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Sample records for broiler multi-stage setter

  1. Environmental conditions in broiler multi-stage setter: a case study Condições ambientais em incubadora de múltiplo estágio: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Gigli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of one day-old chick production is one of the most important segments in the poultry production business. Broiler chicken incubation environment needs to be homogeneous and adequate so hatchability and final product quality are not affected. This research aimed at evaluating environmental conditions inside a multi-stage setter in a commercial hatchery house. The incubator was split into six areas and data loggers placed in the geometric center to register temperature and relative humidity data; carbon dioxide concentration and number of colony forming units (CFU of fungi were also sampled and analyzed; Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used for statistical analysis; significant differences in temperature and relative humidity distribution inside the incubator (p 0.05. Fungi incidence varied from average to good. Critical points were detected in all areas inside the setter.A produção de pintinhos de um dia é um dos segmentos mais importantes da cadeia avícola. O ambiente de incubação de frangos de corte precisa ser homogêneo e adequado de modo a não afetar a eclodibilidade e a qualidade do produto final. Avaliaram-se as condições de ambiência no interior de incubadora de estágio múltiplo durante um lote de produção em incubatório comercial. A incubadora foi dividida em seis quadrantes em cujo centro geométrico foram colocados registradores de valores de temperatura e umidade relativa. A concentração de dióxido de carbono, bem como o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU de fungos também foram amostradas nos mesmos locais; o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para análise estatística. Foram detectadas diferenças na distribuição de temperatura e umidade relativa no interior da incubadora (p 0,05. A incidência de fungos variou de média a boa. Pontos críticos foram detectados em todas as áreas dentro da incubadora.

  2. Impacto das variáveis ambientais em incubatório de estágio múltiplo de frangos de corte Impact of environmental variables in multi setter incubation in broiler's production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Baracho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a quantificar as características de resposta produtiva de pintos de corte provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais, em incubatório de regime de estágio múltiplo. Para tal, foram monitorados três lotes de ovos férteis em incubatório comercial, verificando o impacto das seguintes variáveis ambientais: temperatura, velocidade do ar, umidade relativa, concentração de dióxido de carbono e presença de fungos. O acompanhamento de pintos provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais distintas (Cobb® e Avian® foi feito em três lotes, quando também foram coletados dados de perdas. A análise de componentes principais foi empregada para associar as variáveis de ambiente, produção e perdas, observando a magnitude dos vetores. Os resultados mostraram que o ambiente de incubação influenciou diretamente no desempenho (qualidade, incidência de anormalidades e mortalidade das duas linhagens de frango de corte. Ambas as linhagens apresentaram perdas produtivas relacionadas à baixa temperatura de incubação na incubadora e no nascedouro, mostrando que a temperatura de incubação é o fator mais importante para que sejam alcançados índices produtivos ótimos.This research aimed to quantify the characteristics of the productive response of pullets from two distinct genetic strains in multi setter incubator. For this three batches of fertile eggs were monitored in a commercial incubator verifying the impact of the following environmental variables: temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration and presence of fungi. The follow up was done in three flocks of broiler pullets from two commercial genetic strains (Cobb® and Avian® also along with the data of losses. The principal components analysis was used for associating the variables of environment, production and losses by observing the magnitude of the vectors. Results showed that the environment of incubation influenced the performance

  3. Multi-stage flash degaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  4. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...

  5. Multi-stage complex contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  6. Experiments for Multi-Stage Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize...... the required number of experimental runs, we suggest using mirror image pairs of experiments at each stage following the first. As the design criterion, we consider their projectivity and mainly focus on projectivity 3 designs. We provide the methodology for generating these designs for processes with any...

  7. Multi-Stage Programs are Generalized Arrows

    CERN Document Server

    Megacz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The lambda calculus, subject to typing restrictions, provides a syn- tax for the internal language of cartesian closed categories. This paper establishes a parallel result: staging annotations, subject to named level restrictions, provide a syntax for the internal language of Freyd categories, which are known to be in one-to-one correspondence with Arrows. The connection is made by interpreting multi-stage type systems as indexed functors from polynomial categories to their reindexings (Definitions 15 and 16). This result applies only to multi-stage languages which are (1) homogeneous, (2) allow cross-stage persistence and (3) place no restrictions on the use of structural rules in typing derivations. Removing these restrictions and repeating the construction yields generalized arrows, of which Arrows are a particular case. A translation from well-typed multi-stage programs to single-stage GArrow terms is provided. The translation is defined by induction on the structure of the proof that the multi-stage prog...

  8. The Global Network of Biofuel Sustainability Standards-setters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2015-01-01

    The role of network structure in shaping the regulatory scope and content of sustainability standards for biofuels is examined. A critical review of the literature on hybrid governance networks suggests the need to bring in network theory. Through a specific network analysis of the standards......-setters, it is shown that not only does the institutional hybridity of the standards boards influence the regulatory scope of the standards, but the network centrality and specific topology in which standards-setters are embedded are equally important structural features of hybrid governance. These findings foreground...

  9. Reasons for patronage of traditional bone setters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Egbeji Abang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze the different reasons why patients with fractures patronize traditional bone setters (TBS and their impression of the outcome of the treatment by the TBS. Materials and Methods: A 24 month prospective observational study was conducted from February 2012 to January 2014. All the patients were recruited from the orthopedics outpatient clinic. The demographic data of each patient, the type of injury, presentation to hospital or not, reasons for leaving the hospital, reasons for patronage of the TBS and their impression of the outcome of TBS′ treatment, effect of educational background on patronage of TBS and reason for presenting to hospital for orthodox treatment. Data Analysis: Analysis was done with SPSS software Version 20. Results: A total 79 patients were recruited for the study and they had different reasons for patronizing TBS. These reasons include an external locus of decision making in 19 (24.1% patients, and greater faith in TBS compared to orthodox medicine in 16 (20.3%. Twelve (15.2% believed that TBS are more competent than orthodox medical practitioners while another group 11 (13.9% considered the fees of TBS cheaper than those in the hospital. The delay in treatment in the hospital, forceful removal of patients from hospital against their will and nonsatisfaction with hospital treatment accounted for 5 (6.3%. Poor attitude of hospital staff, fear of amputation, and patients being unconscious during the injury accounted for 2 (2.5%. Their ages ranged from 17 to 83 years, with mean age of 36.8 ± 11.8 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Conclusions and Recommendations: With recent advancements in the practice of orthopedics and trauma, there is still a very high patronage of the TBS by most of our patients. This is largely due to the dependence of the patients on their sponsors for treatment, while the influence of cultural and religious beliefs continues to

  10. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  11. Interconnected levels of multi-stage marketing: A triadic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. ...

  12. PARALLEL MULTI-STAGE & MULTI-STEP METHOD IN ODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qiu Song

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of parallel multi-stage & multi-step method is dis cussed, which is a form of combining Runge-Kutta method with linear multi-step method that can be used for parallel computation.

  13. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms resp

  14. Accuracy of transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arentoft, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Many fasteners used in electromechanical systems are micro metal parts which should be manufactured with high accuracy and reliability and in large quantities. Micro forming is promising to fulfill these demands. This research focuses on investigating a gripping unit in a multi stage former, as t...

  15. 76 FR 19747 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Grundfos Pumps Manufacturing Corporation (Multi-Stage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... (Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pumps); Allentown, PA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the multi-stage centrifugal pump... status for activity related to the manufacturing of multi-stage centrifugal pumps at the Grundfos...

  16. Multi-Stage Convex Relaxation Methods for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    relaxation with Lasso (L1 regularization), the multi-stage convex relaxation method can 3 Initialize v̂ = 1 Repeat the following two steps until convergence...observations using the following sparse regression method: ŵ = arg min w  1 n ‖Xw − y‖22 + λ d∑ j=1 g(|wj |)  , (9) where g(|wj |) is a...estimation problems. Statistical Science, 27:576–593, 2012. Tong Zhang. Some sharp performance bounds for least squares regression with L1

  17. Mortgage Loan Portfolio Optimization Using Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the Danish mortgage loan system and propose several models to reflect the choices of a mortgagor as well as his attitude towards risk. The models are formulated as multi stage stochastic integer programs, which are difficult to solve for more than 10 stages. Scenario...... reduction and LP relaxation are used to obtain near optimal solutions for large problem instances. Our results show that the standard Danish mortgagor should hold a more diversified portfolio of mortgage loans, and that he should rebalance the portfolio more frequently than current practice....

  18. Financial planning via multi-stage stochastic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvey, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for modeling financial applications, including asset allocation, as multi-stage stochastic programs. Starting with the classic single-period Markowitz model, we show that additional realistic issues can be addressed via multi-period stochastic programming. The advantages of integrating liabilities, assets, and investment goals are discussed. An investor must design a dynamic model for the stochastic parameters and link this process to an integrated asset-liability system if he wants to measure portfolio risk over time. Partial analysis leads to errors in risk evaluation. Algorithms for solving the resulting large-scale nonlinear stochastic programs are described. Topics for future research are proposed.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Multi-Stage Turbomachinery Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Shabbir, Aamir; Wellborn, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment is made of the predictive capability of the average passage flow model as applied to multi-stage axial flow compressors. The average passage flow model describes the time average flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded in a multi-stage configuration. In this work data taken within a four and one-half stage large low speed compressor will be used to assess the weakness and strengths of the predictive capabilities of the average passage flow model. The low speed compressor blading is of modern design and employs stators with end-bends. Measurements were made with slow and high response instrumentation. The high response measurements revealed the velocity components of both the rotor and stator wakes. Based on the measured wake profiles it will be argued that blade boundary layer transition is playing an important role in setting compressor performance. A model which mimics the effects of blade boundary layer transition within the frame work of the average passage model will be presented. Simulations which incorporated this model showed a dramatic improvement in agreement with data.

  20. Multi-stage apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, L.; Venet, M.; Enya, K.; Kataza, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Tamura, M.

    2008-07-01

    Prolate (Pupil) Apodized Lyot Coronagraphs (PPALC) are known to offer optimal performances for a Lyot-type Coronagraph configuration, i.e. with an opaque occulting focal mask. One additional benefit of PPALC is its possible use in a multi-stage configuration. In theory, the coronagraphic performance can be QN, where Q is the energy rejection factor of one stage (the first one), and N the number of stages. Several ground-based telescopes are considering PPALC as an option for their high-contrast instrumentation (e.g. Gemini/GPI, EELT/EPICS, Subaru HiCIAO). Although the PPALC suffers from several limitations, several works are currently focused on fabricating entrance pupil apodizers and trying to find ways to overcome chromatism issues. In this work, we present the first experimental results from Multi-Stage PPALC (MS-PPALC) that was done in the context of the Japanese space telescope SPICA coronagraph project. Our entrance pupil apodizers use small diameter High Energy Beam Sensitive glass (HEBS-glass) from Canyon Materials Inc. The current results show modest coronagraphic performance due to uncompensated phase aberrations inherent to HEBS-glass material. In addition, and due to these uncompensated phase aberrations, the present optical configuration is an altered version of the originally planned set-up. However, we can demonstrate the validity the MS-PPALC concept and compare it to numerical simulations.

  1. Multi-stage circulating fluidized bed syngas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Guan, Xiaofeng; Peng, WanWang

    2016-10-11

    A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers. Higher process efficiencies can be realized as the invention can handle hot syngas from various types of gasifiers without the need for a less efficient precooling step.

  2. Towards Multi-Stage Intrusion Detection using IP Flow Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahad Umer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional network-based intrusion detection sys-tems using deep packet inspection are not feasible for modern high-speed networks due to slow processing and inability to read encrypted packet content. As an alternative to packet-based intrusion detection, researchers have focused on flow-based intrusion detection techniques. Flow-based intrusion detection systems analyze IP flow records for attack detection. IP flow records contain summarized traffic information. However, flow data is very large in high-speed networks and cannot be processed in real-time by the intrusion detection system. In this paper, an efficient multi-stage model for intrusion detection using IP flows records is proposed. The first stage in the model classifies the traffic as normal or malicious. The malicious flows are further analyzed by a second stage. The second stage associates an attack type with malicious IP flows. The proposed multi-stage model is efficient because the majority of IP flows are discarded in the first stage and only malicious flows are examined in detail. We also describe the implementation of our model using machine learning techniques.

  3. Interconnected levels of Multi-Stage Marketing – A Triadic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...

  4. Fully Automated Operational Modal Analysis using multi-stage clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Eugen; Janser, Frank; Khatibi, Akbar A.; Orifici, Adrian C.

    2017-02-01

    The interest for robust automatic modal parameter extraction techniques has increased significantly over the last years, together with the rising demand for continuous health monitoring of critical infrastructure like bridges, buildings and wind turbine blades. In this study a novel, multi-stage clustering approach for Automated Operational Modal Analysis (AOMA) is introduced. In contrast to existing approaches, the procedure works without any user-provided thresholds, is applicable within large system order ranges, can be used with very small sensor numbers and does not place any limitations on the damping ratio or the complexity of the system under investigation. The approach works with any parametric system identification algorithm that uses the system order n as sole parameter. Here a data-driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) method is used. Measurements from a wind tunnel investigation with a composite cantilever equipped with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGSs) and piezoelectric sensors are used to assess the performance of the algorithm with a highly damped structure and low signal to noise ratio conditions. The proposed method was able to identify all physical system modes in the investigated frequency range from over 1000 individual datasets using FBGSs under challenging signal to noise ratio conditions and under better signal conditions but from only two sensors.

  5. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  6. Research on Multi-Stage Inventory Model by Markov Decision Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ke

    This paper researched multi-stage inventory system and established limited inventory Markov model, on the other hand it induced DP algorithm of limited inventory Markov model. The results proved that the reorder point of multi-stage inventory system can guarantee demand, and also allows the storage costs to a minimum level in accordance with the above model.

  7. Strategies and limits in multi-stage single-point incremental forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-stage single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is a state-of-the-art manufacturing process that allows small-quantity production of complex sheet metal parts with vertical walls. This paper is focused on the application of multi-stage SPIF with the objective of producing cylindrical cups...

  8. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  9. Canine parvovirus-2b-associated erythema multiforme in a litter of English Setter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, Moges; Liggett, Alan; Ilha, Marcia; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Johnson, Leslie P

    2011-05-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) was diagnosed in a litter of English Setter puppies. The puppies developed erythematous cutaneous lesions at the age of 2 weeks. Microscopically, there was individual keratinocyte apoptosis associated with lymphocyte exocytosis in all layers of the epidermis. Intranuclear viral inclusions were seen in multiple tissues and organs. Tissues from the tongue, lymph node, spleen, skin, and small intestine were positive for Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) and negative for Canine distemper virus (CDV) and Canid herpesvirus 1 by fluorescent antibody test. Negative-staining electron microscopy detected parvovirus particles in the intestinal contents. The skin and small intestine were positive for CPV-2b and negative for CDV by polymerase chain reaction. The mucocutaneous junctions and small intestines stained positive for CPV by immunohistochemistry. The present report documents CPV-2b-associated EM in a litter of English Setters and substantiates the single previous report associating EM with CPV-2. The finding suggests that CPV should be considered as a possible cause of EM in dogs.

  10. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanghua Lian; Ying Zhang; Xu Zhao; Shidong Ding; Tiejun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, ...

  11. Modelling and Control of the Multi-stage Cable Pulley-driven Flexible-joint Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, t...

  12. Multi-Stage Recognition of Speech Emotion Using Sequential Forward Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liogienė Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensive research of speech emotion recognition introduced a huge collection of speech emotion features. Large feature sets complicate the speech emotion recognition task. Among various feature selection and transformation techniques for one-stage classification, multiple classifier systems were proposed. The main idea of multiple classifiers is to arrange the emotion classification process in stages. Besides parallel and serial cases, the hierarchical arrangement of multi-stage classification is most widely used for speech emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a sequential-forward-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification scheme. The Sequential Forward Selection (SFS and Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS techniques were employed for every stage of the multi-stage classification scheme. Experimental testing of the proposed scheme was performed using the German and Lithuanian emotional speech datasets. Sequential-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification outperformed the single-stage scheme by 12–42 % for different emotion sets. The multi-stage scheme has shown higher robustness to the growth of emotion set. The decrease in recognition rate with the increase in emotion set for multi-stage scheme was lower by 10–20 % in comparison with the single-stage case. Differences in SFS and SFFS employment for feature selection were negligible.

  13. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  14. Sequential maneuvering decisions based on multi-stage influence diagram in air combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-stage influence diagram is used to model the pilot's sequential decision making in one on one air combat.The model based on the multi-stage influence diagram graphically describes the elements of decision process,and contains a point-mass model for the dynamics of an aircraft and takes into account the decision maker's Dreferences under uncertain conditions.Considering an active opponent,the opponent's maneuvers can be modeled stochastically.The solution of multistage influence diagram Can be obtained by converting the multistage influence diagram into a two-level optimization problem.The simulation results show the model is effective.

  15. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, P.; Ogink, N. W. M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  16. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  17. Thickness distribution of multi-stage incremental forming with different forming stages and angle intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军超; 杨芬芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-stage incremental sheet forming has always been adopted instead of single-stage forming to form parts with a steep wall angle or to achieve a high forming performance, it is largely dependent on empirical designs. In order to research multi-stage forming further, the effect of forming stages (n) and angle interval between the two adjacent stages (Δα) on thickness distribution was investigated. Firstly, a finite element method (FEM) model of multi-stage incremental forming was established and experimentally verified. Then, based on the proposed simulation model, different strategies were adopted to form a frustum of cone with wall angle of 30° to research the thickness distribution of multi-pass forming. It is proved that the minimum thickness increases largely and the variance of sheet thickness decreases significantly as the value of n grows. Further, with the increase of Δα, the minimum thickness increases initially and then decreases, and the optimal thickness distribution is achieved with Δα of 10°. Additionally, a formula is deduced to estimate the sheet thickness after multi-stage forming and proved to be effective. And the simulation results fit well with the experimental results.

  18. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reduci

  19. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  20. Bayesian Analysis for Linearized Multi-Stage Models in Quantal Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Lynn; Cohen, Michael P.

    Bayesian methods for estimating dose response curves in quantal bioassay are studied. A linearized multi-stage model is assumed for the shape of the curves. A Gibbs sampling approach with data augmentation is employed to compute the Bayes estimates. In addition, estimation of the "relative additional risk" and the "risk specific…

  1. Axial liquid mixing in a gas-liquid Multi-Stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Data on interstage liquid mixing are reported for a gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC). A dynamic method using heat as a tracer was applied for water, n-octane and monoethylene glycol as liquids both with and without the presence of a dispersed gas phase (air). In all cases, the axial m

  2. Strain Paths and Fractures in Rotational Symmetric Multi Stage Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P.A.F.;

    2008-01-01

    A multi stage strategy, which allows forming of SPIF parts with vertical walls, is investigated with emphasis on strain paths and fracture strains. Whereas downwards movement of the tool pin results in deformation close to plane strain upwards moving tool results in biaxial strains. A good correl...... space is in good agreement with measured strains with and without fracture....

  3. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  4. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  5. A Multi-Stage Optimization Model With Minimum Energy Consumption-Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related with routing, bandwidth utilization and power consumption are developed in the wireless mesh computing environment using the operations research techniques such as maximal flow model, transshipment model and minimax optimizing algorithm. The Path creation algorithm is used to find the multiple paths from source to destination.A multi-stage optimization model is developed by combining the multi-path optimization model, optimization model in capacity utilization and energy optimization model and minimax optimizing algorithm. The input to the multi-stage optimization model is a network with many source and destination. The optimal solution obtained from this model is a minimum energy consuming path from source to destination along with the maximum data rate over each link. The performance is evaluated by comparing the data rate values of superimposed algorithm and minimax optimizing algorithm. The main advantage of this model is the reduction of traffic congestion in the network.

  6. Multi-stage high order semi-Lagrangian schemes for incompressible flows in Cartesian geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Alexandre; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Efficient transport algorithms are essential to the numerical resolution of incompressible fluid flow problems. Semi-Lagrangian methods are widely used in grid based methods to achieve this aim. The accuracy of the interpolation strategy then determines the properties of the scheme. We introduce a simple multi-stage procedure which can easily be used to increase the order of accuracy of a code based on multi-linear interpolations. This approach is an extension of a corrective algorithm introduced by Dupont \\& Liu (2003, 2007). This multi-stage procedure can be easily implemented in existing parallel codes using a domain decomposition strategy, as the communications pattern is identical to that of the multi-linear scheme. We show how a combination of a forward and backward error correction can provide a third-order accurate scheme, thus significantly reducing diffusive effects while retaining a non-dispersive leading error term.

  7. Fibre Bragg Grating as a Multi-Stage Structure Health Monitoring Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need to implement models and measurement systems through the entire life of the wind turbine blade. In this chapter will be presented some work conducted to implement optical fibres as a multi-stage sensor, capable to measure different structural properties, and link them with all...... involving crack growth and fibre Bragg sensing is described that highlights the response from the fibre optic which will correctly detect the presence and growth of damage. Models to implement these results in a damage detection system for a wind turbine blade can then be developed....... the different life stages and support a better design of the wind turbine blades. The characteristics and functionality of fibre Bragg grating sensors are briefly introduced. Their application as multi-stage structure health monitoring sensors for polymer laminate composite is then described...

  8. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  9. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...... PFC (IBPFC) is presented. The insight into relationship of interleaving stages, switching on/off oscillations and EMI reduction is discussed. Finally, a 3.5kW universal input 2-stage IBPFC prototype was built to verify the theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that significant EMI reductions...

  10. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2017-01-01

    cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal......This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...

  11. Vehicle Routing Problem Solving Method for a Cooperative Logistics Network by Using Multi-Stage GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoyama, Takashi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kubota, Sen; Tsuruta, Setsuo; Komoda, Norihisa

    A GA applied VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) solving-method which realizes optimization of a cooperative logistics network is proposed. For this optimization a VRP solving-method that can obtain human expert-level solution, which realizes steady logistics operation, in interactive response time is required. The multi-stage GA enables to obtain the accurate solution under both hard and weak time constraints in interactive response time. Moreover, to realize the stable logistics operation, the daily fluctuation of shipping volume is taken into the fitness value of each individual in GA. The experimental result reveals the proposed method obtains the accurate solution that realizes the stable operation in interactive response time.

  12. Oscillating Disturbance Propagation in Passages of Multi-Stage Hydrogen Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 郑晓琳; 陈佐一

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of oscillating disturbances with various frequencies in multi-stage turbine passages in a rocket is analyzed using the oscillating fluid mechanics theorem and the parametric polynomial method. The results show that oscillating disturbances can be rapidly dissipated when the disturbance occurs at the inlet except for very high-frequency oscillation such as 50 kHz. Dangerous low-frequency oscillations occur at the outlet. The effects of the flow parameter variations on the oscillating disturbance propagation are also studied. The analysis will facilitate safe operation of the whole rocket system.

  13. Mathematical modeling on multi-stage series crushing ratio distribution based on fuzzy physical programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Long QI; Chen-Chen CAI; Ping-Zhen LANG

    2013-01-01

    Double-layer,multi-roller plate crusher is a new device,that uses a multi-stage series crushing style to break particles,with the crushing ratio distribution directly influencing the machine's performance.Three crushing ratios of 2.25,2.15 and 2.0 1,used for fuzzy physical programming,were determined.The comparison of the optimized result between the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher and a high pressure roll grinder showed that the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher had a better performance,reducing crushing force and wear.

  14. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...... comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry...

  15. Lab-testing, predicting, and modeling multi-stage activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, F; Altmann, J; Hannemann, C; Jekel, M

    2015-10-15

    Multi-stage reuse of powdered activated carbon (PAC) is often applied in practice for a more efficient exploitation of the PAC capacity to remove organic micro-pollutants (OMP). However, the adsorption mechanisms in multi-stage PAC reuse are rarely investigated, as large-scale experiments do not allow for systematic tests. In this study, a laboratory method for the separation of PAC/water suspensions and the subsequent reuse of the PAC and the water was developed. The method was tested on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent in a setup with up to 7 PAC reuse stages. The tests show that the overall OMP removal from WWTP effluent can be increased when reusing PAC. The reason is that a repeated adsorption in multi-stage PAC reuse results in similar equilibrium concentrations as a single-stage adsorption. Thus, a single relationship between solid and liquid phase OMP concentrations appears valid throughout all stages. This also means that the adsorption efficiency of multi-stage PAC reuse setups can be estimated from the data of a single-stage setup. Furthermore, the overall OMP removals in multi-stage setups coincide with the overall UV254 removals, and for each respective OMP one relationship to UV254 removal is valid throughout all stages. The results were modeled by a simple modification of the equivalent background compound model (EBCM) which was also used to simulate the additional OMP removals in multi-stage setups with up to 50 reuse stages.

  16. Young adults' decision making surrounding heavy drinking: a multi-staged model of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, Jeremy

    2011-06-01

    This paper examines the real life contexts in which decisions surrounding heavy drinking are made by young adults (that is, on occasions when five or more alcoholic drinks are consumed within a few hours). It presents a conceptual model that views such decision making as a multi-faceted and multi-staged process. The mixed method study draws on purposive data gathered through direct observation of eight social networks consisting of 81 young adults aged between 18 and 25 years in Perth, Western Australia, including in-depth interviews with 31 participants. Qualitative and some basic quantitative data were gathered using participant observation and in-depth interviews undertaken over an eighteen month period. Participants explained their decision to engage in heavy drinking as based on a variety of factors. These elements relate to socio-cultural norms and expectancies that are best explained by the theory of planned behaviour. A framework is proposed that characterises heavy drinking as taking place in a multi-staged manner, with young adults having: 1. A generalised orientation to the value of heavy drinking shaped by wider influences and norms; 2. A short-term orientation shaped by situational factors that determines drinking intentions for specific events; and 3. An evaluative orientation shaped by moderating factors. The value of qualitative studies of decision making in real life contexts is advanced to complement the mostly quantitative research that dominates research on alcohol decision making.

  17. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung-Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  18. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  19. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  20. Modelling and Control of the Multi-stage Cable Pulley-driven Flexible-joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, the major loss throughout the system elements, and the typical inertial dynamics of the robot. Next, a task space impedance controller based on limited information about the angle and the current of the motors is designed. The motor current is used to infer the transmitted torque, by which the motor inertia may be modulated. The motor angle is employed to estimate the stationary distal robot link angle and the robot joint velocity. They are used in the controller to generate the desired damping force and to shape the potential energy of the flexible joint robot system to the desired configuration. Simulation and experimental results of the controlled system signify the competency of the proposed control law.

  1. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  2. How quantitative measures unravel design principles in multi-stage phosphorylation cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Simone; Millat, Thomas; Hohmann, Stefan; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2008-09-07

    We investigate design principles of linear multi-stage phosphorylation cascades by using quantitative measures for signaling time, signal duration and signal amplitude. We compare alternative pathway structures by varying the number of phosphorylations and the length of the cascade. We show that a model for a weakly activated pathway does not reflect the biological context well, unless it is restricted to certain parameter combinations. Focusing therefore on a more general model, we compare alternative structures with respect to a multivariate optimization criterion. We test the hypothesis that the structure of a linear multi-stage phosphorylation cascade is the result of an optimization process aiming for a fast response, defined by the minimum of the product of signaling time and signal duration. It is then shown that certain pathway structures minimize this criterion. Several popular models of MAPK cascades form the basis of our study. These models represent different levels of approximation, which we compare and discuss with respect to the quantitative measures.

  3. Learning representations for object classification using multi-stage optimal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Liu, Xiuwen; Mio, Washington

    2008-01-01

    Learning data representations is a fundamental challenge in modeling neural processes and plays an important role in applications such as object recognition. Optimal component analysis (OCA) formulates the problem in the framework of optimization on a Grassmann manifold and a stochastic gradient method is used to estimate the optimal basis. OCA has been successfully applied to image classification problems arising in a variety of contexts. However, as the search space is typically very high dimensional, OCA optimization often requires expensive computational cost. In multi-stage OCA, we first hierarchically project the data onto several low-dimensional subspaces using standard techniques, then OCA learning is performed hierarchically from the lowest to the highest levels to learn about a subspace that is optimal for data discrimination based on the K-nearest neighbor classifier. One of the main advantages of multi-stage OCA lies in the fact that it greatly improves the computational efficiency of the OCA learning algorithm without sacrificing the recognition performance, thus enhancing its applicability to practical problems. In addition to the nearest neighbor classifier, we illustrate the effectiveness of the learned representations on object classification used in conjunction with classifiers such as neural networks and support vector machines.

  4. Multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem for effective wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jian-feng; WANG Bao-zhen; WANG Lin

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the Dongying multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem was investigated in this work. Study of the removal of different pollutants (BOD5, COD, SS, TP, TN, NH3-N, etc.) in different temperature seasons and different units in this system indicated that effluent BOD5 and SS were constant to less than 11 mg/L and 14 mg/L throughout the experimental processes; but that the removal efficiencies of pollutants such as TP, TN, NH3-N, COD varied greatly with season. The higher the temperature was, the higher was the observed removal in this system. Additionally, each unit of the system functioned differently in removing pollutants. BOD5 and SS were mainly removed in the first three units (hybrid facultative ponds, aeration ponds and aerated fish ponds), whereas nitrogen and phosphates were mainly removed in hydrophyte ponds and constructed reed wetlands.The multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem exhibits good potential of removing different pollutants, and the effluent quality meet several standards for wastewater reuse.

  5. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  6. Micro Agenda Setters: The Effect of Social Media on Young Adults’ Exposure to and Attitude Toward News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Yvette Wohn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media services like Facebook and Twitter are playing an increasingly large role as sources of news. This article investigates the ways the composition of social media networks affects people’s exposure to and attitude toward news. Focus groups (N = 31 and in-depth interviews (N = 15 with young adults of varying ethnicity and country of origin showed that people’s networks on social media function as micro agenda setters. The characteristics of people in one’s network can facilitate negative effects such as echo chambers and spirals of silence but can also unfold new perspectives and create awareness of topics not covered by legacy media.

  7. Generation of High Pressure Oxygen via Electrochemical Pumping in a Multi-stage Electrolysis Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, John A (Inventor); Green, Robert D (Inventor); Farmer, Serene (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An oxygen pump can produce high-purity high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen ions (O.sup.2-) are electrochemically pumped through a multi-stage electrolysis stack of cells. Each cell includes an oxygen-ion conducting solid-state electrolyte between cathode and anode sides. Oxygen dissociates into the ions at the cathode side. The ions migrate across the electrolyte and recombine at the anode side. An insulator is between adjacent cells to electrically isolate each individual cell. Each cell receives a similar volt potential. Recombined oxygen from a previous stage can diffuse through the insulator to reach the cathode side of the next stage. Each successive stage similarly incrementally pressurizes the oxygen to produce a final elevated pressure.

  8. Numerical investigation of flow through vegetated multi-stage compound cha-nnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯; 槐文信; 高猛

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the renormalization group k-e turbulence modeling of a vegetated multi-stage compound channel. Results from Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) tests are used with time and spatial averaging (double-averaging method) in the analysis of the flow field and the characterization. Comparisons of the mean velocity, the Reynolds stress, and the turbulent energy distribution show the validity of the computational method. The mean velocity profile sees an obvious de-celeration in the terraces because of vegetation. Secondary flow exists mainly at the junction of the main channel and the vegetation region on the first terrace. The bed shear stress in the main channel is much greater than that in the terraces. The difference of the bed shear stress between two terraces is insignificant, and the presence of vegetation can effectively reduce the bed shear stress.

  9. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...... of a user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...... load. Each admission request will issue a flag whose colour will reflect the load level in this entity and will determine the correct sequence of the required admission control actions....

  10. Multi-stage continuous high cell density culture systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho Nam; Jung, Kwonsu; Choi, Jin-Dal-Rae; Lee, Joon Chul; Woo, Hee-Chul

    2014-01-01

    A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) system makes it possible to achieve high productivity together with high product titer of many bioproducts. For long-term continuous operation of MSC-HCDC systems, the cell retention time and hydraulic retention time must be decoupled and strains (bacteria, yeast, plant, and animal cells) must be stable. MSC-HCDC systems are suitable for low-value high-volume extracellular products such as fuel ethanol, lactic acid or volatile fatty acids, and high-value products such as monoclonal antibodies as well as intracellular products such as polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB), microbial lipids or a number of therapeutics. Better understanding of the fermentation kinetics of a specific product and reliable high-density culture methods for the product-generating microorganisms will facilitate timely industrialization of MSC-HCDC systems for products that are currently obtained in fed-batch bioreactors.

  11. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  12. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  13. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  14. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Ju-Won

    2015-08-19

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a result, we analyze three different parameterizations for elastic VTI media in terms of the influence of the S-waves on the gradient direction for c13, the spatial coverage of gradient direction and the degree of trade-offs between the parameters. Based on the dependency results, we design a multi-stage elastic VTI FWI strategy to enhance both the spatial coverage of the FWI and the robustness to the trade-offs among the parameters as well as FWI for the c13 structure.

  15. Lumped-equivalent circuit model for multi-stage cascaded magnetoelectric dual-tunable bandpass filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋实; 朱锋杰; 周浩淼

    2015-01-01

    A lumped-equivalent circuit model of a novel magnetoelectric tunable bandpass filter, which is realized in the form of multi-stage cascading between a plurality of magnetoelectric laminates, is established in this paper for convenient analysis. The multi-stage cascaded filter is degraded to the coupling microstrip filter with only one magnetoelectric laminate and then compared with the existing experiment results. The comparison reveals that the insertion loss curves predicted by the degraded circuit model are in good agreement with the experiment results and the predicted results of the electromagnetic field simulation, thus the validity of the model is verified. The model is then degraded to the two-stage cascaded magneto-electric filter with two magnetoelectric laminates. It is revealed that if the applied external bias magnetic or electric fields on the two magnetoelectric laminates are identical, then the passband of the filter will drift under the changed external field; that is to say, the filter has the characteristics of external magnetic field tunability and electric field tunability. If the applied external bias magnetic or electric fields on two magnetoelectric laminates are different, then the passband will disappear so that the switching characteristic is achieved. When the same magnetic fields are applied to the laminates, the passband bandwidth of the two-stage cascaded magnetoelectric filter with two magnetoelectric laminates becomes nearly doubled in comparison with the passband filter which contains only one magnetoelectric laminate. The bandpass effect is also improved obviously. This research will provide a theoretical basis for the design, preparation, and application of a new high performance magnetoelectric tunable microwave device.

  16. Research and Development for Multi-stage and Integrated Approach for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Asakawa, E.; Sumi, T.; Kadoshima, K.; Kose, M.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Koizumi, A.; Koizumi, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Higashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The seafloor hydrothermal systems and related mineral deposits had been discovered at more than 550 sites so for, and near the one-third of these sites were confirmed as the massive sulfide deposits (Hannington et al., 2011). However, we are now faced with the some task like the preservation of hydrothermal vent community and the secure of amount of mineral reserves for the commercialization. In Japan, the exploration and investigation researches in Japan's EEZ has been conducted from 1980s, and about 20 seafloor hydrothermal fields including several confirmed SMSs has been discovered so far. The Cabinet Office of Government Japan (2013) have been promoting "assessment of the amount of reserves of known mineral deposits, discovery of new mineral deposits and comprehension of the approximate amount of reserves, development of equipment technologies and environmental impact assessment methods related to mining and lifting, including actual offshore tests", expecting projects to be initiated aiming at commercialization with the participation of private companies in or after FY2023-FY2027. As part of the promotion, the "Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP)" was started at FY2014 by the Cabinet Office of Government Japan, and the research project of "Next-generation technology for ocean resources exploration" is also ongoing (FY2014-FY2018). J-MARES(Research and Development Partnership for Next Generation Technology of Marine Resources Survey) is one of the private union participated the SIP organized four Inc.(JAPAX, JGI, NSENGI, and MMTEC) aimed at construction of "Multi-stage and integrated approach for SMSs exploration" through the development of upgradable and effectual geophysical exploration methods on seismic and electric-magnetic methods, and combination of the known exploration tools and systems. In this presentation, we introduce some results obtained from two research cruise (JM14-01 and JM14-02) on the known seafloor hydrothermal

  17. Were the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides multi-staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Joshua; Mozzato, Alessandro; Tappin, David; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides originating from active and extinct trough mouth fans are some of the largest single mass movements evident on Earth. These landslides are capable of damaging offshore infrastructure and can also trigger far-reaching tsunamis. For these reasons understanding the timing, dynamics, and triggering mechanisms of large submarine landslides is important for regional geohazard assessment. The Trænadjupet Slide occurred 4,000 ca. years ago and originated from the Trænadjupet paleo-ice stream on the Central Norwegian margin. The Trænadjupet Slide partially buried the deposits of a previous slide originating from the same section of the Norwegian margin; the Nyk Slide, which occurred at 16,000 ca years ago. Although the Trænadjupet Slide had an estimated volume of 900 km3 and originated from a shallow water depth, it does not appear to have triggered a tsunami. This is in contrast to the comparably-sized Storegga Slide, which produced a tsunami that devastated coastal areas as far away as Scotland. The apparent absence of a tsunami suggests that the failure dynamics for the Trænadjupet slide were different to that of other large slides along the Norwegian Margin. The deposits of both the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides consist of several blocky lobes extending out into the Lofoten Basin. The lobate morphology of the deposits may imply that both slides occurred in a number of different and possibly temporally-disparate stages. Importantly, multi-staged failures have a much lower tsunamigenic potential due to the lower initial volume displacement. These staggered failures consisting of smaller sediment volumes might explain why no contemporaneous onshore tsunami deposits are found on nearby coastlines, particularly in the case of the post-glacial Trænadjupet Slide. Here we present a new sediment core dataset collected from the previously un-sampled lobes of the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides. These cores will help us better characterise the deposit types

  18. Suicide Prevention among High School Students: Evaluation of a Nonrandomized Trial of a Multi-Stage Suicide Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcasso, Gina; Hilt, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. Suicide screening programs aim to identify mental health issues and prevent death by suicide. Objective: The present study evaluated outcomes of a multi-stage screening program implemented over 3 school years in a moderately-sized Midwestern high school. Methods: One hundred ninety-three…

  19. Simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence: an analysis of two climate regimes for differentiation of commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen MGJ den; Berk MM; Lucas P; KMD

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een analyse van twee post-Kyoto regimes voor lastenverdeling in het internationale klimaatbeleid: 1. de Multi-stage benadering, waarbij landen op grond van hoofdelijk inkomen en emissies worden ingedeeld in groepen met verschillende typen van doelstellingen (stadia). 2. de

  20. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  1. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  2. Numerical framework to model temporally resolved multi-stage dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, M N; Bhasin, S; Szafran, A T; Mancini, M A; Jasuja, R

    2012-11-01

    Numerical modeling of steroid hormone signaling presents an exciting challenge involving spatiotemporal coordination of multiple events. Ligand binding in cytoplasm triggers dissociation and/or association of coregulators which subsequently regulate DNA binding and transcriptional activity in nucleus. In order to develop a comprehensive multi-stage model, it is imperative to follow not only the transcriptional outcomes but also the intermediate protein complexes. Accordingly, we developed a software toolkit for simulating complex biochemical pathways as a set of non-linear differential equations in LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation and Engineering Workbench, National Instruments, Austin, TX) environment. The toolkit is visual, highly modular, loosely coupled with the rest of LabVIEW, scalable and extensible. The toolkit can be used to develop and validate biochemical models and estimate model parameters from existing experimental data. We illustrate the application of the toolkit for simulation of steroid hormone response in cells, and demonstrate how the toolkit can be employed for other biological and chemical systems as well. The software module presented here can be used stand-alone as well as built into data collection and analysis applications.

  3. Multi-stage geothermal power generation system; Tadan chinetsu hatsuden hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Odanaka, K.; Shakunaga, N.

    1996-03-08

    In the conventional geothermal power generation system, the high pressure steam and low pressure steam produced in each steam generation plant are separately sent to the power generation site through the pipeline for operating the high pressure turbine or low pressure turbine. The cost for installing the pipeline facility is a problem in this system. This invention relates to the geothermal power generation system which are equipped with multi-stage turbines and power generators. According to the invention, the high pressure top turbine and generator are installed at the pit mouth of each well to generate the power. The wet steam exhausted from the top turbine is mixed together with hot water separated from the high pressure separator or the flash steam. The mixture is fed to the low pressure separator to carry out the gas/liquid separation. The steam recovered from the gas/liquid separator is fed to the low pressure base turbine for power generation. This way facilitates the alteration of equipment when the gushing character of the geothermal well changes as the time passes by. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Multi-Stage Feature Selection Based Intelligent Classifier for Classification of Incipient Stage Fire in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Melvin Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an early fire detection algorithm has been proposed based on low cost array sensing system, utilising off- the shelf gas sensors, dust particles and ambient sensors such as temperature and humidity sensor. The odour or “smellprint” emanated from various fire sources and building construction materials at early stage are measured. For this purpose, odour profile data from five common fire sources and three common building construction materials were used to develop the classification model. Normalised feature extractions of the smell print data were performed before subjected to prediction classifier. These features represent the odour signals in the time domain. The obtained features undergo the proposed multi-stage feature selection technique and lastly, further reduced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, a dimension reduction technique. The hybrid PCA-PNN based approach has been applied on different datasets from in-house developed system and the portable electronic nose unit. Experimental classification results show that the dimension reduction process performed by PCA has improved the classification accuracy and provided high reliability, regardless of ambient temperature and humidity variation, baseline sensor drift, the different gas concentration level and exposure towards different heating temperature range.

  5. Optimal phasing of district heating network investments using multi-stage stochastic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Stephane Claude Lambert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most design optimisation studies for district heating systems have focused on the optimal sizing of network assets and on the location of production units. However, the strategic value of the flexibility in phasing of the inherently modular heat networks, which is an important aspect in many feasibility studies for district heating schemes in the UK, is almost always neglected in the scientific literature. This paper considers the sequential problem faced by a decision-maker in the phasing of long-term investments into district heating networks and their expansions. The problem is formulated as a multi-stage stochastic programme to determine the annual capital expenditure that maximises the expected net present value of the project. The optimisation approach is illustrated by applying it to the hypothetical case of the UK’s Marston Vale eco town. It was found that the approach is capable of simulating the optimal growth of a network, from both a single heat source or separate islands of growth, as well as the optimal marginal expansion of an existing district heating network. The proposed approach can be used by decision makers as a framework to determine both the optimal phasing and extension of district heating networks and can be adapted simply to various, more complex real-life situations by introducing additional constraints and parameters. The versatility of the base formulation also makes it a powerful approach regardless of the size of the network and also potentially applicable to cooling networks.

  6. Multi-Bed Multi-Stage Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle-Reducing Driving Heat Source Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, K. C. Amanul; Akahira, Akira; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Koyama, Shigeru; Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong

    The study aims at designing a multi-bed multi-stage adsorption chiller that can be driven by waste heat at near ambient temperature. The chiller is designed such a way that it can be switched into different modes depending on the driving heat source temperature. Stage regeneration techniques have been applied to operate the chiller by relatively low temperature heat source. Driving heat source temperature is validated by simulated data and the performances obtained from different modes are compared. In terms of COP (Coefficient of performance),the chiller shows best performance in conventional single-stage mode for driving heat source temperature greater than 60°C, two stage mode for driving source temperature between 42 and 60°C,in three-stage mode for driving source temperature less than 42°C. In terms of cooling capacity, it shows the best performance in single-stage mode for heat source temperature greater than 70°C. The mass recovery process in single-stage mode is also examined. It is seen that the mass recovery process improve cooling capacity significantly, specially for the low regenerating temperature region.

  7. Multi-stage approach for structural damage detection problem using basis pursuit and particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerist, Saleheh; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2016-12-01

    In order to solve structural damage detection problem, a multi-stage method using particle swarm optimization is presented. First, a new spars recovery method, named Basis Pursuit (BP), is utilized to preliminarily identify structural damage locations. The BP method solves a system of equations which relates the damage parameters to the structural modal responses using the sensitivity matrix. Then, the results of this stage are subsequently enhanced to the exact damage locations and extents using the PSO search engine. Finally, the search space is reduced by elimination of some low damage variables using micro search (MS) operator embedded in the PSO algorithm. To overcome the noise present in structural responses, a method known as Basis Pursuit De-Noising (BPDN) is also used. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated by three numerical examples: a cantilever beam, a plane truss and a portal plane frame. The frequency response is used to detect damage in the examples. The simulation results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in detecting multiple damage cases and exhibit its robustness regarding noise and its advantages compared to other reported solution algorithms.

  8. Hydraulic design to optimize the treatment capacity of Multi-Stage Filtration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushila, C. N.; Ochieng, G. M.; Otieno, F. A. O.; Shitote, S. M.; Sitters, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) can provide a robust treatment alternative for surface water sources of variable water quality in rural communities at low operation and maintenance costs. MSF is a combination of Slow Sand Filters (SSFs) and Pre-treatment systems. The general objective of this research was to optimize the treatment capacity of MSF. A pilot plant study was undertaken to meet this objective. The pilot plant was monitored for a continuous 98 days from commissioning till the end of the project. Three main stages of MSF namely: The Dynamic Gravel Filter (DGF), Horizontal-flow Roughing Filter (HRF) and SSF were identified, designed and built. The response of the respective MSF units in removal of selected parameters guiding drinking water quality such as microbiological (Faecal and Total coliform), Suspended Solids, Turbidity, PH, Temperature, Iron and Manganese was investigated. The benchmark was the Kenya Bureau (KEBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) Standards for drinking water quality. With respect to microbiological raw water quality improvement, MSF units achieved on average 98% Faecal and 96% Total coliform removal. Results obtained indicate that implementation of MSF in rural communities has the potential to increase access to portable water to the rural populace with a probable consequent decrease in waterborne diseases. With a reduced down time due to illness, more time would be spent in undertaking other economic activities.

  9. Variation transmission model for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Richard O

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes consist of a series of stages (e.g., reaction, workup, isolation) to generate the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Outputs at intermediate stages (in-process control) and API need to be controlled within acceptance criteria to assure final drug product quality. In this paper, two methods based on tolerance interval to derive such acceptance criteria will be evaluated. The first method is serial worst case (SWC), an industry risk minimization strategy, wherein input materials and process parameters of a stage are fixed at their worst-case settings to calculate the maximum level expected from the stage. This maximum output then becomes input to the next stage wherein process parameters are again fixed at worst-case setting. The procedure is serially repeated throughout the process until the final stage. The calculated limits using SWC can be artificially high and may not reflect the actual process performance. The second method is the variation transmission (VT) using autoregressive model, wherein variation transmitted up to a stage is estimated by accounting for the recursive structure of the errors at each stage. Computer simulations at varying extent of variation transmission and process stage variability are performed. For the scenarios tested, VT method is demonstrated to better maintain the simulated confidence level and more precisely estimate the true proportion parameter than SWC. Real data examples are also presented that corroborate the findings from the simulation. Overall, VT is recommended for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  10. Lymphoma diagnosis in histopathology using a multi-stage visual learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Noel; Moradi, Mehdi; Matasar, Matt; Sveda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Smith, John R.

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a multi-stage image enhancement, segmentation, and classification approach for lymphoma recognition in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides of excised human lymph node tissue. In the first stage, the original histology slide undergoes various image enhancement and segmentation operations, creating an additional 5 images for every slide. These new images emphasize unique aspects of the original slide, including dominant staining, staining segmentations, non-cellular groupings, and cellular groupings. For the resulting 6 total images, a collection of visual features are extracted from 3 different spatial configurations. Visual features include the first fully connected layer (4096 dimensions) of the Caffe convolutional neural network trained from ImageNet data. In total, over 200 resultant visual descriptors are extracted for each slide. Non-linear SVMs are trained over each of the over 200 descriptors, which are then input to a forward stepwise ensemble selection that optimizes a late fusion sum of logistically normalized model outputs using local hill climbing. The approach is evaluated on a public NIH dataset containing 374 images representing 3 lymphoma conditions: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Results demonstrate a 38.4% reduction in residual error over the current state-of-art on this dataset.

  11. Marginal estimation for multi-stage models: waiting time distributions and competing risks analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satten, Glen A; Datta, Somnath

    2002-01-15

    We provide non-parametric estimates of the marginal cumulative distribution of stage occupation times (waiting times) and non-parametric estimates of marginal cumulative incidence function (proportion of persons who leave stage j for stage j' within time t of entering stage j) using right-censored data from a multi-stage model. We allow for stage and path dependent censoring where the censoring hazard for an individual may depend on his or her natural covariate history such as the collection of stages visited before the current stage and their occupation times. Additional external time dependent covariates that may induce dependent censoring can also be incorporated into our estimates, if available. Our approach requires modelling the censoring hazard so that an estimate of the integrated censoring hazard can be used in constructing the estimates of the waiting times distributions. For this purpose, we propose the use of an additive hazard model which results in very flexible (robust) estimates. Examples based on data from burn patients and simulated data with tracking are also provided to demonstrate the performance of our estimators.

  12. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancé, Antoine; Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme; Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas; Specka, Arnd; Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S.; Mora, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  13. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancé, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.chance@cea.fr [CEA, IRFU, SACM, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme [CEA, IRFU, SACM, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas [LAL, UMR9607, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Specka, Arnd [LLR, UMR7638, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S. [LPGP, UMR8578, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Mora, Patrick [CPhT, UMR7644, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2014-03-11

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  14. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  15. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  16. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; García-Prats, María D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10−12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10−11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10−7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10−11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10−11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

  17. Multi-stage axial flow compressors characteristics estimation based on system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wentong; Liu, Yongwen; Su, Ming [Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Nanhua [Guangdong Electric Power Research Institute, 73 Meihua Road, Guangzhou 510600 (China)

    2008-02-15

    The most troublesome part in the development of a component-based engine models is the compressor module because of the strong dependence of its performance on rotational speed. For this purpose, a performance characteristics estimation method of multi-stage axial flow compressors are proposed in this paper. The newly proposed estimation technique of average infinitesimal stage characteristics satisfies the analogy criterion perfectly due to the use of a new conception of infinitesimal stage and the improved analogy theory. The overall compressor performance characteristics are estimated through a stage by stage calculation based on the improved analogy theory and the average stage characteristics. To minimize the error between the calculated characteristic and the tested characteristic of the compressor at high rotational speeds, the average stages performance characteristics are identified using an optimization method. The technique improves the traditional scaling method by taking into account the effects of air density change and rotational speeds, and it makes use of available data efficiently. In addition, it reflects the own performance characteristics of the original compressor. (author)

  18. Multi-stage axial flow compressors characteristics estimation based on system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wentong [Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: wentongma@sjtu.org; Liu Yongwen; Su Ming [Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Nanhua [Guangdong Electric Power Research Institute, 73 Meihua Road, Guangzhou 510600 (China)

    2008-02-15

    The most troublesome part in the development of a component-based engine models is the compressor module because of the strong dependence of its performance on rotational speed. For this purpose, a performance characteristics estimation method of multi-stage axial flow compressors are proposed in this paper. The newly proposed estimation technique of average infinitesimal stage characteristics satisfies the analogy criterion perfectly due to the use of a new conception of infinitesimal stage and the improved analogy theory. The overall compressor performance characteristics are estimated through a stage by stage calculation based on the improved analogy theory and the average stage characteristics. To minimize the error between the calculated characteristic and the tested characteristic of the compressor at high rotational speeds, the average stages performance characteristics are identified using an optimization method. The technique improves the traditional scaling method by taking into account the effects of air density change and rotational speeds, and it makes use of available data efficiently. In addition, it reflects the own performance characteristics of the original compressor.

  19. Short-Term Multi-Stage Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Reservoirs Under Meteorological Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty based on deterministic and probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with novel multi-dimensional distance metrics. The scenario trees enable us to extend a deterministic optimization setup to a multi-stage stochastic optimization approach as the mathematical formulation of the short-term system management. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. We proof the feasibility of the new approach and verify the operational applicability within a real-time environment.

  20. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  1. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  2. A Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network Problem by Using Hybrid Priority-Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu

    Today remanufacturing problem is one of the most important problems regarding to the environmental aspects of the recovery of used products and materials. Therefore, the reverse logistics is gaining become power and great potential for winning consumers in a more competitive context in the future. This paper considers the multi-stage reverse Logistics Network Problem (m-rLNP) while minimizing the total cost, which involves reverse logistics shipping cost and fixed cost of opening the disassembly centers and processing centers. In this study, we first formulate the m-rLNP model as a three-stage logistics network model. Following for solving this problem, we propose a Genetic Algorithm pri (GA) with priority-based encoding method consisting of two stages, and introduce a new crossover operator called Weight Mapping Crossover (WMX). Additionally also a heuristic approach is applied in the 3rd stage to ship of materials from processing center to manufacturer. Finally numerical experiments with various scales of the m-rLNP models demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  3. Multi-stage ytterbium fiber-amplifier seeded by a gain-switched laser diode

    CERN Document Server

    Ryser, Manuel; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated all-fiber amplification of 11 ps pulses from a gain-switched laser diode at 1064 nm. The diode was driven at a repetition rate of 40 MHz and delivered 13 $\\mu$W of fiber-coupled average output power. For the low output pulse energy of 325 fJ we have designed a multi-stage core pumped pre-amplifier in order to keep the contribution of undesired amplified spontaneous emission as low as possible. By using a novel time-domain approach for determining the power spectral density ratio (PSD) of signal to noise, we identified the optimal working point for our pre-amplifier. After the pre-amplifier we reduced the 40 MHz repetition rate to 1 MHz using a fiber coupled pulse-picker. The final amplification was done with a cladding pumped Yb-doped large mode area fiber and a subsequent Yb-doped rod-type fiber. With our setup we reached a total gain of 73 dB, resulting in pulse energies of >5.6 $\\mu$J and peak powers of >0.5 MW. The average PSD-ratio of signal to noise we determined to be 18/1 at the output...

  4. O conhecimento tático declarativo dos levantadores campeões de voleibol The tactical declarative knowledge of the volleyball champions setters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristino Julio Alves da Silva Matias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo consistiu em analisar o conhecimento tático declarativo do levantador de voleibol, expert, dos Escalões Iniciais ao Adulto. Como voluntários a amostra teve dezoito levantadores. Dois levantadores, um de cada sexo, campeões estaduais (SP-MG dos escalões: Mirim (sub-14, Infantil (sub-15, Infanto (sub-17 e Juvenil (sub-20. Houve também a participação dos campeões do escalão Adulto (Superliga, um masculino e outro feminino. Empregou-se como instrumento o Teste de Conhecimento Tático Declarativo do Levantador (MATIAS; GRECO, 2009. Os resultados demonstraram a expertise tática declarativa dos levantadores, pois todos foram capazes de tomar a decisão correta e justificar com exatidão a decisão. Para tal, aplicou-se o teste de correlação de Spearman que demonstrou uma associação significativa em todos os escalões (p=0,000. Por meio da aplicação do teste de Kruskall-Wallis e Mann-Whitney verificou-se a diferença do escalão Adulto perante os demais, em ambos os sexo, pois o valor de significância dos testes foram inferiores a 0,05. Os resultados apurados sugerem que equipes campeãs possuem, como responsável pela organização ofensiva, levantadores com compreensão declarativa das ações inerentes a distribuição de jogo.The aim of this study consisted of the volleyball setter's (expert declarative knowledge analysis. The sample counted on eighteen setters as volunteers. Two of them, each one of a different gender, distributed equally among categories of competition: 14 under division, 15 under division, 17 under division and 20 under division. All champions for the state of SP or MG. There was also a participation of two setters that were champions in the Adult category (Professional National Championship: Superliga, each one of a different gender. It was employed the Setter's Tactical Declarative Knowledge Test (MATIAS; GRECO, 2009. The results showed the setter's tactical declarative expertise, because

  5. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2017-03-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  6. Seepage flow behaviors of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells in arbitrary shaped shale gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Long; Shan, Bao-Chao; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Qi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The horizontal well incorporated with massive hydraulic fracturing has become a key and necessary technology to develop shale gas reservoirs efficiently, and transient pressure analysis is a practical method to evaluate the effectiveness of the fracturing. Until now, however, the related studies on the pressure of such wells have mainly focused on regular outer-boundaries, such as infinite, circular and rectangular boundary shapes, which do not always fulfill the practical conditions and, of course, could cause errors. By extending the boundary element method (BEM) into the application of multi-staged fractured horizontal wells, this paper presents a way of analyzing the transient pressure in arbitrary shaped shale gas reservoirs considering ad-/de-sorption and diffusion of the shale gas with the ‘tri-porosity’ mechanism model. The boundary integral equation can be obtained by coupling the fundamental solution of the Helmholtz equation with the dimensionless diffusivity equation. After discretizing the outer-boundaries and the fractures, the boundary integral equations are linearized and the coefficient matrix of the pressure on the boundaries is assembled, after which bottom-hole pressure can be calculated conveniently. Comparing the BEM solution with semi-analytical solution cases, the accuracy of the new solution can be validated. Then, the characteristic curves of the dimensionless pseudo pressure, as well as its derivative for a well in shale gas reservoirs, are drawn, based on which the parameters’ sensitivity analyses are also conducted. This paper not only enriches the well testing theory and method in shale gas reservoirs, but also provides an effective method to solve problems with complex inner- and outer-boundaries.

  7. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-07-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  8. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  9. STATE SPACE MODELING OF DIMENSIONAL MACHINING ERRORS OF SERIAL-PARALLEL HYBRID MULTI-STAGE MACHINING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Lifeng; DU Shichang

    2007-01-01

    The final product quality is determined by cumulation, coupling and propagation of product quality variations from all stations in multi-stage manufacturing systems (MMSs). Modeling and control of variation propagation is essential to improve product quality. However, the current stream of variations (SOV) theory can only solve the problem that a single SOV affects the product quality. Due to the existence of multiple variation streams, limited research has been done on the quality control in serial-parallel hybrid multi-stage manufacturing systems (SPH-MMSs). A state space model and its modeling strategies are developed to describe the multiple variation streams stack-up in an SPH-MMS. The SOV theory is extended to SPH-MMS. The dimensions of system model are reduced to the production-reality level, and the effect and feasibility of the model is validated by a machining case.

  10. The case for and against using ball-drop multi-stage fracturing systems in unconventional horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Lyle V. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States); Shah, Koras [StrataGen (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years, the development of unconventional oil and gas production has been made possible by the increasing oil prices and the implementation of new technologies. Multi stage stimulation tools have been developed to stimulate horizontal wells in a more efficient manner. The aim of this paper is to present the advantages and disadvantages of using those tools in unconventional matrices and naturally fractured based oil and gas completions. The effects of multi stage stimulation tools in horizontal wells are explored in terms of production rate, ultimate recovery and service costs. Results showed that the choice of completion system depends on reservoir perm and pressure and fracture conductivity and spacing; in addition, net present value was found to be a good means to assess the benefits of each completion system. This paper pointed out that the optimal technique to stimulate horizontal wells depends on the reservoir's properties.

  11. A risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming approach for water resources planning under dual uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Huang, G. H.; Wang, S.; Li, W.; Guan, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming (RIMSP) approach is proposed through incorporating the fractile criterion method and chance-constrained programming within a multi-stage decision-making framework. RIMSP is able to deal with dual uncertainties expressed as random boundary intervals that exist in the objective function and constraints. Moreover, RIMSP is capable of reflecting dynamics of uncertainties, as well as the trade-off between the total net benefit and the associated risk. A water allocation problem is used to illustrate applicability of the proposed methodology. A set of decision alternatives with different combinations of risk levels applied to the objective function and constraints can be generated for planning the water resources allocation system. The results can help decision makers examine potential interactions between risks related to the stochastic objective function and constraints. Furthermore, a number of solutions can be obtained under different water policy scenarios, which are useful for decision makers to formulate an appropriate policy under uncertainty. The performance of RIMSP is analyzed and compared with an inexact multi-stage stochastic programming (IMSP) method. Results of comparison experiment indicate that RIMSP is able to provide more robust water management alternatives with less system risks in comparison with IMSP.

  12. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-28

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  13. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  14. Late-onset progressive retinal atrophy in the Gordon and Irish Setter breeds is associated with a frameshift mutation in C2orf71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, L M; Bell, J S; Freeman, J; Hartley, C; Hayward, L J; Mellersh, C S

    2013-04-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in dogs is characterised by the degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina, resulting in vision loss and eventually complete blindness. The condition affects more than 100 dog breeds and is known to be genetically heterogeneous between breeds. Around 14 mutations have now been identified that are associated with PRA in around 49 breeds, but for the majority of breeds the mutation(s) responsible have yet to be identified. Using genome-wide association with 16 Gordon Setter PRA cases and 22 controls, we identified a novel PRA locus, termed rod-cone degeneration 4 (rcd4), on CFA17 (Praw  = 2.22 × 10(-8) , Pgenome  = 2.00 × 10(-5) ), where a 3.2-Mb region was homozygous within cases. A frameshift mutation was identified in C2orf71, a gene located within this region. This variant was homozygous in 19 of 21 PRA cases and was at a frequency of approximately 0.37 in the Gordon Setter population. Approximately 10% of cases in our study (2 of 21) are not associated with this C2orf71 mutation, indicating that PRA in this breed is genetically heterogeneous and caused by at least two mutations. This variant is also present in a number of Irish Setter dogs with PRA and has an estimated allele frequency of 0.26 in the breed. The function of C2orf71 remains unknown, but it is important for retinal development and function and has previously been associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in humans.

  15. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  16. Determination of rational design parameters of a multi-stage solar water desalination still using transient mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatat, M.I.M.; Mahkamov, K. [School of Engineering, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    The paper describes the experimental investigations of the performance of a multi-stage water desalination still connected to a heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector with aperture area of 1.7 m{sup 2}. The multi-stage solar still water desalination system was designed to recover latent heat from evaporation and condensation processes in four stages. The variation in the solar radiation during a typical mid-summer day in the Middle East region was simulated on the test rig using an array of 110 halogen floodlights covering the area of the collector. The results of tests demonstrate that the system produces about 9 kg of fresh water per day and has a solar collector efficiency of about 68%. However, the overall efficiency of the laboratory test rig at this stage of the investigations was found to be at the level of 33% due to excessive heat losses in the system. The analysis of the distilled water showed that its quality was within the World Health Organization guidelines. The still's operation was numerically simulated by employing a mathematical model based on a system of ordinary energy and mass conservation differential equations written for each stage of the still. A computer program was developed for transient simulations of the evaporation and condensation processes inside the multi-stage still. Experimental results obtained and theoretical predictions were found to be in good agreement. The results on the determination of rational design dimensions and number of stages of the still for a given aperture of the solar collector are also presented in this work. (author)

  17. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF THICK GALLIUM NITRIDE LAYERS BY METHOD OF MULTI-STAGE GROWTH ON SUBSTRATES WITH COLUMN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Mynbaeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with processes of formation and transformation of defects during multi-stage growth of thick gallium nitride layers with hydride vapor phase epitaxy on GaN/Al2O3 substrates with buried column pattern formed with the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Methods. The growth of initial GaN layers was performed with the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. On the surface of the initial layers columns with the height of 800 nm were generated by means of ion etching. These columns were overgrown with 3-4 µm-thick GaN layers. On thus formed substrate multi-stage growth of GaN layers was performed with the use of hydride vapor-phase epitaxy. The total thickness of GaN layers was 100-1500 µm. The grown layers were studied by optical and electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Main Results. Density of threading dislocations in the layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy was (3-6·107 cm-2, that was one order of magnitude lower than in the used substrate, and two to three orders lower than dislocation density in typical GaN layers grown on commercial sapphire substrates. Raman spectroscopy data were indicative of low level of mechanical stress in the layers and their high structural uniformity. It was established that under multi-stage growth conditions, non-catastrophic cracks (those that do not cause sample destruction are able to transform into macropores and appear to be an important structural element, serving to stress relaxation in the bulk of thick gallium nitride layers grown on foreign substrates. Practical Relevance. The results of the study can be used in the development of III-nitride heterostructures for optoelectronics and high-power and high-frequency microelectronics.

  19. Applications of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.

  20. Multi-stage pulse tube cryocooler with acoustic impedance constructed to reduce transient cool down time and thermal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor); Wilson, Kyle B. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The cool down time for a multi-stage, pulse tube cryocooler is reduced by configuring at least a portion of the acoustic impedance of a selected stage, higher than the first stage, so that it surrounds the cold head of the selected stage. The surrounding acoustic impedance of the selected stage is mounted in thermally conductive connection to the warm region of the selected stage for cooling the acoustic impedance and is fabricated of a high thermal diffusivity, low thermal radiation emissivity material, preferably aluminum.

  1. Multi-stage crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingguo Zhai

    2014-01-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) has a complicated evolutionary history with multi-stage crustal growth, recording nearly all important geological events in the early geotectonic history of the Earth. Our studies propose that the NCC can be divided into six micro-blocks with >w3.0e3.8 Ga old continental nuclei that are surrounded by Neoarchean greenstone belts (GRB). The micro-blocks are also termed as high-grade regions (HGR) and are mainly composed of orthogneisses with minor gabbros and BIF-bearing supracrustal beds or lenses, all of which underwent strong deformation and metamorphism of granu-lite-to high-grade amphibolite-facies. The micro-blocks are, in turn, from east to west, the Jiaoliao (JL), Qianhuai (QH), Ordos (ODS), Ji’ning (JN) and Alashan (ALS) blocks, and Xuchang (XCH) in the south. Recent studies led to a consensus that the basement of the NCC was composed of different blocks/ter-ranes that were finally amalgamated to form a coherent craton at the end of Neoarchean. Zircon U-Pb data show that TTG gneisses in the HGRs have two prominent age peaks at ca. 2.9e2.7 and 2.6e2.5 Ga which may correspond to the earliest events of major crustal growth in the NCC. Hafnium isotopic model ages range from ca. 3.8 to 2.5 Ga and mostly are in the range of 3.0e2.6 Ga with a peak at 2.82 Ga. Recent studies revealed a much larger volume of TTG gneisses in the NCC than previously considered, with a dominant ca. 2.7 Ga magmatic zircon ages. Most of the ca. 2.7 Ga TTG gneisses un-derwent metamorphism in 2.6e2.5 Ga as indicated by ubiquitous metamorphic rims around the cores of magmatic zircon in these rocks. Abundant ca. 2.6e2.5 Ga orthogneisses have Hf-in-zircon and Nd whole-rock model ages mostly around 2.9e2.7 Ga and some around 2.6e2.5 Ga, indicating the timing of pro-tolith formation or extraction of the protolith magma was from the mantle. Therefore, it is suggested that the 2.6e2.5 Ga TTGs probably represent a coherent event of continental accretion and major

  2. Optimisation of the Low-Frequency Response of a Multi-stage Bioelectric Amplifier for Electrocardiogram (ECG Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the optimisation of the low-frequency response of a multi-stage bioelectric amplifier intended for use in the measurement of the human electrocardiogram (ECG using high-impedance un-gelled electrodes. The frequency response was optimised to meet international performance requirements for electrocardiographic recorders, in particular the International Electrotechnical Commission 60601 standards [1,2]. The pole and zero locations of a multi-stage amplifier configuration were optimised to meet both time and frequency domain specifications. The optimum assignment for a three stage amplifier, having two differential stages and a differential-to-single-ended conversion stage was established by evaluating the performance of a number of circuit configurations. The optimum configuration was found to be two differential stages with a gain of 20dB each and a differential-to single-ended output stage with unity gain. The -3dB pole is placed at 0.028Hz and a zero at 0.0028Hz in the first and second stages to give an overall -3dB bandwidth of 0.043Hz. In addition, the pole of the input ac coupling network was placed at 0.0028Hz in order to meet the undershoot and recovery slope requirements in the narrow pulse response.

  3. Optimum design of multi-layer K-edge filter and multi-stage detectors for triple energy bone densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoochi, Alireza; Rahmani, Faezeh; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Ghaderi, Ruhollah

    2014-03-01

    Dual X-ray bone densitometry may cause some errors in diagnosis due to heterogeneous distribution of adipose tissue. It is necessary to develop a more accurate technique to consider the effects of fat. In this research, a triple energy X-ray method has been introduced and conceptual design of a system consisting of 160 kV X-ray tube, multi-layer K-edge filter and multi-stage detector has been presented. Design calculations have been performed using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to select the type of filters and detectors with the best thicknesses for better distinguishing materials. The energy peaks (37 keV, 50 keV and 105 keV) can be separated optimally with a multi-layer filter composed of barium (170 μm) and gadolinium (100 μm) as the first and second layers, respectively which are coated on a 1 mm aluminum plate placed between the source and tissue. The transmitted photons have been counted by a multi-stage linear array of detectors consisting of ZnSe(Te) and CsI(Tl) with 400 μm and 5 mm thicknesses, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the triple energy X-ray technique has better accuracy than that of the standard dual energy X-ray technique.

  4. Multi-Stage Control of Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags Based on Time Temperature Transformation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a significant method and a basic idea of waste heat recovery from high temperature slags based on Time Temperature Transformation (TTT curves. Three samples with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.05 and different levels of Al2O3 were designed and isothermal experiments were performed using a Single Hot Thermocouple Technique (SHTT. The TTT curves established through SHTT experiments described well the variation of slag properties during isothermal processes. In this study, we propose a multi-stage control method for waste heat recovery from high temperature slags, in which the whole temperature range from 1500 °C to 25 °C was divided into three regions, i.e., Liquid region, Crystallization region and Solid region, based on the TTT curves. Accordingly, we put forward an industrial prototype plant for the purpose of waste heat recovery and the potential of waste heat recovery was then calculated. The multi-stage control method provided not only a significant prototype, but also a basic idea to simultaneously extract high quality waste heat and obtain glassy phases on high temperature slags, which may fill the gap between slag properties and practical waste heat recovery processes.

  5. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. PATIENT-CENTRED SCREENING FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY, A MULTI-STAGE DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL DESIGNED FOR NONIMMUNOLOGISTS: 2011 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID and other colleagues have updated themulti-stage expert-opinion-based diagnostic protocol for non-immunologists incorporating newly defined primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. The protocol presented here aims to increase the awareness of PIDs among doctors working in different fields. Prompt identification of PID is important for prognosis, but this may not be an easy task. The protocol therefore starts from the clinical presentation of the patient. Because PIDs may present at all ages, this protocol is aimed at both adult and paediatric physicians. The multi-stage design allows cost-effective screening for PID of the large number of potential cases in the early phases, with more expensive tests reserved for definitive classification in collaboration with a specialist in the field of immunodeficiency at a later stage.

  7. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  8. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla;

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... with a MAP protein expressed in latent infection (FET11 vaccine). FET11 vaccine proteins were formulated with CAF01 adjuvant and injected to MAP challenged calves at two different ages. 28 calves divided into two FET11 vaccine groups, a commercial vaccine and a control group were used in the study...... and followed for a year. The FET11 vaccine induced a significant T cell response against constituent vaccine proteins characterized by a high percentage of CD4+ T cells and participation of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. Of the two different age groups, late FET11 vaccination conferred protective immunity...

  9. Evidence of Multi-Stage Hydrocarbon Charging and Biodegradation of the Silurian Asphaltic Sandstones in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫

    2002-01-01

    Asphalts distributed widely in the Silurian sandstones of the Tarim Basin include dry asphalt, soft asphalt and heavy oil. These asphaltic sandstones underwent multi-episodic sedimentary and tectonic events, and their occurrence is diverse and complex, being mixed with normal oil usually. So far, very little work has been done on the asphaltic sandstone origin and hydrocarbon charging ages. After detailed study on the Silurian sandstones, the following highlights were obtained from the analytical results: distribution of the mixed asphalt, heavy oil and normal oil in the Silurian sandstones is the result of multi-stage hydrocarbon charging from the Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks; the characters of asphalts formed from oils of different charging ages are of difference; the most important process constraining.the asphaltic sandstone origin is thought to be biodegradation.

  10. Optimization of Realistic Multi-Stage Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Missing Operations Using Meta-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid flow shop scheduling is characterized ‘n’ jobs ‘m’ machines with ‘M’ stages by unidirectional flow of work with a variety of jobs being processed sequentially in a single-pass manner. The paper addresses the multi-stage hybrid flow shop scheduling problems with missing operations. It occurs in many practical situations such as stainless steel manufacturing company. The essential complexity of the problem necessitates the application of meta-heuristics to solve hybrid flow shop scheduling. The proposed Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with the objective of minimization of makespan. It is show that the SA algorithm is efficient in finding out good quality solutions for the hybrid flow shop problems with missing operations.

  11. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  12. Analysis of a Multi-component Multi-stage Malaria Vaccine Candidate--Tackling the Cocktail Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boes

    Full Text Available Combining key antigens from the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle in the context of a multi-stage-specific cocktail offers a promising approach towards the development of a malaria vaccine ideally capable of preventing initial infection, the clinical manifestation as well as the transmission of the disease. To investigate the potential of such an approach we combined proteins and domains (11 in total from the pre-erythrocytic, blood and sexual stages of P. falciparum into a cocktail of four different components recombinantly produced in plants. After immunization of rabbits we determined the domain-specific antibody titers as well as component-specific antibody concentrations and correlated them with stage specific in vitro efficacy. Using purified rabbit immune IgG we observed strong inhibition in functional in vitro assays addressing the pre-erythrocytic (up to 80%, blood (up to 90% and sexual parasite stages (100%. Based on the component-specific antibody concentrations we calculated the IC50 values for the pre-erythrocytic stage (17-25 μg/ml, the blood stage (40-60 μg/ml and the sexual stage (1.75 μg/ml. While the results underline the feasibility of a multi-stage vaccine cocktail, the analysis of component-specific efficacy indicates significant differences in IC50 requirements for stage-specific antibody concentrations providing valuable insights into this complex scenario and will thereby improve future approaches towards malaria vaccine cocktail development regarding the selection of suitable antigens and the ratios of components, to fine tune overall and stage-specific efficacy.

  13. Analysis of a Multi-component Multi-stage Malaria Vaccine Candidate—Tackling the Cocktail Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, Nadja; Edgue, Gueven; Beiss, Veronique; Kapelski, Stephanie; Fendel, Rolf; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Pradel, Gabriele; Bolscher, Judith M.; Behet, Marije C.; Dechering, Koen J.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Combining key antigens from the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle in the context of a multi-stage-specific cocktail offers a promising approach towards the development of a malaria vaccine ideally capable of preventing initial infection, the clinical manifestation as well as the transmission of the disease. To investigate the potential of such an approach we combined proteins and domains (11 in total) from the pre-erythrocytic, blood and sexual stages of P. falciparum into a cocktail of four different components recombinantly produced in plants. After immunization of rabbits we determined the domain-specific antibody titers as well as component-specific antibody concentrations and correlated them with stage specific in vitro efficacy. Using purified rabbit immune IgG we observed strong inhibition in functional in vitro assays addressing the pre-erythrocytic (up to 80%), blood (up to 90%) and sexual parasite stages (100%). Based on the component-specific antibody concentrations we calculated the IC50 values for the pre-erythrocytic stage (17–25 μg/ml), the blood stage (40–60 μg/ml) and the sexual stage (1.75 μg/ml). While the results underline the feasibility of a multi-stage vaccine cocktail, the analysis of component-specific efficacy indicates significant differences in IC50 requirements for stage-specific antibody concentrations providing valuable insights into this complex scenario and will thereby improve future approaches towards malaria vaccine cocktail development regarding the selection of suitable antigens and the ratios of components, to fine tune overall and stage-specific efficacy. PMID:26147206

  14. Analysis of a Multi-component Multi-stage Malaria Vaccine Candidate--Tackling the Cocktail Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Voepel, Nadja; Edgue, Gueven; Beiss, Veronique; Kapelski, Stephanie; Fendel, Rolf; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Pradel, Gabriele; Bolscher, Judith M; Behet, Marije C; Dechering, Koen J; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Combining key antigens from the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle in the context of a multi-stage-specific cocktail offers a promising approach towards the development of a malaria vaccine ideally capable of preventing initial infection, the clinical manifestation as well as the transmission of the disease. To investigate the potential of such an approach we combined proteins and domains (11 in total) from the pre-erythrocytic, blood and sexual stages of P. falciparum into a cocktail of four different components recombinantly produced in plants. After immunization of rabbits we determined the domain-specific antibody titers as well as component-specific antibody concentrations and correlated them with stage specific in vitro efficacy. Using purified rabbit immune IgG we observed strong inhibition in functional in vitro assays addressing the pre-erythrocytic (up to 80%), blood (up to 90%) and sexual parasite stages (100%). Based on the component-specific antibody concentrations we calculated the IC50 values for the pre-erythrocytic stage (17-25 μg/ml), the blood stage (40-60 μg/ml) and the sexual stage (1.75 μg/ml). While the results underline the feasibility of a multi-stage vaccine cocktail, the analysis of component-specific efficacy indicates significant differences in IC50 requirements for stage-specific antibody concentrations providing valuable insights into this complex scenario and will thereby improve future approaches towards malaria vaccine cocktail development regarding the selection of suitable antigens and the ratios of components, to fine tune overall and stage-specific efficacy.

  15. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  16. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  17. A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

  18. The gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in the gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Data on the volumetric liquid-side gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, k(L)a, in a Multi-stage Agitated Contractor (MAC) are reported for three gas-liquid systems (air-water, helium-n-octane, and air-Monoethylene Glycol (MEG)). k(L)a (s(-1)) was determined using a dynamic method with moderately so

  19. Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

  20. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  1. Design of a multi-stage microfluidics system for high-speed flow cytometry and closed system cell sorting for cytomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Meggie; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Jung, Byunghoo; Summers, Huw D.; Bashir, Rashid; Leary, James F.

    2008-02-01

    To produce a large increase in total throughput, a multi-stage microfluidics system (US Patent pending) is being developed for flow cytometry and closed system cell sorting. The multi-stage system provides for sorting and re-sorting of cohorts of cells beginning with multiple cells per sorting unit in the initial stages of the microfluidic device and achieving single cell sorting at subsequent stages. This design theoretically promises increases of 2- or 3-orders of magnitude in total cell throughput needed for cytomics applications involving gene chip or proteomics analyses of sorted cell subpopulations. Briefly, silicon wafers and CAD software were used with SU-8 soft photolithography techniques and used as a mold to create Y-shaped, multi-stage microfluidic PDMS chips. PDMS microfluidic chips were fabricated and tested using fluorescent microspheres driven through the chip by a microprocessor-controlled syringe drive and excited on an inverted Nikon fluorescence microscope. Inter-particle spacings were measured and used as experimental data for queuing theory models of multi-stage system performance. A miniaturized electronics system is being developed for a small portable instrument. A variety of LED light sources, waveguides, and APD detectors are being tested to find optimal combinations for creating an LED-APD configuration at the entry points of the Y-junctions for the multi-stage optical PDMS microfluidic chips. The LEDs, APDs, and PDMS chips are being combined into an inexpensive, small portable, closed system sorter suitable for operation inside a standard biohazard hood for both sterility and closed system cell sorting as an alternative to large, expensive, and conventional droplet-based cell sorters.

  2. Free-face-Assisted Rock Breaking Method Based on the Multi-stage Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Cutterhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Wei, Zhengying; Meng, Hao; Macias, Francisco Javier; Bruland, Amund

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the rock breaking efficiency of hard rock tunnel boring, many innovative rock breaking methods have been proposed (e.g., the water jet cutting, the high-power laser cutting, the impact-rotary drilling, and the undercutting method). However, most of the methods are not applicable to TBMs due to some structural reasons. Aiming on this problem, a free-face-assisted rock breaking method based on the multi-stage TBM cutterhead has been proposed. Series of proof-of-concept tests includes (1) the static compression test with vertical free face and (2) the rotary cutting tests in different free surface conditions were designed and carried out. The results show that the rock breaking force and efficiency can be significantly reduced and improved, respectively, with the assistance of the free face, due to the failure of the rock close to the free face is tensile-dominated failure. The influencing distance of the free face in the radial direction is at least 330 mm which covers about 5 disk cutters. Finally, the general structure of a small two-stage cutterhead (4 m in diameter) was tentatively designed in order to provide a possible approach to apply the free-face effect to TBMs.

  3. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  4. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels.

  5. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cerrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  6. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  7. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  8. Multi-Stage 20-m Shuttle Run Fitness Test, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Velocity at Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradisis Giorgos P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run fitness test (20mMSFT is a popular field test which is widely used to measure aerobic fitness by predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max and performance. However, the velocity at which VO 2 max occurs (vVO 2 max is a better indicator of performance than VO 2 max, and can be used to explain inter-individual differences in performance that VO 2 max cannot. It has been reported as a better predictor for running performance and it can be used to monitor athletes’ training for predicting optimal training intensity. This study investigated the validity and suitability of predicting VO2max and vVO2max of adult subjects on the basis of the performance of the 20mMST. Forty eight (25 male and 23 female physical education students performed, in random order, a laboratory based continuous horizontal treadmill test to determine VO2max, vVO 2 max and a 20mMST, with an interval of 3 days between each test. The results revealed significant correlations between the number of shuttles in the 20mMSFT and directly determined VO 2 max (r = 0.87, p<0.05 and vVO 2 max (r = 0.93, p<0.05. The equation for prediction of VO 2 max was y = 0.0276x + 27.504, whereas for vVO 2 max it was y = 0.0937x + 6.890. It can be concluded that the 20mMSFT can accurately predict VO 2 max and vVO 2 max and this field test can provide useful information regarding aerobic fitness of adults. The predicted vVO 2 max can be used in monitoring athletes, especially in determining optimal training intensity.

  9. Multi-stage melt-rock interaction in the Mt. Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic peridotites: microstructural and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Piccardo, Giovanni B.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    2008-10-01

    Spinel and plagioclase peridotites from the Mt.Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic massif record a composite asthenosphere-lithosphere history of partial melting and subsequent multi-stage melt-rock interaction. Cpx-poor spinel lherzolites are consistent with mantle residues after low-degree fractional melting ( F = 5-10%). Opx + spinel symplectites at the rims of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts indicate post-melting lithospheric cooling ( T = 970-1,100°C); this was followed by formation of olivine embayments within pyroxene porphyroclasts by melt-rock interaction. Enrichment in modal olivine (up to 85 wt%) at constant bulk Mg values, and variable absolute REE contents (at constant LREE/HREE) indicate olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution during reactive porous melt flow. This stage occurred at spinel-facies depths, after incorporation of the peridotites in the thermal lithosphere. Plagioclase-enriched peridotites show melt impregnation microtextures, like opx + plag intergrowths replacing exsolved cpx porphyroclasts and interstitial gabbronoritic veinlets. This second melt-rock interaction stage caused systematic chemical changes in clinopyroxene (e.g. Ti, REE, Zr, Y increase), related to the concomitant effects of local melt-rock interaction at decreasing melt mass, and crystallization of small (<3%) trapped melt fractions. LREE depletion in minerals of the gabbronoritic veinlets indicates that the impregnating melts were more depleted than normal MORB. Preserved microtextural evidence of previous melt-rock interaction in the impregnated peridotites suggests that they were progressively uplifted in response to lithosphere extension and thinning. Migrating melts were likely produced by mantle upwelling and melting related to extension; they were modified from olivine-saturated to opx-saturated compositions, and caused different styles of melt-rock interaction (reactive spinel harzburgites, vs. impregnated plagioclase peridotites) depending on the

  10. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J

    2013-01-01

    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration.

  11. Experimental Results of the First Two Stages of an Advanced Transonic Core Compressor Under Isolated and Multi-Stage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahst, Patricia S.; Kulkarni, Sameer; Sohn, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program calls for investigation of the technology barriers associated with improved fuel efficiency of large gas turbine engines. Under ERA the task for a High Pressure Ratio Core Technology program calls for a higher overall pressure ratio of 60 to 70. This mean that the HPC would have to almost double in pressure ratio and keep its high level of efficiency. The challenge is how to match the corrected mass flow rate of the front two supersonic high reaction and high corrected tip speed stages with a total pressure ratio of 3.5. NASA and GE teamed to address this challenge by using the initial geometry of an advanced GE compressor design to meet the requirements of the first 2 stages of the very high pressure ratio core compressor. The rig was configured to run as a 2 stage machine, with Strut and IGV, Rotor 1 and Stator 1 run as independent tests which were then followed by adding the second stage. The goal is to fully understand the stage performances under isolated and multi-stage conditions and fully understand any differences and provide a detailed aerodynamic data set for CFD validation. Full use was made of steady and unsteady measurement methods to isolate fluid dynamics loss source mechanisms due to interaction and endwalls. The paper will present the description of the compressor test article, its predicted performance and operability, and the experimental results for both the single stage and two stage configurations. We focus the detailed measurements on 97 and 100 of design speed at 3 vane setting angles.

  12. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...... of the multi-stage heating system in a wafer based glass moulding process. In order to investigate the importance of the radiation from the interior and surface of the glass, a simple finite volume code is developed to model one dimensional radiation–conduction heat transfer in the glass wafer for an extreme...... pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  13. A multi-stage curing technique toward improved dimensional infidelity of curve-shaped composites manufactured with vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Kai Jin

    The occurrence of dimensional infidelity during the curing process is detected as curved composites are being released from the mold after full consolidation. On the other hand, the lengthy cure cycle, thermal spiking and non-uniform consolidation in thick composite manufacturing are often strong deterrents to widespread industrial implementation. Therefore, a multi-stage curing technique is implemented and its outcome toward the spring-in phenomenon is investigated in this research. The composite processing technique of stage curing is useful for assessing the effects of thermal spiking, non-uniform consolidation and fiber wrinkling on mechanical integrity for thick composite structures. However, the prediction of spring-in behavior for a multi-stage curing process is still a relatively unexplored area in engineering research. As a result, a compatibility model based on the residual stress that builds up at each curing stage is performed in our study. Since the resin provides a lubricant effect between each curing stage, a partial slipping interface factor w is introduced to our numerical simulation model. The newly developed multi-stage curing model shows good agreement with the experimental results under Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process.

  14. Comparing a single-stage geocoding method to a multi-stage geocoding method: how much and where do they disagree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geocoding methods vary among spatial epidemiology studies. Errors in the geocoding process and differential match rates may reduce study validity. We compared two geocoding methods using 8,157 Washington State addresses. The multi-stage geocoding method implemented by the state health department used a sequence of local and national reference files. The single-stage method used a single national reference file. For each address geocoded by both methods, we measured the distance between the locations assigned by each method. Area-level characteristics were collected from census data, and modeled as predictors of the discordance between geocoded address coordinates. Results The multi-stage method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method: 99% versus 95%. Of 7,686 addresses were geocoded by both methods, 96% were geocoded to the same census tract by both methods and 98% were geocoded to locations within 1 km of each other by the two methods. The distance between geocoded coordinates for the same address was higher in sparsely populated and low poverty areas, and counties with local reference files. Conclusion The multi-stage geocoding method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method. An examination of differences in the location assigned to the same address suggested that study results may be most sensitive to the choice of geocoding method in sparsely populated or low-poverty areas.

  15. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen; Dickson Cunningham; Gijsbert B. Straathof; Morgan Ganerød; Bart W.H. Hendriks; Arjan H. Dijkstra

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we docu-ment field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ? 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb) underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ? 1.5, 123.2 ? 0.7 and 124.8 ? 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000e1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-gra-bens that developed under wNeS extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of NeS shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins w100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic base-ment structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia’s multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long-term dynamics of the Eurasian plate. In

  16. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  17. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-01

    REEs contents, and Th/U ratios, but reveal high F contents (0.35-0.76 wt.%) and extreme high Nb/Ta ratios (up to 65.6). Such titanites are perceived to record late-stage mingling, during which F-rich and REE-poor hybrid granodioritic magma squeezed into the incompletely consolidated dioritic enclaves with accompanying fluid-rock interaction. Combining our results with previous isotopic studies, a new genetic model for Guojialing-type granodiorites is envisaged, which involves multi-stage magma mixing between Archean lower crust-derived felsic magma and mafic lower crust-derived dioritic magma, triggered by mantle-derived mafic magma underplating during the course of asthenospheric upwelling in Early Cretaceous. Such process further implicates the reactivation of Jiaodong lower crust during the destruction of NCC.

  18. EOQ zone analysis based on multi-stage supply chain%基于多阶供应链的EOQ zone分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞夫

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed at economic lot size problem for multi-stage supply chain study and made the total cost curve sensitivity greatly reduced in the total cost curve flat area in the EOQ model,but the scope of this area and how to use the flat suitability in multi-stage supply chain were the main considerations elements in making bulk supply chain decisions.Meanwhile,this paper divided the flat areas into two parts,i.e.the left and right.By contrast and dynamic analysis of multi-stage supply chain,found the best solution to resolving the problem of large-scale supply chain.%针对多阶供应链中经济批量问题展开研究,在EOQ模型中存在一个总成本曲线扁平区域,使得总成本曲线的敏感度大为降低,但这个区域的范围和扁平适用度如何在多阶供应链中得以运用,是我们进行供应链批量决策的主要考量要素.同时我们进一步把扁平区域分成左右两个部分,通过对比及对多阶供应链的动态分析,找到解决大规模供应链问题的最佳解.

  19. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  20. Simulation of multi-stage nonlinear bone remodeling induced by fixed partial dentures of different configurations: a comparative clinical and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhipeng; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Chen, Junning; Zheng, Keke; Sasaki, Keiichi; Swain, Michael V; Li, Qing

    2017-04-01

    This paper aimed to develop a clinically validated bone remodeling algorithm by integrating bone's dynamic properties in a multi-stage fashion based on a four-year clinical follow-up of implant treatment. The configurational effects of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were explored using a multi-stage remodeling rule. Three-dimensional real-time occlusal loads during maximum voluntary clenching were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer and were incorporated into a computerized tomography-based finite element mandibular model. Virtual X-ray images were generated based on simulation and statistically correlated with clinical data using linear regressions. The strain energy density-driven remodeling parameters were regulated over the time frame considered. A linear single-stage bone remodeling algorithm, with a single set of constant remodeling parameters, was found to poorly fit with clinical data through linear regression (low [Formula: see text] and R), whereas a time-dependent multi-stage algorithm better simulated the remodeling process (high [Formula: see text] and R) against the clinical results. The three-implant-supported and distally cantilevered FPDs presented noticeable and continuous bone apposition, mainly adjacent to the cervical and apical regions. The bridged and mesially cantilevered FPDs showed bone resorption or no visible bone formation in some areas. Time-dependent variation of bone remodeling parameters is recommended to better correlate remodeling simulation with clinical follow-up. The position of FPD pontics plays a critical role in mechanobiological functionality and bone remodeling. Caution should be exercised when selecting the cantilever FPD due to the risk of overloading bone resorption.

  1. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K;

    2016-01-01

    of the sexual-stage protein Pfs48/45-6C genetically fused to GMZ2, an asexual vaccine antigen in advanced clinical development. To select the most suitable vaccine formulation for downstream clinical studies, GMZ2.6C was tested with various immune modulators in different adjuvant formulations (stable emulsions......A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment...

  2. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today's highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the

  3. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  4. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  5. Pododermatitis in Danish broiler farms 2002 - 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Jensen, Henrik Bang; Ambrosen, Thorkil;

           Hyperkeratosis and ulcers on foot-pads is a major welfare problem in broiler production. The problem is associated with ammonia irritation due to poor and wet litter quality. Since 2002 Danish producers have been subject to the Act on Welfare in Broilers and Parent Stock. After slaughter...

  6. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  7. Selection of the optimal completion of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing of the low-permeable formation, field C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoev, A. M.; Demidova, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    At the moment, many fields of Western Siberia are in the later stages of development. In this regard, the multilayer fields are actually involved in the development of hard to recover reserves by conducting well interventions. However, most of these assets may not to be economical profitable without application of horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing treatment. Moreover, location of frac ports in relative to each other, number of stages, volume of proppant per one stage are the main issues due to the fact that the interference effect could lead to the loss of oil production. The optimal arrangement of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracture was defined in this paper. Several analytical approaches have been used to predict the started oil flow rate and chose the most appropriate for field C reservoir J1. However, none of the analytical equations could not take into account the interference effect and determine the optimum number of fractures. Therefore, the simulation modelling was used. Finally, the universal equation is derived for this field C, the reservoir J1. This tool could be used to predict the flow rate of the horizontal well with hydraulic fracturing treatment on the qualitative level without simulation model.

  8. RGO/AuNR/HA-5FU nanocomposite with multi-stage release behavior and efficient antitumor activity for synergistic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Manzhou; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Yazhong; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2017-03-16

    A reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/gold nanorod (AuNR)/hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposite was designed and successfully synthesized for the first time. An anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), was chosen as a model drug to be loaded in RGO/AuNR/HA. The fabricated RGO/AuNR/HA-5FU showed robust, selective targeting and penetrating efficiency against HeLa cells due to the good compatibility and nontoxicity of HA, and showed excellent synergetic antitumor effects through combined chemotherapy (CT) by 5FU and photothermal therapy (PTT) by both RGO and AuNRs under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. More importantly, this synergistic dual therapy based on RGO/AuNR/HA can also minimize side effects in normal cells and exhibits greater antitumor activity because of a multi-stage drug release ability triggered by the pH sensitivity of HA in the first stage and the combined photothermal conversion capabilities of RGO and AuNRs by means of the NIR laser irradiation in the second stage. This study suggests that the novel RGO/AuNR/HA multi-stage drug delivery system may represent a promising potential application of multifunctional composite materials in the biomedical field.

  9. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of arundo, sawdust, corn stover and switch grass biomass by thermogravimetric analysis using a multi-stage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Paul O; Gyamerah, Michael; Shen, Jiacheng; Menezes, Bruna

    2015-03-01

    A new multi-stage kinetic model has been developed for TGA pyrolysis of arundo, corn stover, sawdust and switch grass that accounts for the initial biomass weight (W0). The biomass were decomposed in a nitrogen atmosphere from 23°C to 900°C in a TGA at a single 20°C/min ramp rate in contrast with the isoconversion technique. The decomposition was divided into multiple stages based on the absolute local minimum values of conversion derivative, (dx/dT), obtained from DTG curves. This resulted in three decomposition stages for arundo, corn stover and sawdust and four stages for switch grass. A linearized multi-stage model was applied to the TGA data for each stage to determine the pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order. The activation energies ranged from 54.7 to 60.9 kJ/mol, 62.9 to 108.7 kJ/mol, and 18.4 to 257.9 kJ/mol for the first, second and the third decomposition stages respectively.

  10. An analytic-geometric model of the effect of spherically distributed injection errors for Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft - The multi-stage problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuski, James M.; Mcronald, Angus D.

    1988-01-01

    In previous work the problem of injecting the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft from low earth orbit into their respective interplanetary trajectories has been discussed for the single stage (Centaur) vehicle. The central issue, in the event of spherically distributed injection errors, is what happens to the vehicle? The difficulties addressed in this paper involve the multi-stage problem since both Galileo and Ulysses will be utilizing the two-stage IUS system. Ulysses will also include a third stage: the PAM-S. The solution is expressed in terms of probabilities for total percentage of escape, orbit decay and reentry trajectories. Analytic solutions are found for Hill's Equations of Relative Motion (more recently called Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations) for multi-stage injections. These solutions are interpreted geometrically on the injection sphere. The analytic-geometric models compare well with numerical solutions, provide insight into the behavior of trajectories mapped on the injection sphere and simplify the numerical two-dimensional search for trajectory families.

  11. Fused Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-stage immunogens with an Fc-delivery system as a promising approach for the development of a tuberculosis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavat, Arman; Soleimanpour, Saman; Farsiani, Hadi; Sadeghian, Hamid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. Currently, the Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available licensed TB vaccine, which has low efficacy in protection against adult pulmonary TB. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against TB needs global attention. In the present study, a novel multi-stage subunit vaccine candidate from culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) and heat shock protein X (HspX) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fused to the Fc domain of mouse IgG2a as a selective delivery system for antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was produced and its immunogenicity assessed. The optimized gene constructs were introduced into pPICZαA expression vectors, and the resultant plasmids (pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:His) were transferred into Pichia pastoris by electroporation. The identification of both purified recombinant fusion proteins was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Then the immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins with and without BCG was evaluated in BALB/c mice by assessing the level of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β cytokines. Both multi-stage vaccines (CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a and CFP-10:HspX:His) induced Th1-type cellular responses by producing high level of IFN-γ (272 pg/mL, p<0.001) and IL-12 (191 pg/mL, p<0.001). However, the Fc-tagged recombinant protein induced more effective Th1-type cellular responses with a low level of IL-4 (10 pg/mL) compared to the CFP-10:HspX:His group. The production of IFN-γ to CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a was markedly consistent and showed an increasing trend for IL-12 compared with the BCG or CFP-10:HspX:His primed and boosted groups. Findings revealed that CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a fusion protein can elicit strong Th1 antigen-specific immune responses in favor of protective immunity in mice and could provide new insight for introducing an effective multi-stage subunit vaccine against TB.

  12. A multi-stage compartmental model for HIV-infected individuals: II--application to insurance functions and health-care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, L; Dayananda, P W A

    2014-03-01

    Stochastic population processes have received a lot of attention over the years. One approach focuses on compartmental modeling. Billard and Dayananda (2012) developed one such multi-stage model for epidemic processes in which the possibility that individuals can die at any stage from non-disease related causes was also included. This extra feature is of particular interest to the insurance and health-care industries among others especially when the epidemic is HIV/AIDS. Rather than working with numbers of individuals in each stage, they obtained distributional results dealing with the waiting time any one individual spent in each stage given the initial stage. In this work, the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on several functions relevant to these industries (such as adjustments to premiums) is investigated. Theoretical results are derived, followed by a numerical study.

  13. Effects of sorghum on broilers gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCA Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.

  14. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  15. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

    OpenAIRE

    CA Gonçalves; MA de Almeida; JA Faria-Júnior; MF Pinto; Garcia-Neto,M

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 bir...

  16. Influence of stocking density on welfare indices of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to identify the influence of short-term (five days high stocking density (SD on broilers' welfare by assessing several thermophysiological parameters in 32 birds of 43 days of age Ross male broiler chickens. Based on broiler's body weight, broilers were randomly allotted into two SD rates; control (26.5 kg/m2 or high (45.0 kg/m2. It appears evident that placing broilers at high SD as 45.0 kg/m2 had manifested noticeable impacts on their thermophysiological responses. This conclusion was demonstrated by the existence of results of the current study showed a major displacements in broilers' homeothermic status, high SD broilers experienced pronounced elevations of their body temperatures as well as head, body and shank surface temperatures over the control SD broilers. Additionally, this was further emphasized by the noticeable displacements of body internal, external and total thermal gradients as well as heat loss index of high SD broilers compared to the control broilers. Based on the presented evidences, short-term high SD markedly increased broilers stress and jeopardize their welfare. Measuring broilers' thermophysiological responses under different rates of SD can be adapted to assess their welfare. 

  17. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  18. Surface temperature distribution in broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian meat production scenario broiler production is the most dynamic segment. Despite of the knowledge generated in the poultry production chain, there are still important gaps on Brazilian rearing conditions as housing is different from other countries. This research study aimed at analyzing the variation in bird skin surface as function of heat distribution inside broiler houses. A broiler house was virtually divided into nine sectors and measurements were made during the first four weeks of the grow-out in a commercial broiler farm in the region of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Rearing ambient temperature and relative humidity, as well as light intensity and air velocity, were recorded in the geometric center of each virtual sector to evaluate the homogeneity of these parameters. Broiler surface temperatures were recorded using infrared thermography. Differences both in surface temperature (Ts and dry bulb temperature (DBT were significant (p<0.05 as a function of week of rearing. Ts was different between the first and fourth weeks (p<0.05 in both flocks. Results showed important variations in rearing environment parameters (temperature and relative humidity and in skin surface temperature as a function of week and house sector. Air velocity data were outside the limits in the first and third weeks in several sectors. Average light intensity values presented low variation relative to week and house sector. The obtained values were outside the recommended ranges, indicating that broilers suffered thermal distress. This study points out the need to record rearing environment data in order to provide better environmental control during broiler grow-out.

  19. Optimization of design and operating parameters on the year round performance of a multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system using transient mathematical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Vishwanath; Kaviti, Ajay Kumar; Prakash, Om [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sagar Institute of Science and Technology, Gandhinagar, Bhopal, M.P. (India); Reddy, K.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The available fresh water resources on the earth are limited. About 79% of water available on the earth is salty, only one percent is fresh and the rest 20% is brackish. Desalination of brackish or saline water is a good method to obtain fresh water. Conventional desalination systems are energy intensive. Solar desalination is a cost effective method to obtain potable water because of freely available clean and green energy source. In this paper, a transient mathematical model was developed for the multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system to achieve the optimum system configuration for the maximum year round performance and distillate yield. The effect of various design and operating parameters on the thermal characteristics and performance of the system were analyzed. It was found that an optimum configuration of four stages with 100mm gap between them when supplied with a mass flow rate of 55kg/m2/day would result in best performance throughout the year. The maximum and minimum yields of 28.044 kg/m2/day and 13.335 kg/m2/day for fresh water at a distillate efficiency of 50.989% and 24.245% and overall thermal efficiency of 81.171% and 40.362% are found in the months of March and December respectively owing to the climatic conditions. The yield decreases to 18.614 kg/m2/day and 9.791 kg/m2/day for brine solution at a distillate efficiency of 33.844% and 17.802% and overall thermal efficiency of 53.876% and 29.635% for March and December respectively The maximum yield of 53.211 kg/m2/day is found in March at an operating pressure of 0.03 bar. The multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system is economically viable and can meet the needs of rural and urban communities to necessitate 10 to 30 kg per day of fresh water.

  20. Optimization of design and operating parameters on the year round performance of a multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system using transient mathematical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vishwanath Kumar, Ajay Kumar Kaviti, Om Prakash1, K.S. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The available fresh water resources on the earth are limited. About 79% of water available on the earth is salty, only one percent is fresh and the rest 20% is brackish. Desalination of brackish or saline water is a good method to obtain fresh water. Conventional desalination systems are energy intensive. Solar desalination is a cost effective method to obtain potable water because of freely available clean and green energy source. In this paper, a transient mathematical model was developed for the multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system to achieve the optimum system configuration for the maximum year round performance and distillate yield. The effect of various design and operating parameters on the thermal characteristics and performance of the system were analyzed. It was found that an optimum configuration of four stages with 100mm gap between them when supplied with a mass flow rate of 55kg/m2/day would result in best performance throughout the year. The maximum and minimum yields of 28.044 kg/m2/day and 13.335 kg/m2/day for fresh water at a distillate efficiency of 50.989% and 24.245% and overall thermal efficiency of 81.171% and 40.362% are found in the months of March and December respectively owing to the climatic conditions. The yield decreases to 18.614 kg/m2/day and 9.791 kg/m2/day for brine solution at a distillate efficiency of 33.844% and 17.802% and overall thermal efficiency of 53.876% and 29.635% for March and December respectively The maximum yield of 53.211 kg/m2/day is found in March at an operating pressure of 0.03 bar. The multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system is economically viable and can meet the needs of rural and urban communities to necessitate 10 to 30 kg per day of fresh water.

  1. Modeling and optimization of unbalanced multi-stage logistic system%非平衡多阶段物流系统建模与优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杭; 徐榕; 叶庆泰

    2005-01-01

    To decompose an unbalanced multi-stage logistic system to multiple independent single-stage logistic systems,a new notion of parameterized interface distribution is presented.For encoding the logistic pattern on each stage,the Prüfer number is used.With the improved decoding procedure,any Prüfer number produced stochastically can be decoded to a feasible logistic pattern,which can match with the capacities of the nodes of the logistic system.With these two innovations,a new modeling method based on parameterized interface distribution and the Prüfer number coding is put forward.The corresponding genetic algorithm,named as PIP-GA,can find better solutions and require less computational time than st-GA.Although requiring a little more consumption of memory,PIP-GA is still an efficient and robust method in the modeling and optimization of unbalanced multi-stage logistic systems.%首先提出了参数化界面分布的新概念,将一个非平衡多阶段物流系统转化为多个相互独立的单一阶段物流系统,然后采用Prüfer数对每个阶段上的物流模式进行编码.通过一种改进的解码方法,任何一个随机产生的Prüfer数都能够被解码为一个与物流系统的节点容量相匹配的可行的物流模式.基于这2点创新,建立了一种新的基于参数化界面分布和Prüfer数编码的系统建模方法,相应的遗传算法称为PIP-GA方法.与st-GA方法相比,PIP-GA不但具有更好的优化结果,而且需要的计算时间更少;虽然所需的存储空间有所增加,PIP-GA仍然是一种有效而稳健的非平衡多阶段物流系统建模与优化方法.

  2. Uncertain Programming Based Model and Algorithm of Multi-stage Process Planning Problem%基于不确定理论的多阶段工序计划模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李犇

    2012-01-01

    介绍在不确定条件下的多阶段工序计划问题,设计基于可信性测度的模糊多阶段工序计划模型,并通过一个结合模糊模拟和遗传算法的混合智能算法进行求解。最后,结合一个实例来说明该模型的应用和可行性。计算结果表明该算法所得结果令人满意并有效地缩短求解该问题的时间。%Multi-stage process planning issues provide detailed descriptions about the capacity and demand of change raw materials into finished product production through several processes.But in the real world,some systems there are many uncertainties,therefore it is necessary to study the multi-stage process planning with uncertain parameters.Mainly introduces the multi-stage process planning problem under uncertain conditions,designs multi-stage process planning model based on fuzzy credibility measure,and through a hybrid intelligent algorithm combined fuzzy simulation with genetic algorithm for solving.Finally,an example will be show to illustrate application and feasibility of the model.The results show that the algorithm obtains satisfactory results and effectively shorten the time for solving the problem.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  4. Machine Learning Multi-Stage Classification and Regression in the Search for Vector-like Quarks and the Neyman Construction in Signal Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Robert Matthew

    A search for vector-like quarks (VLQs) decaying to a Z boson using multi-stage machine learning was compared to a search using a standard square cuts search strategy. VLQs are predicted by several new theories beyond the Standard Model. The searches used 20.3 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CLs upper limits on production cross sections of vector-like top and bottom quarks were computed for VLQs produced singly or in pairs, Tsingle, Bsingle, Tpair, and Bpair. The two stage machine learning classification search strategy did not provide any improvement over the standard square cuts strategy, but for Tpair, Bpair, and Tsingle, a third stage of machine learning regression was able to lower the upper limits of high signal masses by as much as 50%. Additionally, new test statistics were developed for use in the Neyman construction of confidence regions in order to address deficiencies in c...

  5. Dynamic performance of cable-stayed bridge tower with multi-stage pendulum mass damper under wind excitations--Ⅱ:Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Anxin; Y L Xu; Li Hui

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of using a multi-stage pendulum mass damper(MSPMD) to control wind-induced vibration of a single column tower of a cable-stayed bridge during construction was studied theoretically in part Ⅰ of this work.In this paper,the performance of the MSPMD for reducing bridge tower vibration is studied experimentally.A MSPMD model and a tower model of the bridge with geometry scaling of 1:100 were designed and manufactured.Calibration of the MSPMD model with different wire lengths is conducted to verify the analytical model of the damper.A series of tests for the uncontrolled freestanding tower,tower with cables,and tower with MSPMD model are then performed under harmonic and white noise excitations.The experimental results show that the responses of the tower model significantly decrease with the installation of the MSPMD model,which demonstrates the effectiveness of the MSPMD to mitigate the vibration of the bridge tower.

  6. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-05-01

    To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO) Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses). One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density geocoding than those in areas with >920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23, 6.49), as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11). This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  7. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  8. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  9. Loss of p19(Arf facilitates the angiogenic switch and tumor initiation in a multi-stage cancer model via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle B Ulanet

    Full Text Available The Arf tumor suppressor acts as a sensor of oncogenic signals, countering aberrant proliferation in large part via activation of the p53 transcriptional program, though a number of p53-independent functions have been described. Mounting evidence suggests that, in addition to promoting tumorigenesis via disruptions in the homeostatic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis of overt cancer cells, genetic alterations leading to tumor suppressor loss of function or oncogene gain of function can also incite tumor development via effects on the tumor microenvironment. In a transgenic mouse model of multi-stage pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis (PNET driven by inhibition of the canonical p53 and Rb tumor suppressors with SV40 large T-antigen (Tag, stochastic progression to tumors is limited in part by a requirement for initiation of an angiogenic switch. Despite inhibition of p53 by Tag in this mouse PNET model, concomitant disruption of Arf via genetic knockout resulted in a significantly accelerated pathway to tumor formation that was surprisingly not driven by alterations in tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis, but rather via earlier activation of the angiogenic switch. In the setting of a constitutional p53 gene knockout, loss of Arf also accelerated tumor development, albeit to a lesser degree. These findings demonstrate that Arf loss of function can promote tumorigenesis via facilitating angiogenesis, at least in part, through p53-independent mechanisms.

  10. Hierarchical scheme for liquid chromatography/multi-stage spectrometric identification of 3,4,5-triacyl chlorogenic acids in green Robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2010-08-15

    Liquid chromatography/multi-stage spectrometry (LC/MS(n)) (n = 2-4) has been used to detect and characterize in green Robusta coffee beans eight quantitatively minor triacyl chlorogenic acids with seven of them not previously reported in nature. These comprise 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid (Mr 678); 3,5-dicaffeoyl-4-feruloylquinic acid, 3-feruloyl-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid (Mr 692); 3-caffeoyl-4,5-diferuloylquinic acid and 3,4-diferuloyl-5-caffeoylquinic acid (Mr 706); and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-5-sinapoylquinic acid and 3-sinapoyl-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (Mr 722). Structures have been assigned on the basis of LC/MS(n) patterns of fragmentation. A new hierarchical key for the identification of triacyl quinic acids is presented, based on previously established rules of fragmentation. Fifty-two chlorogenic acids have now been characterized in green Robusta coffee beans. In this study five samples of green Robusta coffee beans and fifteen samples of Arabica coffee beans were analyzed with triacyl chlorogenic acids only found in Robusta coffee bean extracts. These triacyl chlorogenic acids could be considered as useful phytochemical markers for the identification of Robusta coffee beans.

  11. Cu deficiency in multi-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for solar cells applications: Microstructure and Ga in-depth alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R., E-mail: raquel.caballero@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Izquierdo-Roca, V. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fontane, X. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, C.A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alvarez-Garcia, J. [Centre de Recerca i Investigacio de Catalunya (CRIC), Trav. de Gracia 108, 08012 Barcelona (Spain); Eicke, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Calvo-Barrio, L. [Lab. Analisis de Superficies, SCT, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Schock, H.W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Morante, J.R. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the maximum Cu content during the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) by multi-stage co-evaporation on the phases present in the final film, the film structure and the electrical properties of resulting solar cell devices. The variation of the composition is controlled by the Cu content in stage 2 of the deposition process. The different phases are identified by Raman spectroscopy. The in-depth Ga gradient distribution is investigated by in-depth resolved Raman scattering and secondary neutral mass spectroscopy. The morphology of the devices is studied by scanning electron microscopy. Efficiencies of 9.2% are obtained for ordered-vacancy-compound-based cells with a Cu/(In + Ga) ratio = 0.35, showing the system's flexibility. This work supports the current growth model: a small amount of Cu excess during the absorber process is required to obtain a quality microstructure and high performance devices.

  12. Archimedean-type force in a cosmic dark fluid: II. Qualitative and numerical study of a multi-stage Universe expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Balakin, Alexander B

    2010-01-01

    In this (second) part of the work we present the results of numerical and qualitative analysis, based on a new model of the Archimedean-type interaction between Dark Matter and Dark Energy. The Archimedean-type force is linear in the four-gradient of the Dark Energy pressure and plays a role of self-regulator of the energy redistribution in a cosmic Dark Fluid. Due to the Archimedean-type interaction the cosmological evolution is shown to have a multi-stage character. Depending on the choice of the values of the model guiding parameters, the Universe expansion is shown to be perpetually accelerated, periodic or quasi-periodic with finite number of deceleration/acceleration epochs. We distinguished the models, which can be definitely characterized by the inflation in the Early Universe, by the late-time accelerated expansion and non-singular behavior in intermediate epochs, and classified them with respect to a number of transition points. Transition points appear, when the acceleration parameter changes the s...

  13. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Cooperative Relationship between Broiler Processing Enterprises and Broiler Raisers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; ZHANG; Xia; ZHOU; Fei; QI

    2015-01-01

    The stability in the cooperative relationship between broiler processing enterprises and broiler raisers is a key factor restricting the performance of " company + farmers" business model in the broiler industry. Based on the survey data on seven cities in Shandong Province,from the perspective of broiler processing enterprises,this paper uses Logit-ISM model to reveal the factors influencing the stable relationship between broiler processing enterprises and broiler raisers as well as the hierarchy of these factors. Studies have shown that enterprise characteristics( enterprise scale,enterprise level,attitudes and behaviors),cognitive characteristics( transaction cost cognition,cognition of contract’s binding force,reputation mechanism cognition) and environmental characteristics( intermediary coordination) will affect the stability of cooperative relationship. And finally,some policy recommendations are set forth in order to promote the development of broiler industry.

  14. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette;

    2003-01-01

    and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth...... quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year....... In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish...

  15. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  16. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases——Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, TypeControlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅱ)——Multi-stage Continuity and Nomenclature by Main Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    The generation of natural gases involves several stages and the various stages are of continuous transition. This is another feature of natural gas generation. The term "multi-stage" is relative mainly to oil-generating threshold value and liquid window. The evolution of organic matter is affected by different epigene agencies and natural gases differing in geochemical properties such as biogenic gas (bacterial gas), thermocatalytic gas and pyrolytic gas could be produced at different stages of the evolution of organic matter. The proposal of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas presents a pattern of mutual linking and continuous transition of natural gases originated at different stages.In the genetic classification of natural gases, the nomenclature of a certain gas is based mainly on the epigene agency which is responsible for its formation, for example, biogenic gas, pyrolytic gas. That is the "nomenclature by the main stage" described in this study. On account of the continuity of gas generati

  17. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  18. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  19. A comparison of growth and development patterns in diverse genotypes of broilers. 1. Male broiler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddish, J M; Lilburn, M S

    2004-07-01

    Selection for breast muscle yield and BW in commercial broilers has resulted in genotypes far different from broilers processed in the past. When comparative studies with commercial lines are conducted, it is often difficult to differentiate between carcass effects resulting from direct genetic selection vs. correlated effects that partially reflect genetic changes in BW. The objective of the present experiment was to compare growth and development characteristics of male broilers from commercial lines exhibiting similar rates of BW gain based on a percentage of 8-wk BW but exhibiting different carcass traits. Male broilers from 2 commercial genotypes exhibiting increased breast muscle yield (A and B) were compared with broilers from a commercial line that was "unimproved" with respect to conformation (C). All birds were fed a commercial-type broiler starter diet throughout the study and were processed at 8 wk of age for carcass comparisons. No differences were observed among lines for breast-free BW or weight of the abdominal fat pad. The absolute and relative weights of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor breast muscles were heavier in lines A and B than C (P A > B; P C >A; P C; P A = B, P A = B, P development between commercial genotypes with similar growth patterns.

  20. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  1. Multi-Stage Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Sugar-Conjugated β-Turn Structures to be Used as Probes in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Chiara; Auberger, Nicolas; Rentier, Cédric; Papini, Anna Maria; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lavielle, Solange; Vinh, Joëlle

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic sugar-modified peptides were identified as antigenic probes in the context of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a mechanistic study on the fragmentation of different glycosylated analogs of a synthetic antigenic probe able to detect antibodies in a subpopulation of multiple sclerosis patients. In particular the N-glucosylated type I' β-turn peptide structure called CSF114(Glc) was used as a model to find signature fragmentations exploring the potential of multi-stage mass spectrometry by MALDI-LTQ Orbitrap. Here we compare the fragmentation of the glucosylated form of the synthetic peptide CSF114(Glc), bearing a glucose moiety on an asparagine residue, with less or non- immunoreactive forms, bearing different sugar-modifications, such as CSF114(GlcNAc), modified with a residue of N-acetylglucosamine, and CSF114[Lys7(1-deoxyfructopyranosyl)], this last one modified with a 1-deoxyfructopyranosyl moiety on a lysine at position 7. The analysis was set up using a synthetic compound specifically deuterated on the C-1 to compare its fragmentation with the fragmentation of the undeuterated form, and thus ascertain with confidence the presence on an Asn(Glc) within a peptide sequence. At the end of the study, our analysis led to the identification of signature neutral losses inside the sugar moieties to characterize the different types of glycosylation/glycation. The interest of this study lies in the possibility of applyimg this approach to the discovery of biomarkers and in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases.

  2. The stage-specific in vitro efficacy of a malaria antigen cocktail provides valuable insights into the development of effective multi-stage vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Kastilan, Robin; Kapelski, Stephanie; Edgue, Güven; Beiss, Veronique; Chubodova, Ivana; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Pradel, Gabriele; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent vaccines targeting different stages of Plasmodium falciparum represent a promising, holistic concept towards better malaria vaccines. Additionally, an effective vaccine candidate should demonstrate cross-strain specificity because many antigens are polymorphic, which can reduce vaccine efficacy. A cocktail of recombinant fusion proteins (VAMAX-Mix) featuring three diversity-covering variants of the blood-stage antigen PfAMA1, each combined with the conserved sexual-stage antigen Pfs25 and one of the pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens PfCSP_TSR or PfCelTOS, or the additional blood-stage antigen PfMSP1_19, was produced in Pichia pastoris and used to immunize rabbits. The immune sera and purified IgG were used to perform various assays determining antigen specific titers and in vitro efficacy against different parasite stages and strains. In functional in vitro assays we observed robust inhibition of blood-stage (up to 90%), and sexual-stage parasites (up to 100%) and biased inhibition of pre-erythrocytic parasites (0-40%). Cross-strain blood-stage efficacy was observed in erythrocyte invasion assays using four different P. falciparum strains. The quantification of antigen-specific IgGs allowed the determination of specific IC50 values. The significant difference in antigen-specific IC50 requirements, the direct correlation between antigen-specific IgG and the relative quantitative representation of antigens within the cocktail, provide valuable implementations for future multi-stage, multi-component vaccine designs.

  3. On-site treatment of high-strength alcohol distillery wastewater by a pilot-scale thermophilic multi-staged UASB (MS-UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Yamauchi, M; Suzuki, T; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2006-01-01

    A pilot-scale multi-staged UASB (MS-UASB) reactor with a working volume of 2.5 m3 was operated for thermophilic (55 degrees C) treatment of an alcohol distillery wastewater for a period of over 600 days. The reactor steadily achieved a super-high rate COD removal, that is, 60 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) with over 80% COD removal. However, when higher organic loading rates were further imposed upon the reactor, that is, above 90 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) for barely-based alcohol distillery wastewater (ADWW) and above 100 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) for sweet potato-based ADWW, the reactor performance somewhat deteriorated to 60 and 70% COD removal, respectively. Methanogenic activity (MA) of the retained sludge in the thermophilic MS-UASB reactor was assessed along the time course of continuous run by serum-vial test using different substrates as a vial sole substrate. With the elapsed time of continuous run, hydrogen-utilizing MA, acetate-utilizing MA and propionate-fed MA increased at maximum of 13.2, 1.95 and 0.263 kgCOD kgVSS(-1) d(-1), respectively, indicating that propionate-fed MA attained only 1/50 of hydrogen-utilizing MA and 1/7 of acetate-utilizing MA. Since the ADWW applied herewith is a typical seasonal campaign wastewater, the influence of shut-down upon the decline in sludge MA was also investigated. Hydrogen-utilizing MA and acetate-utilizing MA decreased slightly by 3/4, during a month of non-feeding period, whereas propionate-fed MA were decreased significantly by 1/5. Relatively low values of propionate-fed MA and its vulnerability to adverse conditions suggests that the propionate degradation step is the most critical bottleneck of overall anaerobic degradation of organic matters under thermophilic condition.

  4. Multi-stage Virtual Over-sample Digital Hystersis Control%分段式虚拟过采样数字滞环控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义华; 邓焰; 刘全伟; 陶勇

    2012-01-01

    The grid-connected current control is one of important controls in distributed generation systems. Based on the traditional hysteresis control, a multi-stage over-sample digital hysteresis control was developed which can bring down the MOSFET frequency and the output current total harmonic distortion (THD). Meanwhile, the invalidation of hysteresis bandwidth was overcome by virtual over-sample control method. A simulation model was built to proof the proposed control method, and comparative analysis was also studied among hysteresis controls. A prototype was set up, and the experimental results verified the correction of the proposed system correction.%并网电流控制是分布式发电系统中的技术难点.在分析传统滞环控制策略的基础上,针对不对称多电平拓扑研究了一种分段式虚拟过采样并网滞环控制策略.通过将母线电压按正弦波形分段的方法,可以有效分配开关管开关频率,降低输出电流的谐波含量.在真实采样点之间插入虚拟采样点的虚拟过采样方法,解决了滞环控制中环宽失效问题.利用仿真软件对多种滞环控制策略进行对比分析,搭建实验平台对提出的算法进行实验验证.仿真与实验结果都验证了所提控制算法的正确性.

  5. Direct analysis of Salvia divinorum leaves for salvinorin A by thin layer chromatography and desorption electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-05-15

    Salvia divinorum is widely cultivated in the US, Mexico, Central and South America and Europe and is consumed for its ability to produce hallucinogenic effects similar to those of other scheduled hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD. Salvinorin A (SA), a kappa opiod receptor agonist and psychoactive constituent, is found primarily in the leaves and to a lesser extent in the stems of the plant. Herein, the analysis of intact S. divinorum leaves for SA and of acetone extracts separated using thin layer chromatography (TLC) is demonstrated using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. The detection of SA using DESI in the positive ion mode is characterized by several ions associated with the compound - [M+H](+), [M+NH(4)](+), [M+Na](+), [2M+NH(4)](+), and [2M+Na](+). Confirmation of the identity of these ions is provided through exact mass measurements using a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. The presence of SA in the leaves was confirmed by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) of the [M+H](+) ion using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Direct analysis of the leaves revealed several species of salvinorin in addition to SA as confirmed by MS(n), including salvinorin B, C, D/E, and divinatorin B. Further, the results from DESI imaging of a TLC separation of a commercial leaf extract and an acetone extract of S. divinorum leaves were in concordance with the TLC/DESI-MS results of an authentic salvinorin A standard. The present study provides an example of both the direct analysis of intact plant materials for screening illicit substances and the coupling of TLC and DESI-MS as a simple method for the examination of natural products.

  6. FEM simulations of a multi stage forming process on Sandvik maraging steel 1RK91 describing the stress assisted and the strain induced martensite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Huétink, J.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Voncken, R. M. J.

    2003-10-01

    Sandvik steel IRK91 combines good corrosion resistance with high strength. The steel has good deformability in austenitic conditions. This material belongs to the group of metastable austenites, so during deformation a strain-induced transformation into martensite takes place. After deformation, transformation ccontinues as a resuit of internai stresses. Depending on the heat treatment, this stress-assisted transformation is more or less atitocatalytic. Both transformations are stress-state and temperature dependent. This article presents a constitutive model for this steel, based on the macroscopic material behaviour measured by inductive measurements. Both the stress-assisted and the strain-induced transformation to martensite are incorpomted in this model. Path-dependent work hardening is also taken into account. The model is implemented in the commercial FEM code MARC for doing simulations. In the simulations thé tools are treated as rigid bodies, friction is taken into account beeause it inflnences the stress state during metal forming. The material properties after a calculation step are mapped to the next step to incorporate the cumulative effect of the transformation and work hardening during the different steps. A multi-stage metal-forming process is simulated. The process consists of different forming steps with intervals between them to simulate the waiting time between the different metal-forming steps. Results of the transformation behaviour are presented together with the shape of the product during and after metal forming. Finally, this article shows the results of the calculation in which the material transforms autocatalytic, as a resuit of a specific heat treatment.

  7. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  8. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  9. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key fact

  10. Bacterial successions in the Broiler Gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving diets based on wheat (WBF), maize (MBF), and maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% (CKMS-15) or 30% (CKMS-30) crimped kernel maize silage. The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions in the contents...

  11. Broiler house litter sampling: the final frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the sustainability of broiler operations reaches beyond the need for litter nutrient management plans that came to the forefront of the industry’s attention in the last fifteen years. Thorough characterization of litter within houses provides the basis for emission models to benefit growers,...

  12. 复合物理场强化的全自动多级超滤系统%Multi-Stage Automatic Ultrafiltration System Enhanced with Complex Physical Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅晓琴; 李琳; 李冰; 陈玲

    2011-01-01

    Proposed in this paper is an automatic ultrafiltration system enhanced with ultrasonic and pulse electric field, which is used to overcome the concentration polarization and membrane fouling during the ultrafiltration and improve the automation level of ultrafiltration process. The system consists of a crude filtration loop, two ultrafiltration loops, a cleaning loop and a heat-exchange loop, and possesses excellent operation flexibility because it can simultaneously perform multi-stage or separately perform single-stage ultrafiltration. It also possesses a multi-layer distributed automatic control subsystem based on Kunlun MGCS configuration, which adopts an industrial personal computer and a Simens S7-200 PLC as the system hardware. The application of the proposed system to the concentration of pumpkin polysaccharides shows that, in the adopted experimental conditions, the average permeation flux increases by 1.15 ~2. 53 times and the rejection by 15 points of percentage, which means that the system greatly improves the ultrafiltration efficiency and effect.%为克服超滤过程中的浓差极化,防止膜污染,同时提高超滤生产的自动化水平,设计了超声场和脉冲电场复合强化的全自动超滤系统.该系统包括粗滤回路、一级和二级超滤回路、清洗回路和热交换回路,可同时或分别进行多级或单级过滤/超滤,具有较好的操作灵活性.采用分布式分级控制的方式,以工业控制计算机、Simens S7-200 PLC作为控制系统的硬件,基于昆仑MGCS组态环境,实现了超滤过程的自动控制.在南瓜多糖超滤浓缩中的应用表明,所设计的系统可显著提高分离效率和效果,在文中实验条件下,平均膜通量增加了1.15~2.53倍,截留率增幅达15个百分点.

  13. 多级离心泵流场优化及验证%Flow Field Optimization and Experimental Verification of Multi-stage Centrifugal Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张权; 周盼; 率志君; 李玩幽

    2014-01-01

    Fluid exciting force is one of the important vibration sources of centrifugal pump which transmits outward through the pump shell and bearings. So, flow field optimization can effectively reduce the fluid exciting forces and vibration sources to improve the centrifugal pump’s vibration characteristic. In this paper, reduction of vibration and noise of a multi-stage centrifugal pump is studied. To begin with, CFD simulation technology is applied to optimize the flow field of the pump in the two aspects of cutting impeller and changing the shape of the volute. Then, the pressure pulsations and flow field excitation forces before and after the optimization are compared and analyzed. Afterwards, the method of cutting impeller is selected considering the requirements of processing technology. Finally the effectiveness is indirectly verified by analyzing the change of vibration response of the pump’s seats. The results show that cutting impeller and changing the tongue shape can reduce the pressure pulsation and fluid exciting force of the pump under blades’frequencies and octave frequencies, and the rear-seat vibration response after the cutting is reduced by 4 dB.%流体激励力是离心泵主要振源之一。通过对离心泵流场进行优化,可有效降低泵组流体激励力,减小离心泵振动。以多级离心泵的减振降噪为研究目的,运用CFD仿真技术从切割叶轮及改变蜗壳形状两个方面对流场进行优化。通过对比优化前后压力脉动以及流场激励力变化,说明优化情况。最后考虑加工工艺要求,选择切割叶轮的优化方法,并通过机脚振动响应的变化间接验证改善效果。结果表明:切割叶轮与改变隔舌形状对离心泵叶频及其倍频下的压力脉动与流体激励力都有减小,切割叶轮后机脚响应降低了4 dB。

  14. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  15. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2013-01-01

    , as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...... of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler...

  16. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based o

  17. Standardized data in the broiler value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, H; Velthuis, A G J; Boerjan, M; Lourens, A; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2011-02-01

    In the Dutch broiler chain, data are collected as a routine practice. However, there is wide variation in the content of data collected and in data collection systems. This variability hampers the use of field data in management information systems to support decisions. The objective of this study was to analyze the quality of data and to standardize the content of data sets in the broiler production chain. To evaluate the quality of data, data sets from 3 Dutch hatcheries, from 23,637 batches of eggs, were assessed. The quality of data was assessed intuitively based on 7 quality attributes. To standardize the content of the data set, a protocol was proposed and validated. The protocol was validated at 30 breeder farms, 3 hatcheries, and 104 broiler farms by using 3 quality attributes: consistency, uniformity, and completeness. Results of the data quality analysis of the 3 Dutch hatcheries showed that the data sets had some fields with inaccurate, incorrect, inconsistent, nonuniform, incomprehensible, missing relevant, or incomplete data. Results of the validation protocol were as follows: feedback was obtained from 23 (77%) breeder farms, 3 (100%) hatcheries, and 7 (7%) broiler farms. Of all the questions, on average 88% were answered on breeder farms; 57, 65, and 82% were answered at each of the 3 hatcheries, respectively; and 79% were answered on the broiler farms. Data collected at 2 hatcheries were more consistent than those collected at the third hatchery. Hatchery data were less consistent than breeder farm data, but the number of data entries at hatcheries far exceeded the number at the farm level. Data from the hatcheries, breeder farms, and broiler farms were not always uniform, possibly because of differences in management strategies. This protocol enables the listing of relevant and standard contents of a data set whereby information exchange along the chain can be simplified. However, it is recommended that the protocol be supplemented with some rules

  18. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  19. Study of the volleyball setter behaviour in through taped analysis of body angles Estudio del comportamiento de la colocadora en voleibol a través del análisis cinemático de ángulos corporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study analyses the setting in volleyball of two setters that play at the highest level of Spanish volleyball, in order to find opponent's movements pattern that may be predict where the ball will be set. A descriptive research design has been done by kinematical analysis through cinematographic techniques. The results indicate that relationships between the wide angle view of some body segments' and different setting tendencies can be established. Results show that analysis of wider angles of elbow, shoulder and hip segments can be useful to anticipate the setting of quick attack in volleyball.
    KEY WORDS: Motor Behaviour, Volleyball, Kinematical Analysis, Anticipation, Setting

    Este trabajo analiza el movimiento de colocación en voleibol, en dos colocadoras que militan en la máxima categoría del voleibol español, con el propósito de encontrar patrones de movimiento que nos de indicios de por donde se realizará la colocación. Se ha realizado un diseño de investigación descriptivo mediante un análisis cinemático a través de técnicas fotogramétricas. Con los datos obtenidos se han podido establecer relaciones entre la amplitud de ciertos ángulos de segmentos corporales y las diferentes tendencias de colocación. Los resultados nos indican que la mayor amplitud de los ángulos de los segmentos codo, hombro y cadera nos pueden servir para anticipar la colocación de primeros tiempos en voleibol.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: Comportamiento motor, voleibol, análisis cinemático, anticipación, colocación.

  20. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  1. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of star

  2. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  3. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  4. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  5. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) w

  6. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,

  7. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  8. Campylobacter Prevalence in the Broiler Supply Chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Brakel, van R.P.; Voet, van der H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a national control program, data on Campylobacter prevalence in the broiler supply chain in the Netherlands were gathered for 3 sampling points: departure of broiler farm and arrival and departure of the slaughterhouse. Monitoring data from this control program for 2002 to 2005 were analyzed t

  9. Influence of Feed Additives in Quality of Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Khalafalla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of some feed additives on quality of broiler carcasses. A total of one hundred and eighty of one day old broiler chicks were reared and divided into six groups. Five groups were fed on treated rations (20 g of freshly minced of each of garlic and onion to 1 Kg of ration, 400mg of vitamin E in one liter of drinking water, B.subtilis 4 ×108 c.f.u was added in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, 10 g hot pepper to one Kg of ration and 50g zinc bacitracin added to the ration in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, and the sixth group used as control group. Broilers were slaughtered at age of 45 days to evaluate pH, moisture content, cooking loss, shear force and instrumental color. The feed additives (onion and garlic, Vit.E, hot pepper, B.subtilis and zinc bacitracin were decreased pH in broiler meat. Moisture did not influence by dietary supplementation. Cooking loss was decreased with storage of broiler meat. Vit.E, B.subtilis and hot Pepper groups increased tenderness in broiler meat. Onion and garlic and Vit.E increased lightness and yellowness of broiler meat. Zinc bacitracin and hot pepper decreased redness of broiler meat.

  10. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  11. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  12. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  13. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  14. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  15. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  16. Multi-level, Multi-stage and Stochastic Optimization Models for Energy Conservation in Buildings for Federal, State and Local Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Billy Ray

    projects (Chapter 3). Returns from implemented ECM projects are used to fund additional ECM projects. In these cases, fluctuations in energy costs and uncertainty in the estimated savings severely influence ECM project selection and the amount of the appropriation requested. A risk aversion method proposed imposes a minimum on the number of "of projects completed in each stage. A comparative method using Conditional Value at Risk is analyzed. Time consistency was addressed in this chapter. This work demonstrates how a risk-based, stochastic, multi-stage model with binary decision variables at each stage provides a much more accurate estimate for planning than the agency's traditional approach and deterministic models. Finally, in Chapter 4, a rolling-horizon model allows for subadditivity and superadditivity of the energy savings to simulate interactive effects between ECM projects. The approach makes use of inequalities (McCormick, 1976) to re-express constraints that involve the product of binary variables with an exact linearization (related to the convex hull of those constraints). This model additionally shows the benefits of learning between stages while remaining consistent with the single congressional appropriations framework.

  17. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    . Zr-in-rutile thermometry shows their formation temperature to be 586-664 oC at 1.5-2.5 GPa. Barite-bearing MS inclusions with Ba-bearing K-feldspar (type-II) connected by Kfs+Pl+Bt veinlets of in-situ phengite breakdown and thin barite veinlets along grain boundaries (type-III) are products of phengite breakdown and induced fluid flow during exhumation. These barites have witnessed the gradational separation process of melt/ fluid from miscibility on/above the second critical endpoint during UHP metamorphism, to immiscibility along the exhumation path of the subducted slab. Associated reactions from pyrite to hematite and goethite with the type-III barite ring surrounding the pyrite provide evidence for a local high oxygen fugacity environment during eclogite partial melting and subsequent melt/fluid crystallization processes. Moreover, large grain barite aggregations (type-IV) modified by amphibole+albite symplectite are most likely formed by release of molecular and hydroxyl water from anhydrous minerals of eclogite during high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression. The growth of multi-stage barites in UHP eclogite further advances our understanding of fluid/melt transfer, crystallization processes along the subduction-exhumation path of the partially melted eclogite, broadening our knowledge of melt/fluid evolution within subduction-collision zones worldwide. REFERENCES Chen Y.X., et al., 2014, Lithos, 200, 1-21. Liu J.B., et al., 2000, Acta Petrologica Sinica 16(4), 482-484. Zeng L.S., et al., 2007, Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2995-3001. Gao X.Y., et al., 2012, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2), 193-212.

  18. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  19. Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.

  20. The broiler's last day of life. Influences of feed withdrawal, catching and transport on physiology and losses of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Before slaughter, broilers are subjected to several preslaughter management events such as feed withdrawal, catching, crating, transport, and lairage. The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality of the broilers on the

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Multi-stage Tower-type Vertical-axis Wind Turbine%多层塔式H型立轴风机的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振勋; 蒋崇文; 唐金龙; 王德宝

    2011-01-01

    The main ideal of the multi-stage tower type vertical-axis wind turbine is to utilize the superposition of multi group H-type vertical-axis wind turbines to generate power, and fully use the wind energy in different altitude, which is beneficial for the large-scale development of modern wind turbine. The performance compari sons between the multi-stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine and traditional wind turbine were performed on many aspects. It was pointed out that the multi-stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine can have many advantages, such as easy-machining blades, high power efficiency, avoidance of the yawing system, reasonable structure loading, and low manufacture/maintenance cost. However, some disadvantages exist, such as the aerodynamic drag brought in by the blade supporting structure, complicated tower construction, and incremental requirement for gearbox and shaft joint. Overall considering, the multi stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine has extensive prospect of market applications.%多层塔式立轴风机的核心思想是将多组H型立轴风机分层叠加组合发电,结构简单性能优异,非常适合大容量的风电机组,符合现代风机向大型化发展的方向。对多层塔式立轴风机与传统风机的多方面性能进行了对比,指出多层塔式立轴风机具有风能利用率高、叶片制造简单、无需偏航系统、结构载荷合理、制造维护成本低等诸多优点,但也存在一些缺点,如叶片支撑结构会引入气动阻力、塔架设计较复杂、需要多组齿轮箱及联轴器等。总体分析表明,多层塔式立轴风机的方案在技术上和经济上是可行的。

  2. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...

  3. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  4. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, G E;

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...

  5. Influence of a probiotic on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cardoso Bitterncourt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic product (composition: Lactobacillus acidophillus (3.5 × 10(11 CFU, Streptcoccus faecium (3.5 × 10(11 CFU and Bifidobacterium bifidum (3.5 × 10(11 CFU on broiler performance. A total of 1200 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age, and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (antibiotic, probiotic and control with 10 replicates of 40 birds each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality were evaluated. Concerning weight gain, in the periods of 0-7 and 0-14 days of age, the group fed the antibiotic product presented higher values as compared with the other treatments. However, in the periods of 0-21, 0-28 and 0-35 days of age, birds fed the antibiotic presented higher weight gain only in relation to the control group. Feed intake differences were detected only in the initial period of 0-7 days of age, with the group fed the antibiotic product presenting higher feed intake as compared with that fed the probiotic product, although these groups were not different from the control group. No statistical difference was detected in feed conversion ratio among treatments in any of the evaluated age intervals. Mortality was different only in the period of 0-14 days of age, which was higher in the control group as compared with that of the birds fed the probiotic product, but it was not different from the group receiving the antibiotic. Treatment with probiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium bifidum does not affect broiler performance.

  6. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  7. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    A substantial increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark at the turn of the year 1994 and in the following months. Epidemiological data indicated that a single hatchery was involved in spreading of the infection. Molecular characterization...... of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only....... Restriction enzyme analysis of the plasmid ensured that the plasmids from broilers and the hatchery were identical. By analysis of cleaning and disinfection procedures and by sampling of different control points in the hatchery it was shown that S. enterica ser. Tennessee had colonized areas of the hatchers...

  8. Phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid in broiler diets

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MK Maruno; FB Carvalho; AC Pezzato; JR Sartori

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs) and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu), associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC) on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet ...

  9. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-03-23

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing.

  10. Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    I.P Kompiang; A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; J Darma; Supriyati

    1997-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava) and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30%) . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm). Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage) for 4 weeks...

  11. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  12. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  13. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, B

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB were subjectively scored at approximately 4, 5, and 7 wk on a scale from 0 through 5. Genetic parameters were estimated in 2 lines based on a larger data set. The overall agreement of repeated FPD and HB scores was high (0.66 to 0.86) and the scoring system was, therefore, considered reliable. Kendall's tau between left and right scores was lower than 1 (FPD: 0.73 and HB: 0.57), and both left and right FPD and HB must, therefore, be evaluated. High prevalences of FPD, but also HB, were achieved in the field trial, but lower prevalences may be sufficient for genetic evaluations and would be less detrimental to welfare. Genetic variation between and within lines was present for both FPD and HB as indicated by between-line differences and heritabilities, and selection against FPD and HB is, therefore, possible. It is important that selection is done against both FPD and HB, and such selection should not have a negative influence on the genetic improvement in BW. In contrast, continued selection for increased BW while ignoring FPD in the breeding goal is likely to lead to an increased propensity to develop FPD in broilers.

  14. Inheritance of fertility in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olori Victor E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertility of a chicken's egg is a trait which depends on both the hen that lays the egg and on her mate. It is also known that fertility of an individual changes over the laying period. Methods Longitudinal models including both random genetic and permanent environmental effects of both the female and her male mate were used to model the proportion of fertile eggs in a pedigree broiler population over the ages 29-54 weeks. Results Both the male and the female contribute to variation in fertility. Estimates of heritability of weekly records were typically 7% for female and 10% for male contributions to fertility. Repeatability estimates ranged from 24 to 33%, respectively. The estimated genetic variance remained almost constant for both sexes over the laying period and the genetic correlations between different ages were close to 1.0. The permanent environment components increased substantially towards the end of the analyzed period, and correlations between permanent environment effects at different ages declined with increasing age difference The heritability of mean fertility over the whole laying period was estimated at 13% for females and 17% for males. A small positive correlation between genetic effects for male and female fertility was found. Conclusion Opportunities to improve fertility in broiler stocks by selection on both sexes exist and should have an impact throughout the laying period.

  15. Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John Erik;

    2012-01-01

    standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest....../liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat......BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...

  16. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  17. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  18. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  19. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  20. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  1. Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vanrompay, D.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Iben, C.; Leitgeb, R.; Schiavone, A.; Prola, L.; Janssens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens.

  2. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...

  3. A simple and feasible process for using multi-stage high-precision DTMs, field surveys and rainfall data to study debris flow occurrence factors of Shenmu area, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Lo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of typhoon Herb in 1996 caused massive landslides in the Shenmu area of Taiwan. Many people died and stream and river beds were covered by meters of debris. Debris flows almost always take place in the Shenmu area during the flood season, especially in the catchment areas around Tsushui river and Aiyuzih river. Anthropogenic and natural factors that cause debris flow occurrences are complex and numerous. The precise conditions of initiation are difficult to be identified, but three factors are generally considered to be the most important ones, i.e. rainfall characteristics, geologic conditions and topography. This study proposes a simple and feasible process that combines remote sensing technology and multi-stage high-precision DTMs from aerial orthoimages and airborne LiDAR with field surveys to establish a connection between three major occurrence factors that trigger debris flows in the Shenmu area.

  4. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  5. 基于多阶段复合实物期权的风力发电项目投资决策%Investment decision-making based on multi-stage compound real options for wind power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁乐群; 徐越; 刘琰; 王宇拓; 韩强

    2012-01-01

    在电力市场环境下,建立风力发电项目多阶段、多不确定因素的复合实物期权决策框架.根据风力发电项目投资过程中存在的不确定因素的特征,分别建立发电量、上网电价、低碳收益的随机变化模型;通过使用蒙特卡罗模拟法和二叉树方法,提出求解多阶段、多不确定因素的风力发电项目的投资决策的模型和求解步骤.通过实例对所提方法实现步骤进行了说明,并将所提方法与净现值(NPV)法进行了对比,结果证明了所提方法的优越性.%A multi-stage decision-making framework with compound real options is set for a wind farm project with multiple uncertain factors in the electricity market environment. The random changing models are established for uncertain factors of wind power generation investment:annual power production,electricity price and low-carbon benefits. The investment decision-making model using Monte Carlo simulation and the binomial tree method is proposed for the multi-stage wind farm with multiple uncertain factors. The solving steps of the proposed model are illustrated with an example and results are compared with those by NPV method. Results validate the excellence of the proposed method.

  6. Barrier-oxide layer engineering of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays to get single- and multi-stage Y-branched nanotubes: Effect of voltage ramping and electrolyte conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, V.C. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Banerjee, Arghya Narayan, E-mail: arghya@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Bong Ki [Center for Research Facilities, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Single and multi-stage Y-branched TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays fabricated successfully. • Effect of voltage ramping down process on the branching of nanotube revealed. • Unequal interfacial movement across barrier layer of nanotubes manifests branching. • By controlling thinning of barrier oxide layer different morphologies of TNAs fabricated. • Y-branched, stacked double layer, mixture of broken/branched and multi-branched TNAs formed. - Abstract: Single and multi-stage Y-branched TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) have been fabricated by a voltage ramping down process using potentiostatic two-step anodization in 0.5 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF)/glycerol (1:2 volume ratio) electrolyte. Initially, the voltage is kept at 40 V for 3 h and then it is ramped down to different voltages (e.g. 30 V, 34 V, 36 V, 38 V and 39 V) at a ramping rate of either −1.0 V s{sup −1} or −0.5 V s{sup −1} in one time and two-time aged electrolytes. The growth mechanism of Y-branching of TNAs is modeled and explained in terms of unequal interfacial movements of the two interfaces across the barrier oxide layer (BOL) under non-steady-state growth regime. The ‘pinched off’ area of the BOL at the nanotube propagation front can be controlled effectively with the relative ramping voltage levels and electrolyte's conductivity to obtain Y-branched TNAs.

  7. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  8. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB...... to welfare. Genetic variation between and within lines was present for both FPD and HB as indicated by between-line differences and heritabilities, and selection against FPD and HB is, therefore, possible. It is important that selection is done against both FPD and HB, and such selection should not have...... were subjectively scored at ~4, 5, and 7 wk on a scale from 0 through 5. Genetic parameters were estimated in 2 lines based on a larger data set. The overall agreement of repeated FPD and HB scores was high (0.66 to 0.86) and the scoring system was, therefore, considered reliable. Kendall's tau between...

  9. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  10. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  11. Bioequivalence of three florfenicol preparations in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husamettin Ekici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the bioequivalence of three different preparations of florfenicol using non-drugged broiler chickens. A total of 28 broiler chickens aging 30-day were divided into four equal groups; these were Group I, II, III, and IV. The birds of Group I (for effective substance were given intravenous (i.v. administration of florfenicol dosed at 40 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.. The birds of Group II (for reference drug, Group III (for test-1 drug, and Group IV (for test-2 drug received florfenicol preparations with water (dosed at 40 mg/kg b.wt. through intracrop administration. Blood samples were collected periodically from the birds of all four groups, and blood plasma was separated. Levels of florfenicol and its metabolite (florfenicol amine in the plasma were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In this study, the limit of detection (LOD for florfenicol and florfenicol amine were recorded as 0.017 and 0.78 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the recovery of florfenicol and florfenicol amine were 83.4-84.6 and 82.2-83.8%, respectively. Based on the values of area under the curve (AUC, maximum concentration (Cmax, and time to maximum concentration (Tmax, test-1 drug was found to be acceptable, whereas test-2 drug was remained below the acceptable limits (80-125% of AUC and Cmax. Thus, it was concluded that test-1 drug was bioequivalent as compared to the reference drug.

  12. The Effects of Two Different Cleaning and Disinfection Programs on Broiler Performance and Microbiological Status of Broiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFC Burbarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.

  13. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  14. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2006-05-01

    The stress responses and possible oxidative damage in plasma, liver and heart were investigated in broiler chickens acutely exposed to high temperature. Eighty 5-week old broiler chickens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 6h. The extent of lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant power in plasma, liver and heart tissues were investigated. Meanwhile, the blood metabolites such as glucose, urate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, corticosterone, ceruloplasmin and creatine kinase were measured before and after 3 and 6h of heat exposure. The results showed that oxidative stress could be induced in 5-week old broiler chickens by acute heat exposure (32 degrees C, 6h). The results suggest that the elevated body temperature can induce the metabolic changes that are involved in the induction of oxidative stress. The liver is more susceptible to oxidative stress than heart during acute heat exposure in broiler chickens. The oxidative stress should be considered as part of the stress response of broiler chickens to heat exposure.

  15. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  16. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  17. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding.

  18. Under Invoicing of Imported Broiler Meat: a Challenge to the Development of the Local Broiler Industry in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBEN MUSLIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show how the under invoicing of imported fresh broiler meat affects the sales of the locally fresh produced and marketed broiler meat in Kosovo. One of the biggest Kosovo broiler producers was the subject of this study, who raised the issue about under invoicing prices for poultry meat imports, exported to Kosovo by a wellestablished EU certified Slovenian company. For this purpose the monthly sales data for the whole year before under invoicing prices was exposed, was compared with data for the monthly sales after the reference pricing policy for customs valuation was introduced by Kosovo government. There was a statistical significant difference between Kosovo broiler producer (named x company monthly sales 12 months before the under invoicing prices were introduced and 12 months after the reference pricing policy was introduced. A significant increase in monthly sales after introducing the reference pricing policy for custom valuation occurred at t (11 = 3.947, p = 0.002, with Confidence Intervals (CI 95% - 99%, ranging from Euro 13,584.11 respectively Euro 47,827.53 per month. The results of the study showed that the under invoicing has affected the local broiler industry and had economic consequences for Kosovo.

  19. 多阶段健康教育在玻璃体视网膜显微手术患者中的应用%Application of multi-stage health education in patients undergoing vitreoretinal microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣期; 黄晓薇; 莫丽君; 陈淑怡; 蔡惠霞; 朱中窈

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨有家属参与的多阶段健康教育在玻璃体视网膜显微手术患者中的应用.方法 将46例玻璃体视网膜显微手术患者随机分为干预组与对照组各23例,对照组给予常规护理,干预组则接受家属共同参与的多阶段健康教育干预方案,记录术后第1天患者一次体位持续时间、不适症状、住院天数及随访资料等,综合以上资料进行评价.结果 干预组在掌握疾病相关知识和技能、对健康教育满意度方面明显优于对照组(P=0.0093,0.0155,0.0019);干预组一次体位维持时间为(170.3±25.5) min,对照组为(91.5±24.9) min,干预组住院天数为(8.3±1.6)d,对照组为(10.2±2.2)d;同时发现干预组与对照组相比,患者不适症状如颈肩不适、胸部不适、下肢麻木明显减少(P=0.0000,0.0011,0.0001).结论 对玻璃体视网膜显微手术患者实施由家属共同参与的多阶段健康教育,可显著提高患者对疾病相关知识的掌握,提高遵医行为,提高医疗护理质量.%Objective To explore the influence and application value of multi-stage health education with family members participating in patients undergoing vitreoretinal microsurgery.Methods 46 patients undergoing vitreoretinal microsurgery were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,23 cases in each group.The control group was given conventional nursing,While the treatment group was given the multi-stage health education with family members participating.By recording the information of lasting time of first body position,symptoms,hospital stays,and follow-up,the research was applied.Results The treatment group was superior to the control group in understanding the related knowledge (P=0.0093) and skills (P=0.0155) of the diseases,shortening hospital stays (P=0.0013),alleviating symptoms and keep the better body position of post operation (P=0.0000).Conclusion Family members participating in multi-stage health education in patients

  20. How to assess fitness for transport of Danish broiler chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Lund, Vibe Pedersen; Dam Otten, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    for the veterinary authorities in that transport fitness is not very well defined. The aim of this project (2013-2016) is therefore to establish knowledge about useful indicators to assess broilers suitability for transport. The objective is to develop a practical protocol which can be applied to assess...... the transport fitness of a flock on-farm within 24 hours prior to harvesting. During 2015, a number of Danish broiler flocks will be visited within the last 24h before the birds are mechanically harvested and transported to slaughter at approx. 36-37 days of age. Each flock will be assessed at 3 different...... with recommendations for indicators that should be included in an assessment protocol performed prior to transport in order to perform an evaluation of the fitness for transport on broilers farms....

  1. Estimating the impact of environmental conditions on hatching results using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatching results are directly related to environmental and biological surroundings. This research study aimed at evaluating the influence of incubation environmental conditions on hatchability and one-day-old chickling quality of five production flocks using multivariable analysis tool. The experiment was carried out in a commercial hatchery located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental variables such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and number of colony forming units of fungi were recorded inside a broiler multi-stage setter, a hatcher after eggs transference, and a chick-processing room. The homogeneity of parameter distribution among quadrants inside the setter, the hatcher, and the chick room was tested using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis, and the fit analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis was applied using the Main Component Technique in order to identify possible correlations between environmental and production parameters. Three different groups were identified: the first group is represented by temperature, which was positively correlated both with good hatchability and good chick quality; the second group indicates that poor chick quality was positively correlated with air velocity and relative humidity increase. The third group, represented by carbon dioxide concentration and fungi colonies forming units, presented strong positive association with embryo mortality increase.

  2. Multi-stage Multi-Channel Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Treatment Complete Staghorn Calculi%多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗完全性鹿角形结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建军; 燕东亮; 王彭; 张建军

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术( PNL )治疗完全性鹿角形结石的安全性及有效性. 方法 回顾性分析了本院2012年3月至2014年9月接受PNL治疗的完全性鹿角形肾结石患者的临床资料,共35例,双侧鹿角形结石5例,单侧30例,鹿角形结石共40枚. 结果 40枚完全性鹿角形结石共穿刺126条通道,平均3 .15条/枚. 共行PNL术85期,平均2 .1期/枚. 手术时间76~260分钟,平均(96.2 ±14.5)分钟. 结石清除率87.5%. 输血2例,胸膜损伤1例,无其他严重并发症. 术后平均住院时间(7.8+1.21)天. 结论 多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形结石安全可行,疗效确切,具有创伤小、恢复快、可反复操作等优点.%Objective To assess the safety and the curative effect of treatment with multi-stage multi -channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in complete staghorn calculi.Methods Retrospective analysis in Mar 2012 to Sep 2014 by the method of treatment 35 patients with complete staghorn calculi ,of whom five had bilateral stones.Results 40 stones were built 126 tracts, the average being 3.15.85 stages were performed, the average being 2.1.The mean ( ±SD) operating time was (96.2 ±24.9) minutes, the stone-free rate was 87.5%, blood transfusions 2, membrane hazard 1, no other complications.Mean ( ±SD) postoperative hospital stay was (7.8+1.21) days.Conclusions Multi-stage multi-channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy treatment complete staghorn calculi is safe and effective .It may offer advantages with respect to less intraoperative and postoperative complications, less invasion and easy recovery.

  3. The Study of Multi-stage Supply Chain Cost Distribution Based on GERT Model%多级供应链系统成本分析随机网络模型及算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翀; 刘思峰; 方志耕; 白洋

    2013-01-01

    供应链成本管理是企业战略管理的核心组成部分.为研究多级供应链网络系统的成本组成及其分布特征、分析各节点企业的成本管理对多级供应链网络系统的影响、找到供应链系统成本管理中的薄弱环节和关键企业,本文构建了多级供应链系统成本的随机网络分析模型.首先研究了模型的结构性质特征,给出成本分布特征的解析算法.然后扩展模型,分别从系统成本类型构成(生产成本、库存成本和物流成本)和系统对企业成本波动的灵敏度两个角度深入研究多级供应链网络成本问题.数值算例分析结果说明了多级供应链网络系统成本分析模型和相关算法的有效性和实用性.%Supply chain cost management is an important part in enterprise strategic management.The components and distribution problem of cost in multi-stage supply chain networks is studied in this paper.Based on the graphical evaluation and review technique,a novel stochastic network mathematical model for cost analysis in multi-stage supply chain networks is built.Model structure characteristics and parsing algorithm are provided firstly.Further,to study the effects of cost components (production cost,inventory cost and transportation cost) and cost fluctuations of supply chain members on total cost,we provide algorithms based on the proposed cost analysis model is provided.Finally the effectiveness and flexibility of proposed model and algorithms are verified by simulation study.

  4. 多阶段多目标洗钱网络路径优化模型及算法研究%Multi-stage and Multi-object Optimization Model for Money Laundering Network Path and Its Arithmetic Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 薛耀文

    2016-01-01

    In view of the multi-stage laundering money transfer path optimization decision problems,this paper proposes a multi-stage dynamic path planning model with the maximized amount of money-laundering and minimized risk as the decisionmaking goal on the condition of time pressure.Furthermore,this paper also puts forward an algorithm of solving the model by using the theory of multiple dynamic programming method and the maximum flow algorithm.Finally,the feasibility of the arithmetic has been proved by an example of the algorithm.This model can not only find the characteristic of money laundering behavior from laundering money transfer path,but also discover and track money laundering trails and the entire process,contributing to monitoring effectively all aspects of the money laundering process and reducing the cost of money laundering detection.%针对多阶段洗钱资金转移路径的决策问题,基于多目标优化的思想,构建了以时间约束、总体资金转移量尽可能大以及总体风险尽可能小为决策目标的多阶段洗钱路径优化模型,并利用多重动态规划方法和最大流理论给出了求解该模型的算法,最后通过实例应用验证了该算法的可行性.通过该模型,不仅能够从洗钱资金转移路径观察洗钱行为特征,还能够发现和追踪到洗钱者的洗钱踪迹和全过程,有助于对洗钱行为的各个环节进行有效监控,降低反洗钱侦测成本.

  5. Footpad Dermatitis in Broilers: Differences between Strains and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BB Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pododermatitis, also known as "bumblefoot", is an inflammatory lesion of the footpad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic strain and sex on the incidence of footpad lesions in broilers. The experiment was carried out at São Paulo State University, using 480 broilers distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement (2 strains X2 sexes, with four replicates of 30 broilers each, totaling 16 experimental units. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and livability were evaluated at 21, 35 and 42 days of age; production efficiency factor was determined at the end of the rearing period. On day 42, the footpads of 100 broilers were grossly examined and assigned a lesion score in a 1-3 scale (Almeida Paz & Martins, 2014. Three samples per score within treatment were collected for microscopic evaluation. Analysis of variance was applied and performance parameter means were compared by Tukey's test. Footpad lesion incidence was analyzed by the c2 test using SAS (version8.2. Ross(r broilers presented higher feed intake during all evaluated periods, and higher weight gain only in the period 1 to 21 days compared with Cobb(r broilers. On the other hand, Cobb(r presented better feed conversion ratio in the periods of 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days. The incidence of foot pad lesions was statistically different (p< 0.05 between strains and sexes, but there were no interactions between these factors. The lesion scores assigned were compatible with the histopathological results, showing that the higher the score, the more severe were the dermal and epidermal lesions.

  6. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...... a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified...

  8. Environmental and physiological variables during the catching of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de V Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC. Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.

  9. STUDY OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES OF SLAUGHTER PRODUCTS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotova I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For comparative evaluation of aroma-forming substances of primary and secondary products of slaughter broilers, we used the multi-channel gas analyzer "MAG-8" and the methodology "an electronic nose". The objects of study served as the heads and feet of chickens-broilers of cross "ROSS-308", subjected to hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of native tissue structure at 0,24 MPa. As a control sample when assessing the composition of the equilibrium gas phase above the heads and feet of broiler chickens used poultry, meat, broiler chickens, obtained by cutting of carcasses, with the natural ratio of bone and muscle tissue. The identification of volatile components of the equilibrium gas phase above the samples was carried out according to the following classes of organic com-pounds in accordance with the numbers of sensors in the matrix: 1 – hydrophilic compounds, water; 2 – alcohols, ketones; 3 – acid, water, light alcohols; 4 – ester; 5 – sulfur-containing compounds, esters; 6 – phenol, and other aromatic compounds; 7 – alcohols, nitrogen compounds, water; 8 – acid. The analysis shows that control and experimental samples do not have significant differences in the aromatic-skim com-pounds, ketones and sulfur-containing compounds. The comparison group of "control – leg" also has no significant differences according to the groups of compounds: ketones, alcohols, esters; nitrogen-containing compounds. The largest differences recorded for the sample "legs broiler chickens", and the moisture content and nitro-gen-containing compounds, this sample is superior and head, and the main raw mate-rial in the processing of broiler chickens. The results show that heads of broiler chickens, thermo-processed under pressure can be used to realize emulsified protein-fat products of the type Pasternak masses corresponding to the traditional products of poultry meat for sensormatics the aroma profile without the use of food additives. For

  10. A revised artificial insemination schedule for broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Krey, H P; Siegel, P B

    1976-03-01

    Broiler type hens maintained in individual cages were artificially inseminated with either 0.023, 0.035, or 0.047 ml. of pooled semen. Insemination intervals were nine, nine, and ten days on a repetitive basis. This schedule was adopted because it allowed an extension of the conventional insemination interval and yet remained compatible with a five-day industrial work-week. The results demonstrated that maintaining broiler breeder hens in cages and utilizing artificial insemination as a means of obtaining fertile eggs were feasible. The data also indicated that extending the insemination interval to 10 days is possible providing the number of spermatozoa inseminated is increased.

  11. Efficacy in the field of two anticoccidial vaccines for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared two attenuated anticoccidial vaccines, administered to broilers by spray into the incubator (88,000 males and 210,100 females. Vaccine A container five species of Eimeria and vaccine B three. Zootechnical performance was similar in the two groups, with mean lesion scores no higher than 1; vaccine A caused only duodenal lesions, while vaccine B also caused typhlitis. Maximum oocyst count was 23,000/g feces at age 28 days with vaccine A and 38,000 at 21 days with vaccine B. Broilers vaccinated with vaccine B had more frequent enteric symptoms, and C. perfringens isolation.

  12. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...

  13. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...

  14. Fermented and unfermented palm kernel cake as broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P Ketaren

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available feed. Two hundred and ten, day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were allotted to 6 different diets containing either BIS or FBIS at 3 different levels (5, 10 and 15% and one control diet. The results showed that 5% BIS and 5% FBIS could be used in broiler diet without adversely affecting feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. FCR of those diets were significantly (P<0.05 better than the control diet. Carcass yields were not significantly affected by feeding of BIS nor FBIS. The FBIS diet produced less abdominal fat than the BIS diet.

  15. In-vitro cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 to broiler lymphocytes of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEP Zimmermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on broiler lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Histopaque density and cultured in 96-wellplates containing the evaluated AFB1 concentrations in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 39°C. Thereafter, MTT, PicoGreen, and reactive oxygen species assays were performed. Cell viability decreased in the presence of 10 µg/mL AFB1 at 48 h (p < 0.05 and of 10 and 20 µg/mL AFB1 at 72 h (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to the control (0 µg/mL. However, a dose-dependent increase in the cell-free DNA at 24 h was observed at 1, 10 and 20 µg/mL (p < 0.001. ROS formation significantly increased at 24 h at all concentrations (p < 0.001. The in-vitro results demonstrate that AFB1 is cytotoxic and causes biomolecular oxidative damage in broiler lymphocytes.

  16. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1 of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.

  17. 带缓冲多阶段系统的生产批量与维护计划集成优化%Joint Optimization of Production Lot and Maintenance Planning in a Multi-Stage System with Intermediate Buffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝颖; 冷乔; 王丽亚; 赵世雄; 郑宇

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to minimize the sum of production costs and maintenance costs. The age reduction factor and improvement factor in hazard rate are introduced and with the comprehensive consideration of imperfect and perfect maintenance,a complex non-linear integrated production lot-size and maintenance planning model in a multi-stage system with intermediate buffers is proposed under the assumption of operation-dependent failures.A time-based-decomposition simulated annealing algorithm is designed to solve this problem.Numerical analysis validated the performance of the model.%以最小化生产与维护总成本为目标,通过引入役龄递减因子与失效率递增因子对设备故障率演化进行建模,综合考虑完美维护、非完美维护和故障维修,建立了在带缓冲多阶段的生产系统环境下,基于加工失效假设的生产与维护集成计划模型,并设计基于时间分解的模拟退火算法求解该问题。最后,算例分析验证了模型的有效性。

  18. Performance and model of a novel multi-sparger multi-stage airlift loop membrane bioreactor to treat high-strength 7-ACA pharmaceutical wastewater: effect of hydraulic retention time, temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-bo; He, Zhang-wei; Tang, Cong-cong; Hu, Dong-xue; Cui, Yu-bo; Wang, Ai-jie; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Li-long; Ren, Nan-qi

    2014-09-01

    In this study, three novel multi-sparger multi-stage airlift loop membrane bioreactors (Ms(2)ALMBRs) were set up in parallel for treating synthetic high-strength 7-ACA pharmaceutical wastewater under different HRTs, temperatures and pHs, respectively. During the 200-day operating time, average COD removal efficiencies were 94.96%, 96.05% and 93.9%. While average 7-ACA removal efficiencies were 66.44%, 59.04% and 59.60%, respectively. The optimal conditions were 10h, 15-35°C and 7-9 for HRT, temperature and pH, respectively. Moreover, the sludge characteristics and microorganism drug-resistances were explored. Results showed that different temperatures and pHs influenced contaminant removals by affecting MLSS concentration and β-lactamase activity significantly. In addition, mathematical statistical models, built on the polynomial and linear regression techniques, were developed for exploring the inner relationships between HRT, temperature and pH changes and MLSS concentrations, β-lactamase activities and contaminant removals of the Ms(2)ALMBR system.

  19. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zietz, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2010-07-30

    Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the naturally occurring flavonoids in kale. A total of 71 flavonoid glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)) method. Of these 71 flavonol glycosides, 27 were non-acylated, 30 were monoacylated and 14 were diacylated. Non-acylated flavonol glycosides were present as mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. This is the first time that the occurrence of four different fragmentation patterns of non-acylated flavonol triglycosides has been reported in one matrix simultaneously. In addition, 44 flavonol glycosides were acylated with p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, hydroxyferulic or sinapic acid. While monoacylated glycosides existed as di-, tri- and tetraglycosides, diacylated glycosides occurred as tetra- and pentaglycosides. To the best of our knowledge, 28 compounds in kale are reported here for the first time. These include three acylated isorhamnetin glycosides (isorhamnetin-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-feruloyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-O-diglucoside) and seven non-acylated isorhamnetin glycosides.

  20. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  1. Shielded multi-stage EMI noise filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Fugate, David Lee

    2016-11-08

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise filter embodiments and methods for filtering are provided herein. EMI noise filters include multiple signal exclusion enclosures. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures contain filter circuit stages. The signal exclusion enclosures can attenuate noise generated external to the enclosures and/or isolate noise currents generated by the corresponding filter circuits within the enclosures. In certain embodiments, an output of one filter circuit stage is connected to an input of the next filter circuit stage. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures can be chambers formed using conductive partitions to divide an outer signal exclusion enclosure. EMI noise filters can also include mechanisms to maintain the components of the filter circuit stages at a consistent temperature. For example, a metal base plate can distribute heat among filter components, and an insulating material can be positioned inside signal exclusion enclosures.

  2. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael A.

    2016-01-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers...... was carried out from 21-25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. 2. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat based feed (WBF), maize based feed (MBF), maize based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). 3....... Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. 5. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed CKMS-30. 6. An improved litter quality in terms of dry matter content and a lower frequency...

  3. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.

  4. Toxicokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of melamine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, S; Klangkaew, N; Arreesrisom, P; Isariyodom, S; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicokinetic characteristics of melamine in broilers due to the limited information available for livestock. Melamine was then administered to broiler chickens at an intravenous (i.v.) or oral (p.o.) dosage of 5.5 mg/kg of body weight, and plasma samples were collected up to 48 h. The concentration of melamine in each plasma sample was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Melamine was measurable up to 24 h after i.v. and p.o. administration. A one-compartment model was developed to describe the toxicokinetics of melamine in broilers. Following i.v. administration, the values for the elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), the volume of distribution (Vd ), and the clearance (CL) were 4.42 ± 1.02 h, 00.52 ± 0.18 L/kg, and 0.08 ± 0.01 L/h/kg, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability (F) was 95.63 ± 3.54%. The results suggest that most of the administered melamine is favorably absorbed from the alimentary tract and rapidly cleared by the kidneys in broiler chickens.

  5. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  6. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days, start

  7. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per ro

  8. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry a

  9. Immunosuppressant Effect of Long Term and Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline in Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jian-ming; ZHANG Ri-jun; SA Ren-na; PAN Shu-yuan; HUANG Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 270 Abore Acre male broilers to study the influence of dietary chlortetracycline (CTC) on the bursal, thymus and spleen weight index and T, B cell proliferation and antibody responses of broilers. Results show that 50mg/kg CTC had no significant inhibitory effect on thymus and spleen weight index, and T, B cell proliferation of broilers at 21 days old. 150mg/kg CTC had significant inhibitory effect on bursal, thymus and spleen, and T, B cell proliferation (P<0.05). Dietary CTC had a direct inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. 50mg/kg and 150mg/kg CTC had a significant inhibitory effect on the antibody responses to BSA (P<0.01). Results demonstrated that subtherapeutic and long term CTC had significant inhibitory effects on immune organs and antibody response. The immunosuppressant effect became higher when the level of CTC increased. 150mg/kg CTC increased the growth rate of broilers significantly.

  10. Towards a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeschate, ten R.A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present thesis describes the development of a physiological feeding strategy for protein in broilers. This project was initiated to improve the efficiency of deposition of dietary nitrogen into animal product in order to reduce nitrogen excretion to the environment. The physiological feeding str

  11. Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Lisouski, Pavel; Ahrendt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    a platform weigher which may also include ill birds. In the current study, a fully-automatic 3D camera-based weighing system for broilers have been developed and evaluated in a commercial production environment. Specifically, a low-cost 3D camera (Kinect) that directly returned a depth image was employed...

  12. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  13. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Anna Bodil;

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  14. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all w

  15. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers.

  16. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  17. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  18. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN TERNAK AYAM BROILER PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Hanum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this research are to (1 analyze profit and BEP of plasma farmers (2 analyze internal and external strategic factors that influence development of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (3 formulate the alternative strategies of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (4 formulate selected priority strategy to develop broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. This research uses descriptive method based on case study on broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. Based on BEP analysis, BEP (production of plasma farmers is in the range 79,91%-86,58% from chick-in capacity, and BEP (price is in the range of Rp 11.684 – Rp 12.191 per chicken on market price. PT. XYZ partnership’s position in IE matric was second quadrant (grow and builds. The results of SWOT analysis are: a vertical integration strategy through feedmill, breeding and chicken slaughterhouse, b improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers, c improvement in bio-security aspects of maintenance, and d improving the quality of technical staff and improving supervision. The priority strategy from QSPM analysis is improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers. The strategy to improve production capacity can be done by maximize or add their capacity, and add the new plasma farmers.   Keywords: Broiler Partnership, Internal Environment, External Environment, Internal-external, Improvement Priority

  19. Efficacy of T-2 toxin detoxifying agent in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy of the detoxifying agent Mycofix® Plus (MP in the prevention and/or alleviation in vivo adverse effects of T-2 toxin in broilers. In addition, the adsorbing potential of MP was estimated in vitro. Mean degradation levels of T-2 toxin with MP in vitro, as measured by HPTLC, varied from 26.06 to 31.02 % and the adsorption ability was elevated in acidic environment (pH 3. In vivo trial was performed on 160 one day old "Ross" broiler chicks and lasted for 21 days. Birds were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - positive control - 2 ppm T-2 toxin; Group 3 - 2 ppm T-2 toxin+2 kg/t MP; Group 4 - 2 kg/t MP. Broilers fed the diet containing 2 mg/kg of T-2 toxin without MP developed typical T-2 toxicosis. Birds that were fed the diet containing both T-2 and MP had better performances and no oral ulcerations as the dominant sign of T-2 toxicosis were observed. Histopathological examination of tissues originating from birds fed the diet containing T-2 toxin revealed degenerative changes in the oral and small intestine mucosa, necroses of enterocytes and hepatocytes, as well as depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa Fabricii. Immunohistochemical examination also revealed negative effects of T-2 toxin on cells proliferation in intestineal and bile duct mucosa, as well as on lymphocytes from bursa Fabricii. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver, intestine and bursa Fabricii of broilers fed a diet containing T-2 toxin and MP was mostly preserved. Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity reaction was weaker in broilers fed mixtures containing 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin.

  20. Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase- and AmpC-ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Dutch broilers and broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Goot, van der J.A.; Fabri, T.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Smith, H.E.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli at Dutch broiler farms and in farmers and to compare ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates from farmers and their animals. Methods Twenty-five to 41 cloaca

  1. The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMI Caires

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

  2. Long-term broiler performance with bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, N L; Quarles, C L; Fagerberg, D J

    1983-07-01

    Bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone were fed to broilers in ten consecutive experiments to determine if response (measured by body weight and feed efficiency) was continuous over a long term. Bambermycins was added at 1.1 ppm (1 to 44 days) and 2.2 ppm (45 to 51 days) to both test rations. In addition, one test ration contained roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) at 50 ppm (1 to 44 days). Each experiment was conducted with 1,080 commercial broiler cross-run chickens. Broilers fed bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone were heavier (P less than .05) than controls in every experiment. Bambermycins plus roxarsone treated broilers were heavier (P less than .05) than bambermycins treated broilers in 2 out of 10 experiments. Broilers fed bambermycins converted feed more efficiently (P less than .05) than controls in 6 of 10 experiments and were more efficient (P less than .05) than bambermycins plus roxarsone fed broilers in 1 of 10 experiments. Bambermycins plus roxarsone treated broilers were more efficient (P less than .05) than controls in 5 of 10 experiments. These findings indicate that over a long term bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone consistently and significantly (P less than .05) increased broiler body weights over controls, although the addition of roxarsone was not always effective in increasing body weights or improving feed efficiency over bambermycins fed alone.

  3. Identification of campylobacteria isolated from Danish broilers by phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M; Bang, Dan; Lund, Marianne;

    2003-01-01

    To validate a phenotypic Campylobacter species identification method employed to identify campylobacters in broilers by comparison with campylobacterial species identification using various species-specific PCR analyses....

  4. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  5. 气升-射流式多段环流反应器的流体力学和传质特性%Jet Associated Multi-Stage Air-Lift Loop Reactor: Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王于杰; 蒋国强; 丁富新

    2011-01-01

    气升式环流反应器在气液或气液固三相反应以及分离过程应用广泛,为提高气液分布和传质性能,在气升式多段环流反应器的第2段引入射流,开发一种气升-射流式多段环流反应器.在160 L的实验装置中,以水-空气体系,研究了气升-射流式多段环流反应器的流体力学和传质特性.射流可减小上升气泡的弦长,提高总体气含率,改善下降段气液分布,增加环流液速,并最终使气液体积传质系数显著提高.射流液体量、射流角度、空气量及其分配对射流效果影响不同,选择射流角不大于45°,射流通气量占总通气量的比例不大于40%,且在能耗经济范围内提高射流量和通气量,可获得更理想的流体力学特性和高传质速率.%Air-lift loop reactor (ALR) is widely used for the gas-liquid/gas-liquid-solid multi-phase reaction or separation. In order to improve the gas distribution and to enhance the mass transfer in ALR and based on the conventional multi-stage air-lift loop reactor (MALR), the jet associated multi-stage air-lift loop reactor (MJALR) was developed by introducing a jet into the second stage of the MALR in present study. The hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics of the proposed MJALR were studied by using a MJALR of 160 L with water/air as working system. The experimental results show that introduction of the jet associated air-lift loop leads to the decrease of the raising bubble size, the increase of the total gas hold-up, the promotion of gas-liquid distribution in downcomer and the acceleration of loop flow. It was found that all these effects depend on the jet volume, jet incidence angle, inlet gas volume and gas allocation. Under the conditions as follows, the jet incidence angle is not larger than 45 ° and the gas allocation to the jet is not more than 40% of the total gas volume, the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics of the MALR can be highly improved by introducing

  6. Facile Tuning of SPR Absorption Band of Silver Nanoplates by Multi-stage Replacement or Growth%用多轮置换/生长法调节银纳米盘的SPR吸收峰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭斌; 程建平; 罗江山; 吴卫东; 唐永建

    2009-01-01

    Single-crystalline triangular silver nanoplates synthesized by the dual-reduction method were used as template to replace HAuCl4 in a solution phase at room temperature. The in-plane dipolar surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the Ag nanoplates locating initially at around 700 nm was gradually redshifted to 1100 nm via a multi-stage replacement manner after 9 stages of replacement, while the morphology of the template was evolved from solid plates to void triangular nanorings. The adding amount of HAuCl4 per stage could influence the average redshift value per stage, thus enabled a fine tuning of the in-plane dipolar band. And that band would slightly blueshift when HAuCl4 added in single stage reaction was below certain amount. When AgNO3 was reduced by ascorbic acid to deposit silver atoms onto surfaces of the nanoplates via a multi-stage reduction manner, the in-plane dipolar band gradually blueshifts to 650 nm after 8 stages of reduction, with the morphology of the template changing from triangle to larger and smoother round plate. These routes realized a facile stepwise tuning of the absorption band of Ag nanostructures within the visible-near-infrared region under mild conditions.%以双还原剂法制备的单晶三角形银纳米盘为模板,在室温溶液相与HAuCl4发生多轮置换反应,反应9轮后纳米盘的面内偶极表面等离子体共振峰从初始的700 nm逐步红移到1100 nm,形貌从实心盘状逐渐变为空心纳米环.改变每轮加入的HAuCl4的量即可精细调节面内偶极峰的红移步进量.在只进行一轮反应时,若加入的HAuCl4少于一定量,面内偶极峰会发生小幅度的蓝移.在银纳米盘模板溶液中用抗坏血酸还原AgNO3,银原子沉积到纳米盘上使其生长,若采用多轮还原生长的方法,生长8轮后纳米盘的面内偶极峰逐步蓝移至650 nm,形貌从三角形盘状逐渐变为更大更圆滑的圆盘状.以上方法实现了在温和反应条件下在可见

  7. Multi-Stage Horizontal Well Fracturing Technology in Deep Shale Gas Well DY2 HF%DY2 HF深层页岩气水平井分段压裂技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长贵; 路保平; 蒋廷学; 李真祥

    2014-01-01

    Well DY2HF is a key exploration well in Dingshan Longmaxi marine shale gas reservoir fea-turing in high temperature and ultra high stress .In order to overcome the challenge of high injection pres-sure and difficult proppant injection ,multi-stage fracturing technology of horizontal well in the deep shale gas reservoir has been developed .According to the characteristics of Dingshan shale ,wellhead injection pressure and pumping rate were optimized ,mutiple fracture coverage ratio model for horizontal section was established ,and fracturing stages and clusters were optimized on the basis of induced stress analysis result . According to the demands of shale gas network fracturing technology and specific characteristics of this well ,high friction reduction and low damage hybrid fluid of slick water and low surfactant tension gel was used as fracturing fluid ,together with low-density and high-strength coated ceramic proppant in combined meshes .Fracturing parameters were also optimized through numerical simulation .DY2HF deep shale gas horizontal well fracturing was successfully performed under the limited wellhead pressure ,95 MPa ,with a cumulative fracturing fluid volume of 29 ,516 m3 ,cumulative proppant volume of 319 m3 ,maximum pum-ping rate of 13.6 m3/min ,friction reduction rate of slick water of up to 78% ,and complete hydration of post-frac gel .Industrial gas production was reached ,which marked a breakthrough in multi-stage horizontal well fracturing of deep shale gas reservoirs .The treatment result indicates that deep shale gas reservoirs like Dingshan are capable of being effectively developed under the present fracturing technology and equipment .%DY2 H F井是位于川东南丁山构造、目的层为龙马溪组海相页岩气的重点探井,具有高温、超高应力的特点。为解决该井压裂作业存在的施工压力高和加砂困难等难题,开展了深层页岩气水平井分段压裂技术研究。根据丁山页岩特征和

  8. Modular Dynamic Research on Multi-Stage Planetary Gear System%空间机械臂用多级2K-H行星传动系统模块化动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 赵永强; 徐冬梅; 李瑰贤

    2014-01-01

    The integral modeling method is usually used in dynamic research of multi-stage planetary gear system. But it is not convenient for the analysis of dynamic performance and for the selection of transmission scheme. The dynamic model has to be rebuilt when the transmission scheme is changed. So based on the modular method, four general modules are established with meshing stiffness, damping, friction, backlash and bearing supporting stiffness of planets considered. Then the nonlinear dynamical differential equations of multi-stage planetary gear trains are generated automatically by calling in the four modules. According to the modular method, the dynamic characteris-tics of the four-stage planetary gear train used in space manipulator are analyzed. In order to verify the applicability and availability of the modularly designed model, the calculation results of the modularly designed model and those of the integrally designed model are compared.%多级行星传动系统的动力学研究多采用整体式建模方法,此种方法不便于通过动态性能分析快速选取传动方案,而且模型不具有通用性,传动形式改变,需要重建系统动力学模型。为克服整体式建模方法的缺点,提出了模块化思想,将多级行星传动系统划分为4个分级子模块,综合考虑啮合刚度、阻尼和行星轮支撑刚度等因素,建立了各级子模块的动力学模型,通过各级模块的集成,得到了多级行星传动系统非线性动力学方程。以空间机械臂关节用多级行星传动系统为例,通过调用各级模块,形成4级行星传动系统动力学微分方程组,对其进行数值求解,得到了系统的时域及频域响应特性。通过与整体式建模方法所得响应结果进行对比,验证了模块化建模方法的同一性和有效性。

  9. Analysis on Interior Ballistics of Multi-stage Inductive Coil Gun Based on Coupling of Field and Circuit%基于场路耦合的多级感应线圈炮内弹道分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向红军; 李治源; 雷彬

    2012-01-01

    To study the interior ballistic characteristics of multi-stage inductive coil gun such as the acceleration process,force and overload at the armature, the mathematical model was built based on the theory of electromagnetic field, and then the governing equations and calculation method of electromagnetic force on armature were given. The three-stage inductive coil gun was simulated based on the coupling model of field and circuit. The maximum overload obtained by the simulation model is 15 000g. The results show that the armature suffers great overload during launching process, and the direction of the electromagnetic force on armature reverses in motion. The reverse time of electromagnetic force will be brought forward with the increase of armature velocity, and the brake force will increase, and the acceleration force will decrease.%为研究多级感应线圈炮中电枢的受力、加速和过载等内弹道特性,基于电磁场理论,建立了同步感应线圈炮的数学模型,并给出了线圈炮的控制方程和电磁力计算方法.结合场路耦合模型,对3级感应线圈炮进行了有限元仿真.该仿真模型得到的最大过载可达15 000g.仿真分析表明:发射过程中,电枢不仅会受到很大的过载,而且其受到的电磁力在运动中会发生反向;随着电枢速度的提高,电磁力反向时刻不断提前,电磁制动力不断增大,加速力不断减小.

  10. 基于共享特征的高分辨率遥感影像多级分类%Multi-stage Classification of High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Based on Sharing Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康萌萌; 郑来文; 霍宏; 方涛

    2013-01-01

    高分辨率遥感影像细节丰富,具有类内差异大、类间差异不明显的特点。为此,模拟人的目视解译方式,提出一种基于共享特征的多级二叉树分类算法,把多类分类问题划分为多个两类分类问题,每级两类分类都提取共享特征,仅解译一类目标,已解译的类别不再参加后面的分类,利用这样的逐步淘汰机制完成一幅遥感影像的全部解译。实验结果表明,与K近邻、支持向量机等其他多类分类算法相比,该算法具有更高的分类精度。%High resolution remote sensing images with abundant details generally have characteristics of great within class differences and unobvious between class differences. Simulating the visual interpretation, this paper proposes a multi-stage binary tree-structured classification algorithm based on sharing features. The multi-class classification problem is divided into multiple binary classification problems, sharing features are extracted to interpret objects of only one class at each binary classification stage, and each interpreted class will not participate in later classification. The proposed method makes use of the phase-out mechanism to complete the whole interpretation of a remote sensing image. Experimental results show that this algorithm has higher classification accuracy compared with other multi-class classification algorithms like K Nearest Neighbor(KNN), Support Vector Machine(SVM) and so on.

  11. Research of multi-stage charging method for on-board lithium battery of electric vehicles%电动汽车车载锂电池分段充电策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 谢瑞; 何湘宁

    2011-01-01

    为了实现电动汽车(EV)车载锂电池快速充、放电,研究了电动汽车锂电池分段充电策略,给出了充电拓扑图.通过监控电池端电压和电流,采用了恒流、恒压和涓流3种充电方式结合的方法,控制功率变换器对电池进行智能充电.实验结果表明,利用分段充电方法可以在30 min内使电池端压达到额定值,并通过恒压充电使电池迅速得以充满.该研究为提高车载电池充电效率、缩短充电时间和保证充电安全奠定了基础.%In order to achieve the fast charging and discharging of the on-board lithium battery of electric vehicles (EV), the multi-stage charging method of the EV lithium battery was investigated and the charging circuit topology was presented. The method combined three charging methods ( constant-current method, constant-voltage method and low-current method) was used to control a power converter by monitoring the battery voltage and current for intelligent fast charging. The experimental results indicate that the battery voltage can reach the rated value in 30 minutes as being charged by the system, then the battery will soon be fully charged by using the constant-voltage method. The research lays the foundation for the improvement of the charging efficiency and the charging security of the on-board batteries.

  12. Research on basic theory high-speed multi-stage cylinder linear induction motor%高速多级圆筒型直线感应电机基础理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓存; 雷彬; 李治源; 赵然

    2011-01-01

    The linear induction motor has small force and speed. So the high-speed multi-stage cylinder linear induction motor (HSMCLIM) was presented, this motor has the characteristics of light weight of mover, simple manufacture process, good force characteristics. Based on electromagnetic field theory, the mathematical model of the motor was deduced, which considers inter-stage coupling effect. The dynamic performance of the motor was simulated, and the variation patterns of voltage, current of stator、 current, speed, acceleration of mover were presented. Simulation result shows that it was feasible to launch a heavy body by this type of linear motor. Experiment results were correspondent with simulation results, they were coincidence well. It verified the validity of the model and provided a new way for the study and implementation of control strategy of this kind of machine.%针对目前直线感应电机推力小,速度低的问题,提出一种高速多级圆筒型直线感应电机,其具有动子质量轻,推力大,加工难度小等优点,特别适于高速发射领域.基于电磁场理论,推导考虑级间耦合的直线感应电机数学模型,用该模型分析电机的动态性能,得到了定子电流、动子速度和加速度等参数变化规律,并进行样机实验,其仿真结果与测量结果进行对比,二者吻合较好.从而为该类电机工程化具体实现提供理论基础.

  13. 考虑级间耦合高速多级圆筒型直线感应电机性能%Performance of a High-Speed Multi-Stage Cylinder Linear Induction Motor Considering Inter-Stage Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓存; 雷彬; 李治源; 赵然

    2011-01-01

    According to actual structure of a high-speed multi-stage cylinder linear induction motor (HSMCLIM) based on electromagnetic field theory, the mathematical model of the motor is deduced, which considers inter-stage coupling effect. In case of with and without considering inter-stage, stator current, armature accelerating force and speed, motor energy efficiency are discussed Results indicate that inter-stage coupling effect is favorable for motor efficiency. Finally, model machines of motors are fabricated and experimented, and armature speed in each stage is measured. Experimental results compare with simulation results, they coincide well.%基于高速多级圆筒型直线感应电机特殊的结构,利用电磁场理论,推导了考虑级间耦合的数学模型,并利用该模型分析了考虑级间耦合和不考虑级间耦合情况下,各级定子绕组电流、动子加速力和速度、电机能效率之间的区别。对比结果表明,级间耦合效应有利于电机的运行性能。最后,对这两种情况下样机实验,测得各级中动子的速度,并与仿真结果对比,两者吻合较好。

  14. 柔性契约机制下外向型制造商的多阶段采购策略分析%Analysis of Multi-Stage Purchasing Strategy for Export-Oriented Manufacturers under Flexible Lease Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江沄; 王(緌)

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the uncertainty risk in the post-crisis era, multi-stage purchasing strategy for ex-port-oriented manufacturers in China under flexible lease mechanism is studied. A new fuzzy stochastic dy-namic programming is developed to describe the problem. Then, a new solution method is presented by simulating the exchange rate and fuzzy random variables with binary tree model and Monte Carlo method, respectively. A numerical example is used to verify the feasibility of the proposed model. This method is helpful for global purchasing planning for the export-oriented manufacturers in China.%研究了柔性契约机制下,中国外向型制造商在全球采购环节中的多阶段策略,以期能应对后危机时代更大的不确定性风险。提出了模糊随机动态规划这一新的研究模型,通过二叉树模型模拟汇率、蒙特卡罗技术模拟模糊随机变量,构建了求解此类规划的算法。对理论模型进行了算例仿真,仿真结果验证了算法的可行性,为中国外向型制造企业制定全球采购计划提供了更加科学的方法和依据。

  15. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chick...

  16. Flue-Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Effects on Urea-Degrading Bacteria and Ammonia Volatilization From Broiler Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among stu...

  17. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study of...... days (OR = 5.0, 1.2 purchased wheat rather than home-grown wheat (OR = 3.1, 1.0 production of campylobacter-free broilers.......In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... of processing, 24% of the flocks were positive. The species distribution was 87% Campylobacter jejuni, 8% Campylobacter coli and 5% Campylobacter lari, The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors: lack of a hygiene barrier (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 1.1

  18. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1, 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se, respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  19. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  20. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  1. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  2. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  3. Medium chain fatty acid feed supplementation reduces the probability of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Bouma, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans is associated with handling and consumption of contaminated broiler meat. Reduction of the number of Campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks could potentially be realized by decreasing their susceptibility for colonization. The aim of this study was to determine the effec

  4. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  5. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  6. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  7. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  8. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  9. CARNOSINE CONTENT AND MUSCLE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MALE AND FEMALE BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05. Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.

  10. Viscosity of dietary fibre in relation to lipid digestibility in broiler chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to identify the physicochemical properties of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) that are most relevant to the nutrition of the broiler chicken. More specifically, the mechanisms by which fibre viscosity can affect lipid digestibility in broiler chickens have been investigate

  11. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    . These were generally related to inadequate biosecurity. Identified risk factors were: broiler houses older than 15 years, absence of anterooms and barriers in each house, shared tools between houses, long downtime, and drinker systems with bells or cups. Also, the risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized...

  12. Pyrosequencing analysis of Salinomycin and Eimeria spp. challenge-induced changes in broiler cecal microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimeria spp. invade and damage the intestinal cell lining of broilers, resulting in cell necrosis and secondary bacterial infections. The current work investigates the effect of anticoccidial agents, salinomycin in combination with roxarsone, and Eimeria challenge on the composition of broiler ceca...

  13. Microbiological status of broiler respiratory tracts before and after feed withdrawal during catching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant point of entry for Salmonella into a processing plant is within the broilers to be processed. Prior to transport to the processing plant, feed is withdrawn from the broilers for 4 h on the farm, then birds are caught and cooped. During catching, an increased presence of litter dust in ...

  14. Footpad dermatitis in Dutch broiler flocks: Prevalence and factors of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Harn, van J.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.; Lourens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In some European countries, footpad dermatitis (FPD) is measured as an indicator of broiler welfare. Prevalence and seasonal variation of FPD was determined within broiler flocks (fast-growing breeds) in the Netherlands. Samples were taken from 386 Dutch flocks at 8 slaughterhouses during a period o

  15. Starch digestion in the small intestine of broiler chickens differs among feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, A.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van de P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary starch is the major energy source for broiler chickens, and knowledge about its digestive behavior can be important. In a digestibility trial with 720 broiler chickens, site, rate and extent of starch digestion were measured for 12 feedstuffs. Starch digestion was determined using the slaugh

  16. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  17. Effect of a Chinese herb medicine formulation, as an alternative for antibiotics, on performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Soede, J.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. A total of 720 female broiler chicks was used to test the effects of 4 dietary concentrations of a Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulation (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg), as an alternative for virginiamycin (VRG), on growth performance in broilers. 2. A total of 72 birds from non-supplemented, VRG a

  18. Fatty acid digestion, synthesis and metabolism in broiler chickens and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.

    2012-01-01


    The impact of variation in the composition of dietary fat on digestion, metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids was studied in broiler chickens and in pigs. In young broiler chickens, digestion of unsaturated fatty acids was substantially higher compared with that of saturated fatty acids. Po

  19. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  20. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. ...

  2. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  3. Effects of scalding method and sequential tanks on broiler processing wastewater loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of scalding time and temperature, and sequential scalding tanks was evaluated based on impact to poultry processing wastewater (PPW) stream loading rates following the slaughter of commercially raised broilers. On 3 separate weeks (trials), broilers were obtained following feed withdrawa...

  4. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter interven...

  6. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet wit

  7. Effect of Substituting Yellow Maize for Sorghum on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the nutritional value of yellow maize when it substitutes sorghum grain as source of energy at levels 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in broiler rations. One hundred and forty unsexed one day old (Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (S0 containing sorghum 100% (control, 60% of the diet, diet (S1 75% sorghum 25% maize, diet (S2 50% sorghum 50% maize, diet (S3 25% sorghum 75% maize and diet (S4 maize (100% (without sorghum. Each treatment had four replicates with 7 birds/replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Feed intake and body weight gain had been recorded weekly. The results showed significant increase (P 0.05 effect on cold carcass dressing percentage, liver and abdominal fat weights, serum cholesterol, serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels. The cost of production decreased by increasing level of maize.

  8. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... processing, consumer food preparation,and the close-response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has supported the progress of risk assessment as a research discipline. The risk assessments are not only used to assess the human incidence of campylobacteriosis due......, it is neither feasible nor desirable to merge the different models into one generic risk assessment model. The purpose of such a generic model has yet to be defined at a European level and the large variety in practices between countries, especially related to consumer food preparation and consumption...

  9. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  10. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  11. Postural evaluation in a poultry farm for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Yong-Ku; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate working postures in 9 operations of poultry farming for broiler chickens for 14 body segments with 4 categories, and for fingers with 14 categories. Overall, the farmers commonly bent almost all their body segments and used power grips. The operations of cleaning with water wand and inspecting chickens seemed light work because the farmers walked around most of their working time. The operations of detaching base from hanging feeder and attaching base to hanging feeder had the farmers continue squatting to handle the feeders close to the floor. The farmers also repeatedly bent their trunks in shoveling feces, unloading a box of chicks, and releasing chicks. A power grip was frequently observed due to using tools with round handles. Workplace design to raise working height would be necessary for a better working environment for broiler farmers.

  12. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; Masci, F. J.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  13. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (<135 mmol/L) was evident pre- and post-stage in n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p < 0.001) as competition progressed in UER, with no change in CON. Plasma volume and extra-cellular water increased (p < 0.001) 22.8% and 9.2%, respectively, from pre-Stage 1 to 5 in UER, with no change in CON. Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition

  14. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  15. 多效降膜式蒸发器不同加料方法及出料方法的比较及其意义%Comparison of Different Feeding and Discharging Methods for Multi-stage Film Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘殿宇

    2014-01-01

    There are two temperatures of lfuids fed into evaporator, one is below the boiling point of lfuid, and another is equal or higher than the boiling point of lfuid. The lfuid of which the temperature is below its boiling point is needed to preheat by stages in falling iflm evaporator, the lfuid can only be fed into evaporator until the temperature reaches or is higher than boiling point. In multi-stage falling iflm evaporator, different feeding types can be used, that are parallel-current, countercurrent and mixing current, in which parallel-current is most commonly used. Use of which feeding type and discharging lfuid in which stage are determined based on the property of lfuid. In this article, exampled with the application of TNJM03-6200 three-stage falling iflm evaporator in xylose production, different feeding and discharging methods were described.%进入蒸发器的料液的温度有两种,一种为低于沸点温度进料,一种为高于或等于沸点温度进料。低于沸点温度的料液在降膜式蒸发器中都要经过逐级预热的方式将料液预热至沸点或沸点以上的温度方可进入蒸发器中进行蒸发,在多效降膜式蒸发器中,加料方式也不尽相同。有并流加料法,逆流加料法及混流加料法。其中,以并流加料方法最为常见。采用什么样的加料方法及第几效出料是由物料的特性决定的。仅以TNJM03-6200型三效降膜式蒸发器在木糖生产中的应用为例进行比较阐述。

  16. 产品单生产周期的多阶段融资和采购决策研究%Multi-stages Financial and Purchasing Decisions in a Single Production Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关旭; 马士华; 桂华明

    2011-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous capital difficulties (e. G. Long funds recovery period, capital shortage) for small medium enterprises in supply chain, this paper studies the financial and purchasing decisions of a manufacturer and a capital provider in the multi-stages cash flow gap of the production cycle. In context of a single period supply chain, we divide the production cycle in to four stages. Comparing the different financial plights that manufacturer could meet, we discuss the manufacturer's optimal decisions of financing mode, financing amount and purchasing quantities, as well as the profit maximization problem of the capital provider. The study demonstrated that manufacturer can choose the optimal cash flow service mode appropriately to improve its revenue, which is according to its financial condition and the lending rate. For the capital provider, it can effectively improve its profit through the interest pricing decision.%针对在企业中普遍存在的资金回收期过长、资金不足等资金流困境,研究制造商和资金提供商在产品生产周期内所面临的融资和采购决策问题.在一个单周期环境下,将制造商的生产周期分为采购期、生产期、应收账款期和资金回收期4个不同阶段.针对不同阶段制造商可能面对的资金流困境,分别建立以资金提供商为主方、制造商为从方的主从博弈模型,讨论制造商在不同阶段应如何选择最优的融资模式、融资金额和相应的采购决策以及资金提供商应如何设定最优的贷款利率.研究结果表明,制造商可以根据自身现有资金状况以及贷款利率合理选择不同的资金流服务模式,从而有效提高收益,资金提供商也能够通过确定合理的贷款利率最大化自身收益.

  17. FIELD TEST RESEARCH OF MULTI-STAGE STACKED TRAY SOLAR SEAWATER STILLER IN ACTUAL WEATHER%多级迭盘式太阳能蒸馏器典型天气下的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢果; 郑宏飞; 郑子行; 康慧芳

    2013-01-01

    A multi-stage stacked tray solar distiller with folded and enhanced condensation faces was designed.Field test had been carried out in actual weather in order to obtain its characters of temperature variation and water production.Inner temperature and water production variation curves were given.Input sunlight ratio of top stage distillation chamber was deduced and the efficiency of desalination equipment was calculated.Comparison betweenfield test and steady state test was finished.Actual weather working characters and inner mass-heat transfer principle of this muhi-effect distiller was also analyzed.The results showed that the fresh water yield can reach upto 43kg/d and its performance ratio can reach up to 1.54 in fine weather,and this distiller is desired desalination equipment.%设计了一种具有强化凝结面的多级迭盘式太阳能蒸馏器.对其在实际大气下的升温特性及产水性能进行测试,得到其内部各级海水运行温度的全天变化曲线以及全天总产水量的变化曲线.对装置顶层腔体全天进光率进行推导,根据实验数据进一步得到海水淡化主机全天工作效率.实验结果与文献[4]中的稳态实验结果进行对比分析,探索了该类装置在实际天气条件的产水特性,对其内部的热质传递规律进行初步研究.结果表明,该装置的日产水量可达约43kg(晴好天气下),性能系数可达1.54,是一种较理想的小型海水淡化装置.

  18. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydes Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1 stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2 adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility, three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival, and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival. Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1 Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the

  19. Multi-contaminant analysis of organophosphate and halogenated flame retardants in food matrices using ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction, multi-stage cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; García-Bermejo, Ángel; Malarvannan, Govindan; Gómara, Belén; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-03

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of a range of flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated FRs (EFRs) and organophosphate FRs (PFRs), in food matrices. An ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction (UVAE), followed by a multi-stage clean-up procedure, enabled the removal of up to 1g of lipid from 2.5 g of freeze-dried food samples and significantly reduce matrix effects. UVAE achieves a waste factor (WF) of about 10%, while the WFs of classical QuEChERS methods range usually between 50 and 90%. The low WF of UVAE leads to a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity along with saving up to 90% of spiking (internal) standards. Moreover, a two-stage clean-up on Florisil and aminopropyl silica was introduced after UVAE, for an efficient removal of pigments and residual lipids, which led to cleaner extracts than normally achieved by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). In this way, the extracts could be concentrated to low volumes, e.g. <100 μL and the equivalent matrix concentrations were up to 100g ww/mL. The final analysis of PFRs was performed on GC-EI-MS, while PBDEs and EFRs were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. Validation tests were performed with three food matrices (lean beef, whole chicken egg and salmon filet), obtaining acceptable recoveries (66-135%) with good repeatability (RSD 1-24%, mean 7%). Method LOQs ranged between 0.008 and 0.04 ng/g dw for PBDEs, between 0.08 and 0.20 ng/g dw for EFRs, and between 1.4 and 3.6 ng/g dw for PFRs. The method was further applied to eight types of food samples (including meat, eggs, fish, and seafood) with lipid contents ranging from 0.1 to 22%. Various FRs were detected above MLOQ levels, demonstrating the wide-range applicability of our method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method reported for simultaneous analysis of brominated and organophosphate FRs in food matrices.

  20. Multi-stage Path Prediction Mission Planning Algorithm for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles%无人机多阶段航迹预测协同任务规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐骥; 王宇鹏; 钟志

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,a multi-stage path prediction algorithm of the decentralized mission planning for cooperative UAVs is presented. The planning horizon is defined as the period between the start of task assignment and completion of any task.In every planning horizon, each UAV utilizes the A* algorithm to predict the paths to all tasks and provide the path distances for task assignment.Furthermore,the cluster algorithm is introduced to modify the tasks value vector.The UAVs negotiate the task assignment solution and calculate the shortest path to assigned task in the detection range in real time.Finally,the B-spline curve is addressed to convert the shortest path into flyable smoothing trajectory that subject to the flight constraints.For validation,the scenario of multiple UAVs to perform cooperative missions is considered.Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the quasi-optimal assignment solution and generate the flyable trajectory in real time.In addition,the satisfactory performance to accomplish the pop-up tasks is demonstrated.%针对多无人机(Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,UAVs)协同控制问题,提出了一种UAVs多阶段航迹预测分布式任务规划方法;定义从一次任务分配开始到其中一项任务完成为一个任务周期;在每个规划周期,首先,各UAV使用A*算法快速预测到所有任务目标的路径,提供至任务分配;然后,采用聚类算法修改目标价值向量,协商分配结果,并实时计算探测范围内的最短路径;最后,采用三次B样条曲线平滑所分配的最短路径,在线规划出满足飞行约束的飞行航迹;通过仿真实验对算法的有效性进行了验证,结果表明,提出的算法能够实时获得近似最优的任务分配结果并规划出可飞行航迹,并有效处理突发任务。

  1. [Toxicity studies of Pharmachem's tylosin tartrate for broilers and turkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, B; Angelov, A K; Vitanov, S

    1978-01-01

    Studied were the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity of the Pharmachim tylosin tartrate as well as the tolerance of chicken broilers and turkeys. The mean lethal dose of the antibiotic at subcutaneous application to 28-32 day-old broilers was 620 mg/kg; the oral dose was 1500 mg/kg. In the case of 42-45-day-old broilers these values were 740 and 5400 mg/kg. The LD50 at i/v infusion for 75-77-day-old ones was 48 mg/kg. Beside the age and route of introduction toxicity was found to depend on the initial biologic activity of tylosin tartrate. The subcutaneous injection of tylosin tartrate at the rate of 30 mg/kg for 20 days did not lead to changes in the appetite, behaviour, growth, and structure of viscera. A 42-day treatment at the same rate, however, resulted in slightly manifested and fully reversible dystrophic changes in the liver and kidneys. Higher doses (90 and 150 mg/kg) led to transient depression, stunting of growth, and a rise of the urea level and the activity of blood transaminases as well as to moderate destructive changes in the liver and kidneys. The stimulation of growth and the improvement of feed conversion (without deviations in the clinical and biochemical indices of the blood and the structure and development of the viscera in broilers) were recorded after the application of a water-soluble formula of tylosin tartrate for a period of 98 days offered via the drinking water in amounts equal to or exceeding 2 to 4 times the ED50. Turkeys' tolerance for the preparation was evaluated as very good so far as single i/m injective applications were concerned in doses exceeding 3, 5, and 10 times the average effective rates, no differences in this respect being noted with the comparative use of tylosin tartrate produced by the Elanco firm.

  2. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  3. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  4. Exploring the economic potential of reducing broiler lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, É; Silvera, A M; Hansson, H; Saatkamp, H W; Blokhuis, H J

    2017-03-15

    1. The present study was designed firstly to explore the potential economic benefits of adopting management practices to reduce lameness in broiler farms, and secondly to explore farmers' possible perceptions of this potential in the Swedish context. 2. The likely financial effects were addressed using a normative economic model, whereas a questionnaire based survey was used to obtain in-depth knowledge about the perceptions of a group of broiler farmers in Sweden. 3. Results suggest that within the Swedish context there is potential to reduce lameness, to thereby improve animal welfare, and to simultaneously increase economic performance. 4. The three alternative practices (out of 6 tested) which realised the greatest improvements in gross margin and net return to management compared to the conventional practice were: feeding whole wheat, sequential feeding and meal feeding. 5. The model showed that the negative effect of feeding whole wheat on feed conversion rate was actually outweighed by the effect of a low feed price and the associated decrease in feed costs. The price of wheat played a major role in the improvement of economic performance, whereas the reduction of lameness itself made a relatively minor contribution. Thus, farmers can profit from changing feeding practices, especially from the inclusion of whole wheat in their feeding programs. 6. Apparently, the surveyed farmers do not recognise the potential of the positive effects of changing feed or feeding practices on both broiler welfare and farm economics despite the fact that their implementation can be of great importance in the broiler sector where profit margins are very tight.

  5. In ovo supplementation of 25(OHD3 to broiler embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gonzales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control, 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD3 was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17 via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OHD3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h, with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OHD3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OHD3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05 among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OHD3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.

  6. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  7. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  8. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing....... Results: We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  10. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24), with four replicates (n = 6). The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphom...

  11. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens;

    1997-01-01

    . coil isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1), All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin, Only a few C.jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, Resistance...... to tetracycline was more common among C.jejuni isolates from humans (11%) than among C, jejuni isolates from animals (0 to 2%), More resistance to streptomycin was found among C, jejuni isolates from cattle (10%) than among those from humans (4%) or broilers (1%), A greater proportion of C. coil than of C, jejuni...... isolates from broilers (18%) and humans (14%), Twenty-four percent of C, coli isolates from pigs were resistant to enrofloxacin, whereas 29% of C, coli isolates from humans and none from broilers were resistant, More resistance to streptomycin was observed among C, coil isolates from swine (48%) than among...

  13. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  14. MARKET CHOICES FOR BROILER CHICKEN MEAT IN THE OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Augustyńska-Prejsnar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.

  15. Production aspects of broiler breeders submitted to different drinker types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Colvero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p0.05 of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05 under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05 between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.

  16. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  17. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.

  18. Multiphase feeding program for broilers can replace traditional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broilers are traditionally managed with feeding programs that often consist of three or four phases. In this study we investigated whether a multiphase feeding program (14 phases of broilers based on the optimal mix of two feeds could replace a traditional four phase system while maintaining broiler performance. To evaluate this prposed program we measured variables of performance, carcass yield, and nitrogen excretion. In addition, we determined if the multiphase feeding program (14 phases would be equally effective regardless of bird gender. A total of 480 day-old Cobb chicks were used, with an average weight of 44.74 ± 0.16 g (females and 44.71 ± 0.11 g (males. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 animals per experimental unit. Results were analyzed separately in two periods (1–21 and 22–42 days as determined by slaughter date, as well as for the entire growth period (1–42 days. The multiphase program led to improvements in final body weight and average daily weight gain, in addition to an increase in breast yield.

  19. Phytogenic additives and organic acids in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Barbosa Fascina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA and organic acids (OA on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial. In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth- promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.

  20. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  1. Effects of Bacillus subtilis KD1 on broiler intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B Q; Zhang, T; Guo, L Q; Lin, J F

    2011-11-01

    A novel Bacillus subtilis KD1 strain was isolated and identified from healthy broilers, and its phylogenetic classification was subsequently analyzed. To evaluate its probiotic availability, its growth characteristics and tolerance for the gut environment were evaluated in vitro. The results suggest that B. subtilis KD1 is superior in secreting neutral protease and is highly tolerant of gastric acid and bile salt. In the logarithmic growth phase, the neutral protease reached a maximum of 1,369.3 U/mL. When all live bacteria had become spores in the broth, B. subtilis KD1 was freeze dried and fed to broilers at 10(9), 5 × 10(9), and 10(10) bacilli/kg of feed. The animal trial results suggest that the addition of the new strain significantly improved intestinal flora by increasing lactobacilli and reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.05) as compared with the control; hence, B. subtilis KD1 is a promising probiotic organism in broilers.

  2. Effect of dried solids of nejayote on broiler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Martinez, M; Angulo, O; Vazquez-Couturier, D L; Arroyo-Lara, A; Monroy-Rivera, J A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the suitability of the solids of nejayote (a waste product from the tortilla industry) in diets for broilers. The nejayote was obtained from two different tortilla-making factories and the solids were obtained by centrifuge then dried in a hot-air drier. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous according to the NRC dietary requirements (1994). Nejayote solids were supplemented at 2, 4, and 6% of the diet. Results show that the content of protein and calcium in the dried solids of nejayote were 5 and 13%, respectively. The performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dried nejayote did not differ from that of those fed the control diet. Therefore, it is concluded that nejayote solids are suitable for broiler feed and do not affect growth performance. Utilization of nejayote solids at higher levels is a possibility provided that no adverse effects on body weight, feed utilization, and feed:gain ratios are observed.

  3. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella species in entire steps of a single integrated broiler supply chain in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Won; Ha, Jong-Su; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella species in an integrated broiler supply chain in Korea. A total of 1,214 samples from various steps of an integrated broiler production company including broiler breeder farms, broiler farms, broiler trucks, slaughterhouse, and retail chicken meats were collected and investigated. Salmonella was detected in 195 of the samples. The highest prevalence of Salmonella was observed in broiler transporting trucks (71.43%), followed by the slaughterhouse (63.89%) and broiler farms (16.05%). Salmonella Hadar was the most frequently isolated serotype (83.08%). All Salmonella Hadar isolates investigated in this study with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the same XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotype.

  4. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  5. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  6. PEMERIKSAAN LEUCOCYTOZOONOSIS PADA BROILER DAN ITIK MENGGUNAKAN METODE GERUSAN ORGAN DAN HAPUSAN DARAH (EXAMINATION OF LEUCOCYTOZOONOSIS IN BROILERS AND DUCKS USING ORGAN MASHED METHODS AND BLOOD SMEAR *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafiah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has been done to examine Leucocytozoonosis case using organ mashed method in broiler and ducks slaughtered in chickens slaughter house in Banda Aceh Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. From each of broiler and ducks fifty organs were collected for sample. Before those animals were killed blood smear were taken to find merozoites and gametosites stadium while smashed organs were made to find schizont stadium. The number of schizont of Leucocytozoonosis were analyzed descriptively. Result of research indicate that was higher positiveLeucocytozoonosis with mashed method better than blood smear in broiler and duck. The prevalence of Leucocylozoonosis with blood smear respectively are 30 % and 24 % from broiler while by using organ smashed methods are 58 % and 54 % respectively.

  7. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler flocks and broiler carcasses in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European Union regulations, from 5 February until 15 December 2008, sampling and analysis activities were conducted in Italy to assess the extent of contamination caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler chickens farmed nationwide. The survey involved 48 poultry slaughterhouses distributed across eleven regions of Italy, where the caeca and carcasses of 393 slaughter batches were sampled. A total of 284 batches (72.3% gave positive results for Campylobacter spp. as follows: 52.1% were contaminated by C. jejuni, 55.6% by C. coli and 1.1% by C. lari. C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated together in 37 batches (13% of positive results. Campylobacter spp. was isolated only from the caeca in 251 slaughter batches (63.9% including caecal isolates of C. jejuni (48.2%, C. coli (50.6%, and C. lari (1.2%. Carcasses from 182 batches (46.3% were contaminated by C. jejuni in 40.7% of cases, C. coli in 57.7% and the absence of C. lari from all batches examined. The contamination level observed in the carcasses ranged between 10 and 1.6 × 107 cfu/g.

  8. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual

  9. Trends in occcurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases ind Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe;

    2009-01-01

    . In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997...... though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or by travelling....

  10. 多级轴流压气机内部声共振的噪声特征研究%Investigation into noise characteristics corresponding to acoustic resonance in a multi-stage axial compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾孝驰; 沙云东; 赵奉同; 崔现智

    2014-01-01

    基于某型多级轴流压气机部件试验,主要研究高压一级转子叶片出现高振幅级叶片振动时,压气机流道内部的噪声特性,重点分析换算流量(ma)的变化和静子导流叶片连动角度(S0)的变化对压气机内部噪声信号的影响。分析结果表明,此现象可能与压气机环形空间中的声共振有关,压气机中发生的所有共振都在一个频率下,即声共振频率呈现锁频现象;此外,谐振最大时,声共振频率处的声能量超过了通常较大的叶片通过频率处的声能量,在整个声压级谱中占主导地位;ma 和S0的变化对声共振频率不产生影响,但ma 和S0的变化对压气机内部噪声信号特征和转子叶片振动应力幅值影响较大。研究结果对进一步研究声共振现象有一定的参考价值。%Based on a certain type of a multi-stage axial compressor rig testing,the characteristics of noise in the compressor passage compressor is investigated under the condition that blade vibrations of high amplitude levels occurred to the first rotor blades of high pressure. And the analysis focuses on the effect of the changes of the corrected mass flow( ma ) and the linkage angle of stator guide vane ( S0 ) on the noise signal in the compressor. The results show thatthis phenomenon is associated with acoustic resonance of the compressor annulus space,and the resonance occurring all over the compressor is under one single frequency,which means that the acoustic frequency locking takes place. In addition,the sound energy of the acoustic resonance frequency exceeds that of the usually dominated blade passing that frequency when the amplitude of blade vibrations reaches the maximum,which dominates in the whole sound pressure level spectrum. The acoustic resonance frequency is unaffected by and,but the changes of ma and S0 have significant influence on internal noise signal characteristics in the compressor and the vibration stress

  11. 多级逆流微萃取系统开发与传质性能研究%Development and Mass Transfer Performance of a Multi-stage Countercurrent Micro-extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗强; 李少伟; 郭绪强; 景山

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a multi-stage countercurrent micro-extraction system to achieve stable operation of countercurrent flow, and investigate liquid-liquid mass transfer performance. The countercurrent flow was achieved by using a pulse feeding discharging system and a one-way control system. The pulse feeding discharging system was composed of a reciprocating pump with four pistons moving at opposite directions, and four chambers connected with the material vessels by check valves. The single-stage extraction performance was first investigated in a multi-channel micro-extraction device with 30%TBP-kerosene / water- nitric acid as the liquid-liquid extraction system. The effect of operation conditions including pulse frequency, pulse volume and concentration on the mass transfer performance was investigated, and then the extraction performance of the four-stage micro-extraction system was tested. Optimal operation conditions were finally obtained. The highest extraction efficiency of the single-stage extraction is achieved when the pulse frequency is at 0.13Hz, with the pulse stroke of both phases at 80µL. The total extraction efficiency of the four-stage micro-extraction system is higher than 90%in all experiments.%为开发多级逆流微萃取系统,实现稳定逆流操作,研究液-液两相在此系统中的传质规律,以及探索传质性能的最优化操作条件。以双向四缸往复泵和四个缓冲室通过单向阀与料液罐相连,构成脉冲进料出料系统,以单向阀控制两相单向流动,实现微萃取系统的逆流操作;以30%(v/v)TBP-煤油/水体系为研究对象,选择硝酸为待萃取物,以平行并列微通道为微萃取设备,进行单级微萃取实验,研究脉冲频率、脉冲体积、浓度等操作条件对传质性能的影响;在此基础上,进行四级逆流微萃取的研究,总结出最优化操作条件。结果表明,在两相脉冲冲程均为80µ

  12. Variable Jet Distance and Multi-Stage Cutting Head with Abrasive Water Jet%可变喷距磨料射流多级切割头研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫东; 夏柏如; 李罗鹏; 师伟

    2012-01-01

    应用磨料射流切割技术切除海上采油多层废弃井口时,面临的一个突出问题是切割外层套管和隔水管时喷距变大引起作业时间增加,导致作业成本高昂.基于缩短喷距的思路,设计了一种可变喷距磨料射流多级切割头,切割头上布置有固定喷嘴和长、短伸缩杆喷嘴,每种喷嘴具有相互独立的供液流道,因此切割头可提供3种工作模式,即固定喷嘴切割模式、短伸缩杆切割模式和长伸缩杆切割模式.施工作业时,采用投球的方式依次进行3种工作模式的转换.理论计算表明,使用φ3mm喷嘴时,长、短伸缩杆工作模式可分别将无因次喷距减小至使用固定喷嘴时的1/27与1/16.7,有效提高了射流的能量利用率.地面试验表明,可变喷距多级切割头使用方便,流道转换可靠,比普通固定喷嘴式切割头切割效率显著提高,可大幅度缩短作业时间,降低作业成本.%The crucial problem in AWJ(abrasive water jet) technique for cutting subsea oil production multi-layer abandoned wellheads is that cutting of external casing and marine riser leads to increase of operation time and excessively high cost. The paper designed a variable jet distance and multi-stage AWJ cutting head with fixed nozzles, long and short expansion link nozzles, which were different in distance and had independent fluid channels,based on the thinking to reduce jet distance. Therefore,cutting head had three operating modes,which were the fixed nozzles for cutting mode,short expansion link for cutting mode and long expansion link for cutting modes. The three working modes were switched by delivering two balls in order in the process of operation. After theoretical calculation,with 3 mm nozzle,long expansion link mode and short long expansion link mode could reduce the dimensionless jet distance to 1/16. 7 and 1/27 compared with that of using fixed nozzles. It was useful to improve the utilization of jet energy. At the same

  13. Multi-stage Planning Optimization for Power Distribution Network Based on LCC and Improved PSO%基于LCC和改进粒子群算法的配电网多阶段网架规划优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海锋; 张建华; 梁志瑞; 牛胜锁

    2013-01-01

    市场环境下,配电网规划方案全寿命周期经济性变得越来越重要.基于设备全寿命周期成本建立了配电网多阶段网架及开关布置规划新模型,模型同时考虑了规划方案初始投资、运行维护成本、停电成本、报废成本;在满足各阶段负荷发展需求的条件下,以规划项目全寿命周期经济性最优为目标函数确定不同支路的建设时间;建立了配电网停电成本计算模型,该模型反映了停电频率、停电持续时间及停电电量对停电成本的综合影响.提出一种将均值聚类与随机粒子群算法相结合的改进离散粒子群算法对上述模型进行求解,该算法克服了基本粒子群算法的“早熟”问题.该规划方法使得规划方案不仅满足全寿命周期经济性最优,而且兼顾一定的可靠性水平.规划实例验证了上述模型和方法的正确性和有效性.%The life cycle economy of the power distribution network planning scheme is becoming more and more important in power markets. The new model of the distribution network multi-stage planning and the configuration of switches based on the life cycle cost (LCC) of equipment was presented. The initial investment, operation and maintenance cost, outage cost and disposal cost of planning scheme were considered. According to the development of the load, the construction time of the distribution feeders can be decided based on the optimal LCC. The function of fault cost was built, and the function reflected the comprehensive effect of the frequency, duration and quantity of outage to the fault cost. The improved algorithm based on the combined mean clustering algorithm and random particle swarm algorithm was presented. The new algorithm's global searching capability was improved. The distribution network planning method based on LCC is not only reliable, but also the most economical. The new model is feasible and practical by a realistic planning project.

  14. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boostani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.

  15. Alum and Rainfall Effects on Ionophores in Runoff from Surface-Applied Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Franklin, Dorcas; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (∼pH 9) vs. alum-amended litters (∼pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration ( runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application.

  16. Vaccination of one-day-old broiler chicks against infectious coryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Maximiliano Daniel; Huberman, Yosef Daniel; Espinoza, Alfredo Mendoza; Delgado, Rosa Inés; Terzolo, Horacio Raúl

    2011-03-01

    In order to evaluate the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine against infectious coryza, three challenge trials were undertaken using 112 1-day-old broilers. The vaccine "Hepa Inmuno NC" included bacterial antigens of Avibacterium paragallinarum (serogroups A, B, variant B, and C) as well as antigens of Newcastle virus and hepatitis virus. Fifty-six broiler chicks were vaccinated at the first day of life at the hatchery while another 56 chicks were left unvaccinated. Three infection trials were conducted simultaneously using each of the three serogroups A, B, or C of Av. paragallinarum. In each trial, 17 vaccinated and 17 unvaccinated broilers were used. Challenge was performed at day 31 of life by injection, into the left infraorbital sinus, of approximately 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of the corresponding Av. paragallinarum strain. Clinical signs were recorded on day 2 postchallenge. All broilers were euthanatized and both infraorbital sinuses were bacteriologically examined for the presence of Av. paragallinarum on day 5 postchallenge. In comparison with the unvaccinated broilers, the vaccine significantly reduced the number of broilers with clinical signs after challenge with serogroup B, and significantly fewer vaccinated broilers were positive for the presence of Av. paragallinarum after challenge with serogroup C. On the other hand, no significant protection was observed when broilers were challenged with Av. paragallinarum from serogroup A. Despite the high infection rates in vaccinated chicks after an experimental infection with Av. paragallinarum, it was possible to reduce colonization of Av. paragallinarum (serogroup B) and clinical signs (serogroup C) in broiler chicks by vaccination at the first day of life. Further cross-protection trials should be done, including other Av. paragallinarum strains in the vaccine, especially those from serogroup A.

  17. Effects of intermittent lighting on broiler growth performance, slaughter performance, serum biochemical parameters and tibia parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent lighting (IL on broiler growth and slaughter performance as well as serum biochemical and tibia parameters. Two hundred and eighty 7-d-old Ross 308 broilers were selected and reared from 8 to 42 d under IL photoperiods of either 2 hours of light:2 hours of dark (2L:2D or 4 hours of light:4 hours of dark (4L:4D, or under continuous lighting (CL. On day 42, body weight of broilers raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod was significantly increased compared to those reared in the 2L:2D photoperiod. The average daily feed intake (ADFI of broilers in IL was significantly less than broilers in CL. The feed conversion of broilers raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod was significantly more efficient than broilers in CL. The intestinal tract weight was greater in birds raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod compared to birds in CL. Similarly, the eviscerated yield with giblet and eviscerated carcass weights in birds reared in the 4L:4D photoperiod were significantly higher than corresponding weights observed in broilers raised in CL. Serum total protein concentration was distinctly higher in birds raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod than that in the 2L:2D photoperiod. In addition, the bone elastic modulus of birds reared in the 4L:4D photoperiod was greater than measurements observed in the 2L:2D photoperiod. Accordingly, we concluded that the 4L:4D photoperiodic lighting schedule was superior to both the 2L:2D photoperiod and CL in broiler production.

  18. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (Pstress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  19. The effect of feed wetting and fermentation on the performance of broiler chick

    OpenAIRE

    Uchewa E.N.; Onu P. N.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed wetting and fermented feed on the performance of broiler chicks. Four experimental diets were used in the study. Diet 1, was a conventional commercial broiler starter feed. Diet 2 was a commercial broiler starter feed in a 1:1.2 dilution with water. Diet 3, was a water diluted commercial feed inoculated with Bactocell™ and fermented for 24 hours at 35oC in an incubator. Diet 4 was fermented feed add...

  20. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Thodberg, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light...... across the day. However, DARK 4þ4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced...

  1. Phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu, associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD; CD+AGP/AC; CD+Gln/Glu; CD+PAs; CD+Gln/ Glu+PAs. Diets were formulated only with plant feedstuffs, i.e., they did not contain any animal byproducts. Performance data were collected for the accumulated periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of age. Carcass yield and parts yield were determined at 42 days of age. Treatments did not influence performance during none of the evaluated periods. The greatest carcass yield (p<0.05 was obtained in birds in the treatments CD+Gln/Glu and CD+Gln/Glu+PAs relative to CD, but not different from birds in the AGP+AC and PAs treatments, which were not different from the CD treatment. Birds fed the CD+Gln/Glu diet presented greater breast yield (p<0.05 compared with those in the CD and AGP/AC treatments, but there was no difference in comparison with the other treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the dietary supplementation with phytogenic additives and with glutamine plus glutamic acid does not affect the performance, but improves carcass yield and breast yield of broilers.

  2. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  3. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  4. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  5. Necrotic enteritis in broilers: an updated review on the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbermont, L; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2011-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis and related subclinical disease have become economically significant problems for the broiler industry. Fortunately, scientific interest in this topic has grown: new C. perfringens virulence factors have been discovered and new insight gained about the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis. It has been shown that alpha toxin, for a long time thought to be the key virulence factor, is not essential for the development of the disease. Moreover, it is now clearly established that only certain C. perfringens strains are capable of inducing necrotic enteritis under specific conditions that predispose to the disease and they constitute only a minority in the intestinal tract of healthy chickens. A novel pore-forming toxin, NetB, has been identified in these virulent avian C. perfringens strains. Using a gene knockout mutant, it has been shown that NetB is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broilers. In addition to toxin production, other factors have been described that contribute to the ability of certain C. perfringens strains to cause necrotic enteritis in broilers. It has been suggested that proteolytic enzymes play an important role in the initial stages of necrotic enteritis since the villi are first affected at the level of the basement membrane and the lateral domain of the enterocytes. In field outbreaks of necrotic enteritis, a single clone of C. perfringens is dominant in intestines of all affected birds, as opposed to the mixture of different C. perfringens strains that can be isolated from healthy bird intestines. It has been proposed that bacteriocin production is responsible for the dominance of a single strain in necrotic enteritis cases. Furthermore, it has been shown that virulent strains are more able to adhere to extracellular matrix molecules than non-virulent strains. The current knowledge on the pathogenesis of the disease has been summarized in this short review.

  6. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers.

  7. Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Engel, B; van Knapen, F; de Jong, M C M; Wagenaar, J A; Urlings, H A P

    2003-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmonella. Two studies were performed to quantify the effect of fermented liquid feed on the susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella. The fermented feed was prepared by fermenting a dry broiler feed supplemented with 1.4 parts of water. Lactobacillus plantarum was used for fermentation. The fermented liquid feed (FLF) contained 10(9) to 10(10) cfu lactobacilli per gram, and the pH was 4. Individually housed control chickens and FLF-fed chickens were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Colonization was estimated by cloacal swabs and quantitative caecal culture. The proportion of SE-shedding chickens was decreased in FLF-fed chickens. FLF-fed chickens required a longer time after inoculation or a higher inoculation dose to get the same proportion of infected chickens in comparison with dry feed-fed chickens. The level of cecal colonization with Salmonella in the ceca was not different at the end of the experimental period. The results indicate that FLF can hamper the introduction of Salmonella in broiler flocks because the chickens are less susceptible for infection. Fermented liquid feed might therefore be a new hurdle in the strategy to control Salmonella in chicken flocks.

  8. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    . The salmonella status of the flock was determined by examining the caecal tonsils from 16 3-week-old chickens from each flock. This procedure would detect a salmonella-infected flock, with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 20%. Furthermore, the structure and quality of the collected data have...... been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock...

  9. Intestinl fragility during ochratoxicosis and aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Graded concentrations of dietary ochratoxin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 microgram/g) and aflatoxin (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 microgram/g) were fed to broiler chicks from hatching to 3 weeks of age. The breaking strength of the large intestines was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by ochratoxin (2, 4, and 8 microgram/g), but not by aflatoxin. This fragility was accompanied by an increase in the weight of the large intestine relative to body weight of birds fed ochratoxin (4.0 a...

  10. Investigation of immune response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé;

    could limit the effects of the disease. In this study we focused on the impact of Eimeria maxima on different traits (e.g., weight gain, body temperature, blood composition, intestinal lesions scores, oocysts count) in two challenge experiments on commercial broilers (pilot then larger experiment...... models, with moderate success. Finally, we demonstrated that the challenged population presents a genetic variability for resistance to Eimeria maxima. The next step will be to identify genomic regions involved in the resistance determinism, for further selection use....

  11. Heat-resistant bacterial phytase in broiler pelleted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC de F Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.

  12. Foot-pad dermatitis in broilers and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Charlotte C.

    1998-01-01

    Foot-pad dermatitis is a condition characterised by lesions on the ventral foot-pads of poultry. It is a type of contact dermatitis, which in an early stage results in hyperkeratosis, erosions and discoloration of the skin. The erosions can develop into ulcers. In severe cases, the foot-pad lesions may cause pain which together with a deteriorated state of health constitutes a welfare issue. It has also been indicated that broilers with severe foot-pad dermatitis show slower weight gain. The ...

  13. PREVALENCE OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.

  14. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  15. Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierikx, Cindy M; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Smith, Hilde E; Kant, Arie; Mevius, Dik J

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS) birds (one-/two-days (breed A and B), 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A)), one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B) and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A) were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0-24% to 96-100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms.

  16. Effect of Compound Sulfadiazine Suspension on Growth Performance of Broiler in Clinical Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compound Sulfadiazine suspension is used mainly to prevent and cure E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken in veterinary clinical application. Effect of compound Sulfadiazine suspension on growth performance of broiler in clinical efficacy trial was studied in the study. One hundred eighty 15-day-old broilers were divided randomly into six groups, blank control group, negative control group, Trisulmixos gavage group, Trisulmixos drinking group, Sufuning gavage group and Sufuning drinking group, respectively. There were three repeating treatments in each group and ten broilers in each treatment. Results showed that compound Sulfadiazine suspension can promote the feed conversion rate of broiler when curing E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken. Both from the perspective of efficacy and from the perspective of growth performance, giving drug by gavage were more effective than giving by drinking. When two products of Compound Sulfadiazine suspension were compared, the indicators of Sufuning were a little better Trisulmixos.

  17. Effect of Lonicera japonica extract on Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, H K; Torun, E; Özen, D; Yücel, G; Akan, M; Diker, K S

    2015-01-01

    1. In this study, the effect of chlorogenic acid extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections and the performance of broiler flocks was investigated. 2. A total of 360 Ross-308 broiler chicks taken from M. gallisepticum seropositive flocks were divided equally into three groups designated as control (nothing administered), antibiotic (Tylosin tartrate given for the first 3 d and d 20-22) and test group (chlorogenic acid extract given twice a day on d 16 and 22). 3. Broiler performance analysis, serological tests (slide agglutination), molecular identification (polymerase chain reaction) and histopathological examination were performed to detect M. gallisepticum. 4. The results show that chlorogenic acid not only increases live body weight but is also an alternative treatment option in M. gallisepticum-infected broiler flocks.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...

  19. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  20. The role of the commensal gut microbial community in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Erdi, G.; Boer, H.

    2005-01-01

    To understand the relationship between the gastrointestinal inhabiting microbial community and broiler health, a literature review is presented. The available information on the development of gut microbial community, the relationship between commensal microflora and digestive function, the role of

  1. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne;

    resistant to quinolones or ß-lactams. Sock samples were collected from 10 broiler parent flocks and 10 broiler offspring flocks. Five pairs of socks were collected from each house. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar added with nalidixic acid (32 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (2 µg...... and nalidixic acid resistances were detected in all flocks. The numbers of E. coli resistant to these drugs were higher in plates from parent flocks than in those from offspring flocks. A broiler parent flock without any history of quinolone usage tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, although......, these types of resistance are widespread in Danish broiler flocks. The observed high prevalence of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli is surprising since the use of quinolones in poultry is restricted in Denmark. The low prevalence (5%) of flocks positive for ciprofloxacin resistance and the absence...

  2. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Plasmid Replicon Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates recovered from Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Kentucky has become the predominate serotype recovered from broiler slaughter in the United States and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has increased dramatically in this serotype. Relationships between AMR, genotype, and plasmid replicon types were characterized for 600 ...

  4. Listeria-encefalitis in cows through litter from a broiler-farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, R G

    1976-02-01

    In a loose-housed herd four cows are emergency-slaughtered, within some weeks, because of symptoms of encefalitis. From the brains of these cows, as well as from the litter, coming from broilers, that had been put in the cow-stables before, Listeria monocytogenes type 4b has been isolated. At the same time an investigation was made from faeces/intestinal contents of broilers. Out of the contents of 2.373 intestines, 1% of about 2.300.000 broilers ready for use, coming from 146 farms, 4.1% L.monocytogenes has been isolated. Six broiler farms are infected, at two farms it occurred even for the second time. Three times it concerned L.monocytogenes type 4b, two times type 1 and one strain could not be serotyped.

  5. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  6. Lyophilized Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin preparation improves performance of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Sip, A; Rutkowski, A;

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin (divercin AS7) on growth performance, digestibility, fermentation processes, selected microbial populations, and histomorphology in broiler chickens challenged with a mixture of 3 Clostridium perfringens...

  7. Sources of trophic action on performance and intestinal morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Sakamoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sources of trophic action (glutamine alone, glutamine associated with glutamic acid and yeast associated with vaccination against coccidiosis on the performance and morphometry of the small intestine of broilers. In the trial, 1,200 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 + 2 (trophic action x vaccination or not + control - free trophic factor factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 30 birds each. Vaccination negatively affected performance parameters and the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, but at the end of the experimental period, among the broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis, the group fed glutamine presented better recovery from epithelial losses of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control groups. Therefore, the dietary supplementation with the evaluated sources of trophic action could be a strategy to enhance the development of broilers submitted to vaccine stress, also considering the economic viability of the productive segment.

  8. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Healthy Turkeys and Broilers Using DNA Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa; Hotzel, Helmut; Monecke, Stefan; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg; Ehricht, Ralf; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human health problem and recently, domestic animals are described as carriers and possible reservoirs. Twenty seven S. aureus isolates from five turkey farms (n = 18) and two broiler farms (n = 9) were obtained by culturing of choana and skin swabs from apparently healthy birds, identified by Taqman-based real-time duplex nuc-mecA-PCR and characterized by spa typing as well as by a DNA microarray based assay which covered, amongst others, a considerable number of antibiotic resistance genes, species controls, and virulence markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were tested by agar diffusion assays and genotypically confirmed by the microarray. Five different spa types (3 in turkeys and 2 in broilers) were detected. The majority of MRSA isolates (24/27) belonged to clonal complex 398-MRSA-V. The most frequently occurring spa types were accordingly t011, t034, and t899. A single CC5-MRSA-III isolated from turkey and CC398-MRSA with an unidentified/truncated SCCmec element in turkey and broiler were additionally detected. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of S. aureus isolated from both turkeys and broilers against 14 different antimicrobials showed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, oxacillin, doxycycline, and tetracycline. Moreover, all S. aureus isolated from broilers were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, and fusidic acid. The resistance rate against ciprofloxacin was 55.6% in broiler isolates and 42.1% in turkey isolates. All tetracycline resistant isolates possessed genes tetK/M. All erythromycin-resistant broiler isolates carried ermA. Only one broiler isolate (11.1%) carried genes ermA, ermB, and ermC, while 55.6% of turkey isolates possessed ermA and ermB genes. Neither PVL genes (lukF/S-PV), animal-associated leukocidin (lukM and luk-P83) nor the gene encoding

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  10. Natural origin immunomodulators influence on insulin content in broiler chickens blood under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Степан Стефанович Грабовський

    2014-01-01

    The results of determination of protein fractions content insulin and protein concentrations in plasma of broiler chickens, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances is given. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period biologically active substances of spleen extract were obtained with and without ultrasound application. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the broiler chickens feed increases the insulin concentration in broile...

  11. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Murat; İSTANBULLUOĞLU, Ersin; AYVALI, Burcu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler chicken faecal samples and on their carcasses. The possible routes of carcass contamination were assessed from slaughterhouse to market. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from broilers. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 393 (91.8%) of 428 samples examined. A total of 53 out of 57 rectal swab samples wa...

  12. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  13. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  15. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  16. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  17. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    AFB Royer; RG Garcia; Borille,R; Santana,; IA Nääs; FR Caldara; ICL Almeida Paz; WM Zeviani; FMS Alves; Sgavioli,S; WS Mariano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf) to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Fede...

  18. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    K.G. Wiryawan; S. Luvianti; W. Hermana; S. Suharti

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp) used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC) of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E....

  19. Effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive for broilers reared on deep litter

    OpenAIRE

    A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu; W Rakhmani; J Dharma; J Rosida; S Sitompul; Udjianto

    2004-01-01

    There are plenty of Indonesian plants contain usefull bioactive components. One of them is Aloe vera. Previous experiment showed that Aloe vera bioactives reduced aerob bacteria in the intestinal and improved feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages. The results however, gave some variations, may be due to variation in rearing the chickens. Two experiments were carried out to study the effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additives for broilers reared on deep litter. In the first st...

  20. THE STATISTIC ANALYSIS OF THREE MATHEMATICAL MODELS REFFERING TO THE EVOLUTION OF BROILERS CORPORAL MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the broilers corporal mass has been studied depending on the controllable variables: L(lysine, M(metionine+cystine, obtaining the mathematical models 1 G , 2 G , 3 G .This work analyses statistically if the values of these models significantly differ from the control lot 0 G .(NRC 1994.Calculating the reports of correlation we specify which model is considered decisional in broilers nutrition.

  1. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Pan

    Full Text Available Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks ("Meihuang" were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400-700 nm, WL; red LED strips (620 nm, RL; yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL; green LED strips (514 nm, GL; blue LED strips (455 nm, BL; and fluorescent strips (400-700 nm, FL. From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P 0.05. Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05. In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876 to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925 in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL, which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production.

  2. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinming; Yang, Yefeng; Yang, Bo; Dai, Wenhua; Yu, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green) light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks ("Meihuang" were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400-700 nm, WL); red LED strips (620 nm, RL); yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL); green LED strips (514 nm, GL); blue LED strips (455 nm, BL); and fluorescent strips (400-700 nm, FL). From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P 0.05). Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm) and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876) to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925) in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL), which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production.

  3. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and Pstressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens.

  4. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF PHYTO-ADDITIVES IN BROILER CHICKENS

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    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.

  5. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Skeleton Development of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lan-xia; SHI Zheng-xiang; WANG Xin-ying; GENG Ai-lian; LI Bao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty one-day-old AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (male and female for half), and put into two identical closed houses with different lighting programs. The first house was illuminated by using common incandescence light, and the second one was added with ultraviolet radiation light from the second week onwards. The birds lived in a floor with litters and free access to feed and water. Temperature, humidity and immune programs in the two houses were similar. The results showed that under ultraviolet radiation, the growth speed of skeleton increased (the shank length was significantly increased in the third week, P < 0.05; the leg muscle weight was significantly improved by 3.87%, P < 0.05); the skeleton quality improved (the density of skeleton mineralization was significantly increased by 6.11%, P < 0.01; serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity were all improved); and the growth performance was improved (feed conversion ratio was improved by 1.4% averagely; the uniformity of body weight, the shank length, the inclined body length and body height were significantly improved) in broiler chicken.

  6. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

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    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  7. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Karl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ionophoric coccidiostat salinomycin is widely used in chicken feed. In the near future the use of ionophore coccidiostats may be banned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters. This study was conducted to examine the effect of salinomycin on Campylobacter jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, cloning and sequencing. Results We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62% in the mean body weight of salinomycin treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers.

  8. Early feeding to modify digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro León T.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect on digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens by providing food in the first 48 hrs. after birth. Materials and methods. After incubating 300 fertile eggs from Hubbard breeding and immediately after hatching, the chicks were randomly assigned to treatments: fasting (from hatching to 48 hrs.; Hydrated Balanced Food (HBF from birth to 48 hrs.; commercial hydrating supplement (CHS from birth to 48 hrs. The diets were provided ad libitum. After 48 hrs. a commercial diet was fed. At birth and at 48 and 72 hrs. of age 30 chicks/treatment were sacrificed to determine the enzyme activity of maltase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, phytase, a-amylase, trypsin and lipase in samples of duodenal or pancreatic homogenate. Results. The supply of HBF or CHS during the first 48 hrs. of life increased the activity of maltase, sucrase and phytase in the first 3 days of life, with values between 1.2 and up to 4-fold compared to the control (p<0.05. Chickens that fasted for the first 48 hrs. had higher activity of the pancreatic enzymes a-amylase, trypsin, and lipase at 72 hrs. of life (p<0.05. Conclusions. The food supply in the first 48 hrs. after hatching increases the duodenal enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border during the first 3 days of age in broiler chickens.

  9. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  10. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

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    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  11. Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation

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    I.P Kompiang

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30% . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm. Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage for 4 weeks. Increasing the level of cassapro significantly reduced body weight gain (P < 0.005, increased feed conversion ratio (FCR (P < 0.0005 with no effect on feed intake (P < 0.10 . Halquinol supplementation has no effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain (P <0.05 and improved the FCR (P < 0.01 . It is concluded that high level of cassapro in the ration will cause poorer performance of the birds, however it can be alleviated by halquinolsupplementation.

  12. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  13. Distribution of alpha-amylase activity in selected broiler tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, D P; Wyatt, R D

    1986-02-01

    In an examination of broiler alpha-amylase, significant variation in the serum enzyme activity level was noted, adult levels were lower than those of young chicks. Analysis of alpha-amylase activity in various body fluids and tissues of 11-day and 7-week-old broilers indicated that the liver cannot be considered a source of alpha-amylase, although there was activity in both liver tissue and bile of 10 units/g wet weight and 35 units/100 ml, respectively. Fluid from the oral cavity had low levels of alpha-amylase activity, less than 100 units/100 ml, which decreased with age, indicating that the salivary glands may synthesize some alpha-amylase but are not a primary source. Sonication of the pancreatic homogenates was found to significantly increase the apparent activity of alpha-amylase 35-fold over unsonicated homogenates. The pancreas was the major source of alpha-amylase with activities ranging from 89 X 10(2) to 445 X 10(2) units/g wet weight. The level of activity increased with age of the bird. The electrophoretic zymograms of serum, liver, and pancreatic homogenates indicate a similar pancreatic origin for the alpha-amylase found in each tissue or fluid.

  14. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  15. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P heating system for broiler chickens.

  16. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  17. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

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    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  18. The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips

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    Timo Tapio Nieminen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, the effect of marination and marinade components on composition and evolution of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged broiler fillet strips was investigated using culture-independent partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp predominated at the early storage but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in the marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in the package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and modified atmosphere-packaged raw broiler preparations in Finland.

  19. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

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    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  20. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Udang yang Diolah dengan Filtrat Air Abu Sekam dalam Ransum Ayam Broiler

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    Mirzah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different levels of shrimp head waste (SHW substituting fish meal (FM in broiler diets. FM is the sole crude protein from animal sources. A control fish meal broiler diet and four different levels of SHW substituted for crude protein FM were fed to CP 707 Arbor Acres broiler strains from day old chick to four weeks of age. The crude proteins FM were replaced with 0 (R0; 25 (R1; 50 (R2; 75 (R3; and 100 (R4 percent of crude protein SHW. The five treatments were assigned to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were recorded to measure the performances. The results of Duncan’s revealed that feed consumption, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not significantly different with increasing level of SHW as substituted crude protein FM in broiler diets. However these parameters in bird fed 100 % SHW diets did not differ from those in birds fed 16 % FM (7.32% crude protein from FM. While body weight gain decreased with increasing levels of SHW in broiler diets (R4. The decrease body weight gain may be due to the decreased feed intake and amino acid in balance and the increased chitin content in the diet. The conclusion of this experiment that SHW can be used as a protein source in broiler diets up to 75% to replace FM.

  1. Analysis and test on circuit characteristic of multi-stage constant power governing system using double-stator pump%采用双定子泵的多级恒功率调速系统回路特性分析与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻德生; 柴伟超; 王京; 陈帆; 甄新帅; 马光磊

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pump-motor constant power governing system can achieve power matching between the load and the prime mover to reduce energy waste under the conditions with the constant power load. In practical application, some conditions demand hydraulic system outputting constant torque but different speeds. For example, agricultural machinery walking in the same road conditions requires different speeds to choose. However, limited by the governing principle (the product of rotational speed and torque will be a fixed value), traditional pump-motor constant power governing system can’t meet the above conditions. So it can only use throttle governor, which will inevitably lead to energy waste and efficiency decrease. Therefore, it’s necessary to research a new hydraulic system which can meet multi-stage constant power conditions in principle. New double-stator pump (motor) offers the possibility of studying multi-stage constant power governing system. Because internal and external multiple pumps exist in one housing implements and share one rotor, double-stator pump can output a variety of different flows by controlling the working modes of the respective pumps. It is used to replace the old pump in the traditional pump-motor constant power governing system which then becomes a new multi-stage constant power governing system. A comparative analysis of the circuit characteristics was carried out between the multi-stage constant power governing system and the traditional system. Then a test platform was set up to carry out the experiment.The results indicated that the three-stage constant power governing system composed of single-acting double-stator pump could meet constant power condition, which was just as the traditional system. Under the same condition of constant power load, the common quantitative pump hydraulic system’s transmission efficiency was only 82%-86%, but both the traditional pump-motor constant power governing system and the three-stage constant

  2. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  3. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum and AmpC b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and in people living and/or working on organic broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, P.M.C.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Haenen, A.P.J.; Florijn, A.; Hengeveld, P.D.; Duijkeren, van E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum and AmpC b-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli among broilers, and humans living and/or working on organic broiler farms; further characterise isolates; and co

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF COBB BROILERS GIVEN VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF MALUNGGAY (Moringa oleifera Lam. AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. PORTUGALIZA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the growth performance of Cobb broilers supplemented with varying concentrations of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract (MoALE via the drinking water. A total of four hundred day-old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups, replicated four times with twenty-five broilers per replicate. The growth performance of broilers was evaluated based on their feed consumption, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR and return of investment (ROI. Results of the study showed that at 90 mL MoALE (T3, the feed consumption of broilers was consistently lower than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. The live weight of broilers given 30 mL (T1, 60 mL (T2 and 90 mL (T3 MoALEs were significantly higher than the control group (T0 and this was also statistically significant (P<0.01. In terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR, the MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 were more efficient converter of feeds into meat than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. Furthermore, the return of investment (ROI of MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 was significantly higher (P<0.01 than the control group (T0 with a revenue per peso invested of Php 0.62 in T1 and T2, and Php 0.63 in T3 compared to Php 0.50 in T0.

  6. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  7. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF BROILER TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS (Case Study at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip Prayugo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to (1 map the value chain in broiler at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk (CPI; (2 analyze the value chain governance in broiler at CPI; (3 analyze the margin of marketing at broiler industry both on farm or off farm; (3 analyze the gap between the expectation and the performance of consumers (farmers upon using products of CPI and (4 recognize factors influencing competitiveness in broiler industry; and (5 to formulate strategy for value chain upgrading at CPI in order to increase competitiveness of broiler. As revealed by the value chain analysis, the role of CPI in this value chain is highly significant. All poultry inputs (DOC, feed, veterinary medicine, and poultry equipments are supplied by CPI. As for downstream sector, CPI processes broiler into its derivatives. The type of value chain governance between feed supplier, DOC, and veterinary medicine, poultry equipment, and poultry derivates belongs to market value chain. Whereas the type of value chain governance between carcass supplier and restaurant belongs to captive value chain. Based on the margin of marketing analysis, the party that gains the lowest margin is farmer and the party that receives the highest margin is the processor. In gap analysis, the lowest attribute of competitiveness is the feed spending and the highest attribute is the spending on veterinary medicine for two months. Factors that influence the competitiveness in poultry industry are condition, demand, industry competition, main industries and supporting industries, and government’s role.Keywords: Value Chain, Competitiveness, Broiler, PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk, Margin of Marketing Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT Analysis

  8. Presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in Broilers and pigs at certain abattoirs in Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were carried out during the period from January 2006 until March 2007 on a total of 449 samples of the cecum of broilers and the cecum and the colon of pigs. These samples included 251 samples originating from broilers and 198 samples of pig cecums and colons. All the listed samples were obtained by scraping the surface of these parts of the digestive system of broilers and pigs. At the site of sampling, the diluted material was sown on a medium (Karmali agar, in order to get individual colonies. After sowing, the bases were placed in anaerobic jars in which microaerophilic conditions were achieved using Campy Pak, BBL bags. On arrival at the laboratory, the jars containing the sown bases were placed in a thermostat, at a temperature of 42oC for 48 hours for the purpose of incubation. Following incubation, the grown colonies were examined macroscopically, and then microscopic preparations were made from them, which were stained with 2% carbol fuchsin after drying and fixation. Those isolates which were in the form of a comma, the letter S, or gull's wings in the microscopic preparations were considered Campylobacter species (Figures 1 and 2. The isolated thermophilic campylobacteria were identified using conventional and commercial biochemical tests API Campy, manufactured by Bio Mérieux, France. With the application of these microbiological methods, thermophilic Campylobacter species were isolated from 203 (80.88% of the 251 samples of broiler cecums. Furthermore, thermophilic campylobacteria were isolated from 153 (77.27% of the 198 samples from the cecum and colon of pigs taken within these investigations. The obtained results indicate that there is a somewhat greater prevalence of these bacteria among the broilers. However, such a high percentage of both broilers and pigs colonized by thermophilic Campylobacter species could pose a serious problem, in particular when it is known that infections of humans caused by the

  9. Generalised linear mixed models analysis of risk factors for contamination of Danish broiler flocks with Salmonella typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Stryhn, H.; Dauphin, G.

    1999-01-01

    are the broiler flocks (about 4000 flocks) which are clustered within producers. Broiler flocks with ST-infected parent stocks show increased risk of salmonella infection, and also the hatchery affects the salmonella status significantly. Among the rearing factors, only the use of medicine as well as the time...

  10. Comparison of sensory descriptive flavor profiles between cooked hot-boned and cold-deboned broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) that were either hot-boned or cold-deboned. Broiler carcasses (42-d old birds) were hot-boned (about 45 min postmortem), and cold-deboned 2 h postmortem (2h) and 2...

  11. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Regiane R.; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H. G.; Koolmees, Peter A.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperatur

  12. A comparison of fluctuations of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, Betty G M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Havelaar, Arie H; Lipman, Len J A

    2015-01-01

    The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat. The aim of the study

  13. A comparison of fluctuations of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Havelaar, A.H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat.The aim of the stu

  14. Colonization of Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens Reared in Tropical Climates with Low-Biosecurity Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalupahana, R.S.; Kottawatta, K.S.A.; Kanankege, K.S.T.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Abeynayake, P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The onset and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in broilers and layers at commercial farms with low biosecurity in tropical climates were tested. Despite the presence of positive animals at the same farms, the broiler flocks tested negative until, on average, 21 days. Prelaying flocks showed

  15. Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Goot, van der J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Kant, A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presen

  16. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  17. Effect of multiple washing in salicylic acid on the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to determine changes in the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in solutions of the keratolytic agent, salicylic acid. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in ...

  18. Cultivation and qPCR detection of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria establishment in naive broiler houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space, atop bedding material such as pine shavings or rice hulls, for approximately 6.5 weeks. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria, but ...

  19. Effect of on-farm litter acidification treatments on Campylobacter and Salmonella populations in comercial broiler houses in northeast Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two commercially available litter treatments, aluminum sulfate and sodium bisulfate, were tested to determine their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella levels associated with commercial broilers during a 6 week grow-out period. A total of 20 broiler houses at 10 different locations were studied;...

  20. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Gonçalo E;

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler...