent flocks to the meat. Materials and Methods: ESC-producing E. coli was isolated using MacConkey broth with 1 mg/L of ceftriaxone. ESC genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...... of ESC E. coli. Conclusions: ESC-producing E. coli from flocks of imported broiler parents spread clonally and horizontally to broiler meat (including potentially human pathogenic types) even in a country with no cephalosporin use. Use of aminopenicillins may influence the persistence of ESC-producing E....... coli in the broiler production, but other factors should be investigated....

  10. Effect of clenbuterol on growth performance in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clenbuterol (CB, a beta2-adrenergic agonist, as a growth and weight gain promoter in broilers. Effects of CB were assessed, mixing it in feed at 0.0, 0.21, 0.42 and 0.84ppm, and feeding during four weeks to four groups (n=75 of 28 day-old Arbor Acres chickens. The body weight (BW and food intake at 0, 12, 20 and 28 days of the study were recorded. Also abdominal fat (AF and total muscle proteins were measured. Results indicate that from day 20 until the last of the experimental period (56-day-old, efficacy of CB was evident to increase growth and decrease AF deposition rates (P<0.01, in a dose-response pattern, suggesting that CB has a profitable growth promoting effect in broiler chickens.

  11. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks......) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp....... positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during the summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among...

  12. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  13. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  14. Bio-Chemical Evaluation of Yam Peel Meal for Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional properties and inclusion levels of yam peel meal (YPM) in broiler diets were investigated. Four diets in which YPM substituted maize at 0, 25, 50 and 75% were fed to 180 Anak broiler-type chickens over a 63-day period. Results indicated that YPM contained 89.74% dry matter (DM), 12.03% crude protein ...

  15. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  16. Effect of an outdoor run and natural light on welfare of fast growing broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Coenen, E.; Harn, van J.; Lenskens, P.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental enrichment may provide a solution to moderate several welfare problems in broiler production. Broilers are often housed in closed houses, with a minimum of resources for performing motivated behaviours. By providing more resources, the birds may be stimulated to become more active, and

  17. Mineral adsorbents in broilers nutrition: Effects on yield and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of investigation of the application of mineral adsorbents in broiler diet. Total of 400 broilers Cobb 500 provenience were divided into 4 groups: control group (C of broilers fed without added mineral adsorbent; 1st group with added Min-a-zel in the amount of 0.5%; 2nd group with added Min-a-zel Plus in the amount of 0.2%; and 3rd group with added Min-a-zel Plus in the amount of 0.3%. Fattening lasted for 42 days. Broilers were reared on the floor stocking system; feed and water supply were ad libitum. Fattening performances such as live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and production number were better in group of broilers that was fed a diet with added mineral adsorbents. Broilers from the 1st group achieved the highest live weight and had the lowest feed consumption and feed conversion ratio, and also the best production number. Slaughter characteristics of broilers in the 1st group were also the best. They had the biggest share of the most valuable parts, breast and drumsticks. Obtained results showed that mineral adsorbents can be successfully used as additives in the diets for broilers for improved production and better fattening performances.

  18. The feeding value of mango seed kernal meal in broiler diets | Faniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % levels (w/w) in broiler starter and finisher diets in an eight week feeding trial. 120 day - old broiler chicks were used for the experiment. 30 chicks were randomly assigned to each of the four treatments in a completely randomised design.

  19. Effects of Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on the Haematology of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Blood Cell (WBC) counts were not significantly (p>0.05) different across subplots. The study reveals that Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has no major effects on the hematological parameters of broiler chicks at the different levels of inclusion studied. Keywords: Broiler, coccidiosis, sporulated oocysts, Ocimum basilicum, feed, ...

  20. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...