Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the effects of methionine and arginine on the immune response of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli. Three methionine concentrations (0.31, 0.51, and 0.66% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.29, 0.49, and 0.64% from 22 to 42 days of age and 2 arginine concentrations (1.33 and 1.83%; 1.14 and 1.64% for the same life periods were tested. Birds were divided into two groups for immunological stimuli (3x2x2 arrangement. Vaccines against Marek's disease, fowl pox, infectious bronchitis, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, and avian tuberculin were administered to one group as immunological stimuli; the other group did not receive any stimulus. The experiment was carried out with 432 one-day-old male Ross broilers, distributed into 12 treatments with 6 replicates of 6 birds each. Performance data were weekly collected. Anti-SRBC antibodies were collected by hemagglutination test and cell immune response (CIR was measured by tubercularization reaction in one wattle 24 hours after administration of the second tuberculin injection at 42 days of age. The weight difference between the two wattles of each bird (one injected with tuberculin and the other not was the measure of CIR. Arginine levels did not influence either bird performance or immune response. Methionine concentrations higher or lower than usually adopted in broiler production (0.51 and 0.49% equally failed to influence the birds' immune humoral response, but the best CIR was observed at the intermediate methionine level. Vaccines administered on the first day of age impaired bird performance up to the 21st day of age.
Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment
Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...
This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and
Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.
The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...
Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.
In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,
Koenen, Marjorie E; Boonstra-Blom, Anneke G; Jeurissen, Suzan H M
In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore, the difference in immune response between layer- and broiler-type chickens of the same age was investigated, using TNP-KLH (trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin) as antigen without adjuvant. First different routes of immunization (intravenously, intramuscular, subcutaneous and ocular) were examined to find out which immunization route gives the highest antibody titers. The intravenous immunization route resulted in higher TNP-specific antibody responses than the other immunization routes tested and therefore this immunization route was used in both following experiments. In order to investigate the optimal dose of antigen needed for immunization, a dose-response curve in broiler- and layer-type chickens was completed. The humoral immune response was measured in serum by a TNP-specific ELISA and the in vitro cellular immune response by an antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assay. The antibody response of layer- and broiler-type chickens appeared to differ, not only in optimal dose and response, but also in kinetics of the response itself. Broiler chickens generated higher IgM anti-TNP titers whereas layer-type chickens generated higher IgG anti-TNP titers. This specific antibody response in broiler-type chickens did not last as long as in layer-type chickens. The TNP-specific cellular immune response was detectable in layer-type chickens, but not in broilers. Both types generate a non-specific cellular immune response, although this response in broilers is lower than in layer-type chickens. From these results, we conclude that broilers primarily respond to TNP-KLH with a high IgM antibody response whereas layer-type chickens respond with a high Ig
Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of star
Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.
Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B
The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256
Olori Victor E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertility of a chicken's egg is a trait which depends on both the hen that lays the egg and on her mate. It is also known that fertility of an individual changes over the laying period. Methods Longitudinal models including both random genetic and permanent environmental effects of both the female and her male mate were used to model the proportion of fertile eggs in a pedigree broiler population over the ages 29-54 weeks. Results Both the male and the female contribute to variation in fertility. Estimates of heritability of weekly records were typically 7% for female and 10% for male contributions to fertility. Repeatability estimates ranged from 24 to 33%, respectively. The estimated genetic variance remained almost constant for both sexes over the laying period and the genetic correlations between different ages were close to 1.0. The permanent environment components increased substantially towards the end of the analyzed period, and correlations between permanent environment effects at different ages declined with increasing age difference The heritability of mean fertility over the whole laying period was estimated at 13% for females and 17% for males. A small positive correlation between genetic effects for male and female fertility was found. Conclusion Opportunities to improve fertility in broiler stocks by selection on both sexes exist and should have an impact throughout the laying period.
Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.
Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri
Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...
Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P
The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.
Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid; and Ezureen Ezani
Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have su...
Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.
Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim
New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.
Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project described in this thesis was to study starch digestion behaviour ...
Glotova I. A.
Full Text Available For comparative evaluation of aroma-forming substances of primary and secondary products of slaughter broilers, we used the multi-channel gas analyzer "MAG-8" and the methodology "an electronic nose". The objects of study served as the heads and feet of chickens-broilers of cross "ROSS-308", subjected to hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of native tissue structure at 0,24 MPa. As a control sample when assessing the composition of the equilibrium gas phase above the heads and feet of broiler chickens used poultry, meat, broiler chickens, obtained by cutting of carcasses, with the natural ratio of bone and muscle tissue. The identification of volatile components of the equilibrium gas phase above the samples was carried out according to the following classes of organic com-pounds in accordance with the numbers of sensors in the matrix: 1 – hydrophilic compounds, water; 2 – alcohols, ketones; 3 – acid, water, light alcohols; 4 – ester; 5 – sulfur-containing compounds, esters; 6 – phenol, and other aromatic compounds; 7 – alcohols, nitrogen compounds, water; 8 – acid. The analysis shows that control and experimental samples do not have significant differences in the aromatic-skim com-pounds, ketones and sulfur-containing compounds. The comparison group of "control – leg" also has no significant differences according to the groups of compounds: ketones, alcohols, esters; nitrogen-containing compounds. The largest differences recorded for the sample "legs broiler chickens", and the moisture content and nitro-gen-containing compounds, this sample is superior and head, and the main raw mate-rial in the processing of broiler chickens. The results show that heads of broiler chickens, thermo-processed under pressure can be used to realize emulsified protein-fat products of the type Pasternak masses corresponding to the traditional products of poultry meat for sensormatics the aroma profile without the use of food additives. For
Martinez, Stephen W.
Recent changes in structure of the U.S. pork industry reflect, in many ways, past changes in the broiler industry. Production contracts and vertical integration in the broiler industry facilitated rapid adoption of new technology, improved quality control, assured market outlets for broilers, and provided a steady flow of broilers for processing. Affordable, high-quality chicken products have contributed to continual increases in U.S. chicken consumption, which has surpassed pork and beef on ...
Omar Abdul; Hailemariam Zerihun; Hair-Bejo Mohd; Giap Tan
Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 ...
Toby G Knowles
Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate effect of organic acids on broiler performance. Totally 180 chickens of Ross 308 hybrid were divided to three groups. Experimental group no. 1 (n=60 received acetic acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Experimental group no. 2 (n=60 received citric acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Control group (n=60 received drinking water without any additives. The average body weight, feed consumption, mortality and carcass characteristics were analyzed and compared finally. The results showed no significant effects of diets with addition of organic acids (P<0.05 on body weight. Supplementation of citric acid caused decrease in total feed consumption. Addition of organic acids affected positive total mortality of broiler chickens. There were no significant effects of organic acids supplementation on carcass characteristics.
Perić Lidija; Milošević N.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Bjedov S.; Rodić V.
Objective of this research was to investigate the effect of addition of enzyme complex to diets of different nutritive value on performance of broiler chickens. In this trial 1200 chickens of Cobb 500 hybrid divided into 4 treatments with 8 repetitions were used: 1. Positive control; 2. Positive control with addition of 0,02% of enzyme complex; 3. Negative control (contains 0,3 MJ of energy, 0,1% of accessible P and 0,1% Ca less compared to group 1); 4. Negative control with addition of 0,02%...
Díaz Arca, J.F.; Pérez Alba, L. M.; Pérez Hernández, Manuel; Cejas Molina, M.A.
Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values of 8 feedstuffs were determined on 4 day periods. 14 days old broiler chickens were used. Each feedstuff (Maize-1, Maize-2, Soybean meal, Fishmeal, Corn gluten meal, White lupin seed meal, Sugar and Soybean oil) was substitued for part of a basal diet in varying ammounts, according to their normal use in commercial diets. Corrected for nitrogen retention AME values for the 8 feedstuffs in the same order as above are: 2948, 3106, 2197, 3515, 3332, 193...
Ao, Z; Choct, M.
The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet dur...
Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl
jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing....... Results: We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin...
Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing
This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26997344
Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, A.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van de P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
Dietary starch is the major energy source for broiler chickens, and knowledge about its digestive behavior can be important. In a digestibility trial with 720 broiler chickens, site, rate and extent of starch digestion were measured for 12 feedstuffs. Starch digestion was determined using the slaugh
The impact of variation in the composition of dietary fat on digestion, metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids was studied in broiler chickens and in pigs. In young broiler chickens, digestion of unsaturated fatty acids was substantially higher compared with that of saturated fatty acids. Po
The aim of the thesis was to identify the physicochemical properties of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) that are most relevant to the nutrition of the broiler chicken. More specifically, the mechanisms by which fibre viscosity can affect lipid digestibility in broiler chickens have been investigate
Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila
Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mineral biofortified wheat with fungal phytase addition on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) availability in broiler chicken breast muscle and liver, their excretion in feces and digestibility in intestines. Furthermore, possible beneficial effect on broiler performance was studied. 90 day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were placed in brooder cages and received commercial starter diet from day 1-7 posthatch and micromineral deficient s...
Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske;
Experiments were carried out to establish an infection and disease model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Previous experiments had failed to induce disease and only a transient colonization with challenge strains had been obtained. In the present study, two series of experiments...... were conducted, each involving four groups of chickens and each group kept in separate isolators. A coccidial vaccine given in 10 times the prescribed dosage was used to promote the development of necrotic enteritis. In the first experiment, cultures of C. perfringens were mixed with the feed at day 9......, 10, 11, and 12, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 10, while in the second experiment, C. perfringens cultures were mixed with the feed at day 17, 18, 19, and 20, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 18. Chickens were examined at day 9, 11, 12, and 15 (exp. 1), and at day 17, 18, 20...
Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske;
Experiments were carried out to establish an infection and disease model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Previous experiments had failed to induce disease and only a transient colonization with challenge strains had been obtained. In the present study, two series of experiments...... were conducted, each involving four groups of chickens with each group kept in separate isolators. A coccidial vaccine given at 10 times the prescribed dosage was used to promote the development of necrotic enteritis. In the first experiment, cultures of C. perfringens were mixed with the feed at day 9......, 10, 11, and 12, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 10, whereas in the second experiment, C. perfringens cultures were mixed with the feed at day 17, 18, 19, and 20, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 18. Chickens were examined at day 9, 11, 12, and 15 ( Experiment 1), and at day 17...
Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.
Victor Ramos Sales Mendes de Barros
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the use of β-mannanase and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS to replace growth promoters in broiler diets. Four hundred male Cobb broiler chicks were used, with initial weight of 45±1g, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions of ten birds. The treatments were: basal feed; basal feed without growth promoter; basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase; basal feed without growth promoter + MOS; and basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase + MOS. The feed intake of the birds increased in response to dietary treatments compared to basal diet during the period 1-21 days of age. A higher weight gain and improved feed conversion was found at 42 days of age among birds that had received the basal diet without growth promoter + MOS. The absolute weight at slaughter, relative carcass and prime cuts except breast weights improved in response to dietary treatments compared to the basal diet at 42 days of age. No difference was observed in relative weight of the liver, while significant differences were found in the weight of heart, gizzard, and abdominal fat. It was concluded that β-mannanase and MOS can replace the growth promoters in broiler diets without compromising production and economic performance. However, the association of these products into the feed may cause negative interaction that reduces the broiler chickens' performance
Milagro León T.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect on digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens by providing food in the first 48 hrs. after birth. Materials and methods. After incubating 300 fertile eggs from Hubbard breeding and immediately after hatching, the chicks were randomly assigned to treatments: fasting (from hatching to 48 hrs.; Hydrated Balanced Food (HBF from birth to 48 hrs.; commercial hydrating supplement (CHS from birth to 48 hrs. The diets were provided ad libitum. After 48 hrs. a commercial diet was fed. At birth and at 48 and 72 hrs. of age 30 chicks/treatment were sacrificed to determine the enzyme activity of maltase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, phytase, a-amylase, trypsin and lipase in samples of duodenal or pancreatic homogenate. Results. The supply of HBF or CHS during the first 48 hrs. of life increased the activity of maltase, sucrase and phytase in the first 3 days of life, with values between 1.2 and up to 4-fold compared to the control (p<0.05. Chickens that fasted for the first 48 hrs. had higher activity of the pancreatic enzymes a-amylase, trypsin, and lipase at 72 hrs. of life (p<0.05. Conclusions. The food supply in the first 48 hrs. after hatching increases the duodenal enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border during the first 3 days of age in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.
M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1
Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.
ZHANG Lan-xia; SHI Zheng-xiang; WANG Xin-ying; GENG Ai-lian; LI Bao-ming
Seven hundred and twenty one-day-old AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (male and female for half), and put into two identical closed houses with different lighting programs. The first house was illuminated by using common incandescence light, and the second one was added with ultraviolet radiation light from the second week onwards. The birds lived in a floor with litters and free access to feed and water. Temperature, humidity and immune programs in the two houses were similar. The results showed that under ultraviolet radiation, the growth speed of skeleton increased (the shank length was significantly increased in the third week, P ＜ 0.05; the leg muscle weight was significantly improved by 3.87%, P ＜ 0.05); the skeleton quality improved (the density of skeleton mineralization was significantly increased by 6.11%, P ＜ 0.01; serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity were all improved); and the growth performance was improved (feed conversion ratio was improved by 1.4% averagely; the uniformity of body weight, the shank length, the inclined body length and body height were significantly improved) in broiler chicken.
Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.
Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT has been identified as one of the respiratory bacterial pathogens in turkey and chicken flocks. Four live birds displaying severe torticollis were submitted from a 13-week-old commercial broiler breeder chicken flock located in Mazandaran province. These birds were suspected to pasteurellosis by the farm veterinarian. No other marked gross lesion except emaciation was seen. Histopathologic examination of the brains showed mild to moderate meningeal vasculitis, perivascular cuffing with lymphocytes, degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Viral culture of the brains especially for Newcastle disease and avian influenza viruses was negative. Bacterial culture of the brains onto the blood agar revealed pure growth of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. In this study molecular confirmation of ORT by using of a very specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out. Amplification products of a 784 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of ORT confirmed the bacterium identification. This is the first field case of ORT isolation from the brain of commercial chickens in Iran. These data suggest that this bacterium should be considered in differential diagnosis in cases of avian nervous signs. Further studies are necessary to confirm if ORT is a primary pathogen in such cases.
VS de Avila
Full Text Available The performance of Arbor Acres broiler breeders (1,296 females; 144 roosters was evaluated when submitted to the following treatments (T: T1 = feeding at 6:30 a.m. (control; T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 a.m. and 50% at 3:30 p.m. (dual feeding; T3 = feeding at 11:00 a.m.; and T4 = feeding at 3:30 p.m. Treatments were randomly distributed in 48 pens. There were 27 females and 3 males in each pen and 12 repetitions per treatment. Nutrition and management were as recommended for the commercial strain. It was evaluated age at first egg (AFE, total egg production (TEP, number of days with production above 80% (DAP80, laying peak (P, female mortality (MOR, and gross profit margin (GM per hen. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Student's t-Test. TEP of T1 (186.3±2.3 and T2 (186.5±1.5 were higher (p0.10 among treatments. GM per hen was better (p<0.05 in T1 and T2 hens. Control and dual treatments were more efficient than other treatments. It was concluded that it is possible to change conventional feeding management's by the dual feeding system.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine emissions of greenhouse gases from broiler chicken house during one fattening period (i.e. 40 days. The greatest concentrations of water vapour (H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 were observed in the first ten days. Increasing emissions of all greenhouse gases were as a consequence of increasing ventilation rate, although their concentrations were decreasing. It was released 83.8 . 106 m3 polluted air containing 211 314 kg CO2, 5 kg N2O, 1 323 kg CH4 and 178 914 kg H2O over a period of whole fattening time.
Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura
In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054
Alaeldein M. Abudabos
Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.
Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.
Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S
The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.
Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...
The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...
Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L
Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field
Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.;
The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...... effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni...
Mossad Elsayed; Ashraf Elkomy; Mohamed Aboubakr; Mohamed Morad
The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hour...
Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...
Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health. PMID:27181580
Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.
Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins were alpha-toxin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase, and a hypothetical protein (HP). The current study investigated the role of each of these proteins in conferring protection to broiler chickens against oral infection challenges of different severities with virulent C. perfringens. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli and were used to immunize broiler chickens intramuscularly. Serum and intestinal antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All proteins significantly protected broiler chickens against a relatively mild challenge. In addition, immunization with alpha-toxin, HP, and PFOR also offered significant protection against a more severe challenge. When the birds were primed with alpha-toxoid and boosted with active toxin, birds immunized with alpha-toxin were provided with the greatest protection against a severe challenge. The serum and intestinal washings from protected birds had high antigen-specific antibody titers. Thus, we conclude that there are certain secreted proteins, in addition to alpha-toxin, that are involved in immunity to NE in broiler chickens. PMID:17634510
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865
Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865
Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus (ALV belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.
Reza Sayrafi; Rasoul Shahrooz; Farhad Soltanalineja; Shaban Rahimi
This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate) on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each). Dietary treatments were as follow: ...
Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.
An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (Prectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.
Luiz Juliano Valério Geron
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.
Full Text Available Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Aspergillus niger as an inoculant and mixing with urea and ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen sources. The nutritive value of the product was evaluated by feeding trial using 144 “Shaver Stabro” strain 3 days old chicks with 3 treatments i.e. 0 (control, 5.0 and 10.0% fermented cassava waste. The results showed that the true protein content of fermented cassava increased from 2.2 to 18.4%. The inclusion of fermented cassava waste up to 10% in chicken broiler ration for 4 weeks feeding did not affect the feed consumption, bodyweight gain, FCR, weight of liver and gibblets. All parameter results from 10% inclusion were not significantly different (P>0.05 with the control (0% inclusion.
Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Lisouski, Pavel; Ahrendt, Peter
descriptors and, finally, predicted the individual broiler weights using a Bayesian Artificial Neural Network. Four other models for weight prediction were also evaluated. The system were tested in a commercial broiler house with 48,000 broilers (Ross 308) during the last 20 days of the breeding period...
Elvis Alexander Díaz López
Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.
Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.
Faixová Zita; Faix Štefan
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03) supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetherole...
Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J
We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.
Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.
Mst. Mousumi Khatun
Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177
Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N
A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.
Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O
Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest numbers of TI induction trial
Jalal Salary; Fatemeh Sahebi-Ala; Majid Kalantar; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin
Objective: To investigate the in ovo injection (IOI) of vitamin E (VE) on serum post-hatch immunological parameters and broiler chicken performance. Methods: Fertile eggs (n=400) were distributed into four groups of 100 eggs. On 14th day of incubation, two groups were injected with 0.5 mL of 15 or 30 mg VE dissolved in physiology serum. Rest two groups were used as sham control (injected with 0.5 mL physiology serum) and un-injected control. The hatched chickens from each group were randomly assigned to four replications of 12 chickens and reared under standard condition. Results:Hatchability percentage was apparently increased (P Conclusions:Broiler chicken performance did not affect with IOI of VE, while hatchability and post-hatch immunity status were boost up by IOI of 30 mg/egg VE.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA. Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4 with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5 suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in
Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F
Little is known about immunity to necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens. A recent study of broiler chickens showed that protection against NE was associated with infection-immunization with virulent but not with avirulent Clostridium perfringens.In the current study, six secreted antigenic proteins unique to virulent C. perfringens that reacted to serum antibodies from immune birds were identified by mass spectrophotometry; three of these proteins are part of the VirR-VirS regulon.
Full Text Available The data about changes in neutrophils stimulation index in men blood after consumption of broiler chicken meat with the natural origin immunomodulators, introduced in feed before slaughter, is presented in this paper. Spleen extract biologically active substances were used as immunomodulators and anti-stressors during pre-slaughter period. Biologically active substances influence on putrescin, spermine and spermidine content in broiler chicken blood before slaughter and on some non-specific resistance indices in people was determined after consumption of broiler chicken meat. Two groups of broiler chickens at one month age were formed for the study. The spleen extract obtained with ultrasound application (I research group served as biologically active substances was added to the feed of broiler chickens in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. Blood polyamines such as putrescin, spermine and spermidine were determined by the method of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on the liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA. The second experiment was conducted on 10 people. We recruited 10 healthy male medical students (20 years old, on average after the National Medical license examination. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and anti-stressors have the most effective influence on total quantity of polyamines in broiler chicken blood. As a result of research, it is found that aerosol introduction of spleen extract into broiler chicken feed reliably increases total quantity of polyamines by 39% and, in particular, spermidine concentration by 34%, and spermine by 40% compared with broiler chickens of the control group. Some non-specific body resistance indices in men blood upon consumption of broiler chicken meat varied within the physiological norm. The neutrophils stimulation index increased in men blood (+0,82 after consumption of meat of broiler chickens to which spleen extract as immunomodulator and anti-stressor was
Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.
Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid
Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan
Daniel José Antoniol Miranda
Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.
Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.
The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50
Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vit
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...
Jozefiak, D.; Sip, A.; Rawski, M.;
1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity in the gastrointes...
Brand, Van Den H.; Sosef, M.P.; Lourens, A.; Harn, Van J.
Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design du
Timmerman, H.M.; Veldman, A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.
For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chic
Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.
1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding ( preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive cor
An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi
An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( Pchickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.
Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi
Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.
Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated
Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert
This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with
Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S
A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the conventional heating system for broiler chickens.
Harada, Tetsuya; Mito, Yasuaki; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki
A total of 137 Enterococcus strains isolated from chicken meat were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Strains with the vanCl gene were isolated from seven of nine samples of chicken meat processed in Japan and from all chickens from China and Brazil between July 2001 and April 2002. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were distinguishable from each other, suggesting that VanCl-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is preferentially colonized in broiler chickens in these countries. The incidence of high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci that harbored the aac(6')-le-aph(2")-la or aph(2')-Id gene varied among the countries from which the chickens originated (Japan, 2 of 65; China, 11 of 43; Brazil, 6 of 29). Moreover, the PFGE patterns of the HLGR strains were distinguishable from each other, except for two strains obtained from chickens from Brazil. The results suggest that HLGR Enterococcus is highly prevalent in broiler chickens. PMID:15508646
Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, Betty G M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Havelaar, Arie H; Lipman, Len J A
The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat. The aim of the study
Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Havelaar, A.H.; Lipman, L.J.A.
The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat.The aim of the stu
Loyau, Thomas; Berri, Cecile; Bedrani, Larbi; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Duclos, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; RIDEAU, Nicole; Everaert, N.; Yahav, S.; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Collin, Anne
Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8 degrees C, 5...
El-Gohary, F A; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Zhou, Z Y; Donoghue, A M
way to prevent colibacillosis in broiler chickens. PMID:25214555
Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G
Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (Phens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (PAST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.
Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e. T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17% bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.
Racevičiūtė-Stupelienė A.; Šašytė V.; Gružauskas R.; Šimkus A.
Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. The objective of investigation was to research the effect of probiotic preparation YEASTURE-W for growth performance, meat and carcass quality of broiler chicks. The experiment was performed with 120 Hybro-PN broiler chickens 1 56-day-old, divided into 2 groups of 60 birds each. The both groups were fed crumbled feed mixtures ad libitum. The feed mixture of the experimental group was supplemented wi...
Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth
Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (Padipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors.
Xueqin HAO; Meng LI; Shouyan ZHANG; Yongshu WANG; Tongwen SUN
[Objective] This study was designed to evaluate the effects of imidapril on blood gas parameters in broiler chickens.[Method] Twenty-four chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n=8),control group,low temperature group and imidapril group.Chickens in low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12-18 ℃) from age at 14 d to 45 d,whereas the control group was exposed to 24-30 ℃; chickens in imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril (3 mg/kg) once daily for 30 d.At age of 45 d,blood was taken from wing vein and blood gas parameters were evaluated by blood gas analyzer in Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University.[Result] Imidapril significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) and total hemoglobin content (THBC) and blood Na concentration in broiler chickens exposed to low ambient temperature.No significant differences were observed in pH,Pco2,Po2,K+,Ca2+,HCO3-,HCO3std,Tco2,BE and SO2c.[Conclusion] Imidapril increases hematocrit,total hemoglobin content and blood Na+concentration in chickens exposed to low ambient temperature.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume concentration (PCV. Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.
Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972
TH Viola; AML Ribeiro; AM Penz Jr.
A hundred and fifty male Ross 308 broilers were submitted to water restriction (WR) in different levels (0 to 40%) until 21 days of age. The birds received water ad libitum from 22 to 28 days of age and the compensatory consumption of water (CConW) was calculated as the difference in water intake between birds submitted and not submitted to WR. All WR groups showed a compensatory consumption of water, mainly during the first days of the ad libitum period. The water intake in such groups decre...
De Maesschalck, C; Eeckhaut, V; Maertens, L; De Lange, L; Marchal, L; Nezer, C; De Baere, S; Croubels, S; Daube, G; Dewulf, J; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Taminau, B; Van Immerseel, F
In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452
Full Text Available A present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of bee pollen extract on meat performance of Ross 308 broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old Ross chicks were involved in experiment. Chickens were divided into 2 groups, an experimental group (E and a control group (C. No added supplement was given to the control group, while the experimental group was given the feed mixture supplemented with bee pollen in an amount of 400 mg.kg-1, during the whole fattening period. Data of live body weight, carcass weight, giblets weight and carcass yield were determined at 42 days of the age. The supplementation of bee pollen increased final body weight of broilers by 68.5 g. Each of investigated parameters of meat performance in experimental group was higher to that in control group, although the difference among the groups was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The addition of bee pollen at dose 400 mg.kg-1 in the feed mixture indicates the slight effect on meat performance of chickens which can be beneficial for fattening of broiler chickens.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200. Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p 0.05 different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p 0.05 difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.
Full Text Available For replace of banned antibiotics used as growth promoters in broiler chicken nutrition, the supplements as probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, acidifiers and enzymes, has been mainly studied. These alternative substances improved the feed conversion, performance, growth and health of broiler chickens through a mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal tract and bacteria colonization. Propolis and bee pollen belong to the group of naturally occurring substances of animal and plant origin with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The scope of this study was to find a counts of Enterococcus sp., Enterobacteriaceae family and lactic acid bacteria in crop, ileum and caecum of broiler chickens after propolis and bee pollen addition in their nutrition. Lower dosages of propolis and higher dosages of bee pollen in chicken nutrition significantly (P<0.05 reduced the count of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates in chicken’s crops, while the number of beneficial lactic acid bacteria in chicken’s crops with presence of propolis was increased. Ileum and caecum of broiler chickens in experimental group of chickens with higher amount of bee pollen had the lowest (P>0.05 number of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates. The bacteria colonization pattern in gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens can be affected also by combination of nutrition supplements and pH value which can provide the advantage to some bacteria and influenced their competitiveness.
Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sources of trophic action (glutamine alone, glutamine associated with glutamic acid and yeast associated with vaccination against coccidiosis on the performance and morphometry of the small intestine of broilers. In the trial, 1,200 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 + 2 (trophic action x vaccination or not + control - free trophic factor factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 30 birds each. Vaccination negatively affected performance parameters and the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, but at the end of the experimental period, among the broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis, the group fed glutamine presented better recovery from epithelial losses of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control groups. Therefore, the dietary supplementation with the evaluated sources of trophic action could be a strategy to enhance the development of broilers submitted to vaccine stress, also considering the economic viability of the productive segment.
Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585
Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied. A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the influence of broiler chicken origin on dressing percentage, meat yield and physicochemical traits of breast muscle quality. The comparative study was carried out in the period from 05.01. to 16.02.2007 on three commercial: Cobb 500 (group I, Hybro G+ (group II and Ross 308 (group III meat chicken hybrids. The observed differences in the quality of carcases and meat of the examined commercial meat hybrids were statistically significant (p≤0.05, and indicate that origin of the chickens is the main modifying factor. Meat chicken hybrids, which constitute the basis for commercial production of poultry our country, do not constitute a homogeneous material. Due to the variability over time in the offered sets of commercial meat hybrids should be monitored taking into consideration their meatness traits and basic physicochemical characteristics of meat.
Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.
Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping
To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.
Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. After i.v. injection we found statistically significantly longer and better distribution of the iron contained in the ferrous methionate compared to the ferrous sulphate. The АUC0→∞ was statistically significantly higher in the ferrous methionate. In the alimentary tract of broiler chickens, ferrous methionate was absorbed more rapidly than ferrous sulfate. It was also distributed at a higher volume as compared to the ferrous sulfate.
Full Text Available The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in broiler chickens of 32-40 days of age, colonizing the bursa of Fabricius. The histologic study with haematoxylin and eosin staining was done on specimens of trachea, complete intestinal tract and bursa. Samples of intestinal content were also studied using Kinyoun staining technique. All birds with signs of illness were positive to the presence of parasite, showing a hypertrophic bursa of Fabricius, filled with caseous content. The bursal epithelial cells were full of different developmental stages of Cryptosporidium spp. This note describing the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in industrial flocks of broiler chickens, is the first report of this parasite in Uruguay
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a rapid detection and identification of Enterococcus sp. in various segments of chicken gastrointestinal tract by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. As a biological material were used broiler chickens Hybro. They were fattening by the combined probiotic preparation for elimination of pathogens and better utilization of feed. In our study, the identification of Enterococcus species was based on the superoxid dismutase gene (sodA. Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis were determined in all samples (100% occurence. Occurence of Enterococcus gallinarum was 87.5% and Enterococcus cecorum was 0%.
A. D. Wijayanti; Wihandoyo; A. W. Rosetyadewi
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of doxycycline (a tetracycline derivative) administered at disease-prevention dose given daily in the feed and drinking water on the residue level in the broiler-chicken meat. Doxycycline at concentration of 100 ppm was mixed in the drinking water (1 g of doxycycline in 10 L of drinking water) and feed (1 g of doxycycline in 10 kg of feed). Samples of chicken meat were taken every week to measure their residue level. Analysis of doxyc...
Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan
This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (pvera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (pAloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (pAloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (pvera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.
Full Text Available The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%, E. tenella (54.3%, E. necatrix (28.6%, and E. maxima (20% were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P0.05. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.
Kirchner, Marlene; Lund, Vibe Pedersen; Dam Otten, Nina;
for the veterinary authorities in that transport fitness is not very well defined. The aim of this project (2013-2016) is therefore to establish knowledge about useful indicators to assess broilers suitability for transport. The objective is to develop a practical protocol which can be applied to assess...... the transport fitness of a flock on-farm within 24 hours prior to harvesting. During 2015, a number of Danish broiler flocks will be visited within the last 24h before the birds are mechanically harvested and transported to slaughter at approx. 36-37 days of age. Each flock will be assessed at 3 different...... with recommendations for indicators that should be included in an assessment protocol performed prior to transport in order to perform an evaluation of the fitness for transport on broilers farms....
Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.
Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins were alpha-toxin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate...
Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui
Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercia...
Brenda Carla Luquetti; Miguel Frederico Fernandez Alarcon; Raquel Lunedo; Daniel Mendes Borges Campos; Renato Luís Furlan; Marcos Macari
ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of glutamine as feed additive on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis. A total of 400 day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments (NVNG – no vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; NVG – no vaccination, glutamine supplementation (10 g kg−1); VNG – vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; VG – vaccination, glutamine supplementation) replicated four times with 25 bi...
Becky Hothersall; Gina Caplen; Parker, Richard M. A.; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Claire A Weeks; Joanna C Murrell
Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT...
Bjedov S.; Žikić D.; Perić L.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Milošević N.
In modern poultry production, foot pad dermatitis (FPD) represents one of the main problems on broiler chicken legs with significant affect on animal welfare and performance. This problem is not solved by the using of straw as litter. Different treatments of straw are needed to eliminate the adverse effects of this material as litter. The most widely used method to improve the quality of litter is chopping straw and application of microbial products on that...
Dimitrichka Dimitrova; Anna Arnaudova-Matey; Petar Dilov; Geno Angelov; Tandju Mehmedov; Toni Todorov; Denka Kushvalieva; Dimitrina Nikolova; Valija Dilova
The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-comp...
Pius P Ketaren; T. Purwadaria; A.P. Sinurat; T Haryati
Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on dete...
Veldkamp, T; Diepen, van, F.N.J.; Bikker, P.
Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...
Full Text Available feed. Two hundred and ten, day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were allotted to 6 different diets containing either BIS or FBIS at 3 different levels (5, 10 and 15% and one control diet. The results showed that 5% BIS and 5% FBIS could be used in broiler diet without adversely affecting feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. FCR of those diets were significantly (P<0.05 better than the control diet. Carcass yields were not significantly affected by feeding of BIS nor FBIS. The FBIS diet produced less abdominal fat than the BIS diet.
Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens but currently no effective vaccine is available. Our previous study showed that certain C. perfringens secreted proteins when administered intramuscularly protected chickens against experimental infection. In the current study, genes encoding three C. perfringens proteins: fructose-biphosphate-aldolase (FBA), pyruvate:ferredoxin-oxidoreductase (PFOR) and hypothetical protein (HP), were cloned into an avirulent Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium vaccine vector. Broiler chickens immunized orally with recombinant Salmonella expressing FBA or HP proteins were significantly protected against NE challenge. Immunized birds developed serum and mucosal antibodies to both clostridial and Salmonella antigens. This study showed the oral immunizing ability of two C. perfringens antigens against NE in broiler chickens through an attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector. PMID:18597901
Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.
Ninety-nine strains of Arcobacter spp., isolated from 10 chicken carcasses purchased from a supermarket and 15 chicken carcasses collected from a poultry abattoir, were speciated using a variety of phenotypic identification methods. All were tested using API Campy test strips and the 16-test...
Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael
Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.
M. A. Elmusharaf
Full Text Available Problem statement: Different methods of experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria species have been described in the literature. These methods had not been compared and contrasted so as to contribute to the selection of the most appropriate model of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Identifying such a model was important to speed up the screening of potential coccidiostatics. Approach: In five different experiments with broiler chickens, we used different methods of infection with Eimeria species. In this paper the different methods and the results have been evaluated. Results: Administration through gavage into the crop of relatively low doses of either Eimeria tenella alone, or in combination with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima, did not influence body-weight gain and feed intake, but did induce intestinal lesions and faecal shedding of oocysts. The administration of an identically high number of sporulated oocysts in the form of a mixture of the three Eimeria species, either through a single dose by gavage or through the litter, produced similar lowering effects on body-weight gain or feed intake, similar degrees of severity of intestinal lesions and similar rates of faecal oocyst shedding. Conclusion: Depending on the variables considered of interest, the present data may indicate the most appropriate model. The model using infection with oocysts through the litter may optimally mimic the field situation in combination with controlled conditions and allowing experimental flexibility and a high number of experimental units within the research facility.
L. D. Mahfudz
Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.
Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li
To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. PMID:27006242
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.
Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu
We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (PAfter 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (Pmeat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (Pchanges occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.
Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip
Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.
Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy of the detoxifying agent Mycofix® Plus (MP in the prevention and/or alleviation in vivo adverse effects of T-2 toxin in broilers. In addition, the adsorbing potential of MP was estimated in vitro. Mean degradation levels of T-2 toxin with MP in vitro, as measured by HPTLC, varied from 26.06 to 31.02 % and the adsorption ability was elevated in acidic environment (pH 3. In vivo trial was performed on 160 one day old "Ross" broiler chicks and lasted for 21 days. Birds were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - positive control - 2 ppm T-2 toxin; Group 3 - 2 ppm T-2 toxin+2 kg/t MP; Group 4 - 2 kg/t MP. Broilers fed the diet containing 2 mg/kg of T-2 toxin without MP developed typical T-2 toxicosis. Birds that were fed the diet containing both T-2 and MP had better performances and no oral ulcerations as the dominant sign of T-2 toxicosis were observed. Histopathological examination of tissues originating from birds fed the diet containing T-2 toxin revealed degenerative changes in the oral and small intestine mucosa, necroses of enterocytes and hepatocytes, as well as depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa Fabricii. Immunohistochemical examination also revealed negative effects of T-2 toxin on cells proliferation in intestineal and bile duct mucosa, as well as on lymphocytes from bursa Fabricii. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver, intestine and bursa Fabricii of broilers fed a diet containing T-2 toxin and MP was mostly preserved. Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity reaction was weaker in broilers fed mixtures containing 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin.
Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D; Escobar, Jeffery
The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943
Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong
The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and
Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.
Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU; Ana Lúcia Fernandes PEREIRA; Ednardo Rodrigues de FREITAS; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; José Maria Correia da COSTA
AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, ...
Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Y. Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi
Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks w...
Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H
Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563
Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.
The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated air temperature in the first grow period on some physiological indicators of broiler chickens of different origin. Day-old Ross 308 and Hubbard Flex broiler chickens were assigned to 4 groups. Groups I (Ross 308 and II (Hubbard Flex were kept under standard thermal conditions throughout rearing, and groups III (Ross 308 and IV (Hubbard Flex were exposed to 10°C higher than recommended air temperature from 1 to 21 days of rearing. At 1, 21 and 42 days of the experiment, blood was collected from 10 birds in each group to determine T3 and T4, total protein, immunoglobulin complex, glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The exposure to the thermal challenge decreased T3 and T4 levels at 21 days of rearing in both Ross 308 and Hubbard flex broilers compared to birds raised under standard thermal conditions. At 21 days of the experiment was observed a statistically significantly lower concentration of total protein in group I compared with group III and between group II and IV. There was no effect of elevated air temperature on the immunoglobulin complex concentration in the blood of birds of both genetic groups. In both genetic groups, the exposure to the thermal challenge caused a tendency to decrease the concentration of glucose. Statistically significant differences at 21 days of rearing of the hemoglobin content were observed between Ross 308 birds from groups I and III. The thermal challenge caused a statistically significant decrease in hematocrit levels in birds from both genetic groups at 21 days of the experiment. The thermal challenge upset the body’s homeostasis in both genetic groups of chickens, which possibly suggests that elevated air temperature during the first period of rearing has a negative effect on the welfare of broilers, regardless of their origin.
Pius P Ketaren
Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.
In a field trial, the current study tested the effects of insoluble granite grit stones supplemented to broiler chickens on growth performance and gizzard stimulation. Particle size distribution and variation in the amount of grit retained in the gizzards were also examined at different age intervals. 880-day-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly and equally to 11 floor pens and maintained on a commercial pelleted diet. The trial consisted of two treatments: a control, or no-grit group (...
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.
Brenda Carla Luquetti
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of glutamine as feed additive on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis. A total of 400 day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments (NVNG – no vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; NVG – no vaccination, glutamine supplementation (10 g kg−1; VNG – vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; VG – vaccination, glutamine supplementation replicated four times with 25 birds per replicate. A commercial sprayed-on vaccine against coccidiosis containing Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, E. mivati, and E. tenella was administered at the hatchery. Broiler performance was evaluated from 1-28 days, and morphometric parameters were analyzed at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Body weight gain and feed intake were negatively affected by vaccination, but not by glutamine. Vaccination increased crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum at 21 and 28 days. In conclusion, this study showed that glutamine was not able to increase weight gain of broiler chickens, irrespective of whether the animals were vaccinated or not against coccidiosis. Glutamine supplementation was able to improve feed conversion in vaccinated birds suggesting trophic effect on intestinal epithelium improving.
Ricardo H. Rauber
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.
SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan; CHAN Long
An experiment was conducted to study the influence of early quantitative feed restriction on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred 8-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to four groups randomly, with 50 broilers each. At the age of 8 days the broilers were restricted to 90%, 80% or 70% of the ad libitum intake for 7 days. When the restricion was finished, all birds received feed ad libitum again. The results showed that diet restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and daily gain during the restriction period (P ＜0.05). The birds restricted to 90% of the ad libitum intake showed the occurring of growth compensation in the 3rd week. The birds restricted to 80% and 70% of the ad libitum intake had growth compensation in the 4th week. No significant differences between the effects of the restriction and the control on final body weight,growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics (P ＞0.05).
The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)
El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z.G.; Shen, Q. W.
A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed inta...
Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam; Yahya Ebrahimnezhad; Abdol - Ahad Shaddel Teli
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308), 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female) and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit); basal diet + whole wheat (without grit) and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Grow...
Marina Jorge de Lemos; Lígia Fátima Lima Calixto; Osvanira dos Santos Alves; Daniele Santos de Souza; Bárbara Brandt Moura; Túlio Leite Reis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days) were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75...
Full Text Available The aim of his research was to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB from gastrointestinal digestive tract (GIT of chickens for probiotic candidate purposes. LAB was isolated from GIT of broiler and native chickens on selective medium (MRS+0.2% CaCO3. Screening method based on microbiological and biochemical characteristics, antibacterial properties, growth on various temperature, aeration, and agitation, antibiotic sensitivity, and viability on acid pH, gastric juice and bile salt. Thirty nine of LAB isolates was selected from native chicken and 18 isolates from broiler chicken. The selected LAB inhibited Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 growth and grown on 30, 39 and 45oC of temperature, aerobic, anaerobic and agitation conditions. Biochemical identification using API 50 CHL kit revealed that I72 from native chicken ileum as Lactobacillus salivarius and Db9 from broiler chicken duodenum as Pediococcus pentosaceus. All LAB were resistant to Erythromicin, Penicillin G and Streptomycin as tested antibiotics. Both of them have non significantly different of viability on acid pH (1, 2 and 3, gastric juice pH 2 and bile salt which were 91.78% for L. salivarius I72 and 94.48% for P. pentosaceus Db9 (P<0.05. Based on characteristics, both the selected LAB have potentiality as chicken probiotic candidates.
Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua
Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation. PMID:26740132
Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua
Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation.
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the production performance of broiler chickens when fed a conventional standard feed and the same feed supplemented with Fenugreek seeds. One hundred and twenty (120 a-day old male broiler chicks of the strain ISA-15, were divided into 2 equal groups; a control group (A and an experimental group (B, with six replicates of 10 chicks each per group (6×10 in a completely randomized design. The control group received a classic feed based on maize and soybean meal and the experimental group was fed with the same control feed without antibiotic and coccidiostatic and supplemented with Fenugreek seeds at (3g/kg of feed. Fenugreek seeds supplementation significantly (p0.05 for the slaughters parameters (dressing percentage, carcass length and mortality.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC. The experimental diets were offered from 29 to 85 days of age and feed intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of the chickens were evaluated at the end of the experimental period. A metabolism assay was conducted at 52 days of age to determine apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for retained nitrogen, and apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM, crude protein (MCCP, neutral detergent fiber (MCNDF and ether extract (MCEE. Dietary supplementation with GSC increased feed intake and worsened weight gain with increasing level of inclusion. MCDM, MCNDF and MCEE were higher for chickens receiving 85% BD + 15% GSC when compared to animals fed the control diet (100% BD, except for MCCP which was not influence by supplementation with GSC. Carcass yield, cut yield or organ weight did not differ between diets with and without GSC inclusion, while the weights of pancreas and gizzard were higher in chickens receiving 70% BD + 30% GSC compared to those receiving only BD. The on-top inclusion of GSC in the diet of free-range broiler chickens as a feed alternative is justified up to a level of 15% since it does not affect feed conversion of the animals and improves the utilization of dietary nutrients.
Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo
Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and
Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana
Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.
Full Text Available Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.
Marius Mihai Ciobanu
Full Text Available Since meat color represents an important component in evaluating the aspect of food products, the studies from poultry field about efficient methods of storage on long term of the chicken carcasses approaches continuous finding/optimizing of some solutions about avoiding the negative consequences owed to oxidation, that include the color loss and/or its modification. The study goal was consisting in evaluation of the three different storage procedures by temperature and time (L1= -14°C, 30 days; L2= -16°C, 60 days; L3= -18°C, 90 days, on three cut anatomical regions (chest, upper and lower thigh, in order to characterize the broiler chicken meat color. The objective description of the chicken meat color frozen and defrozen was performed trough the CIE Lab Cartesian coordinate system. The luminosity of the studied cut anatomical regions ranged between an interval lower delimited by 47,27±1,184 units for lower thigh from L3 chicken group and upper by 53,35±1,142 units calculated for upper thigh collected from the carcasses of the same experimental group. Overall, the method of preservation determined a higher brightness to samples collected from L3 chicken group for chest and upper thigh muscles, respective L2 to lower thigh muscle of the counterparts from the other experimental group.
AV Fischer da Silva
Full Text Available Six hundred and forty one-day-old Cobb male broilers were used to evaluate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC expression in the mucosa of the small intestine. Birds were submitted to early feed restriction from 7 to 14 days of age. The provided feed was supplemented with glutamine. A completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used (with or without glutamine, with or without feed restriction. Restricted-fed birds were fed at 30% the amount of the ad libitum fed group from 7 to 14 days of age. Glutamine was added at the level of 1% in the diet supplied from 1 to 28 days of age. Protein concentration in the small intestine mucosa was determined, and ODC expression at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age was evaluated by dot blotting. ODC was present in the mucosa of broilers, and the presence of glutamine in the diet increased ODC activation. Glutamine prevented mucosa atrophy by stimulating protein synthesis, and was effective against the effects of feed restriction. Dot blotting can be used to quantify ODC expression in the intestinal mucosa of broilers.
Caly, Delphine L; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel
Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920
Yefeng Yang; Yonghua Yu; Jinming Pan; Yibin Ying; Hong Zhou
Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). ...
Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.
Abbas Ebrahimi; Antonello Santini; Mosè Alise; Zohreh Pourhossein; Nariman Miraalami; Alireza Seidavi
Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308) were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25), 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50), 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75), and 1% w/w (DCSP-1). Control diet (DCSP-0), with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five t...
Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.
Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.
Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y
1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.
Pacholewicz, E.; Swart, A.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Havelaar, A.H.; Duim, B.
A real time quantitative PCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples was implemented to quantify live C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari on broiler chicken carcasses at selected processing steps in the slaughterhouse. The samples were enumerated by culture for comparison. The Campyl
Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.
Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake, unt
Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.
The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a
Bassler, A.; Arnould, C.; Butterworth, A.; Colin, L.; Jong, de I.C.; Ferrante, V.; Ferrari, P.; Haslam, S.A.; Wemelsfelder, F.; Blokhuis, H.J.
The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), s
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks ha...
Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.;
The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cult...
Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.;
% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a......The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known...... comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the...
Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on broiler lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Histopaque density and cultured in 96-wellplates containing the evaluated AFB1 concentrations in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 39°C. Thereafter, MTT, PicoGreen, and reactive oxygen species assays were performed. Cell viability decreased in the presence of 10 µg/mL AFB1 at 48 h (p < 0.05 and of 10 and 20 µg/mL AFB1 at 72 h (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to the control (0 µg/mL. However, a dose-dependent increase in the cell-free DNA at 24 h was observed at 1, 10 and 20 µg/mL (p < 0.001. ROS formation significantly increased at 24 h at all concentrations (p < 0.001. The in-vitro results demonstrate that AFB1 is cytotoxic and causes biomolecular oxidative damage in broiler lymphocytes.
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.
Veena Pani Padihari
Full Text Available 150 day old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates of 10 chicks in each to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gut morphology of broilers. The trial lasted for 6 weeks. For microscopic examination the representative samples of each segment of intestine were collected and fixed in the 10% buffered formalin. No significant difference was observed in treatments at length of different segments of intestine and villus height/crypt depth ratio. Significant (P< 0.05 difference observed for the mean height of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum villus amongst different dietary treatments, being highest in T5 and lowest in T2. Mean crypt depth of the duodenum and ileum villus also differed significantly (P< 0.05 amongst treatments. The highest mean crypt depth in the duodenum was recorded in T5 and lowest in T2 whereas the highest mean crypt depth of caecum was recorded in T3 and the lowest in T1. Thickness of tunica muscularis was significantly (P< 0.05 decreased in all segments of intestine except colorectum as MOS and S. cerevisae added to the diet. Height of the epithelium of villi differed significantly (P< 0.05 amongst treatments in all segments of intestine except caecum being maximum in T5 and minimum in T2. It was concluded that supplementation of MOS and S. cerevisiae improves the gut health of broiler chickens.
Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens
Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L
Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.
Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962
Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.
Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are composed from chemical compounds with different physical and chemical proprieties (cellulose, arabinoxylans, beta glucans and pectic polysaccharides with manans and gallactans. The antinutritional effects on monogastrics are different and in many cases extreme. Some cereals like barley, oat, wheat, contain significant quantities of NSP. The main negative effects of NSP are related to their viscous nature, to their physiological and morphological influence on the digestive tract and their interaction with the intestinal microflora. The purpose of this experiment is to establish the correlation coefficients between the values of intestinal viscosity and the levels of NSPt, NSPi and NSPs obtained by the inclusion of different percentage of barley in the structure of combined forages. The experiment was carried out on a period of 6 weeks on 120 broiler chickens divided in four experimental groups (CL, EL1, EL2 and EL3. The broiler chickens were fed with combined forages with the same nutritive characteristics but with different percentage of barley (0-40%. It has been showed that at the age of 3 and 6 weeks the intestinal viscosity rise with up to 64.67% along with the proportion of barley from the combined forages. Between the content of forages in NSP and intestinal viscosity exist a positive correlation, the highest correlation coefficient was registered in the case of NSPs, 0.92 at 3 weeks and respectively 0.99 at 6 weeks.
Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G
Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens.
Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C
Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.
Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further
Verônica da Silva Cardoso
Full Text Available Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C control, (P 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route, and (P + A co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment. The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of citric acid (CA (0, 3 and 6% and microbial phytase (MP (0, 500 and 1000 IU/kg on morphology of different segments of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum in broiler chickens fed on corn and soybean meal based diets. The effect of 9 experimental treatments (3×3 factorial design were assessed using 270 7-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete block design in three replicates of 10 birds each. The mean villi length (VL, crypt depth (CD and goblet cell number (GCN in duodenum, jejunum and ileum and villi width (VW and VL:CD ratio in duodenum was significantly greater for the birds fed on acidified diets compared to the control birds at day 42 of age (P<0.01. Inclusion of 3% CA in diet significantly decreased the epithelial thickness (ET in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P<0.01. The birds received diets with 1000 IU/kg of MP showed significant increase in CD (P<0.01 and GCN in jejunum (P<0.05, and significant decrease in VL:CD ratio and ET in the duodenum (P<0.01, jejunum (P<0.05 and ileum (P<0.01 segments. No variable of interest were affected by CA × MP interaction. It was concluded that CA and MP independently exhibit positive impact on morphometery of small intestine, toward facilitating the nutrient absorption and reducing the metabolic demands of the intestinal tract in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available Antibiotics were very important pieces of the puzzle that enabled the poultry production to move from a backyard flock based industry to the large-scale production facilities of today. Public health professionals have suggested that the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in animal production may be partially responsible for the development of antibiotic resistant bacterial populations. The probiotics may be substituted by antibiotics (growth promoting in certain cases. Pediococcus acidilactici is a bacterial probiotic used in this experience. 16000 broiler chickens were assigned in two experimental groups: treatment (109 cfu/kg of feed of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and control. In each group 8000 broiler chickens were allocated in the same batch and divided by a physical barrier. Individual live weight of a sample of 200 birds for each group from day 0 to day 56 was measured weekly. Feed intake, feed efficiency, mortality, carcass quality, serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides and number of white blood cells, were recorded per group. The administration of Pediococcus acidilactici affected positively the growth performance of broilers (2586.43 vs. 2252.79 g, p≤0.01 and feed conversion ratio (2.00 vs. 2.5. There were no significant difference between groups in dressing, breast meat and thigh percent, at the end of day 56. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between treatments for serum lipids (p≤0.01. Mortality was almost similar in both groups (6.56 vs. 6.51. The numbers of white blood cells were significantly affected by dietary treatment (p≤0.01.
Full Text Available Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg. The nisin (NI diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age, activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001 decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary
McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A
Ascites syndrome in broiler chickens is defined as a condition associated with pulmonary hypertension leading to right heart failure, increased central venous pressure, passive congestion of the liver, and accumulations of serous fluids in body cavities. The syndrome is currently seen in fast-growing broiler chickens associated with an increase in the weight, volume, and area of the right ventricle of the heart. The ratio of the right ventricle weight to the total heart mass has been used to assess the consequences of increased blood pressure. The right ventricle area (RVA) can be quantified using image analysis technology. Hearts were removed from 719 male broilers at slaughter (42 d). All birds were visually scored for the incidence of ascites. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight hydropericardium, slight right heart hypertrophy, and slight edema. A score of 4 was assigned to birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities, pronounced dilation of the right heart, and prominent liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each heart slice (a 4-mm-thick slice of the ventricles) was digitally recorded. Using image analysis software, the RVA, left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. Because a slice of the heart was used in image analysis, the importance of maintaining the original shape was determined. Twenty hearts in five ranges of RVA size were scanned in four different positions, which have differing heart slice orientations and differing RVA shapes, for a comparison of positioning technique (placement) relating to the RVA. The shape of the heart slice for image analysis was observed not to be critical for the small RVA. For heart slices with large RVA values, it was found to be critical to analyze the heart slice in a standardized placement. PMID:10023748
Knudsen, K.N.; Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.;
, the LG genotyping method was used to study the genetic stability of four C. jejuni strains after gastrointestinal passage through experimentally infected chickens. Methods and Results: In the present study, the LG genotyping method was modified with respect to the restriction enzymes used. To validate...... no changes in the LG genotype of the C. jejuni strains obtained after experimental passage through chickens. Concusions: All C. jejuni strains obtained from broiler chickens were typeable by the LG genotyping method. Application of the RsaI restriction enzyme improved the method in terms of ease...
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.
Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G
In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching. PMID:26936310
Marchioro, A; Mallmann, A O; Diel, A; Dilkin, P; Rauber, R H; Blazquez, F J H; Oliveira, M G A; Mallmann, C A
The aim of this research was to evaluate, on a weekly basis, the effects of aflatoxins on the activity of digestive enzymes (alpha-amylase, lipase, and trypsin) in the pancreas as well as on the performance and histology of pancreas in broiler chickens over the course of 42 days. One thousand and eighty 1-day-old male Cobb broilers were divided into four treatments with 18 replicates and 15 birds per replicate (i.e., 270 broilers per treatment). Treatments were established according to the amount of aflatoxins added to the diet, as follows: T1 = 0 mg of aflatoxins per kilogram of feed (mg/kg); T2 = 0.7 mg/kg; T3 = 1.7 mg/kg; and T4 = 2.8 mg/kg. Pancreas sample collection was performed from one bird out of each replicate at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of experiment, which yielded a total of 18 samples per treatment on each collection. Each sample was homogenized in distilled water, frozen in liquid nitrogen, lyophilized, and stored at -20 C until analysis. Performance parameters (body weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion rate) were measured at 21, 35, and 42 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment (42 days), six birds from each treatment were randomly chosen for histologic evaluation of the pancreas. The presence of aflatoxins in the diet induced a negative effect on all performance parameters. The pancreatic activity of lipase and alpha-amylase were significantly increased in treatments T3 and T4, while the specific activity of trypsin was only affected during treatment T4. In addition, several histologic changes were observed in the pancreas of birds receiving aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Aflatoxins present in the feed determined an increase in the activity of pancreatic enzymes in broilers, affecting the digestibility of the diet, thereby leading to losses in performance and productivity.
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutrients equivalency value of Bacillus subtilis spore (GalliPro® for broiler chickens and its potential for decreasing feed nutrients concentration and cost. A total of 720 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks was allocated in 6 treatments (2 sexes×3 diets with 6 replication for 7 weeks. Dietary treatments: main treatment (MT was routine broiler diet added 0.2 g/kg GalliPro® (Bacillus subtilis 4×109 CFU/g DSM 17299 and using nutrients equivalency of GalliPro® for feed formulation; negative control (NC was the same as main treatment without GalliPro® (subtracted the nutrients equivalent value of GalliPro®; positive control (PC was the same as MT diet in nutrients content but without GalliPro®. Effect of dietary treatments on body weight (BW was not significant. However, the average BW of male and female chicks receiving negative control diet was 2.0% (68 g lower than PC and MT groups (P>0.05. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on average daily feed intake. Feed conversion ratio of chicks receiving PC and MT diets were 2.7% better than NC chicks (P<0.01. Male chicks were superior to female in all measured traits (P<0.01. Effect of treatments on carcass characteristics was not significant. There was no interaction between factors on measured parameters. Performance of chicks receiving diet with GalliPro® compared with PC showed that GalliPro® liberated 0.4 crude protein from MT diet and consequently decreased the broiler feeding cost.
Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.
Thorne, M H; Collins, R K; Sheldon, B L
1. Twenty-three lines of chickens, obtained from grandparent stocks of 4 Australian breeding companies, were analysed to determine the incidence of early embryonic mortality attributable to chromosome abnormalities. The lines included 10 layer strains, consisting of 6 White Leghorn, 2 New Hampshire and 2 Australorp lines, and 13 broiler lines. 2. A total of 10,730 eggs was examined after 3 d incubation; of these 9746 (90.8%) were fertile. Abortive embryonic development was observed in 1379 (14.1%) of the fertile eggs. This consisted of 952 (69.0%) dead and dying embryos, including 646 malformed and 427 (31.0%) membranes without embryos. 3. Early embryonic mortality was found to vary from 9.8 to 26.8% (average 16.4%) in broiler lines and from 8.0 to 27.9% (average 11.9%) in layer lines. 4. Among 898 abortive embryos analysed, 112 had abnormal chromosomes consisting of 27 haploids, 38 haploid-euploids, 24 triploids, 16 diploid-polyploids, 4 aneuploids, 2 tetraploids and 1 translocation. 5. In broilers and layers respectively, chromosome abnormalities were responsible for 4.4 to 28.1% (average 11.8%) and 7.4 to 25.0% (average 13.4%) of the early embryonic mortality. 6. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in all fertile eggs varied from 0.7 to 3.7% for the broiler lines and 0.7 to 3.4% for the layer lines. PMID:1933445
M. A. Elmusharaf
Full Text Available Problem statement: In a previous study, the exposure of broiler chickens to a weak Electromagnetic Field (EMF reduced the severity of a coccidiosis infection. The birds were infected by gavage into the crop which was not representative for the field situation. Approach: The possible anticoccidial activity of EMF was investigated in broiler chickens with a simulated, commercial coccidiosis infection. There was an uninfected and infected group not receiving further treatment. Another uninfected and infected group were subjected to EMF treatment. The infection was induced by adding to the litter a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella. EMF treatment lasted for 30 min day-1; the field strength within the cages was set to 5 μTesla rms. Results: Infection with Eimeria resulted in a transient reduction of growth performance in the control chickens. Exposure to EMF counteracted the effect of infection on growth performance. EMF treatment had no effect on oocyst shedding. In the infected birds exposed to EMF, the lesion scores related to the three Eimeria species were generally lower than in the infected controls. Due to cross-contamination, the uninfected birds also showed intestinal lesions, the severity being less than in the infected chickens. In the uninfected birds, EMF treatment also had reduced the severity of the lesions. Conclusion: In this study EMF exposure protected against coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Consequently, EMF was considered as a possible alternative to anticoccidial drugs.
Full Text Available Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04 mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0
Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*
Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.
Jozefiak, D; Sip, A; Rutkowski, A;
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin (divercin AS7) on growth performance, digestibility, fermentation processes, selected microbial populations, and histomorphology in broiler chickens challenged with a mixture of 3 Clostridium perfringen...
Qualidade da carne de marreco pequim branco (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 comparado a frango de corte Meat quality in white peking mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 compared to broiler chicken
Peter Bitencourt Faria
Full Text Available O total de 20 carcaças resfriadas (10 Marrecos Pequim Branco e 10 de frangos de corte foi submetido às análises de composição centesimal, colesterol, cor (sistema CIE L*a*b*, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC. A carne de marreco apresenta (PTwenty refrigerated carcasses (10 Peking mallard and 10 broiler chicken were submitted to analyses of chemical composition, cholesterol, colour (CIE L*a*b* system, weight loss by cooking (PPC and shear force (FC. Mallard meat had lower (P<0.05 humidity in both leg and breast (71.77 and 74.53%, respectively when compared with chicken meat (74.73 and 76.07%, respectively. When different cuts were compared, the breast had a higher (P<0.05 humidity and protein content than the leg in both species. Mallard leg and breast had lower (P<0.05 lightness (37.59 and 35.75, respectively and higher red content (18.48 and 20.67, respectively, than the lightness (40.98 and 45.18, respectively and red content (10.02 and 5.52, respectively observed in chicken. The FC was higher (P<0.05 in mallard breast (4.90 kgf than in chicken breast (2.63 kgf. Meat from White Peking mallard is darker and with a stronger red pigment than meat from broiler chicken. Even though it is less tender than meat from broiler chicken, mallard meat still has an acceptable tenderness.
Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Mattson, T.; Baskaran, S.A.; Amalaradjou, M.A.; Hoagland, T.A.; Darre, M.J.; Khan, M.I.; Schreiber, D.T.; Donoghue, A.M.; Donoghue, D.J.; Venkitanarayanan, K.
We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were as
This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Parmentier, H.K.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (¿-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n¿=¿120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the rati
Leandro Ferreira; Tadayuki Yanagi Junior; Wilian Soares Lacerda; Giovanni Francisco Rabelo
Cloacal temperature (CT) of broiler chickens is an important parameter to classify its comfort status; therefore its prediction can be used as decision support to turn on acclimatization systems. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a system using the fuzzy set theory for CT prediction of broiler chickens. The fuzzy system was developed based on three input variables: air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (V). The output variable was the CT. The fuzzy in...
Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann
Full Text Available Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate, DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens, 51%–72% (roosters, and 131%–151% (pullets. In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.
1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511
Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine in methionine- and choline-reduced diets fed to broilers submitted to heat stress. In total, 1,408 male broilers were randomly distributed into eight treatments, according to 2 x 4 (environment x diet factorial arrangement, with eight replicates of 2 birds each. Birds were reared environmental chambers under controlled temperature (25-26 °C or cyclic heat-stressing temperature (25-31 °C. The following diets were tested: positive control (PC, formulated to meet broiler nutritional requirements; negative control (NC, with reduced DL-methionine and choline chloride levels; and with two supplementation levels of natural betaine to the negative control diet (NC+NB1 and NC+NB2. Live performance, carcass traits, and intestinal morphometrics were evaluated when broilers were 45 days of age. The results showed that all evaluated parameters were influenced by the interaction between environment and diet, except for breast meat drip loss. The breakdown of the interactions showed that birds fed the PC diet and reared in the controlled environment had greater breast drip loss than those submitted to the cyclic heat-stress environment. Birds submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed the PC diet presented the lowest feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was influenced only by diet. The FCR of broilers fed the NC+NB2 diet was intermediate relative to those fed the PC and NC diets. The addition of betaine in the diet, with 11.18% digestible methionine and 24.73% total choline reductions, did not affect broiler live performance, carcass yield, or intestinal morphometrics.
Nihar Ranjan Sarangi
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1 control group with basal diet, (2 basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration, (3 basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration, and (4 basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration. The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05 higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05 difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05 difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.
Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few
Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang
In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat
Qari Muhammad Kaleem
Full Text Available The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT and commercial tannins (CT were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P<0.05 in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with 6 chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or gut barrier failure (GBF group. During the first 13 d, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On d 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on d 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At d 21 and d 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At d 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05 by a GBF model when compared with CON group at d 21 and d 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. An increase (P <0.05 in serum endotoxin, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, as well as interleukin (IL-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF-β4 and fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP 6 mRNA levels were increased in GBF birds compared to CON; however, FABP2 mRNA levels were decreased (P <0.05 in GBF birds compared to CON. Occludin was numerically reduced by 24% (P = 0.107 and mucin 2 (MUC2 was reduced by 29 % (P = 0.088 in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β and TGF-β4 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens.
Full text: Nutrition quality, consequently the nutrients level and quality in food, is a main factor influencing the consumers' health status. The food industry should consider all possible ways to improve nutritional value of aliments. Despite this, the data related to some quality indexes of the poultry meat, that could contribute to establish an overall image of the nutritional and dietetic facts of this product are poorly represented in the scientific literature, mainly when the consumer might be interested by the meat produced and commercialised nowadays in Romania. It imposed to organise some studies related to certain qualitative features of the skeletal muscles issued from chicken broilers, knowing that the technical specifications of the companies producing hybrids do not issue about them, mainly focusing on the meat yield parameters. The original researches have been organised in two experimental series, which had as main goal the analysis of the qualitative meat production at two of the most used commercial chicken hybrids in our country - 'COBB-500' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1) and 'ROSS-308' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1), reared in similar technological conditions. This paper emphasises on those results dealing with meat chemical composition and caloricity. There has been sampled five pair of skeletal muscles, from those carcass areas with market importance: Pectoralis superficialis (PS) and Pectoralis profundis (PP) - breast, Biceps brachialis (BB) - wings, Semimembranosu (SM) - thighs and Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) - drumsticks. They were processed in accordance with the analytical chemistry laboratory methods in order to assess dry mater and water content, proteins and amino acids content, lipids and fatty acids content, these values leading to caloricity computation. The achieved results are briefly listed below: - for both studied hybrids, it was observed that the males pectoral muscles comprise a higher quantity of dry matter, compared to the
Firda Rachma Amalia
Full Text Available Feasibility study is a study assessing a project to be undertaken in the future. This research aimed to analyze whether the broiler business by partnership pattern at Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML was feasible to be continued. This research analyzed two models of cage that is traditional cage (open with a scale of 10,000 and modern cage (close with a scale 14.500 and decided whether they were financially feasible or not. In addition, this research aimed to compare between traditional cage and modern cage with estimation for one year (six harvest times and to analyze which cage had better feasibility in order to provide recommendations or suggestions to the breeders or young breeders. Sensitivity analysis was based on current input and output data from breeder in 2012. The feasibility study of chicken broiler farm cage partnership with traditional and modern cage with the next ten year estimation showed that the modern cage was better than the traditional cage. It can be seen from the values of NPV, IRR, PP, B/C, GPM and ROI. Sensitivity analysis shows that traditional cage is more sensitive to price changes than modern cage. It is shown in the traditional cage with the capacity of 10,000 produces smaller values, indicating that is it is sensitive to cost increase by 2% and to selling price decline of chicken by 1,7%. The recommendations from this study include inputs to farmers in selecting a modern cage since it is more feasible than the traditional cage for long periods of time, while the traditional cage is more viable than the modern cage if the farmer wants a shorter investment timeKeywords: Feasibility studies, Broiler, modern and Traditional cageABSTRAKKelayakan merupakan studi menilai proyek yang akan dikerjakan di masa mendatang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisisis apakah usaha ayam broiler dengan pola kemitraan pada Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML layak untuk diteruskan. Penelitian ini menganalisisis dua model kandang tradisional
Delphine Louise Caly
Full Text Available Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control.
Shah, Jigna D; Desai, Prerak T; Zhang, Ying; Scharber, Sarah K; Baller, Joshua; Xing, Zheng S; Cardona, Carol J
Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a) the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age) and (b) the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.
Full Text Available Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age and mature birds (35 days of age. Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.
Skvortsova L. N.
Full Text Available In the experimental work, we studied the effect of the inulin prebiotic on the growth, development and efficiency of growing broiler chickens of the Isa cross. In accordance with the scheme of the experiment, the first control group was fed a complete feed (CF by periods of growth. In the second group, inulin was added to the CF for the first 21 days of growth. In the third group prebiotic was added to the CF at the same rate throughout the whole period of rearing the chicks (42 days. In the second and third groups, we found the tendency to increase the intensity of growth rate in poultry by 1.6 and 3.0%, respectively, compared with the control. Feed costs for weight gain were decreased by 2.1-2.7%. In the chime of the blind processes of the intestine of the chickens of 2-3 experimental groups it was found the reduction of staphylococci and enterococci CFU, while similar to the control group lactobacilli CFU. The muscle tissue in the chickens of experimental groups had greater protein content. The optimal range of indicators is the use of inulin for the first 21 days of rearing poultry. Because of the production audit, an increase in live weight of chickens was found, in the experimental group by 2.7% (p ≤ 0.05, a decrease of feed costs by 7.5%, increase of the survival rate of poultry by 2.0% and profitability by 3.1%
Alieva S. M.
Full Text Available Using of compound feeds in broiler feed additives of plant resources, activates body's biological functions. This increases productivity and gives an ability to make environmentally friendly products. These local plants feed additives contributing to enrich animal feed with active ingredients include flour from nettle and Caspian marine algae. This article is devoted to studying the composition of nettle from the different locations of growth in Dagestan Republic and also, to determine the effectiveness of the use of nettle flour individually and to how implement it with the seaweeds flour in feeds of broiler chickens instead of herbal flour. The studies showed that nettle from a foothill zone in the flowering period exceeds slightly the nettle from mountain zone on the content of dry matter-1.19 % of protein-0.09 % and exchange energy 0.77 kcal/100g. Nettle meal from mountainous zone also inferiors the foothills in the energy value to 6.81 kcal/100 g. The inclusion of 2% feed meal nettle, 3% seaweed either alone or in combination of 2% instead of+3% of alfalfa grass meal resulted increasing broilers’ body weight 4,60-8,95% betterment survival to2,8-5,70%, increasing muscle output at 0,56-2,54% compared with the control group. The protein content and the amount of essential amino acids in the thoracic muscle in the test group was to 0.97-2.74%andto1,68- 2,11%, respectively, higher than the control. There was a significant increasing iodine in thoracic muscles of experimental groups 119,6-166,07% relative to control. Based on the results of the research, it is recommended to include 2% of feed meal nettle and 3% from algae instead of 4% grass meal of alfalfa to improve the productivity and biological value of broiler meat and 1 % of cereals
Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy
Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.
Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera on dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: A total of 90 chicks were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups.Fresh Aloe vera leaf juice (ALJ was prepared and administered to the test group T3 at the rate of 20 g/Lin drinking water daily.This study was carried out for 42 days. Dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters were recorded at the end ofexperiment.Results: Group that was given Aloe vera (T3 showed numerically higher dressing percentage as compared to control group(T1 and drug control group (T2. It also showed significantly (P0.05 differences were observed in other parameters among all the treatment groups.Conclusion: Aloe vera has potential to be a growth promoter in broiler chicks and its growth promoting effects are comparableto that of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP.
Full Text Available A total of one hundred unsexed, day old and straight run commercial Cobb - 400 broiler chicks were randomly divided in to five groups consisting of twenty chicks in each group. The control group received only the basal diet (Group I and the treatment groups were administered with prebiotic (Lactose @ 2.5%, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% and their combination (Lactose @ 2.5% plus Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% in drinking water, respectively for Group II, Group III and Group IV and commercial product G-Probiotic Spl® (containing five species of probiotic organisms, three digestive enzymes and liver extract, @ 0.05 % in the feed to Group V from day one to 42 to evaluate the hematological parameters in broiler chickens such as total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count on day 21 and 42 of the experiment. There were non significant (P>0.05 differences between different groups on both the days of observation with respect to total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and packed cell volume. But, the total leukocyte count in treatment groups significantly (P<0.05 differed from control group on day 21 and 42 which may be possibly due to improved immunostimulatory effect and physiological well-being of the birds received prebiotic and probiotic. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 344-346
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.
Fernando de Castro Tavernari
Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios on diets for broiler chickens in the starter (7 to 21 days and finishing (30 to 43 days phases. For the tests, the experimental design was of randomized blocks with seven treatments (six different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios and a control treatment and eight repetitions of 25 and 20 birds (COBB males per experimental unit in the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The diets met the requirements, except for isoleucine and lysine. To avoid excess lysine in the experimental diets, the digestible lysine content was calculated to be 87% and 89% of the recommended for the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The control treatment was adequate in lysine and isoleucine. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and carcass yield in the two phases were evaluated. There was quadratic effect of different ratios on feed intake in the finishing phase and on weight gain and feed conversion rate in both phases. There was quadratic effect on breast meat yield and breast fillets in the starter phase, but there was no significant effect on carcass yield in the finishing phase. The digestible isoleucine/lysine ratio recommended for broilers in the starter phase (7 to 21 days is 66% and for the finishing phase (30 to 43 days, it is 68%.
Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic associated to prebiotic on performance, carcass and cut yields, qualitative traits of meat, development and score of lesions due to coccidiosis in digestive tract of broiler chickens raised in a free-range system during 85 days. One thousand, six hundred and ninety-six day-old male broiler chicks from naked-neck ISA S757-N Label Rouge line were used in a randomized block design with factorial scheme of 4x2 and four repetitions. The effect of four additive (1 - biologic promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 2 - biologic promoter + anti-coccidiosis; 3 - chemical promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 4 - chemical promoter + anti-coccidiosis and two breeding systems from 35th day of age (one with no-access to pasture or confined and the other with free-access to pasture or semi-confined on performance parameters, carcass and cut yields, qualitative meat traits, coccidiosis development and lesions in digestive tract were evaluated. There was effect (p<0.05 of additives only on sensorial analysis (meat quality and percentage of large intestine. Breeding systems affected (p<0.05 live weight (LW and LW gains, being the better results observed in semi-confined birds.
Full Text Available The growth of filamentous fungi on food often causes, aside from its deterioration, the mycotoxin production which determines economic losses in poultry industry, such as decreased productivity and injuries on poultry's carcass. Adsorbents based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contain esterified glucomannan, are an alternative to reduce the mycotoxins bioavailability. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo the performance of new three anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adsorption process was quantified in vitro, and the data obtained when plotted with Hill's equation indicated a cooperative process. Then, the three different AMA were tested for its ability to reduce the effects of aflatoxins in the diet of growing broiler chickens. The addition of 1 mg kg-1 aflatoxin B1 to the diets of broilers caused a negative change on the performance parameters besides increasing liver weight, fatty degeneration and liver necrosis. The addition of two different kinds of AMA (0.2% could reverse such effects. In conclusion, AMA 1 and 2 are additives with good potential for application on animal production. The AMA 3 ingredients must be re-tested alone for its adsorption capacity. These are the first data reported from Brazil anti-mycotoxin additives with preliminary isothermal analysis. Since beneficial characteristics of S. cerevisiae cell wall in animal industry are strain dependent, this study suggests two new promising alternatives to ameliorate mycotoxin problem.
Najafi, Hamideh; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Maghsoudlo, Hossein; Farahani, Reza Khaltabadi
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10 % were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc
Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. PMID:26255184
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O
A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.
Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik
Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens. PMID:24341997
Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik
Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (PRB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.
Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte
, with dietary Chlorella administration (0, 5 and 10 g kg-1) and feeding time post hatch (hour 0 and 48) as the factors. The Chlorella supplemented diets were provided to chicks either immediately (early) or after 48 hours (late) post hatch until day 35. Irrespective of the post hatch feeding times, Chlorella......The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design...... of broilers was lowered (Ppost hatch. In conclusion, post hatch holding time resulted in lower final BW of broilers. Although feeding 1% Chlorella could not alleviate the retarded growth rate in feed withheld-birds, the treatment may be useful...
Amir Hosein Eshrati Bahar
Full Text Available In isoenergetic - isonitrogenous diets, barley at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % was substituted for corn and its effects on broiler chicken performance was studied. This study was carried out with 5 levels of barley (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %, 3 replicates and 14 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. In this experiment 300 day old broiler chicks (Lohman were used for 42 days. The results showed that barley up to 25% substitution had no adverse effect on broiler performance. It is concluded that in diet supplementation with barley until 25% could done without any adverse effects on performance, although enzyme supplementation should be considered in the ration to decrease NSP in the barley
Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.
Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P
Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate. PMID:26908891
Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P
Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate.
Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.
Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.
Qari Muhammad Kaleem; Masood Akhtar; Mian Muhammad Awais; Muhammad Saleem; Muddassar Zafar; Zafar Iqbal; Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Irfan Anwar
The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against she...
VDA Murarolli; MFC Burbarelli; GV Polycarpo; PAP Ribeiro; MEG Moro; R de Albuquerque
This study aimed to evaluate diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response against the virus of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens. 1,400 one-day old male Cobb 500 chicks were raised until 42 days old in a completely randomized design with 2x2+1 factorial scheme with seven replications. The treatments were: diet without supplementation (base diet - BD), BD + prebiotic, BD + probiotic, BD + symbiotic (prebi...
Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi
Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.
Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S
The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels.
Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo
The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.
Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong
Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.
J. Ghiasi Ghaleh-kandi,
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigation on effect of in ovo administration of ghrelin on subsequent Leucine Aminopeptidase (LAP activity in broiler chickens. In this experiment 250 fertilized eggs were collected from commercial breeder flock. The eggs were divided into five experimental groups; control T1 (without injection, group T2 (in ovo injected with solution, group T3 (in ovo injected with 50 μg/egg ghrelin, group T4 (in ovo injected with 100 μg/egg ghrelin and group T5 (in ovo injected with 150 μg/egg ghrelin. All of groups were incubated. In ovo injection was done at day 7 of incub ation. in ovo administration of 150 μg/egg ghrelin in embryonic period, could stimulate LAP activity at 21-day- old chicks in 10, 30 and 50% of intestine with 3520.4, 266.9, 4595.6 IU/g protein, also in ovo injected 50 and 150 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 50 and 70% of intestine with 3071.4, 4779.3 and 5013.4 IU/g. In 42-day-old chicks, in ovo injected 50 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 10, 30, 40, 70, and 90% percent of intestine. These findings demonstrated stimulatory effects of ghrelin in low doses (50 μg in chicken intestine LAP activity.
Hao, Haihong; Ren, Ni; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Kuang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui
The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655). The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g., pTet) and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence. PMID:27790202
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.
Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818
light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)
Tushar Kanti Bera
Full Text Available Phantoms are essential for assessing the system performance in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneity fail to mimic the physiological structure of real body tissue in several aspects. Saline or any other salt solutions are purely resistive and hence studying multifrequency EIT systems cannot be assessed with saline phantoms because the response of the purely resistive materials do not change over frequency. Animal tissues show a variable response over a wide band of signal frequency due to their complex physiological and physiochemical structures and hence they can suitably be used as bathing medium and inhomogeneity in the phantoms of multifrequency EIT system. An efficient assessment of a multifrequency EIT system with real tissue phantom needs a prior knowledge of the impedance profile of the bathing medium as well as the inhomogeneity. In this direction Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and broiler chicken fat tissue is conducted from 10 Hz to 2 MHz using an impedance analyzer and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue paste is less resistive than the fat tissue and hence it can be successfully used as the bathing medium of the phantoms for resistivity imaging in multifrequency EIT. Fat tissue is found more resistive than the muscle tissue which makes it more suitable for the inhomogeneity in phantoms of resistivity imaging study. doi:10.5617/jeb.174 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 48-63, 2011
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM is widely used in poultry diets in China. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of FCSM on lipid-related gene expression in broilers. Initially, 180 broiler chickens (21-days-old, equal number of males and females were randomly divided into three groups, with six pens per group and 10 birds per pen. The chickens in the control group were fed a diet containing unfermented cottonseed meal, and those in the treatment groups were fed with diets including either CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis (Ct group or CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae (Ct-Sc group until 64 days old. The results revealed that, compared with the control group (p0.05. Likewise, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-g and LPL in the abdominal fat were not altered by the FCSM-supplemented diets (p>0.05. The results in this study indicate that CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeeffectively regulated the genes involved in fatty acid b-oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in male broiler chickens. Furthermore, the effects of the FCSM-supplemented diets were significantly different between bird sexes and between yeast strains used in the fermentation process.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to obtain the lactic acid bacteria (LAB as probiotic candidates which have resistance to bile salt and acid condition. LAB was obtained using isolation method from proventriculus of broiler chicken. Selective MRS media with 0.2% CaCO3 addition were used for LAB isolation using pour plate sampling method under anaerobic condition. The result showed that four selected isolates had morphological and biochemical characteristics as LAB. The selected LAB was characterized as follow: antibacterial activities, antibiotic sensitivity, resistance on bile salt, gastric juice and acid condition, and biochemical identification. Antibacterial activities assay of cell free supernatant was confirmed using disc paper diffusion method which was arranged on factorial design and each treatment consisted of three replications. The cell free supernatant of LAB isolates had antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, and Salmonella pullorum. Molecular identification procedure using 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that R01 and R02 as Pediococcus acidilactici. The viability of the two isolates were tested by acid pH (pH 1, 2, and 3, gastric juice pH 2, and bile salt condition for digestives tract simulation. The result showed that R01 and R02 had a high viability percentages at pH 1, 2, and 3 (95.45%, 99.49%, 104.01%, and 67.17%, 120.74%, 103.4%, respectively and at bile salt simulation for 1-2 hours (100.35%-102.71% and 100.02%-102.65%, respectively, but at gastric juice simulation for 1-2 hours, the P. acidilactici R01 had higher viability than P. acidilactici R02 (59.69%-76.53% versus 43.57%-40.69%, respectively. In the antibiotic sensitivity test for three antibiotics (i.e. erythromicin 15 µg, penicillin G 10 µg, and streptomycin 10 µg, the P. acidilactici R02 showed resistance to Streptomycin and Penicillin. It is concluded that P. acidilactici R01 and P. acidilactici R02 isolated from proventriculus
Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J
NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.
Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The meal of Jatropha curcas (JCM seed is a by-product of the biofuel industry and may potentially to be used as animal feed. However, its toxicity has prevented its utilization in animal nutrition mainly due to its high concentration of phorbol esters. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of JCM on the growth performance, feed digestibility and internal organs development of broilers. Thirty two 48-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens housed in 16 pens (2 birds/pen were used in this study. Birds were randomly allocated to dietary treatments comprising four JCM levels (negative control, 25, 50, or 100 g JCM/kg of diet for four weeks. Results showed that increasing levels of JCM had a negative impact on broiler performance, reducing live weight, weight gain, and feed intake. Treatments led to a decrease of the relative weight of testis and spleen, and to an increase in heart relative weight. In broilers fed diets containing JCM, the testis were atrophic, presenting reduced size of the seminiferous tubule, which were small and lined within active sertoli cells and rare spermatogonia. This study illustrates the negative impact of diets containing JCM on broiler performance and JCM pathological effects on several organs.
Van Driessche, E; Houf, K
Both Campylobacter and Arcobacter are commonly present on broiler carcasses. For Campylobacter, the superficial contamination originates predominantly from fecal contamination during slaughter. In contrast with Campylobacter, the source of the Arcobacter contamination is not clear. In several studies, arcobacters have been isolated in poultry processing plants from the carcasses and slaughter equipment, but not from the intestinal content. In literature, contradictory reports about the Arcobacter colonization of the chicken gut have been published. In most of those studies, arcobacters were not isolated from cecal content nor from litter or the feathers, though some studies reported the isolation of arcobacters from cloacal swab samples. The present study assessed if arcobacters are part of the chicken intestine, skin, or feather flora. Because no isolation protocol has been validated for poultry intestinal content, a previously developed Arcobacter isolation procedure for feces from livestock animals was first validated. With this method, a good repeatability, in-lab reproducibility and sensitivity, and a good suppression of the chicken fecal accompanying flora were achieved when 125 mg/L of 5-fluorouracil, 10 mg/L of amphotericine B, 100 mg/L of cycloheximide, 16 mg/L of cefoperazone, 64 mg/L of novobiocine, and 64 mg/L of trimethoprim were applied. The validated method was used to examine the presence of arcobacters in and on living chickens of 4 flocks at slaughter age. Because arcobacters were not isolated from the intestinal tract nor from the skin or feathers of the birds, this study was not able to identify arcobacters as part of the intestinal or skin flora, nor could confirm the role of process water as reservoir. However, the results clearly demonstrated that the time period for processing the samples and the way of sample collection are crucial in the interpretation of epidemiological studies. As the reservoir of the carcass contamination remains
Full Text Available Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin, Arom Korm ® (essential oil combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus limon, zeolite and a combination of zeolite with XTRACTTM or Aroma Korma ® on the fattening performance of chickens, their immunostimulating effect, the impact on the antioxidant status of the blood and muscle tissue, the impact on intestine micropopulation of chickens, effect on microbial contamination of meat, the impact on processing performances of broiler chicken and meat properties, and impact on the sensory quality of the chicken meat. The experiment was conducted on Ross 308 broilers, divided into 6 groups (control and treatment groups depending on the different supplements of essential oils, zeolites, or combinations thereof. The fattening lasted 42 days and total of 288 both sex chicks were included (48 per in each group. Influence of the addition of essential oils and natural zeolite had a different impact on the observed individual values. Separately added XTRACTTM and Aroma Korm ® had a good effect on the observed properties of fattening, the technological properties of meat, chicken health status, antioxidant parameters of blood and meat, microbiological contamination and organoleptic properties. Zeolite, as a standalone supplement, had the lowest impact on the observed properties, but in combination with Aroma Korm ® or XTRACTTM, Zeolite improved their activity.
Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu
To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.
Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I
A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth
Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K
The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed
Full Text Available In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on characteristics of pectoralis major (P. major muscle at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 35 and 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with two groups (LC-control group and LE experimental group. During the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing they have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; LE-higher with 10%. After slaughter, from each group were sampled breast muscles (five per sex and for P. major were determined: the weight, pH value, the thickness of myocytes (fiber diameter, cross-sectional area of fibers. At the LE group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the P. major muscle, as compared with LC. The sex and slaughter age have significantly influenced the fibers diameter from P. major muscle, that were thicker at female chickens, as compared with male chickens and at 42 days age vs. 35 days. Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE
Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan
Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.
Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan
Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:26875641
Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward
The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This β-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), β-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health.
Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis is an acute viral disease with high contagious and mortality among chicks. The aim of this study was to survey of relation between ascites syndrome incidence and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens by ELISA method in Iran. Eight Ross strain broiler farm affected by infectious bronchitis were selected in this study. Blood samples were gathered early stages of disease and blood sampling was repeated two times with seven days interval. ELISA serologic test was used for approving the determination of infectious bronchitis. In addition, in order to differential diagnosis of Newcastle and influenza (H9N2 some relevant experiments were conducted. The rate of mortality in any farm during rearing, autopsy and the cause of mortality were recorded. Ascites cases were calculated in terms of prevalence. The growth parameters, FCR, final weight, total consumption of grain at each farm were calculated and mentioned. Based on obtained results in this study, the mean rate of mortality caused by ascites syndrome has been increased meaningfully in herds affected by infectious bronchitis compared with control group. In eight understudied farms affected by infectious bronchitis, the mean rate of Ascites mortality was 3% such that the mean rate of Ascites mortality was 0.5% at previous periods. Based on relevant results also final weight mean in affected herds with infectious bronchitis was lower compared with previous periods. Meanwhile, FCR in affected herds with infectious bronchitis was high compared with healthy herds. In this research demonstrated that there is positive correlation between infectious bronchitis and Ascites syndrome and the correlation is significant (p<0.05.
Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying
The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway.
Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip
Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%).
Ziółkowski, H; Jasiecka, A; Zuśka-Prot, M; Przybysz, J; Grabowski, T; Jaroszewski, J J
The influence of the composition of calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and iron (Fe(3+)) ions in two concentration levels (low-500 mg/L of CaCl2, 125 mg/L of MgCl2, and 10 mg/L of FeCl3 and high-2,500 mg/L of CaCl2, 625 mg/L of MgCl2, and 50 mg/L of FeCl3) contained in water on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxytetracycline (OTC) was determined. OTC hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight to broiler chickens divided into four groups of nine birds each, including 3 oral groups (in deionized water -control, in water with low ion concentration, and in water with high ion concentration) and 1 intravenous group. OTC concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, after which non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted.The absolute bioavailability of OTC in the group of birds exposed to higher ions concentration was reduced (8.68% ± 2.56) as compared to the control (13.71% ± 2.60). Additionally, in this group, decrease in PK parameters such as: area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (15.36 μg × h/mL ± 4.36), from 0 to t (14.78 μg × h/mL ± 4.37), area under the first moment of curve from 0 to t (107.54 μg × h/mL ± 36.48), and maximum plasma concentration (2.13 μg/mL ± 0.32) were also observed. It is noteworthy, all mentioned parameters demonstrated a downward trend with high correlation coefficient (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, P = 0.005, P = 0.004, P = 0.011, respectively), reflecting the influence of increasing concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+) ions on the decreasing absorption rate of OTC.Based on the current research results, it can be assumed that high concentrations of several ions applied concomitantly are able to decrease the absorption of OTC from gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens. This occurrence might impair the drug's clinical efficacy toward some pathogenic microorganisms. It implies that using OTC on a farm may require
Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M
This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly decreasing the growth performance of broiler chickens.
Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O
The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.
Ibitoye, E. B.; Y. U. Dabai; L. Mudi
Aim: The study examined the effect of different drinking water sources on performance, carcass characteristicsand haematology of broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: 63 unsexed day-old broiler chicks were randomly grouped into three treatment groups(Treatments 1, 2 and 3), each consisting of three replicates of seven chicks each. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 were givenwater from various sources: pipe borne water; borehole water and well water, respectively from day-old to sevenweeks of age. The w...
Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Carlos Eduardo Bites Romanini; Diego Pereira Neves; Guilherme Rodrigues do Nascimento; Rimena do Amaral Vercellino
Broiler chickens in Brazil are generally reared from 1 to 42 days when they are exposed to procedures such as fasting, harvesting, crating and transport to slaughter. Maintaining homeostasis is of great importance for broiler survival under harsh environment especially prior to slaughter. Heat loss varies in the distinct parts of the body during the growth period, and it is related to the air temperature of the environment and to the amount of feather covering. This research aimed to study th...
Effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemistry and the effectiveness of dietary lignin treatment to alleviate mycotoxin adverse effects in broiler chickens
Klapáčová Katarína; Faixová Zita; Grešáková L'uba; Faix Š.; Miklósová Lucia; Leng L.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on some biochemical parameters and the efficacy of lignin to alleviate adverse effects of fusariotoxins in broiler chickens. Eighty, 1-d-old ROSS 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used in the experiment. All birds received the control diet for two weeks and then they were fed experimental diets for two more weeks. The 4 diets included the fo...
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.
Ali Asghar Saki
Full Text Available The effect of crude protein (CP, amino acid (AA, and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB were evaluated on blood parameters, carcass traits, and broiler performance under heat stress (29-34°C. A total of 540 male chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to 12 diets with factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 3, using a completely randomized design with three replicates of 15 chickens in grower (13 to 26 days and finisher (27 to 42 days periods. and 120, 220, and 320 mEq kg-1 DEB. The level of 21% CP increased body weight gain (BWG and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR at grower period (p < 0.05. In contrast, 20% CP level decreased BWG and increased FCR at finisher period (p < 0.05. Further, 20% CP level reduced blood sodium and blood electrolyte balance (p < 0.05. The highest blood electrolyte balance was achieved by DEB 320 mEq kg-1 diet (p < 0.05. Broiler response to DEB in heat stress depended on the age of bird, length of exposure to high temperature and CP level of the diet. Under heat stress (29-34°C, the 21% CP level at grower period and 17% CP level at finisher period improved broiler BWG and FCR.
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.
Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.
Fragua, V; Vilarrasa, E; Manzanilla, E G; Villaverde, C; Barroeta, A C
It has been reported that applying a chemical reesterification process to a native fat results in a new fat source with different physicochemical properties due to their different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within the glycerol moiety and their different proportions of mono (MAG)-, di (DAG)- and triacylglycerides (TAG). Thus, this reesterification could affect fat digestion, absorption and metabolism; and this effect could vary among species given their differences in fat metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feeding two different random esterified acid oils (REAO), presenting different MAG, DAG and TAG proportions, with their corresponding native oil on postprandial lipaemia in broiler chickens and dogs. For this purpose, 18 dogs and 54 broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with palm native oil, palm REAO low MAG or palm REAO high MAG. The inclusion level of the oils was 10% of the diet in dogs and 6% in broiler chickens. Serum postprandial TAG concentration (mg/dl) after feeding a single meal was measured at different time points during 12 h in dogs and 3 h in chickens. Although fasting serum TAG concentration values were similar for both species (47 ± 2.4 mg/dl for dogs and 44 ± 3.0 mg/dl for broilers; p = 0.522), postprandial TAG concentrations tended to be higher in broilers than in dogs (p = 0.058). Treatment had no effect on TAG concentration at any time point in any species (p = 0.768 for dogs, p = 0.947 for broilers). However, the postprandial TAG curves were very different between species; in broiler chickens, TAG concentration returned to the fasting values 3 h after feeding while in dogs, the TAG concentration still had not returned to basal levels 12 h after feeding. PMID:23639020
Akhilesh S Dhanani
Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics.The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,,12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile.This study showed that the predominant Salmonella serovars in broiler chickens harbor genes
Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A
Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection. PMID:23736053
Jigna D Shah
Full Text Available Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age and (b the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.
I. Babińska*, K. Kleczek1, W. Makowski1 and J. Szarek
Full Text Available Propolis is a resin-like mixture produced by bees and composed of natural substances demonstrating a broad range of biological activity, e.g. antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidizing, immunostimulating and immunomodulating effects. Among abundant research on its properties has been carried out but a few reports concerning the use of this substance in animal production, particularly in poultry breeding are available. There is little information about its effects upon the morphology of individual organs and tissues predisposed to damage as a result of intensive fattening of poultry. A-day old 400 chicks were divided into equal four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as negative and positive control, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were kept on propolis (10 and 50 mg/kg of feed supplemented feed for 42 days, respectively. At the end, randomly selected 12 birds from each group were killed humanly. Gross lesions were noted and liver and kidney samples were processed for histopathological studies. The results demonstrated a protective effect of propolis particularly upon the liver of broiler chickens, in which it reduced the intensity of regressive lesions. This protective effect was noticeable especially in the group of birds receiving a higher dose of propolis.
Sheila Tavares Nascimento
Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress, in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure, in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90 minutes of exposure. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature were elaborated for both strains, for each one of the weeks of the rearing period. Strains differed, regardless of treatments and conditions adopted in the research on the third, fifth and sixth weeks of life in relation to the cloacal temperature. The Cobb strain is more tolerant to thermal stress in comparison with the Avian. There was difference for both variables between comfort and stress, but time of exposure to stress did not influence the physiological response of birds, except for cloacal temperature on the second week of life.
Rao Z Abbas
Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.
Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska
A toxicokinetic study of the Fusarium mycotoxins enniatin B1 (ENN B1) and enniatin B (ENN B) was performed in broiler chickens. Each animal received ENN B1 or B orally via an intracrop bolus and intravenously at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Both enniatins were poorly absorbed after oral administration, with absolute oral bioavailabilities of 0.05 and 0.11 for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. Both enniatins were readily distributed to the tissues, with mean volumes of distribution of 25.09 and 33.91 L/kg for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. The mean total body clearance was rather high, namely, 6.63 and 7.10 L/h/kg for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. Finally, an UHPLC-HRMS targeted approach was used to investigate the phase I and II biotransformations of both mycotoxins. Oxygenation was the major phase I biotransformation pathway for both ENNs B1 and B. Neither glucuronide nor sulfate phase II metabolites were detected. PMID:27632250
Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R; Morota, G; Valente, B D; Kranis, A; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D
Bootstrap aggregation (bagging) is a resampling method known to produce more accurate predictions when predictors are unstable or when the number of markers is much larger than sample size, because of variance reduction capabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) with bootstrap aggregated sampling GBLUP (Bagged GBLUP, or BGBLUP) in terms of prediction accuracy. We used a 600 K Affymetrix platform with 1351 birds genotyped and phenotyped for three traits in broiler chickens; body weight, ultrasound measurement of breast muscle and hen house egg production. The predictive performance of GBLUP versus BGBLUP was evaluated in different scenarios consisting of including or excluding the TOP 20 markers from a standard genome-wide association study (GWAS) as fixed effects in the GBLUP model, and varying training sample sizes and allelic frequency bins. Predictive performance was assessed via five replications of a threefold cross-validation using the correlation between observed and predicted values, and prediction mean-squared error. GBLUP overfitted the training set data, and BGBLUP delivered a better predictive ability in testing sets. Treating the TOP 20 markers from the GWAS into the model as fixed effects improved prediction accuracy and added advantages to BGBLUP over GBLUP. The performance of GBLUP and BGBLUP at different allele frequency bins and training sample sizes was similar. In general, results of this study confirm that BGBLUP can be valuable for enhancing genome-enabled prediction of complex traits. PMID:25727456
Hermans, David; Van Steendam, Katleen; Verbrugghe, Elin; Verlinden, Marc; Martel, An; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Zutter, Lieven; Deforce, Dieter; Pasmans, Frank
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens' egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217
Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count
Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.
Full Text Available The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40% and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28% for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01, and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01 with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01. It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens.
Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens
Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy, two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum, and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days, with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging and radiation had no influence (p>0.05 on chicken breast meat pH, water retention capacity, or presence of Salmonella spp. Breast fillets not submitted to radiation and vacuum packed presented higher water retention capacity (p<0.05 than those radiated at 4kGy and vacuum packed. Drip loss in fillets radiated at 8kGy and not vacuum packed was higher (p<0.05 than in non-radiated and non-vacuum packed fillets; however, both were not different from the other treatments. Coliform presence increased with storage time in non-radiated samples; however, when these were vacuum-packed, their development was slower. The results of the present experiment suggest that the use of a low radiation dose (2kGy, combined with vacuum packing, may minimize the harmful effects of storage on chicken breast fillets.
Martin, Jessica E; Christensen, Karen; Vizzier-Thaxton, Yvonne; Mitchell, Malcolm A; McKeegan, Dorothy E F
A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process. We also examined the effect of two temperature adjusted pressure curves on these responses. Broiler chickens were exposed to LAPS in 30 triplets (16 and 14 triplets assigned to each pressure curve). In each triplet, one bird was instrumented for recording of EEG and ECG while the behaviour of all three birds was observed. Birds showed a consistent sequence of behaviours during LAPS (ataxia, loss of posture, clonic convulsions and motionless) which were observed in all birds. Leg paddling, tonic convulsions, slow wing flapping, mandibulation, head shaking, open bill breathing, deep inhalation, jumping and vocalisation were observed in a proportion of birds. Spectral analysis of EEG responses at 2s intervals throughout LAPS revealed progressive decreases in median frequency at the same time as corresponding progressive increases in total power, followed later by decreases in total power as all birds exhibited isoelectric EEG and died. There was a very pronounced increase in total power at 50-60s into the LAPS cycle, which corresponded to dominance of the signal by high amplitude slow waves, indicating loss of consciousness. Slow wave EEG was seen early in the LAPS process, before behavioural evidence of loss of consciousness such as ataxia and loss of posture, almost certainly due to the fact that it was completely dark in the LAPS chamber. ECG recordings showed a pronounced bradycardia (starting on average 49.6s into LAPS), often associated with arrhythmia, until
Poliana Fernanda Giachetto
Full Text Available The hepatic expression and plasma concentrations of IGF-I were investigated in three broiler chicken strains selected for different growth rates (HP-Hubbard-Pettersen, a fast growing strain; NN-Naked-neck, a strain with an intermediate growth rate and a heterozygous genotype, and C-Caipira, a slow growing crossbred strain. The chickens were studied at 1, 21 and 42 days of age and had free access to food throughout the study. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was assessed by dot blot analysis using a randomly labeled chicken IGF-I cDNA as the probe and plasma IGF-I concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The hepatic levels of IGF-I mRNA increased from 1 to 21 days of age in all strains, with NN chickens showing a higher (p < 0.05 IGF-I expression than the other strains. Plasma IGF-I concentrations increased (p < 0.05 with broiler chicken age, but there were no significant differences among the strains. These results indicate that despite differences in the growth rates among the strains, the changes in the expression of IGF-I mRNA in liver and in the plasma levels of IGF-I were independent of broiler chicken strain, but varied with chicken age.
Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E
A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063
Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska
Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (Penteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.
M. H. H. Awaad
Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.
Michele De Marco
Full Text Available A trial has been performed to evaluate the effects of dietary verbascoside (VB on the growth performance, blood traits, meat quality and histological features of broiler chickens. Seventy-two male broiler chickens (Ross 708 were divided into three experimental groups (8 replicates: a control group (C; basal diet, a low VB group (LVB; basal diet+2.5 mg VB/kg feed and a high VB group (HVB; basal diet+5.0 mg VB/kg feed. The animals were kept in cages, three birds per cage. The trial lasted 35 days. Growth performance and carcass yield were recorded. Blood samples were collected at day 35 in order to evaluate the blood, serum and plasma parameters. As a result of this study, growth and slaughter performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. The LVB and HVB groups showed significantly lower concentrations of total protein (P=0.000, albumin (P=0.000, α-globulin (P=0.001 and β-globulin (P=0.023 than C group. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in HVB group than in LVB and C groups (P=0.005. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances results indicated lower lipid oxidation in the LVB group than in C group. The most relevant histological feature was the lymphoid depletion observed in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius in LVB and HVB. Other studies are still needed to identify the optimal dosage and exposure time of VB dietary supplementation and to further investigate the effects of VB on lymphoid tissue as well as to establish the VB antioxidant effect on broiler chickens.
Płowiec, Arkadiusz; Sławińska, Anna; Siwek, Maria Z; Bednarczyk, Marek F
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens. ANIMALS 45 Ross broilers. PROCEDURES On day 12 of embryonic development, 360 eggs were equally allocated among 3 treatment groups and injected with 0.2 mL of a solution that contained 1.76 mg of inulin (prebiotic group) or 1.76 mg of inulin enriched with 1,000 CFUs of L lactis subsp lactis 2955 (synbiotic group), or they were injected with 0.2 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control). At 1, 14, and 35 days after hatching, 5 male birds from each group were euthanized, and the spleen and cecal tonsils were harvested for determination of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, cluster of differentiation 80, interferon-β, and interferon-γ expression by means of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Gene expressions in the cecal tonsils and spleens of chickens in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups were compared with those of control chickens at each tissue collection time. RESULTS Compared with control birds, immune-related gene expression was downregulated in birds in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups, and the magnitude of that downregulation was more pronounced in the cecal tonsils than in the spleen and increased with age. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that in ovo administration of a prebiotic or synbiotic to broilers was associated with downregulation of immune-related gene expression in the cecal tonsils and spleen. The magnitude of that downregulation increased with age and was most likely caused by stabilization of the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Kazaryan R. V.; Fabritskaya A. A.; Borodihin A. S.; Miroshnichenko P. V.
The results of the work experience carried out in the poultry breeding farm of Limited Liability Company «Incubator-poultry plant Pervomaiskaja» on the effect of the multifunctional feed additive «Tetra+» on productivity of males and laying hens in the production of broiler chickens. It is found that males experimental group receiving the feed additive in the diet «Tetra+» have better blood serum biochemical indices in comparison with the control group cockerels. This indicates that the feed ...
Zheng, C.T.; Jørgensen, Henning; Høy, Carl-Erik;
1. Specific structured triacylglycerides (STG) containing medium chain fatty acids in sn-1,3 positions and along chain fatty acid in sn-2 position were prepared from rapeseed oil and capric acid (C10:0). 2. A total of 80 female broiler chickens ( Ross 208) were randomly allocated into five dietary...... consecutive balance periods each of 6 d. Two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air circuit respiration chambers were performed during the second and third day of each balance period. 3. During the whole experiment there was a negative effect of the inclusion of STG on average feed intake. However...
Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity
The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy
Thanissery, R; McReynolds, J L; Conner, D E; Macklin, K S; Curtis, P A; Fasina, Y O
The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis is Clostridium perfringens. Traditionally, necrotic enteritis is controlled with in-feed antibiotics. However, increasing consumer demand for drug-free poultry has fostered the search for nonantibiotic alternatives. Yeast extract contain nucleotides that are immunomodulatory and also essential for cellular functions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NuPro yeast extract (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) in reducing intestinal C. perfringens levels in broiler chickens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old male broiler chicks were obtained and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a battery cage trial. Treatment 1 consisted of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) without added bacitracin methylene disalicylate or NuPro. Treatment 2 consisted of chicks fed BD into which bacitracin methylene disalicylate was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 consisted of chicks fed BD supplemented with NuPro at a 2% level for the first 10 d of the experiment. Treatments 4 (PX), 5, and 6 (PN) consisted of chicks that were challenged with 3 mL of the C. perfringens inoculum (~10(7) cfu/mL) on d 14, 15, and 16 of the experiment and fed diets similar to treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On d 1 and 7 postchallenge, intestinal C. perfringens levels, lesion scores, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. On d 1 postchallenge, C. perfringens level in treatment 5 (2.09 log(10) cfu/g) was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the PX treatment (4.71 log(10) cfu/g) but similar to the PN treatment (2.98 log(10) cfu/g). A similar trend was observed on d 7 postchallenge. NuPro supplementation enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens-challenged chicks and appeared to reduce intestinal lesion scores. Although dietary supplementation of NuPro in the PN treatment reduced C. perfringens levels by 1.73 and 0.68 log(10) cfu/g compared with the PX treatment on d 1 and 7 postchallenge, respectively, these
Ganapathi Raj Murugesan
Full Text Available The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432, day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen. The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal based control (CON, CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g, or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, the PFA fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05. Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05. The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05. These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA fed birds. Overall both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05. Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of PFA as a substitute to AGP in
Jeffersson Rafael Henz
Full Text Available The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, the AME corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn and their respective metabolization coefficients (CME and CMEn of crude glycerin were determined utilizing the total excreta collection method with broiler chickens at different ages. A randomized complete design was used, with six treatments, six replications and ten, five and four birds per experimental unit in the periods from 11 to 20 days, from 21 to 30 days and from 31 to 40 days of age, respectively. The test food replaced the reference diet in 0; 3; 6; 9; 12 and 15% and the experimental period lasted ten days, five of which for adaptation and five for total collection. The AME and AMEn values in the phase from 11 to 20 days ranged from 2723 to 3817 and from 2672 to 3666 kcal/kg-1, respectively. In the phase from 21 to 30 days the AME and AMEn values ranged from 3723 to 3982 and from 3555 to 3945 kcal/kg-1, respectively. In the phase from 31 to 40 days the AME and AMEn values ranged from 3029 to 4143 and from 2975 to 4048 kcal/kg-1, respectively. The values of CME and CMEn linearly decreased from 11 to 20 days of age, ranging from 87.39 to 62.90 and 84.41 to 61.53%, respectively. During the phase from 21 to 30 days the coefficients also linearly decreased, ranging from 91.70 to 84.30 for CME and from 90.80 to 81.40% for CMEn. In contrast, during the phase from 31 to 40 days, the coefficients linearly increased, values ranging from 95.39 to 69.76 for CME and from 93.21 to 68.51% for CMEn. The crude glycerin can be used as an energy source in broiler diets, because it has high levels of metabolizable energy. However, the values of AME and AMEn and the metabolization coefficients of crude glycerin vary according to the levels in the reference diet and age of the birds.
Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.
Suriya Kumari Ramiah
Full Text Available Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two diets containing 0 and 2.5% CLA and fed for 6 weeks. Fatty acid (FA composition of liver and PPAR α and γ and L-FABP were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that CLA was found in the liver of CLA-feed chicken compared to control group. Hepatic PPAR α and γ mRNA levels were upregulated 1.2 and 3-fold in CLA-fed chickens compared to chickens fed diet without CLA respectively. A similar response of upregulation was observed for L-FABP mRNA expression. Our data highlights the role of PPARs as a core regulator in the regulation of lipid metabolism in chicken liver.
Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.
Ryadchikov V. G.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of fatty acid concentrate (FAC, as a new source of energy and carnitine on performance, physiological condition and meat quality of broiler chickens. In experiment there were four groups of 80 chickens of cross Hubbard each (males: females=40:40 in age period 0-41 days. 1 group (control received in during the periods 0-14, 15-28 and 29-41days, sunflower oil (SO respectively 5.34%, 5.50%, and 6.10%, group 2 received the same amounts of FAC instead SO, 3 group - mixture SO:FAC (50:50, 4 group -FAC + 0,25% carnitine. Final body weight: 1 group = 2574±29 g, 2 group FAC= 2553±27 g 3 group SO + FAC = 2531±34 g., 4 group FAC+0,25 carnitine = 2520±34 g. Feed conversion, digestibility of nutrients, blood hematology and biochemistry, the condition of organs, meat quality and cutting of carcass of chickens on FAC had no any differences from the same signs in chicks on SO. Carnitine had a positive effect on chicken growth only in the period 0-14 and less 15-28 days; in the period 29-41 days daily gain was below, than that in 1-3 groups. Canitine reduced the content of liver fat. Outcome: FAC is a satisfactory source of energy, comparable with vegetable oils. The price of FAC is 30% lower in comparison with sunflower oil and soybean oils, therefore its use in broiler poultry farming instead of vegetable oils will be of great economic importance
Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi
Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.
Richard V N Davis
Full Text Available Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2 and negative (MSTN, ACE myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.
Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J
Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.
Supriyati; Haryati, T; Susanti, T; Susana, I W R
An experiment was conducted to increase the quality of rice bran by fermentation using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and humic substances and its utilization as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out in two steps. First, the fermentation process was done using a completely randomized design in factorial with 16 treatments: i) Dosage of B. amyloliquefaciens (2.10(8) cfu/g), 10 and 20 g/kg; ii) Graded levels of humic substances, 0, 100, 200, and 400 ppm; iii) Length of fermentation, three and five days. The results showed that the fermentation significantly (price bran: 20 g/kg dosage of inoculums B. amyloliquefaciens, 100 ppm level of humic substances and three days fermentation period. The second step was a feeding trial to evaluate the fermented rice bran (FRB) as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Three hundred and seventy-five one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatment diets. Arrangement of the diets as follows: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% level of FRB and the diets formulation based on equal amounts of energy and protein. The results showed that 15% inclusion of FRB in the diet provided the best bodyweight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. In conclusion, the nutrient content of rice bran improved after fermentation and the utilization of FRB as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens could be included up to 15% of the broiler diet. PMID:25557819
Gordana Kralik; Helga Medić; Nives Marušić; Zlata Kralik; Manuela Grčević
Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles ...
Characteristics productive and meat quality of broiler chickens fed finisher diet without vitamin-mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate and submitted to heat stress pre-slaughter Características produtivas e de qualidade de carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas de terminação sem suplemento vitamínicomineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico e submetidos a estresse térmico pré-abate
Sandra Regina Brunelli
Full Text Available Search mechanisms that can reduce the cost of production of poultry is an important factor in the poultry industry. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase, further of the broilers chickens to heat stress pre-slaughter. Hybro male broiler (n=108 aged 42 days old were evaluated until 49 days old to evaluate the performance, carcass and cuts yield, blood biochemistry and meat quality. The results showed that the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase did not impair the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality, as well as showing a possible mechanism to reduce production costs. While heat stress pre-slaughter provided a poor meat quality of poultry. Buscar mecanismos que possam reduzir o custo de produção das aves, sem reduzir o desempenho e a qualidade do produto final é um importante fator dentro da cadeia avícola. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico da ração na fase de acabamento, além de submeter os frangos de corte a estresse térmico pré-abate visando avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade de carne do peito. Foram utilizados 108 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Hybro com 42 dias de idade, que receberam uma ração controle, ração sem suplemento vitamínico-mineral e sem calcário e fosfato bicálcico, dos 42 aos 49 dias de idade. Foram avaliados os dados de desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e cortes, bioquímica do sangue e qualidade de carne. Os resultados mostraram que a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou o calcário e o fosfato bicálcico da dieta de terminação não prejudicou o desempenho, características de carcaça e qualidade de carne, mostrando assim como um possível mecanismo para reduzir os custos de produ
Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...
Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...
Vries, de S.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.
Marker methodologies to measure ileal and total tract digestibilities of diets varying in content and degradability of dietary fiber in broiler chickens were evaluated. Chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and cobalt-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Co-EDTA) were used as markers of solid and soluble fracti
Effect of Scrophularia striata and Ferulago angulata, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broiler chickens.
Rostami, Farhad; Ghasemi, Hossein A; Taherpour, Kamran
An experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of Scrophularia striata, Ferulago angulata, and virginiamycin (VM) on performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broilers. A total of 300 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 5 replicates/treatment (10 chickens/pen). Birds were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VM; 4 g/kg S. striata (SS1); 8 g/kg S. striata (SS2); 4 g/kg F. angulata (FA1); or 8 g/kg F. angulata (FA2). After 6 wk, the BW, ADG, and feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) of the VM, SS1, and FA1 groups were better (Pantibiotic growth promoter. Furthermore, a high dose of both herbs (8 g/kg diet) could beneficially affect the intestinal health and immune status of broilers. PMID:26217029
The purpose of investigations was to determine, by means of pathomorphological methods, the incidence of different rickets forms and their role for the occurrence of other illnesses in broiler chickens in Bulgaria. Clinical, blood biochemical, gross anatomy and histological investigations were carried out in broiler chickens with signs of rickets. The studies were performed in 12 broiler flocks in 4 farms located in different regions of the country. Based on macro- and microscopic lesions, alterations specific for hypocalcaemic rickets were observed in two farms, whereas signs of hypophosphataemic rickets - in the other two. The rickets diagnosis was confirmed by analysis of blood serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate concentrations. At the age of 30-35 days, various pathological states were observed in the same farms. The presented results suggested that existing problems in studied flocks were associated with an earlier occurrence of rickets.
Paião, F.G.; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bôas, G.T.; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.
The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281
Full Text Available The addition of antioxidants to broiler diets has been shown to enhance their antioxidant status. Since boldo (Peumus boldus Mol. leaves contain highly antioxidant molecules, a dried extract of boldo (DEB was added to broiler diets to improve "in vivo" antioxidant tissue status and to favor animal growth. A DEB standardized for antioxidant content was prepared and added to poultry diets at three different levels (low-DELB, medium-DEMB, and high-DEHB for a period of 6 weeks. A single negative control (no added antioxidant and one positive control (supplementation with 200 mg/kg vitamin E were used. Plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC, thiol content (GHS, and basal and induced lipoperoxidation of liver, leg and breast tissues were determined in birds at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age. PAC increased with chicken age until week 6, but was unaffected by DEB addition at any level. However, DEB increased hepatic GSH content. No data indicated that DEB improved the resistance against induced lipoperoxidation in the assayed tissues. DEB contains compounds exhibiting high antioxidant activity "in vivo", as evidenced by the increase in liver thiol content. Regarding broiler performance, no differences in poultry body weight and feed consumption were detected during the assay.
Full Text Available A 42-day trial was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil (TEO on serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Seven hundred and sixty-eight selected one-day-old Mahua broilers were divided into 8 dietary treatment groups with an addition of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.35 mg/kg of thyme essential oil respectively, with 4 replicate pens per treatment group (24 birds each. The feeding programme included a starter diet until day 21 and a finisher diet from day 22 until day 42. The results suggested that TEO markedly increased serum total proteins and globulins on day 21, significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activity (P≤0.05, the albumin- to-globulin ratio, and serum urea on day 21 and 42, and in particular it improved highdensity lipoproteins on day 21 and 42 (P≤0.05. In conclusion, TEO can promote protein metabolism, enhance lipolysis and strengthen the immune function. Furthermore, after a comprehensive analysis, the ideal range of the essential oil addition to the broiler feed proved to be between 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg.
Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C
The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133
Full Text Available The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456 on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control; (ii standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control; (iii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456; (iv standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria.
Dipak Kumar Mondal
Full Text Available Coccidiosis has a major impact on poultry industry as it affects broiler and layer birds of all age groups. Caecal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria tenella is a very devastating enteric disease in broiler,which involves huge economic loss In present study, experimental infective dose of Eimeria tenella isolated from field was determined in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different plasma biochemical constituents were evaluated at interval of 5th, 7th and 9th day of post inoculation (PI with the selected dose of 20000-25000 sporulated oocyst per bird. The dose was selected based on titration. A significant increase in plasma glucose, total cholesterol level and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity were observed where as a significant decrease in the level of total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity were evident during infection. Highest degree of infection was found on 7th day PI. Onward 9th day of PI onward clinical recovery was confirmed on the basis of pathognomonic caecal lesion score, clinical signs and symptoms. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 404-409
Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0, whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1, basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2, basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P3, and basal diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 2.25 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P4. Experimental results showed that weight gain of P1 and P4 were significantly higher (P0.05, but the weight of intestine was significantly affected (P0.05. P4 had better meat color than P0, P1, dan P2 (P0.05. In conclusion, in order to improve performance and carcass quality, broiler chickens could be given katuk extract through diet plus drinking water at level of 4.5 g/kg diet plus 2.25 g/l drinking water.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of feeding diets containing 69μg/ kg of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (Hy.D), 0.45% (P100) or 0.35% (P50) National Research Council's available phosphorus (P) requirement with or without natuphos (phytase) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the first experiment (balance study) indicated no significant effects (P>0.05) in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of broilers at 21 days of age. Tibia bone ash percentage was not effected by the dietary treatments. Chicks fed the P100 diet had a significantly (P<0.05) higher apparent P retention than those fed the P50 diet. The pH of different segments of intestine was not affected by dietary treatments. The phytase activities in the duodenal contents and tissues were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the chicks receiving diets with Hy.D in the absence of phytase. There were no differences in the growth performance of broilers under commercial conditions due to sources of vitamin D in the diets at 39 days of age.(Author)
Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo
High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be because of higher production of VFA in the cecum, especially at heat stress condition. The two Lactobacillus
Bersényi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szilágyi, M; Berta, Erzsébet; Zöldág, L; Glávits, R
Broiler chicken and rabbit experiments were carried out to study the effects of nickel (Ni) supplementation on growth performance and Ni metabolism. ROSS cockerels and New Zealand White female rabbits were fed a diet containing Ni in concentrations of 0, 50 and 500 mg/kg in dry matter (DM). Dietary supplementation of 50 mg Ni/kg slightly improved the body weight gain (BWG) and had a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in broiler chickens. However, Ni added at a level of 500 mg/kg significantly (P supplementation of 500 mg Ni/kg, indicating damage of the liver parenchyma. The results of serum biochemistry were confirmed by a mild or moderate form of pathological focal fatty infiltration of the liver in broilers. Supplemental Ni of 50 mg/kg concentration resulted in non-significantly increased BWG in rabbits. Ni added to the diet at a level of 500 mg/kg reduced the digestibility of crude protein by 3-4% and that of crude fibre by 20-25% in rabbits. Approx. 98% of the ingested Ni was lost from the body via the faeces, 0.5-1.5% via the urine and approx. 1% was incorporated into the organs of rabbits. As a result of dietary supplementation of 50 and 500 mg Ni/kg, Ni accumulated in the kidneys (4.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.3 mg/kg DM), ribs (10.3 +/- 0.4 and 10.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.6 mg/kg DM), heart (1.4 +/- 0.2 and 2.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.1 mg/kg DM) and liver (1.3 +/- 0.1 and 2.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.05 mg/kg DM), as compared to the control animals. It can be stated that supplementation of the diet with 50 mg Ni/kg had slight but non-significant beneficial effects on the growth performance of broiler chickens and rabbits.
Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari
Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to determine the residual amounts of chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin in broiler chickens muscle and liver samples gathered from local markets of Tabriz City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Ninety broiler chickens carcasses were collected from different local markets of Tabriz, during July/August 2013. Random samples of thigh and breast muscle and liver were gathered and kept at -80C until analyzes. The samples were then assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA according to the protocol of each antibiotic kit. Data were statistically analyzed using the computer program SAS 9.1. Results: Eighty two samples (91/1 % contained residues of enrofloxacin, although mean (±SDof enrofloxacin concentration was lower than the European Union maximum residue limits(MRLs value (P<0.001. Moreover, 28 (31/1 % had detectable concentrations of chloramphenicol while it was not defined any MRLs value for chloramphenicol because its using has been forbidden in food animals. Conclusion: The frequency of contamination with enrofloxacin was considerable for the analyzed samples. Furthermore, the existence of chloramphenicol in almost one third of samples seems to be a public health threat due to its illegal use in food animals including poultry.
Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the vegetable oils added to the combined fodder can significantly modify the fatty acids profile in broiler food, through its redirection even the fatty acids profile of carcasses can be modified through enrichment in certain fatty acids and obtaining functional foods. Therefore an experiment was conduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder in which 2% of different fat sources have been incorporated (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. After the 42 days growth period, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA, DPA, DHA, ∑ SFA, ∑ MUFA, ∑ PUFA of the chicken from the experimental groups, were determined. Fatty acids were determined using gascromatography. The data obtained after statistic processing and interpretation have highlighted the fact that, concerning the fatty acids profile in the chickens breast, we can observe variations of the determined fatty acids content, what shows us that they can be influenced through dietary factors, but there quantity being determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.
Joshua O. Olubodun
Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.
Full Text Available The NSP in cereal grains are composed predominantly of arabinoxylans (pentosans, beta glucans and cellulose. The main soluble NSP in these grains are arabinoxylans, while in barley and oats the are betaglucans. In this experiment we want to establish the influence of NSPs and NSPi from barley on nutritive and bioproductive indices at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 120 broiler chickens divided in four experimental groups (CL, EL1, EL2 and EL3. The difference between the experimental groups was the different percentage of barley in the structure of combined forage and it was between 0 and 30% in the growth period from eclosion to 21 days and between 0 and 40% from 22 till 42 days of age. On the entire growth period the smallest forage consumption was registered by the control group, which had no barley in the structure of combined forage and registered the smallest values of NSPs and NSPi. The body weight at experimental groups was smaller with 3.25% but the differences were not statistical significant. In the growth period from 0-6 weeks in the experimental group EL1 the specific consumption is greater with 5.63% comparatively with the control group CL.
Martin Levkut, ml.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus leaf extract on growth, carcass quality and the number of fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens. Forty-eight male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (21-d-old obtained from a commercial hatchery were used in the present study. Experiment consisted of four treatment groups with four pen replicates of three broilers allotted randomly to each dietary treatment from day 21-42 old. One group was the control with no additional Sauropus androgynus leaf extract (SAE (P0, and other three groups were given drinking water supplemented with 1.5 g (PI, 3.0 g (P2 or 4.5 g SAE/l water (P3. The diet used was a commercial mix (Crude protein: 19% and Metabolizable Energy 3200 kcal/kg. Feed intake significantly reduced in P2 or P3 as compared with the control (P<0.05. A decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment groups as compared with Po (P<0.05. Abdominal fat, neck fat and liver fat content were significantly reduced by SAE (P<0.05, while carcass fat content was not significantly different. Number of fecal Escherichia coli in P1 or P3 (P<0,01 and fecal Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp. were significantly (P<0,01 reduced by SAE supplementation as compared with the control, while fecal Bacillus subtilis in P2 and Lactobacillus sp. in P1 (P<0,01 were significantly higher as compared with other groups. SAE (P2 or P3 also significantly improved meat taste, shank color but lowered meat color (P<0.05 as compared with the control group. It was found that the number of fecal Streptococcus sp was suitable to predict abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inclusion of SAE at 4.5 g/l drinking water resulted in the best performance and carcass quality.
Mohammad R. Ghorbani
Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of purslane extract on performance, cecal microflora composition and immune responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety two 1–day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were allocated randomly in 4 groups with 4 replicates to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of purslane extract for 42 days. Body weight gain, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly and calculated for starter (1-21 d, grower (22-42 d and overall periods (1-42 d. All diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and provided ad libitum. Antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC was measured on d-28 and d-42. At the age of 42 d, eight chicks per treatment killed aseptically for enumeration of cecal bacteria. The results of this experiment indicated that FI increased significantly with inclusion of purslane extract in grower and overall period (p≤0.05. Purslane extract did not affect coliform and Escherichia coli populations but increased Lactobacillus population of cecal content significantly (p≤0.05. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary antibody titer against SRBC and no differences among the treatments for relative weight of thymus and spleen (p>0.05. Relative weight of bursa was affected with inclusion of purslane extract in the diet. Therefore, it was concluded that purslane inclusion had a positive significant effect on cecal microflora composition, but had no effect on immune response of broiler chickens.
Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of time of broiler chicken transportation and lairage prior to slaughtering on the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and Death On Arrival (DOA under non-commercial conditions in the Brazilian summer. Male birds (n=250 from a commercial line were subjected to different periods of journey (30, 90, and 180 min and lairage (0, 90, and 180 min before slaughtering. The occurrence of PSE was higher in broilers subjected to shorter journeys and lairage periods, whereas DOA was more pronounced upon longer periods of transport and lairage. The DOA occurrence percentage was much higher in comparison to commercially available figures, confirming that broiler chickens are very sensitive to both transport and lairage maneuvers.O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de transporte e período de descanso antes do abate dos frangos na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative: Pálido, Amolecido e Exsudativo e DOA (Dead On Arrival: Morte Na Chegada nas condições não comerciais durante o verão brasileiro. Frangos machos (n=250 de uma linhagem comercial foram submetidos a diferentes periodos de jornada (30, 90 e 180 min e descanso (0, 90 e 180 min antes do abate. A ocorrência do PSE foi maior em frangos submetidos tanto em tempos para as viagens curtas como para o de descanso enquanto que DOA foi mais pronunciada em condições de jornadas longas e maior periodo de descanso. A porcentagem da ocorrência do DOA foi maior ao se comparar com os resultados obtidas por empresas comerciais confirmando que os frangos são sensiveis às condições das viagens e de descanso a que são submetidos.
Full Text Available Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05. Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.
This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...
The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...
Full Text Available Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme (Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and 700 u g−1 β-glucanase supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied. Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control and 500 mg kg−1 DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain, feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days of age (pConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme (Endofeed W in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio, carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood, but it had not significant effect on carcass composition.
Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.
Husvéth, F; Manilla, H A; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P; Balogh, N; Wágner, L; Lóth, I; Németh, K
The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver alpha-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.
Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.
Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta
The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5 % added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers. PMID:26606933
Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J
Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens. PMID:26473669
Wu, Hao; Wang, Mingyu; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Yunkun; Lu, Jinxing; Xu, Hai
class 1 integrons (p<0.01). Additional conjugation experiments confirmed this relationship (p<0.01) in transconjugants by finding that a high percentage of PMQR genes (74.0%) and class 1 integrons (73.7%) were co-transferred with ESBL genes. Finally, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and it revealed that the isolates from chickens are widely distributed in humans, and that antimicrobial resistance is not only disseminated by clonal spreading, but largely by horizontal gene transfer. These results suggest that horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by mobile genetic elements, such as integrons, plays a major role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, elucidating the structures of drug resistance integrons is of great importance to the commercial broiler slaughter plant in Shandong, China. PMID:27289192
Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the
Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila
Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P broiler chicken. PMID:25737644
Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Thangavel, Gokila; Kurian, Hannah; Mani, Ravichandran; Mukkalil, Rajalekshmi; Chirakkal, Haridasan
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 replicates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12 birds in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were an uninfected control, an infected control, and an infected group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 at 500 g/t of feed, containing 5 × 10(11) cfu/kg. Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broiler birds via oral inoculation of 30,000 oocysts of mixed strains of Eimeria species on d 14 followed by C. perfringens (10(8) cfu/mL) on d 19 through 21 of trial. The birds were analyzed for BW gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal lesion score, intestinal C. perfringens counts, and villus histomorphometry. The infected control group showed markedly thickened mucosa, hemorrhages, intestinal lesions, and ballooning of intestine. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 reduced the FCR (P < 0.05) and intestinal C. perfringens counts significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the infected control group. It was also observed that B. subtilis PB6 improved villi length by 10.88 and 30.46% (P < 0.05) compared with uninfected and infected control groups, respectively. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the villi length to crypt
Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K
The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry.
Lan, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Erdi, G.; Boer, H.
To understand the relationship between the gastrointestinal inhabiting microbial community and broiler health, a literature review is presented. The available information on the development of gut microbial community, the relationship between commensal microflora and digestive function, the role of
Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...
Veena Pani Padihari; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Tarini Sahu; Manoj Kumar Gendley; Surendra Kumar Naik
150 day old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates of 10 chicks in each to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gut morphology of broilers. The trial lasted for 6 weeks. For microscopic examination the representative samples of each segment of intestine were collected and fixed in the 10% buffered formalin. No significant difference was observed in treatments at length of different segments of int...
Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim
The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (pfacilities to optimize yield and quality while maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards. PMID:26954206
Jarosz, Łukasz; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kalinowski, Marcin; Laskowska, Ewa
Because little is known about the impact of chelated (Fe-Gly, Fe-Gly+F) and inorganic (FeSO4, FeSO4+F) iron products on immune response parameters in broiler chickens, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of inorganic and organic forms of iron on selected parameters of the cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens by assessing the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), and MHC Class II lymphocytes, as well as the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL-2 concentration in the peripheral blood. The experiments were conducted using 50day-old Ross 308 roosters. The test material was peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. The results obtained indicate that the use of iron chelates in the diet of broiler chickens may stimulate cellular defense mechanisms. As a result of the experiment an increase was observed in the percentage of Th1, mainly T CD4(+) and T CD8(+). It was also noted that application of chelated iron can increase production of T CD8(+) cytotoxic cells and IL-2, which promotes the body's natural response to developing inflammation. There were no changes in T CD4(+), T CD8(+), T CD25(+) or MHC II lymphocyte subpopulations in the chickens following application of the inorganic form of iron.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mushroom waste and probiotic levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic supplementation (0 and recommended rate and three levels of mushroom waste inclusion (0%, 3%, and 6% was used in a completely randomized design using male broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain. Different levels of mushroom waste and probiotic had no significant effect on body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in broiler chickens. Neither different levels of mushroom waste nor probiotic independently had any significant effect on carcass characteristics. However, the use of mushroom waste and probiotics significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content in chicken breast meat 30 days after storage (P. Breast meat pH value was significantly reduced by supplementation with probiotic 1 and 30 days after storage (P. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, inclusion of mushroom waste, particularly at 6% level, numerically improved growth performance and was effective in preventing meat oxidation.
Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.
Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706
Edwards, Phil; Hajat, Shakoor
Climate change impact assessment and adaptation research in agriculture has focused primarily on crop production, with less known about the potential impacts on livestock. We investigated how the prevalence of health and welfare conditions in broiler (meat) chickens changes with weather (temperature, rainfall, air frost) in a temperate climate. Cases of 16 conditions were recorded at approved slaughterhouses in Great Britain. National prevalence rates and distribution mapping were based on data from more than 2.4 billion individuals, collected between January 2011 and December 2013. Analysis of temporal distribution and associations with national weather were based on monthly data from more than 6.8 billion individuals, collected between January 2003 and December 2013. Ascites, bruising/fractures, hepatitis and abnormal colour/fever were most common, at annual average rates of 29.95, 28.00, 23.76 and 22.29 per 10 000, respectively. Ascites and abnormal colour/fever demonstrated clear annual cycles, with higher rates in winter than in summer. Ascites prevalence correlated strongly with maximum temperature at 0 and −1 month lags. Abnormal colour/fever correlated strongly with temperature at 0 lag. Maximum temperatures of approximately 8°C and approximately 19°C marked the turning points of curve in a U-shaped relationship with mortality during transportation and lairage. Future climate change research on broilers should focus on preslaughter mortality.
Bamidele, O; Van As, P; Elferink, M G
Leptin Receptor Gene (LEPR) is a candidate gene in understanding the genetic basis of the Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) in broilers. Identification and evaluation of genetic polymorphisms in LEPR may provide a link between traits like Body Weight (BW) and Total Ventricle weight (TV) to the development of PHS. In this study, primers were designed in exons, upstream and downstream sequences to identify mutations in the LEPR on four broilers selected with respect to the PHS-related traits. About 77% of the 11,820 bp of the LEPR gene covered by the primers were sequenced. No mutations were found between the chickens associating the traits to the occurrence of PHS. However, 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms and four Indels were found between the reference sequences of the red jungle fowl and the experimental population. Ten of these mutations were not previously reported in LEPR at the genomic and transcript sequences (NP_989654.1, ENSGALT00000018009). The 10 mutations include six SNPs in intron regions, two Indels and two non-synonymous SNPs. The two new non-synonymous SNPs; G301A and A1637G, led to amino acid change A89T and N534S, respectively. PMID:23755410
Zhao, Dong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Yu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Xia; Deng, Hui; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Fang, Bing-Hu; Liu, Ya-Hong
The antibacterial efficacy of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus was studied ex vivo in broiler chickens after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of valnemulin against S. aureus strains ATCC 25923 in broth and serum were 0.12 and 1 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of valnemulin against all susceptible S. aureus strains isolated from chickens in the test population were 0.06 and 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. Protein binding, which greatly influences the efficacy of valnemulin, was assayed by equilibrium dialysate in vitro. A high binding fraction of 86.2% was found, which seems in good agreement with the difference of bacterial susceptibility tests observed in broth and serum. The surrogate index of AUC0-24/MIC required for the lowest bacteriostatic effect, and 2 log10CFU reduction in bacterial count were 24.4 h and 38.0 h, respectively. The required daily dose of valnemulin for a bacteriostatic activity was calculated to be 15 mg/kg BW based on the MIC90 of 0.12 µg/mL. Considering the slow disposition process of valnemulin and an AUC0-24 h value of more than 10-fold obtained from diseased animals, a suggested dose of 3 mg/kg BW is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in infected broilers. Due to the time-dependent antibacterial characteristics of valnemulin, the recommended daily dose should be split into two or three sub-doses to achieve the highest effectiveness while diminishing the risk of development of bacterial resistance.
Baghban Kanani P
Full Text Available The effect of cinnamon and turmeric powders on performance, and blood parameters of broiler chickens under heat stress were investigated. 200 one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicates with 10 birds in each replicate. All birds were treated with heat stress (32οC and were either fed no any supplement (control, or 0.5% turmeric, 0.5% cinnamon, and a blend of cinnamon and turmeric (0.25% each when they were 25 to 42 days of age. We found that supplementation of turmeric, cinnamon, and their combination increased feed intake and body weight gain compared to control birds (P 0.05. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of cinnamon and turmeric either alone or together improve the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress by reducing lipid peroxidation.
Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Pedersen, Karl
A series of experiments was undertaken to investigate the infection dynamics of various doses of S. typhimurium in day-old and 14-day-old broiler chickens kept in isolators. The infections were followed quantitatively in ceca and ileum by enumerating the colony forming units (cfu) of the challenge......, and the bacteria were rapidly eliminated from most birds, especially in 14-day-old inoculated chickens. Salmonella was found in spleen and liver 2-3 days postinoculation. Salmonella was cleared from both organs or reduced to very low numbers within 3 weeks....
Kassouha, Morshed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Alkhaled, Abdulkarim
In this study, PCR-RFLP was used for the first time in Syria for genotyping Cryptosporidium species of man, calves and chickens. The total of 391 fecal samples included 213 from children with diarrhea (parvum was the only identified species in children and calves, on the other hand C. baileyi was identified in broilers in addition to another species with unknown RFLP profile in comparison to those which have been described in chicken. Further studies using more genes are needed to sequence and detect subtypes of this parasite. PMID:27369580
LiHui; YuHe; 等
Blood samples were taken from birds,from a commercial line of broiler chicken,being in a fully fed state and in fasting state for 2,4,6 hours respectively at 49d of age and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration was measured with turbidimetric assay.The experiment results showed that the variation coefficients of plasma VLDL concentration mersured at four different times were 58.11%,74.39%,69.70%,47.83%,respectively for male broilers,and 41.82%,60.87%,59.26%,50.0% for female broilers respectively.Plasma VLDL concentration decreased with the fasting time.There was a significant positive phenotypic correlation between abdominal fat weight,percentage of abdominal fat and plasma VLDL concentration for the birds being in fully feeding state,and the correlation decreased or no longer existed for the bired being in fasting state.The conclusion was that for practically application of plasma VLDL content selected in broiler chicken breeding,blood samples should be collected from birds being in feeding state.
Blood samples were taken from birds,from a commercial line of broiler chicken,being in a fully fed state and in fasting state for 2,4, 6 hours respectively at 49 d of age and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration was measured with turbidimetric assay. The experiment results showed that the varia- tion coefficients of plasma VLDL concentration mersured at four different times were 58.11％, 74.39％, 69. 70％ ,47. 83％ ,respectively for male broilers,and 41.82％,60.87％. 59.26％,50. 0％for female broilers re- spectively. Plasma VLDL concentration decreased with the fasting time. There was a significant positive phe- notypic correlation between abdominal fat weight,percentage of abdominal fat and plasma VLDL concentra- tion for the birds being in fully feeding state,and the correlation decreased or no longer existed for the bired being in fasting state. The conclusion was that for practically application of plasma VLDL content selected in broiler chicken breeding,blood samples should be collected from birds being in feeding state.
Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological fea...
A Corzo; II RE Loar; MT Kidd; SC Burgess
The effect of dietary protein on growth, carcass traits and some specific intestinal intestinal peptide and amino acid transporters in broiler chickens was studied. Birds received a common pre-test diet, and were subsequently fed either a standard positive control diet (PC) or a reduced CP diet (RCP) from 21 to 42 d of age. Growth was negatively impacted with feeding of RCP as manifested by an increase in feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. Carcass traits also showed evidence of negat...
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different nutritional strategies on nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca balance and on copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn excretion in broilers during the periods of 1 to 21 days and 1 to 46 days of age. Four hundred male Cobb-500 broilers were used. A randomized block experimental design was applied, including five treatments with eight replicates of 10 birds each. A five-phase feeding program was adopted (1-8, 9-21, 22-33, 34-40 and 41-46 days of age. Treatments consisted of a control diet (C with typical protein level and low amino acid supplementation; a reduced-protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids formulated on ideal protein concept (IP; C with phytase (C+PHY supplementation; C with inorganic-organic mineral supplementation (C+MIN; and a diet formulated on ideal protein (IP basis, and supplemented with phytase and organic and inorganic minerals (IP+PHY+MIN. IP and IP+PHY+MIN diets reduced nitrogen excretion in 13.6 and 13.1% respectively, and promoted the same nitrogen retention (g/bird and retention efficiency as compared to the diet with typical crude protein level. C+PHY and IP+PHY+MIN reduced phosphorus, calcium and manganese excretion, and improved phosphorus retention. C+MIN and IP+PHY+MIN reduced manganese excretion, but did not influence copper or zinc excretion.
Shirsat, Shubhangi; Kadam, Ambadas; Mane, Rajaram S; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V; Zate, Manohar K; Naushad, Mu; Kim, Kwang Ho
Presently most bacteria are becoming antibiotic resistant. Due to this there is a deficiency of potent antibiotics, therefore we have to preserve and improve the efficiency of existing antibiotics by mitigating the side effects. Enrofloxacin (EFX) is an important antimicrobial used in veterinary practice but it is known to exert immune suppression antioxidant stress. In the present study, we report on: (a) the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs), and (b) their protective effect in reducing adverse effects of EFX on broiler chicken. A potent bacterial strain, isolated from farm soil, has been identified as Pantoea agglomerans (GenBank: KU500622). It tolerates a high concentration of selenium dioxide (9 mM) and produces Se NPs under aerobic conditions. The obtained Se NPs are amorphous in structure and spherical in shape with sizes of less than 100 nm. The activity of cellular, humoral immune response and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, has significantly been decreased as a result of EFX treatment. We investigated that Se NP supplementation greatly restores these values towards the control, and to even higher than those of the control. Adverse effects of EFX are prevented by simultaneous exposure to Se NPs (0.6 mg per kg of feed) in the diet of poultry chicken. PMID:27147084
Aérica C. Nazareno
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar três sistemas de criação para frangos de corte industrial, visando caracterizar o ambiente térmico e o desempenho animal. O experimento foi realizado no decorrer de 42 dias, desenvolvido em módulos de produção, divididos em 15 boxes com 10 aves por box, submetidas a três sistemas de criação: semi-confinado com 3 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 3, semi-confinado com 6 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 6 e confinamento total (CONF. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC em parcelas subdivididas e médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey (P This research was conducted to evaluate three housing systems for broiler chicken production, aiming to characterize thermal environment and animal performance. The experiment was conducted over 42 days, developed in production modules, divided in 15 boxes with 10 birds per box, and submitted to three housing systems: semi-confined with 3 m² per broiler of paddock area (SC 3, semi-confined with 6 m² per broiler of paddock area (SC 6 and total confinement (CONF. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD, in split plots, with the means compared through the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The meteorological variables and comfort indices indicated the system of accommodation SC 3 as the one that allowed the better natural conditioning heat to the birds, presenting the average values of 25.4 °C, 69.9 kJ kg-1 and 75.7 for dry bulb temperature (Tbs, enthalpy (h and black globe humidity index (ITGU, respectively. Physiological parameters respiratory rate (mov min-1 and cloacal temperature (°C had mean values more appropriate to birds subjected to the accommodation system SC 3. The housing systems promote significant changes in performance of broiler chicken in relation to feed consumption (CR and body weight (PC in housing systems SC 3 and CONF, compared with SC 6, which presented performance losses.
Shao, Yujing; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Zhong
This study investigated the protective effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on gut morphology, intestinal epithelial tight junctions, and bacterial translocation of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Ninety Salmonella-free Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups: negative control group (NC), Salmonella Typhimurium-infected positive group (PC), and the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected group with dietary 100 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation (T) to determine the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on intestinal barrier function. Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone significantly decreased villus height (P cells (P cells at 14 dpi (P cells (P cells (P Salmonella Typhimurium in comparison with Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan addition had significant inhibitory effects (P Salmonella colonization levels and liver Salmonella invasion of the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected birds compared with the PC group. Intestinal tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin mRNA expression in the jejunum at 14 dpi was significantly decreased by Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone (P Salmonella Typhimurium-infected birds in comparison with the PC group. Our results indicate that dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucan can alleviate intestinal mucosal barrier impairment in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium.
Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.
Tahmasebi, S; Toghyani, M
This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg), threonine (Thr) and Arg + Thr administered in ovo on growth performance, digestive organs and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. On day 14 of incubation, 400 fertile eggs were randomly allotted to five experimental treatments through injection in the amniotic fluid including: (i) control (none injected), (ii) sham (0.5 ml of 0.5% saline), (iii) Arg (35 mg/egg), (iv) Thr (25 mg/egg) and (v) Arg + Thr (35 + 25 mg/egg). After hatching, chicks were given a commercial corn-soya bean diet up to 42 days of age. Daily feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of chicks were measured during different periods of the trial. Digestive organs were measured for their relative weight and intestinal length on days 11 and 42 of age. Intestinal morphometric traits were evaluated on day 11 of the experiment. Supplementing amino acids affected the performance of broiler chicks as Thr significantly increased FI and BW across starter, grower and finisher periods compared with sham and control (p 0.05); however, amino acid supplemented groups had lower villus height than control in jejunum (p pancreas (r = -0.484; p = 0.030), duodenal (r = -0.577; p = 0.007) as well as ileal lengths (r = -0.471; p = 0.035) and FI of entire period. Otherwise, positive relationships were observed between duodenum (r = 0.580; p = 0.007) and ileum (r = 0.582; p = 0.007) weights on day 42 and FI of chickens across the entire phase. In conclusion, Arg and particularly Thr injection into amnion can improve FI and post-hatch growth performance of chickens which may be mediated by the development of digestive organs. PMID:26608576
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in
Bezerra, Delana Andreza Melo; da Silva, René Ribeiro; Kaiano, Jane Haruko Lima; de Souza Oliveira, Darleise; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Linhares, Alexandre Costa; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira
Rotaviruses infect humans and animals and are classified into eight groups (A to H). Group D rotavirus (RVD) has been described in birds, although relatively few reports are available. The present study focused on RVD, including epidemiological and molecular aspects of samples collected from broiler chickens in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 85 faecal samples were collected between 2008 and 2011 from 37 chicken farms located in eight different municipalities. The viral double-stranded RNA was extracted from faecal suspensions and analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing of the VP6 and VP7 genes. Comparing the positive results, 16.5% (14/85) were obtained by PAGE and 35.3% (30/85) by RT-PCR. Samples from seven of eight municipalities were positive for RVD and infections were recorded in 17 (45.9%) of 37 chicken farms. The RVD infection rate was significantly higher in the 16-day to 30-day age group (62.2%; 23/37) compared with other ages. No consistent relationship was found between the infection rate and either the population density in poultry houses or the climatic conditions. The nucleotide sequences of the VP6 gene were 89.9 to 90.9% similar to the prototype strain 05V0049 and were 88.3 to 100% similar among themselves; VP7 gene nucleotide sequences were 84.3 to 85.4% similar to the prototype strain 05V0049 and 93.8 to 100% similar among themselves. Overall, this study provides new insights into the epidemiology and genome characterization of group D rotaviruses. PMID:24875189
Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile
Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641
Introduction We carried out a longitudinal study of the broiler industry in Iceland between May 2001 and September 2004. Using multi-level statistical methods, our objective was to determine which aspects of the birds, their management and/or their housing may be most useful for applying interventi...
Vanessa Karla Silva
Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.
Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip
Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.
Kranen, R.W.; Scheele, C.W.; Veerkamp, C.H.; Lambooy, E.; Kuppevelt, van T.H.; Veerkamp, J.H.
In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and a
Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;
logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79–23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1...
David Friday Apata
Full Text Available A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (>.05 in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40% of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (.05 altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (<.05 increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents.
Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Buijs, S; Federici, J F; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M
Animal-based measures of thirst are currently absent from animal welfare monitoring schemes due to the lack of a well-validated indicator applicable for on-farm use. In the present study, an on-farm test based on voluntary water consumption from an unfamiliar open drinker was validated in a (semi-)commercial setting. To investigate the effect of thirst on water consumption, we subjected 4 flocks of 1,500 broilers to either 0 or 12 h of water deprivation and subsequently measured the amount of water that small subgroups consumed after the deprivation period (first experiment). Broilers that were water deprived before the test drank more than control broilers (P Brazil. After a pretreatment water consumption test, the birds were subjected to 0 or 6 h of water deprivation, and a posttreatment water consumption test was conducted. Only in Brazil, deprived birds drank significantly more than controls in the posttreatment water consumption test (P Brazil than in Belgium (P Brazil, but not in Belgium. These results indicate that the water consumption test is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between control and 12 h deprived flocks, and in Brazil even between control and 6 h deprived birds. The location of the test within the house did not affect the amount of water consumed in either experiment, suggesting that this variable does not have to be standardized. However, the amount of water consumed by broilers able to drink freely for a long period depended on indoor climatic variables (in Brazil only) and possibly genotype. This suggests that these variables need to be considered when interpreting the test outcome in terms of the thirst level experienced by the broilers.
A. Rasool, M. Tariq Javed*, Masood Akhtar1, S. Shabbir Bhatti, M. N. Shahzad and Riaz Hussain2
Full Text Available In this study we analysed some of the serum enzymes, urea and creatinine to understand the pathological changes occurring in different organs of broilers due to urea and copper. The feeding for 15 days at or higher than 2% urea + 1gm copper sulphate caused significant rise in serum ALT, AST, AKP and creatinine. With further increase in time of 15 days, the levels of urea and LDH also increased significantly, this was seen even in birds fed 1% urea + 250 mg copper sulphate. We found increase in serum urea even in 1% urea fed birds and in all other groups where combination was used, however, serum creatinine increased significantly (P<0.05 only in birds fed 2% urea+1 gm copper sulphate or higher than these levels. The combined use of urea and copper sulphate resulted in changes in moisture, ash, crude protein and potassium in thigh and breast meat of broilers. The results of the present study suggest damaging effects of higher levels of urea and copper, alone or together and change in meat quality with lower protein contents and higher salt levels in meat of broilers. Thus the use of urea and copper sulphate together is not recommended in broilers, especially at 1% urea and 250mg copper sulphate or higher. The results of the study can be helpful to poultry farmers, pathologists and nutritionists who are involved in augmentation the meat quality and also to general public with special reference to people having hypertension as the meat salt levels may be higher with use of the these compounds in the broiler ration.
Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Thodberg, Karen;
points (n¼192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4þ4. This increase was reflected...... in a higher relative content of the crop in DARK 8 at this time. 5. Immediately following the scotoperiod, feeding activity peaked and, although the chickens in DARK 4þ4 expressed more feeding behaviour in the first 20 min after the scotoperiod, the chickens in DARK 8 had overall higher feeding activity...
Nedyalka V. Georgieva
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the dietary supplements of Zn containing diet on the antioxidant status in chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina. The antioxidant status was monitored via determination of MDA concentrations and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities, as well as vitamin E, vitamin C, Cu, and Zn in liver, muscle, and serum. The results showed increased MDA (<.05, CAT (<.001, and decreased SOD (<.001 in the infected birds. Significant changes in Cu and Zn concentrations and dramatically reduction of vitamin C and E concentrations in the infected chickens were found. The observed deviations in the studied enzymes and nonenzymatic parameters evidence the occurrence of oxidative stress following the infection and impaired antioxidant status of chickens, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Our results proved the ameliorating role of CuZn(OH3Cl (0.170 g per kg food against Eimeria acervulina-induced oxidative damage in infected chickens.
Kassouha, Morshed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Alkhaled, Abdulkarim
In this study, PCR-RFLP was used for the first time in Syria for genotyping Cryptosporidium species of man, calves and chickens. The total of 391 fecal samples included 213 from children with diarrhea (<5years), 67 from pre-weaned calves with diarrhea and 111 from broiler chicken farms. All samples were collected and examined with acid fast stain to detect the positive samples. Subsequently a nested-PCR test was performed on 35 positive samples (17 from calves, 11 from chicken, and 7 from children) targeting SSU rRNA gene, and was followed by RFLP analysis using three restriction enzymes SspI, VspI and MboII. Results showed that C. parvum was the only identified species in children and calves, on the other hand C. baileyi was identified in broilers in addition to another species with unknown RFLP profile in comparison to those which have been described in chicken. Further studies using more genes are needed to sequence and detect subtypes of this parasite.
Full Text Available Abstract In hens, the ovarian follicles committed to ovulation are arranged in an ordered follicular hierarchy. In standard broiler breeders hens genetically selected for high growth rate the reproductive function is clearly dysfunctional. Feed restriction is needed during reproductive development to limit the formation of excessive numbers of ovarian yellow follicles arranged in multiple hierarchies. To determine whether leptin is involved in the nutritional and reproductive interactions controlling follicular hierarchy in hens, blood leptin levels and ovarian expression of the leptin receptor mRNA were determined during follicle maturation in three chicken lines; a slow growing broiler "Label" genotype without reproductive dysfunction, a fast growing "Standard" genotype fed ad libitum or restricted and a fast growing "Experimental" line with intermediate reproductive performance levels. Whereas expression of the leptin receptor mRNA did not change in the theca, it clearly decreased with follicular differentiation in the granulosa of slow growing hens. In fast growing standard hens fed ad libitum and presenting significant reproductive dysfunction, the decrease was disrupted and dramatic up-regulation of granulosa cell expression of the leptin receptor was observed. On the other hand, feed restriction decreased the overall level of expression of the leptin receptor mRNA and restored the decrease with follicular growth. The level of expression of the leptin receptor probably modulates the action of leptin on follicular differentiation. Since blood leptin and other metabolic factors were not affected by the genotype or by nutritional state, the factors involved in the regulation of leptin receptor gene expression remain to be determined. This study demonstrates the involvement of leptin in the nutritional control of reproduction in birds. Leptin action on the ovary probably controls follicular hierarchy through the regulation of steroidogenesis.
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.
Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V
1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.
Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Messens, W; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M
Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., specifically Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, are the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in developed countries. Consumption of improperly prepared poultry products and cross contamination are among the main causes of human campylobacteriosis. The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth in initial in vitro trials ('spot-on-lawn' method), as well as in batch fermentation studies mimicking the broiler caecal environment. These experiments served as an indication for using these strains to decrease the capability of Campylobacter to colonise and grow in the chicken caeca during primary production, with the aim of reducing the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. A total of 1,150 LAB strains were screened for anti-Campylobacter activity. Six strains were selected: members of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. After treatment with catalase, proteinase K and a-chymotrypsin, anti-Campylobacter activity of cell-free culture supernatant fluid (CSF) for all six strains was retained, which indicated that activity was probably not exerted by bacteriocin production. Based on the activity found in CSF, the compounds produced by the selected strains are secreted and do not require presence of live bacterial producer cells for activity. During initial in vitro fermentation experiments, the E. faecalis strain exhibited the highest inhibitory activity for C. jejuni and was selected for further fermentation experiments. In these experiments we tested for therapeutic or protective effects of the E. faecalis strain against C. jejuni MB 4185 infection under simulated broiler caecal growth conditions. The best inhibition results were obtained when E. faecalis was inoculated before the C. jejuni strain, lowering C. jejuni counts at
Full Text Available Although the use of probiotics especially Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species on growth and feed utilization in poultry production has been extensively studied, the results were inconsistent presumably because the mode of action of probiotic is multi-factorial and each probiotic strain may affect the host in a specific manner. This study investigated the probiotic effect of two strains of Lactobacillus(Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44; 109 cells/kg feed isolated from mulberry (Morus Alba silage on the growth performance, cecal microbial population, and blood cholesterol of broiler chickens. One hundred twenty male broiler chicks (Cobb500 were randomLy allocated to two groups (control and treatment of six replicates (cages with 10 chicks per cage. Chicks in the control group received a standard diet and those in the treatment group received the same diet supplemented with 109 cells of the above Lactobacillus per kg feed. Supplementation of Lactobacillus did not affect body weight gain (averaged 1604 g at 35 days old but feed conversion ratio improved (p<0.01 by 6.4% due to reduction in feed intake (p<0.01 by birds in the treatment group. Supplementation also increased the population of Lactobacillusspp. and reduced pathogens E. coli in the cecal samples. Although Lactobacillus supplementation tends to reduce serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and triglyceride concentrations, these values were not significantly different from those of the control group. Results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidophilus ITA44 are potential probiotics to be used in poultry diets.
Igbasan, F A; Guenter, W
The effects of dehulling and micronization (infrared heating) on the nutritive value of three cultivars (Impala, Radley, and Sirius) of peas (Pisum sativum) varying in coat color for broiler chickens were studied. Dehulling increased (P protein and starch contents and decreased (P peas. Also, the concentrations of most amino acids slightly increased (P > or = 0.05). Micronization slightly changed (P > or = 0.05) the chemical composition of peas. Moisture, protein, fiber and phosphorus contents marginally decreased. The concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, lysine, cystine, threonine, and tyrosine decreased (P or = 0.05). Lysine concentration was decreased by 2.7%. The TMEn and average true AA availability values determined with adult cockerels were improved (P peas. Application of micronization resulted in a significant (P protein digestibility (APD), and starch digestibility. The increments ranged from 19.4 to 31.3, 8.5 to 33.6, and 12.2 to 22.3% for AMEn, APD, and starch digestibility, respectively. In contrast, dehulling had little or no effect on AMEn (3.0 and 4.9%), APD (-1.8 and -4.2%) and starch digestibility (2.0 and 1.3%) values of Impala (yellow-seeded) and Radley (green-seeded) peas but significantly (P peas. Chick performance was evaluated in a 2-wk trial. Birds fed micronized peas grew faster and had better feed conversion (P peas and the wheat-soybean control diet. Addition of lysine to the diet containing micronized peas further improved (P > or = 0.05) weight gains and feed conversion of broiler chicks. Dehulling only improved (P peas. PMID:8893301
Full Text Available Problem statement: Ascites is a common rapid-growth-related problem in broiler chickens grown at high altitude where the partial pressure of oxygen is low and is marginally adequate to support the growth performance and ascites-related variables. A mismatch between the growth of oxygen supplying organs and the oxygen demanding organs causes ascites in broiler chickens. In the present study, broilers were subjected to two types of feed restriction with or without probiotics and changes in the growth rate of body organs were attributed to the incidence of ascites. Approach: Four hundred male day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to five treatments: (1 a control group fed ad libitum throughout the experiment (2 a group subjected to meal feeding during 5-11 days of age with feeding times from 08-12 h and 13-17 h, (3 a group similar to treatment 2 except to received probiotics, (4 a skip-a-day feeding with 24 h fasting on days 9 and 11 and (5 a group similar to treatment 4 except to received probiotics. Probiotics was only used during the feed restriction at 1 g L-1 in the drinking water. Broilers reared on litter flooring from 1-49 days of age. Results: Both feed restriction programs used under conditions of the experiment resulted in poorer performance relative to the full-fed control but retarded growth caught up at the end of experiment. Carcass and breast yield were significantly (pConclusion: Early feed restriction did not influence the proportional growth of body organs and had no significant impact on ascites incidence. Probiotics had a positive effect in prevention of ascites.
Full Text Available In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving. Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause
The aim of this study was to design and implement a seroprevalence map based on business intelligence for low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in broilerchickens in Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). The software mapping tool developed for this study consisted of three main phases: data collection, data analysis and data representation. To obtain the serological data, the authors analysed 8,520 serum samples from broiler farms over three years. The data were represented on a map of Comunidad Valenciana, including geographical information of flock locations to facilitate disease monitoring. No clinical signs of LPNAI were reported in the studied flocks. The data from this study showed no evidence of contact with LPNAI in broiler flocks and the novel software mapping tool proved a valuable method for easily monitoring on the serological response to avian influenza information, including geographical information.
Nadir Alloui; Mohamed Nabil Allou; Omar Bennoune; Salah. Bouhentala
This study was carried out during summer season on two broiler buildings with a capacity of 10000 each one. The first building with natural ventilation while the second was recently renovated with dynamic ventilation system composed of 10 ventilators with a capacity of 5000 m 3 /hour/unit. The results of this experiment showed that ammonia concentration was higher in the building with natural ventilation during various breeding phases. The average concentration of ammonia...
Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai
Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal. PMID:24816710
Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Schipper, Maarten; Gortemaker, Betty G M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Havelaar, Arie H; Lipman, Len J A
The causes of differences in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses after chilling between slaughterhouses are not fully identified. Therefore, it is a challenge for slaughterhouses to comply with Process Hygiene Criteria for broiler meat. The aim of the study was to identify which processing steps contribute to increases or decreases in Campylobacter and E. coli concentrations within and between two slaughterhouses. Identifying the processing steps with variable performance could explain the differences in bacterial concentrations after chilling between slaughterhouses. Thermotolerant Campylobacter and E. coli concentrations on carcasses during broiler processing were measured during the summer period in 21 trials after bleeding, scalding, defeathering, evisceration and chilling. In two slaughterhouses with comparable Campylobacter and E. coli concentrations in the incoming batches (after bleeding), the mean log10 concentrations are found to be significantly different after chilling. Campylobacter concentrations decreased by 1.40 log10 in Slaughterhouse 1 and by 1.86 log10 in Slaughterhouse 2, whereas E. coli decreased by 2.19 log10 in Slaughterhouse 1 and by 2.84 log10 in Slaughterhouse 2. Higher concentrations of Campylobacter and E. coli on carcasses after chilling were observed in Slaughterhouse 1 in which an increase in concentrations was observed after evisceration. The effect of processing on Campylobacter and E. coli concentrations in Slaughterhouse 1 did not differ between batches. In Slaughterhouse 2, the effect of processing on the concentrations of both bacteria varied over batches. Changes in E. coli concentration levels during processing were similar to Campylobacter except for defeathering. E. coli concentration significantly decreased after defeathering in both slaughterhouses, whereas Campylobacter increased in Slaughterhouse 2 and in Slaughterhouse 1 no significant changes were observed. The patterns of
Patricia R. Millar
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and identify the risk factors associated with transmission of T. gondii to chickens raised in different systems (free-ranged and confined to produce eggs or meat. The 810 animals were allocated in two experimental groups according to the production system purpose: 460 broiler chickens (Group 1 and 350 layer chickens (Group 2. In order to analyze the possible factors involved in T. gondii infection in the chickens, an epidemiological questionnaire was developed for all properties.The serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was performed by Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFAT and by Enzime Linked Imunossorbent Assay (ELISA. Since the agreement index (kappa between these two serological techniques was considered high, 21.2% of the 810 animals were considered reactive. In Group 1, 12.2% (56/460 were positive, while in the Group 2 the positivity rate was 33.1% (116/350. The production system may be influencing the seropositivity of the animals in both groups. However, only in Group 2 it was possible to notice a statistically significant relationship between the breeding system and the frequency of positive sera. This result indicates that, at least for laying hens, the production system is directly involved in T. gondii infection. The contact with cats in Group 1 did not influence the distribution of seroreactive animals, but in Group 2 a significant relationship was observed. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was high in both groups (broiler and posture chickens. Free-ranged chickens raised for egg production proved to be the most exposed group to the T. gondii infection. This can be related to the fact that these animals stay for longer periods in the farms, in direct contact with possibly contaminated soil by the presence of domestic cats.
Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei
Full Text Available Abstract: Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically, and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine-transferase (ALT and aspartate-transferase (AST as compared with control group (P<0.05. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels of pro
to become very susceptible to heat stress. When the environment temperature rises above the thermoneutrality zone, the bird is submitted to a stress condition, which can generate acute hyperthermia, respiratory alkalosis, electrolyte imbalance, reduction in food consumption, lower growth rate, increased mortality rate and even negative effects on meat quality due to the incidence of pale meat and dark in other cases, interfering in properties such as industrial yield, water holding capacity, color and tenderness. The results of the evaluation of quality parameters observed in literature showed that the heat stress, chronic or acute, suffered by broiler chickens, generates negative consequences on the functional properties of meat. Further studies with this research line should be conducted, mainly in Brazil, for being a tropical country with high temperatures in the summer in order to understand, prevent and overcome the extent or intensity of this stress, avoiding problems and damages to the meat chain.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs. Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1 g and 2 g/kg diet and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg diet for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (<.001 feed conversion ratio (FCR and increased protein accretion (<.001. Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (<.01 with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1 g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2 g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet.
Full Text Available Background: Salmonella actively stimulates its own uptake into the epithelial cells by inducing cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane ruffling triggered by some proteins secreted by Salmonella into the cytosol of the epithelial cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS encoded bygenes of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1. hilA is a transcriptional activator encoded on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 genes.Methods: To assess the importance of hilA in a simulation modeling of vertical infection and shedding of S. enteritidis in broiler chickens a long-term experiment was designed. Two groups of 200 fertile eggs were inoculated with 20 colony forming units (CFU of hilA mutant of S. enteritidis or its parent strain just prior to incubation. Thirty five birds of each group were housed in separate rooms. On days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of age, cloacal swabs from live birds as well as samples from internal organs (intestinal tract, liver and spleen were evaluated by bacteriological or molecular methods.Results: In most of sampling days colonization and invasion of parent strain S. enteritidis in intestine (especially ceaca and internal organs of chickens were higher with compared to its hilA mutant but this mutant strain could still colonize in intestinal tract and even invade liver or spleen.Conclusion: Colonization of hilA mutant of S. enteritidis indicated that hilA gene is only one part of the modulators in Salmonella invasion mechanism. The ability of hilA mutant to multiply and persist in host internal organs including ceaca may promise further research for potential of hilA mutant to prevent the initial colonization of the intestinal tract by a virulent S. enteritidis strain
Investigation the effects using different levels of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens
Gholamreza Ghalamkari; Majid Toghyani; Nasir Landy; Ehsan Tavalaeian
Objective: The trial involved 240 Ross 308 broiler chicks in order to investigate the effects of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: Birds were assigned to 4 treatments: control feed, antibiotic group receiving 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and 5 and 10 g/kg pennyroyal powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 14, 28 and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass traits. Antibody titers against newcastle, influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were determined. Results: Performance, Internal organ weights and carcass characteristics were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at day 42. Humoral immune responses were not affected by dietary treatments.Conclusions:In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of pennyroyal powder seem not to have a positive influence on growth performance of broiler chicks.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.
Pineda, Lane Manalili; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa;
and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...... (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth...
Rao Z. Abbas
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.
Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P Ã¢Â‰Â¤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.
Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad
Despite presence of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines in the market, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. There is wide-spread resistance to already known anticoccidial drugs. It is an infectious disease of poultry and rigorous management is required during vaccination. In addition there is possibility of drug residues in meat and other byproducts of such treated animals and consequently makes more imperative to explore and understand the role of natural products in livestock parasite management. Therefore a study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of Ganoderma applanatum in broiler chicken. In-vivo anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of G. applanatum was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocysts per gram of faeces, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Oocyst output was measured with the help of Mc-Masters counting technique. The results of this study established the virulence of coccidian oocysts and the effectiveness of both amprolium and aqueous extract of G. applanatum against coccidian oocysts, confirmed by the fact that treatment with aqueous extract of G. applanatum resulted in a noticeable reduction in coccidian oocysts output, leading to improved weight gain and better feed conversion ratio. The study highlighted the potential of G. applanatum as a natural source of bioactive components for controlling a protozoan parasite, which can be isolated and tested in a bioassay-guided manner and harnessed in the form of anticoccidial drugs. PMID:27413313
Kazaryan R. V.
Full Text Available The results of the work experience carried out in the poultry breeding farm of Limited Liability Company «Incubator-poultry plant Pervomaiskaja» on the effect of the multifunctional feed additive «Tetra+» on productivity of males and laying hens in the production of broiler chickens. It is found that males experimental group receiving the feed additive in the diet «Tetra+» have better blood serum biochemical indices in comparison with the control group cockerels. This indicates that the feed additive «Tetra+» shows the properties to improve liver function and decreased intoxication of male manufacturers. It was revealed, that in the experimental group increased divorce figures, while the control group of males producing hatchability is reduced, and the end of observation of this indicator of the trend towards recovery is not evident. It recorded the highest percentage yield of hatching eggs from hens of the experimental group, while the control group showed a tendency to reduce this figure. Thus it may be noted that the use of a multifunctional feed additive "Tetra +" when feeding cocks and hens can improve productivity, reduce bird deaths and to strengthen the protective function of the body of birds
K B Thakor
Full Text Available Avian Adenovirus was isolated from naturally infected broiler chickens. Two Liversample were collected in glycerol saline from the birds came from Aman and Jankipoutry farm for the postmortem in the Dept. of pathology,Veterinary college,Anand(Gujarat. Extraction of viral DNA from infected liver tissues was done as per the method of Meuleman et al., (2001 with minor modifications. The amplified PCR analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated DNA fragments of approximately 890 bp as expected by primer HexonA F & HexonB R. PCR assay revealed presence of IBH-HPS virus in both samples. Obtained PCR product of both sample were subjected to DNA sequencing and obtained sequencing was compared with other matched sequince. On phylogenetic analysis using Clustal W program showed 3 major group like upper, middle and lower respectively. In the minor branch of upper group the AMAN and JANKI isolates were found to group with Fowl adenovirus 12 strain 380 and Fowl adenovirus 11 strain C2B, so AMAN and JANKI isolates indicating a new fowl adenovirus genotype. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 178-182
Full Text Available Both deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and integrity, by affecting the intestinal surface area and function of the tight junctions. This might influence the oral bioavailability of FB1, and possibly lead to altered toxicity of this mycotoxin. A toxicokinetic study was performed with two groups of 6 broiler chickens, which were all administered an oral bolus of 2.5 mg FBs/kg BW after three-week exposure to either uncontaminated feed (group 1 or feed contaminated with 3.12 mg DON/kg feed (group 2. No significant differences in toxicokinetic parameters of FB1 could be demonstrated between the groups. Also, no increased or decreased body exposure to FB1 was observed, since the relative oral bioavailability of FB1 after chronic DON exposure was 92.2%.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the management conditions and distance to a commercial plant on chicken broilers Dead on Arrival (DOA. This work was conducted in the winter and summer seasons of 2008 in a commercial plant. In the winter season, the transport distances were 15 and 57 km, and in the summer season the distances were 15 and 55 km from the farm to the slaughterhouse and the experiments were carried out in duplicate. In the summer, to evaluate the effect of water bath over the birds before the actual transportation, a group of two trucks were submitted to a water bath (GWthB and the other without water bath treatment (GWoutB. The results showed that in the winter, the DOA was not influenced to distance of transport. In the summer, the DOA values for GWthB group varied from 0.12 to 0.17% while for the GWoutB the DOA values ranged from 0.16 to 0.27% indicating that the bath treatment after broilers truck loading and before transportation reduced broiler chicken mortality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da distância de transporte e do banho após o carregamento sobre a mortalidade de frangos na chegada ao abatedouro, denominada Mortalidade na Chegada, do ingles Dead on Arrival – DOA. O estudo foi conduzido no inverno e no verão de 2008 em abatedouro comercial. No inverno, as distâncias de transporte foram de 15 e 57 km, e no verão foram de 15 e 55 km, sendo os experimentos realizados em duplicata. No verão, para avaliar o efeito do banho sobre os frangos após o carregamento no caminhão, foram avaliados dois lotes em cada distância, lote sem banho (LSB e lote com banho (LCB. Pelos resultados verificou-se que, no inverno o DOA não foi alterado pela distância de transporte. Enquanto que no verão, o DOA variou de 0,16% a 0,27 % nos lotes LSB e de 0,12% a 0,17% nos lotes LCB. No verão, foram observados menores valores de DOA nos lotes LCB nas duas distâncias de transporte indicando que o
Poultry meat production has increased drastically over the last 35 years. Most developing countries are in the tropics and often have high ambient temperatures. At high ambient temperatures, chickens exhibit a slower growth rate due to a reduced feed intake. In order to limit the reduction in feed i
Songserm, T.; Roozelaar, van D.; Kant-Eenbergen, H.C.M.; Pol, J.; Pijpers, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.
The enteropathogenicity of avian reoviruses (ARVs), isolated from chickens affected with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) from The Netherlands and Germany was studied. In the first trial seven different ARVs isolated from MAS cases were inoculated in 1-day-old specific pathogenic free (SPF) white leghor
Full Text Available Campylobacter spp., belongs to the group of thermo-tolerant bacteria, and is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans following consumption of poorly cooked chicken meat. The aim of our study was to test the common methodology for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni species from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers breed in intensive systems in Western part of Romania. The experiments were conducted during July –September 2013. As biological material we used chicken broilers from 6 intensive breeding facilities from the West part of Romania, from which cloaca swabs and cecum content were recovered as samples. Bacteria isolation was performed by inseminating Petri dish with Muller Hinton Agar media, after bacterial growth, they were subculture on Muller-Hinton Agar with Skirrow. The bacteria were tested by Gram staining and Oxidase test. Bacterial growth was detected from all samples when grown on Mueller-Hinton Agar, but when the bacteria was passed on Muller Hinton Agar with selective supplement (Skirrow 27 out of 36 samples remained positive (75,0%. With respect to the sample origin 13 (72.2% samples from cloaca swab and 14 (77.7% from cecum content grown on campylobacter selective media. All samples from Muller-Hinton supplemented with Skirrow tested negative for Gram staining and positive for oxidase test. We have successfully isolated Campylobacter spp., strains from farms and private producers in the western part of Romania.
Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M
A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.
Kranen, R W; Scheele, C W; Veerkamp, C H; Lambooy, E; van Kuppevelt, T H; Veerkamp, J H
In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and adaptations in blood variables induced by low rearing temperatures. A factorial experiment was performed with five parental stocks, differing with respect to growth rate, feed conversion, and body composition, and two temperature regimens (thermoneutral and below the zone of thermoneutrality). Hemorrhage scores in thighs were dependent on rearing temperature, not on stock, and were highest in broilers reared at low temperatures. In all stocks, high scores in the thighs were accompanied by an increased carbon dioxide pressure and bicarbonate and triiodothyronine concentration of the venous blood, and by an increased relative heart weight, hematocrit, and blood loss at slaughter. Hemorrhage scores in breasts were dependent on stock, confounded with day of scoring. An effect of rearing temperature was present only for the leanest, slow-growing stock having the lowest feed conversion ratio at thermoneutral rearing conditions. Scores in breasts were related neither to body composition nor to metabolic and hemodynamic adaptations to low rearing temperatures. It is concluded that high hemorrhage scores in thighs are related to hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to an increased need for energy and oxygen caused by low rearing temperatures. Hemorrhage scores are not related to stock-dependent differences. PMID:9495502
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260 were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p<0.05 was seen when diet was supplemented with the phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide-based prebiotic (MOS compared to diets without prebiotics. Feed conversion of birds fed diets with probiotics and prebiotics was better than feed conversion of birds not receiving such additives. Such better results were seen in the initial period (1 to 21 days, but not in the following period (1 to 35 days or in the total period (1 to 42 days. Better rearing viability was seen when MOS was used together with organic acidifier when compared to the diets without prebiotic. Viability was worst when no prebiotics or probiotics were used. It was concluded that beneficial effects were seen in performance of birds at 21 days when the growth promoters were used, but not at 42 days of age. Nevertheless, there was better growth viability at 42 days of age when growth promoters were added.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59 (pH 5.8. Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30 and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.
Full Text Available Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value = 0.73; 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160 from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999 of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related
Gimeno, I M; Cortes, A L; Faiz, N; Villalobos, T; Badillo, H; Barbosa, T
Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine for more than 40 yr. Either alone (broiler chickens) or in combination with vaccines of other serotypes (broilers, broiler breeders, and layers), HVT is used worldwide. In recent years, several vector vaccines based on HVT (rHVT) have been developed. At present, there are both conventional HVT and rHVTs in the market, and it is unknown if all of them confer the same level of protection against MD. The objective of this study was to further characterize the protection conferred by two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) and three recombinant HVTs (rHVT-B, rHVT-C, and rHVT-D) against MD in broiler chickens. In a first study we evaluated the efficacy of two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) administered at different doses (475, 1500, and 4000 PFU) at day of age on the ability to protect against an early challenge with very virulent plus strain 645. In a second experiment we evaluated the protection ability of several HVTs (both conventional and recombinant) when administered in ovo at a dose of 1500 PFU using the same challenge model. Our results show that each HVT product is unique, regardless of being conventional or recombinant, in their ability to protect against MD and might require different PFUs to achieve its maximum efficacy. In Experiment 1, HVT-A at 4000 PFU conferred higher protection (protection index [PI] = 63) than any of the other vaccine protocols (PI ranging from 36 to 47). In Experiment 2, significant differences were found among vaccine protocols with PI varying from 66 (HVT-A) to 15 (rHVT-D). Our results show that each HVT is unique and age at vaccination and vaccine dose greatly affected vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, they highlight the need of following manufacturer's recommendations. PMID:27610727
Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140
Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.
Full Text Available Background Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (Aquablend Avian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium
Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.
Tika Ram Neupane
Full Text Available During the period of March-April-May 2008 first time a sudden and unexpected jump in mortality in Broiler of 8 to 16 days of age was reported from broiler farms from Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in Nepal.Affected birds become recumbent, depressed and often go into a star-gazing spasm. Those signs included, huddling of the birds, trembling, blindness, loud chirping, litter eating, ataxia, comatose, birds dead with breast down and feet and legs straight out behind birds. Death within two to six hours after the onset of the symptoms Postmortem Lesions found with this syndrome include hemorrhages in the liver with necrosis of liver cells, regressed thymus, regression of the bursa of Fabricius, dehydration with the accumulation of kidney urates, fluid in the crop, fluid in the lower gut and watery contents of the ceca.Yellow elastic shanks swollen joints. Molted appearance of brain. . The mortality lasted for three to five days, after which, the mortality patterns return to a relatively normal level. When treated with liquid toxin binders like toxol,toxolivum,livertonic like hepatocare,naturaliv, immunomodulaters like immunocare,promin,pentasol and antibiotics there was check in mortality but the body weight recovery was not satisfactory only half as in comparison of in other illness. During this period laboratory culture of total 298 tissue specimen from dead bird was conducted which revealed growth of fungus spp like Aspergillus and Penicillium in 182 specimen while mixed E.coli and Staphylococcus were recovered in 68 specimen 24 specimen revealed the growth of Salmonella spp of bacteria and 24 samples were turn out to be negative while the attempt to isolate the Avian encephalomyelitis virus as it might be the cause suspected also turnout negative. On the basis of all laboratory findings and response to the treatment attempted finding of this preliminary investigation work is suggestive that the above syndrome indicates that mycosis emerging as
The presence of drug residue in animal product may threat human health such as increasing resistance to Camplyobacter infection treatment due to the use of enrofloxacin. The objectives of this research was to study the concentration of enrofloxacin (EFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) residues distributed in breast, thigh and liver and to determine the elimination rate of such residues in chicken which recieved enrofloxacin orally at 50 mg/kg bw daily for 9 days consecutively started at 23rd day to...
Radiography was used to select normal birds and affected with tibial dyschondroplasia from a commercial stock of broiler chickens. Birds were selected for three generations and mated like to like in an attempt to establish low and high incidence strains. Incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia in the low incidence strain was reduced to negligible levels while it was increased in the high incidence strain. Incidence of the defect in the high incidence strain could be influenced by diet. Observations during the selection program on the incidence of spondylolisthesis and twisted legs in birds younger than eight weeks of age indicated that these other skeletal defects were unrelated to tibial dyschondroplasia. PMID:934978
Supriyati; T Haryati; T Susanti; Susana, I. W. R.
An experiment was conducted to increase the quality of rice bran by fermentation using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and humic substances and its utilization as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out in two steps. First, the fermentation process was done using a completely randomized design in factorial with 16 treatments: i) Dosage of B. amyloliquefaciens (2.108 cfu/g), 10 and 20 g/kg; ii) Graded levels of humic substances, 0, 100, 200, and 400 ppm; iii) Length o...
Abildgaard, Lone; Engberg, Ricarda M.; Schramm, Andreas;
QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN BROILER CHICKENS BY REAL-TIME PCR TARGETING THE ALPHA-TOXIN GENE L. Abildgaard 1, R.M. Engberg 1, A. Schramm 2, O. Højberg 1 1 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... by antibiotics (ionophores) presently used to prevent parasitic coccidiosis. From 2012 the European Union has banned these anticoccidials as feed additives, wherefore alternatives are needed to suppress C. perfringens and/or α-toxin production. A real-time PCR primer-probe set targeting the α-toxin gene...
Calik, Ali; Ergün, Ahmet
This study investigated the effects of dietary lactulose supplementation on broiler growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microflora, and cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. A total of 245 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 different treatments, with 7 replicates including 7 birds each. The birds received the same basal diet based on corn--soybean meal, and lactulose was included in the diet at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8% at the expense of corn and/or soybean meal. The body weight gain (linear, P=0.027) and feed conversion (linear, P=0.003) from 0 to 21 d showed significant improvement as dietary lactulose was increased from 0.2 to 0.8%. However, dietary lactulose did not affect broiler performance at the end of the experiment (42 d). Furthermore, intestinal measurements and the goblet cell count of broilers fed a lactulose-containing diet differed from those of birds fed a diet that did not contain lactulose. In addition, a significant quadratic response in the Lactobacillus count (P≤0.001) was observed at 42 d on increasing the level of lactulose. The cecal coliform bacterial population was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42. In conclusion, inclusion of lactulose in the diet can enhance broiler performance and intestinal morphology by selectively stimulating intestinal microflora and increasing cecal SCFA concentrations. PMID:26188035
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.
Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002
Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel;
of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability......The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...
Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad
Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection.
Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C
A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.
Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad
Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection. PMID:27413312
Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami
Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality.
Wu, Shu-Biao; Rodgers, Nicholas J; Cui, Guimei; Sun, Yi; Choct, Mingan
Despite the relatively small contribution to metabolizable energy that volatile fatty acids (VFAs) provide in chickens, these organic acids have been reported to play beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of birds, for example, inhibition of the growth of some pathogenic bacteria. However, information regarding the dynamics of these metabolites in the GIT of chickens is still scarce, especially under disease conditions such as necrotic enteritis (NE). Here, we investigated the dynamics of VFAs and lactic acid, and intestinal morphology in response to NE predisposing factors, that is, excessive dietary fishmeal and Eimeria inoculation, and causative agent Clostridium perfringens producing NetB toxin. The experiment was designed in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with or without: fishmeal feeding, Eimeria inoculation and C. perfringens challenge. The results showed that these factors significantly influenced composition and concentration of VFAs and lactic acids, pH and histomorphometry in one way or another. These changes may be important for the onset of NE or only the synergetic responses to micro environmental stress. Eimeria appeared to be more important than fishmeal in predisposing birds to NE, thus the application of Eimeria in NE challenge provides more consistent success in inducing the disease. The metabolic responses to various adverse factors such as excessive dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection are complex. Thus, intensive efforts are required to better understand NE so as to achieve the control of the disease in the absence of antibiotics. PMID:27245303
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and blood parameters including Hsp70 and acute phase protein when chicken were subjected to transportation stress. A total of four hundred day-old-male cobb-500 chicks were obtained directly from a local hatchery. The chicks were allotted to two groups as: immediate placement (1 hour after hatching with access to feed and water and placement after 24h transportation without access to feed and water. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of 2 different diets and 2 different time of placement. Chicks from each placement group were fed either basal diet or basal diet + 1% glutamine from 1 to 21 days of age. The results indicated that dietary glutamine improved the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly when chicks were subjected to delayed or immediate placement. In conclusion, supplementing chicken with glutamine in diet can reduce negative effects of delayed access to feed and water during transportation. Moreover, APP concentration and HSP70 level were positively affected when chicks supplemented with glutamine in the diet.
THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE
Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.
Eliane Aparecida da Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the values of apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance and determine the chemical composition of the following feedstuffs: babassu meal, sunflower meal, corn gluten meal, babassu starch flour, meat and bones meal, beans, millet, cookies residue, pasta residue and bread-making residue. The traditional method of excreta collection was used with broilers in the period of 14 to 24 days of age, which were distributed in a completely randomized design with eleven treatments and six replicates of six birds each. Each feedstuff replaced the reference diet at levels of 30 or 40% depending on the type of feedstuff. Chicks were housed in cages fitted with trays to collect the excreta. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (kcal/kg on the natural matter of feedstuffs were: babassu meal, 1,116; sunflower meal, 1,607; corn gluten meal, 3,826; babassu flour starch, 1,731; meat and bone flour, 2,524; common beans, 693; millet, 3,046; cookies residue, 3,351; pasta residue, 3,543 and bread-making residue, 3,494.
Vikrant Laxman Bagal
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10. Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1% along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline without affecting growth performance of birds.
Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2 is of major concern for the poultry industry especially in Iran, as the virus can spread rapidly in and between flocks, causing high mortality and severe economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus in thymus and bursa of Fabricius of commercial broiler chickens, so we studied the histologic lesions of this isolate in these organs following intranasal (IN inoculation. Twenty-four 3-week-old chickens were inoculated with 106 EID50 per bird with H9N2 avian influenza virus. Then on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-inoculation (PI, samples of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were collected for histopathological studies. In inoculated chickens, lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, follicular atrophy and cystic follicles in the bursa of Fabricius were seen. The results indicated that the H9N2 has some immunosuppressive effects on chicken lymphoid organs.
Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.
Kerr, Ashley K; Farrar, Ashley M; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilkins, Wendy; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Bucher, Oliver; Wills, Robert W; Bailey, R Hart; Varga, Csaba; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana
The effectiveness of various competitive exclusion (CE) products for reducing Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens was evaluated using systematic review-meta-analysis-meta-regression (SR-MA-MR). Relevance screening identified 201 relevant studies that were subjected to methodological assessment. Of these studies, 159 were suitable for data extraction, 66 were presented in a number of MAs and 130 were examined in a meta-regression (MR). Fourteen different CE products were identified, 9 of them commercial products, and the most common route of administration was oral gavage (63.7% of trials). Meta-analyses indicated that a number of CE products reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers, the most effective one being Preempt™ which was formerly known as CF-3. Five study characteristics (publication year, CE type, CE route, sample origin, and Salmonella serovar administered/recovered) and three methodological soundness characteristics (treatment assignment, intervention and laboratory methods description) were retained as statistically significant (pSalmonella colonization in broilers on-farm, CE was the most studied; its inability to be licenced in certain countries and proof of consistent efficacy remains a barrier.
Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.
Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue
This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB₁ (the basal diet containing AFB₁-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB₁+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB₁ diet). The contents of AFB₁ in AFB₁ and AFB₁+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB₁ significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB₁ not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB₁-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305
Leandro Gomes Oliveira
Full Text Available The broiler agro industrial chain is very important for Brazilian agribusiness. Despite employing vertical integration to coordinate its supply chain, risks events are inherent and can influence its operation and performance. This paper aims to identify risks that impact negatively on broiler chain, analyzing the perspective of producers from Ubá City, in Minas Gerais, as well as to identify which strategies are being used in this chain for mitigating them.A literature review to identify the main risks inherent to this chain was executed, followed by the application of a questionnaire answered by the producers. Lastly, an in-depth interview was done to understand the responses and to identify some mitigation strategies adopted in this chain. It was analyzed that more impactful risks in the broiler chain, according to producers’ perspective, was temperature increase, price received by the producer and risk related to investment. Less important risks were road conditions, contamination of animal´s food and increase in the price of chicken meat. It was also found that many of the risks identified in this research have already mitigation strategies, mainly by the use of new technologies and equipment.
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.
Irenilza de Alencar Nääs
Full Text Available Broiler chickens in Brazil are generally reared from 1 to 42 days when they are exposed to procedures such as fasting, harvesting, crating and transport to slaughter. Maintaining homeostasis is of great importance for broiler survival under harsh environment especially prior to slaughter. Heat loss varies in the distinct parts of the body during the growth period, and it is related to the air temperature of the environment and to the amount of feather covering. This research aimed to study the surface temperature distribution using infrared thermographic image processing to characterize 42 day old broiler chicken surface temperature prior to slaughter. Broilers were reared for 42 days and prior to harvest and transport to slaughter the infrared surface temperature was recorded along the day. Data from the thermograms taken in feather and featherless regions were compared during the 42nd day of growth. High correlation between featherless regions and air temperature was found showing that these areas respond fast to changes in the rearing environment. Two functions were developed for predicting both surface temperature for featherless and feather covered areas of the broiler body parts.No Brasil frangos de corte são normalmente alojados de 1 até 42 dias, quando são expostos a procedimentos como: jejum, apanha, colocação em caixas e transporte até o abate. Manter a homeostase do corpo é de grande importância para a sobrevivência de frangos de corte sob ambiente quente, especialmente na 7ª semana de crescimento. A perda de calor varia nas partes do corpo e está relacionada à temperatura do ar e à cobertura de penas. Avaliou-se a distribuição da temperatura superficial usando o processamento de imagens de câmera termográfica infravermelho, para caracterizar a temperatura superficial de frangos de corte de 42 dias de idade, no período anterior à apanha para o abate. Os frangos foram alojados de 1 a 42 dias e, antes de serem
Ilyina, Anna; Arredondo-Valdés, Roberto; Farkhutdinov, Salavat; Segura-Ceniceros, Elda Patricia; Martínez-Hernández, José Luis; Zaynullin, Radik; Kunakova, Rayhana
In vitro effect of betulin-containing extract from Betula pendula Roth. bark on alpha-amylase activity was studied, the kinetic mechanism of interaction was proposed and in vivo effect of betulin-containing extract on weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens was evaluated. The highest level of inhibitory activity (20%) was detected in extract concentration of 1,000 mg/L. Increased extract concentration did not lead to increased enzyme inhibition. Using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden coordinates, the competitive mechanism of inhibition was demonstrated. Calculated kinetic parameters were: Km equal to 0.6 mg/mL, Vmax equal to 2.6 and 2.1 mM/min from Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon coordinates, respectively and Ki equal to 3,670 ± 230 mg/mL. The partial inhibition of enzyme indicates the existence of low concentration of active inhibitory form, which reaches saturation level with increased extract concentration in applied suspension. Therefore, Ki has an apparent constant character. This partial inhibition of amylase activity observed in in vitro assay did not affect weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens during in vivo assay. Rather, the tendency to increase the weight of edible parts and muscles compared to diet without additive suggests that the extract may be a potential food additive in poultry farming. Additionally, it could be a source for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.
Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M
The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate temperature for processing storage of chicken meatballs made of minced chicken meat with the sous vide method. The chicken meatballs were prepared and separated into four experimental groups according to the application of heat treatment (10 and 20 minutes and storage time (+2 and +10°C. Sensory, microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total psychrotrophs, lactic acidbacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiumperfringens, Listeria spp., chemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid, color (L*, a*, b* values, and texture profile analyses were performed on meatball samples. Cl. perfringens and Listeria spp. were not detected in meatball samples during the storage period. Samples cooked at 10 minute and stored at +2°C the highest count of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (p<0.05. For lipid oxidation, interaction was observed between cooking time and storage temperature, with higher TBARs values for samples stored at 10 °C, while cooking time and storage temperature showed no influence on the color and textural analysis parameters. For the treatments evaluated, cooking time x storage temperature seem affect more microbiological and chemical parameters than color and textural parameters of chicken meatballs.
Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo
The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.
Chicken carcasses dipped in whey fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid solution or water and irradiated at 2.5 kGy by 60Co were evaluated for bacteriological quality on day 1, day-3 and at 3-day intervals for an 18-day storage (4 degrees C) period. Unirradiated carcasses treated similarly were used as control. Gram negative bacteria, Yersinia and Campylobacter counts were significantly (p0.01) lower in irradiated samples, but no significant (p0.05) differences were observed ammong the dipping solutions. Salmonellae were completely eliminated in irradiated samples. Whey fermented by S. thermophilus reduced the proportion of Salmonella contaminated carcasses from 67% to 20%. As evidenced by the bacterial counts the shelf-life was found to be 15 days for irradiated carcasses compared to about 6 days for the unirradiated samples
Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami
Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Principle purpose of this study was to monitor the chemical composition of breast and thigh muscular part of chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and to verify the differences due to use of pollen extract in feed mixture at a dose of 400 and 800 mg.kg-1 during the feeding of 42 days. We did not find significant differences (P≥0.05 in followed chemical compounds of thigh muscle with the skin and subcutaneous fat between the groups with and without application of pollen extract: in contents of water (68.49-70.12 g.100g-1, protein (18.82-18.98 g.100g-1, fat (9.96-11.53 g.100g-1 and in energy value (692.20-752.36 kJ.100g-1. Significant differences (P≤0.05 were found only in protein content of breast muscle between the control group (23.96 g.100g-1 and experimental group I (23.28 g.100g-1. Values of water content (73.97-74.32 g.100g-1, fat content (1.07-1.40 g.100g-1 and energy (441.65-446.64 kJ.100g-1 in breast muscle between the evaluated groups were balanced (P≥0.05. The results show that pollen extract at the concentration used in feed mixture did not effect basic chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the chicken Ross 308 carcass and we can apply it in their nutrition. Application at a dose of 800 mg.kg-1 seems to be more positive.doi:10.5219/190
Hejdysz, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej
The study was conducted to investigate the nutritional value of five samples of raw and extruded pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., Tarachalska cv.) from different experimental fields. The study included 150 male 1-day-old Ross 308 chickens, which were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (50 replications each) and kept in individual cages. From days 1 to 16, all birds received only the basal diets. From days 17 to 21, the control group received still the basal diet, but for the two other groups, 20% of basal diet was replaced by raw or extruded peas. Furthermore, the groups receiving raw or extruded peas were divided into five subgroups of 10 animals each, where the diets contained one of the five pea samples of the same cultivar grown at different locations, respectively. On days 19 and 20, excreta were individually collected, and then all chickens were sacrificed and ileal digesta were sampled for determination of ileal digestibility, which was calculated by the difference method. Extrusion of pea seeds decreased the contents of crude fibre, acid and neutral detergent fibre, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic P and resistant starch (RS) (p ≤ 0.05), but increased the contents of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) by approximately 2.25 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). Furthermore, extrusion improved the DM and crude protein digestibility significantly by about 21.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Similar results were observed for the digestibility of all analysed amino acids. In conclusion, extrusion markedly influenced the chemical composition of peas, reduced their contents of phytic P, TIA and RS and consequently had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and AMEN values.
Ryu, Seung-Tae; Park, Byung-Sung; Bang, Han-Tae; Kang, Hwan-Ku; Hwangbo, Jong
The present study investigated the effects of night restricted feeding of extreme heat diet (EHD) containing heat stress resistance nutrients, with inverse lighting program, on their growth performance in broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress (33 ± 2°C). EHD 1 contained soy oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. Three hundred broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomized into four dietary treatment groups according to a randomized block design on the day they were hatched. The treatment groups were: T1 (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light) and T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light). The body weight gain of the broilers increased most significantly in T2, followed by T1, T4 and T3 (p immune system, thymus and bursa of Fabricius recorded higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4. The spleen was higher in T1, T2 and T3 than in T4 (p acid, propionic acid and total Short chain fatty acid were significantly higher in the order of T2, T1, T3 and T4. Butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were higher in T4 and T3 than in T1 and T2 (p < 0.05). PMID:27097436
Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M
The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID
Peter G. Tickle
Full Text Available Genetic selection for improved meat yields, digestive efficiency and growth rates have transformed the biology of broiler chickens. Modern birds undergo a 50-fold multiplication in body mass in just six weeks, from hatching to slaughter weight. However, this selection for rapid growth and improvements in broiler productivity is also widely thought to be associated with increased welfare problems as many birds suffer from leg, circulatory and respiratory diseases. To understand growth-related changes in musculoskeletal and organ morphology and respiratory skeletal development over the standard six-week rearing period, we present data from post-hatch cadaveric commercial broiler chickens aged 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The heart, lungs and intestines decreased in size for hatch to slaughter weight when considered as a proportion of body mass. Proportional liver size increased in the two weeks after hatch but decreased between 2 and 6 weeks. Breast muscle mass on the other hand displayed strong positive allometry, increasing in mass faster than the increase in body mass. Contrastingly, less rapid isometric growth was found in the external oblique muscle, a major respiratory muscle that moves the sternum dorsally during expiration. Considered together with the relatively slow ossification of elements of the respiratory skeleton, it seems that rapid growth of the breast muscles might compromise the efficacy of the respiratory apparatus. Furthermore, the relative reduction in size of the major organs indicates that selective breeding in meat-producing birds has unintended consequences that may bias these birds toward compromised welfare and could limit further improvements in meat-production and feed efficiency.
Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals. PMID:26634283
The experiment was carried out with 120 days old Hubbard broiler chicks maintained on floor pens. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of the phosphorus in various phosphorus (P) sources. The chicks were divided in four groups of 30 birds each, which were further subdivided into 3 replicates of 10 birds. Each of the four test phosphorus sources i.e. (a) Bone meal (BM), (b) Dicalcium phosphate (DCP), (c) Triple super phosphorus (TSP), and (d) Rock phosphates (RP), was added to the basal diet (ME 2853.62 Kcal/kg and CP 21.04%), having same level of Ca (1%) and P (0.45%). The experiment continued for 3 weeks. Weekly feed consumed and weight gain was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio (FCR). From each group 9 birds (three birds from each replicate) were slaughtered and bone samples (toe) were collected for the availability of P. Data obtained from feed intake, weight gain FCR, and toe ash P, were subjected to statistical analysis and a significant difference was observed among the different phosphate sources. The highest feed intake, growth rate and percentage P in toe ash and the lowest FCR was observed in the bone meal following by the DCP and TSP. The low feed intake, poor growth rate, low percent P in toe ash and the highest FCR was observed in the rock phosphate depicting that P availability was highest in the BM, DCP and TSP, while lowest in the RP. There was none significant difference, in the performance of birds fed diet with BM, DCP and TSP. It was suggested that TSP, being the cheap and the easily available source, which can be used in poultry feed industry as an economical source of P. (author)
Santos, Regiane R.; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H. G.; Koolmees, Peter A.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna
The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperatur
Changes in the size of the populations of different groups of bacteria in the normal flora of the skin of processed broilers were examined after each of five consecutive washings with mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses was ...
Iris Lamberti Ziober
Full Text Available Samples of Pectoralis major m. were collected, and an RT-PCR analysis of the a-Ryanodine receptor (a RYR from chicken mRNA hotspot region spanning aminoacid residues 386 to 540, numbered according to the turkey sequence, revealed two classes of transcripts. The sequences of the first class were similar to turkey and human with 97% and 74% of identity, respectively, and included all transcripts with substitutions in the nucleotide sequence. The second class was characterized by the deletion of nucleotides, leading to a premature stop codon and coding for a truncated and nonfunctional protein. These results are to date the first report related to the sequencing of the chicken αRYR hotspot region 1, which will possibility serve as a guide for further studies regarding a solution in the poultry production chain related to the problem of pale, soft and exudative (PSE meat.Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major foram coletadas e uma RT-PCR foi conduzida para avaliar a sequência do mRNA do αRYR, região compreendida entre os resíduos de aminoácido 386-540, numerado de acordo com a sequência de perus. Os resultados revelaram duas classes de transcritos. O primeiro teve 97% e 74% de identidade com as sequências de αRyR e RyR1 de perus e humanos, respectivamente, e incluiu todos os transcritos com substituições de nucleotídeos. A segunda classe de transcritos foi caracterizada pela deleção de bases que levaram a um stop códon prematuro e a uma proteína truncada não-funcional. Esses resultados são até o momento, o primeiro relato de sequenciamento do αRYR, região hotspot1 de frangos e podem servir como guia para estudos futuros na tentativa de se encontrar uma solução para os problemas na cadeia de produção de frangos relacionados com as carnes PSE (pálida, flácida e exsudativa.
Full Text Available The effect of in ovo administration of different levels of betaine and choline on egg hatchability,