WorldWideScience

Sample records for broadleaved deciduous forest

  1. Comparison of Characteristic of Water Balance between Evergreen Coniferous and Deciduous Broad-leaved Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Shigeta; Senge, Masateru; Ito, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Hydrological observation was carried out at two basins occupied mainly by evergreen coniferous forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa and deciduous broad-leaved forest of Quercus crispula in order to clarify the influences of different forest type on water balance. The analysis of short-time period water-budget method showed that the evapotranspiration of coniferous forest was more than broad-leaved one. By calculating transpiration from Priestley-Taylor equation, intercepted evaporation was separated from evapotranspiration. The result of comparison of intercepted evaporation between two basin was that intercepted evaporation of coniferous basin was more than that of broad-leaved basin. From separating total runoff into direct and base flow components; it was shown that there was no difference in direct runoff of two basins, so the differences of total runoff of two basins were caused due to the difference of base flow. From the above analysis of water balance components, it is clarified that the different forest type influences the amount of intercepted evaporation and base flow.

  2. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  3. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil respiration in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leaved forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-hua; Li, Han-mao; Yang, Yan-ping; Chen, Shu-tao; Li, Cen-zi; Shen, Shuang-he

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on forest soil respiration, a simulated nitrogen deposition field experiment was conducted in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leave forest from April 2008 to April 2009. Nitrogen treatments included the control (no N addition, CK), low-N [50 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(L)], medium-N [100 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(M)], and high-N [150 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(H)]. The respiration rates were measured by a static chamber-gas chromatograph method. Results showed that nitrogen deposition did not change the seasonal and daily variation patterns of soil respiration. Compared to the control, T(L), T(M) and T(H) treatments reduced soil annual average respiration rates by 8.51%, 9.74% and 11.24%, respectively. Meanwhile, T(L), T(M) and T(H) treatments decreased daily average soil respiration rates by 4.42%, 11.09% and 12.17%, respectively. Significant relationship was found between soil respiration rate and soil temperature. The Q10 (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for soil respiration of CK, T(L), T(M), and T(H) treatments were 2.53, 3.22, 2.64 and 2.92, respectively. Our findings suggested that nitrogen deposition reduced soil respiration, and increased soil respiration temperature sensitivity in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leave forest.

  4. Unmanned aerial survey of fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5-1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost.

  5. Pollen flux and vertical dispersion in coniferous and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; ZHOU LiPing; LI YiYin; ZHANG ZhenQing; LIN FengYou

    2007-01-01

    The pollen flux in coniferous and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains is presented in one year's experiments. The results indicate that arboreal pollen percentages are more than 65% and pollen flux is higher than 5000 grain·cm-2·a-1, while less than 2% and lower than 1000 grain·cm-2·a-1 for shrubby pollen, and less than 20% and lower than 3000 grain·cm-2·a-1 for herbaceous pollen for most samples at different heights. The pollen assemblages are similar to those in the samples under 8 m height where Pinus and Quercus are dominant and followed by the few non-local pollen types, and Fraxinus percentages are high with a few non-local pollen types at 16 m to 32 m height as well as non-local pollen clearly increased at 40 m height. Comparisons between pollen assemblages and vegetation composition suggest that similarities are higher for pollen trap samples than for surface moss samples.

  6. Intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA among the component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Aoki, Kyoko; Seo, Akihiro; Murakami, Noriaki

    2006-09-01

    To select appropriate plant materials for a phylogeography of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan, we surveyed intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation in 34 species found in these forests. A relatively large number of intraspecific cpDNA variations were detected in ten species: Carpinus japonica (nucleotide diversity pi=0.00083), C. laxiflora (pi=0.00221), Magnolia obovata (pi=0.00134), Lindera triloba (pi=0.00255), L. obtusiloba (pi=0.00289), Pourthiaea villosa var. leavis (pi=0.00263), Acer japonicum (pi=0.00170), A. micranthum (pi=0.00237), Euonymus oxyphyllus (pi=0.00322) and Styrax obassia (pi=0.00100).

  7. Biomass of Secondary Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Mixed Forest in Plateau-type Karst Terrain of Guizhou Province, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Using allometric functions, harvest and soil column methods, we investigated the biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Tianlongshan permanent monitoring plot (a horizontally-projected area of 2 hectares) of Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest is 165.4 Mg·hm-2. The aboveground biomass and root biomass are 137.7 Mg·hm-2 and 27.7 Mg·hm-2, respectively. Among the aboveground biomass, the tree layer accounts for 97.76%, which is obviously greater than the shrub layer and herb layer. Larger trees (the diameter at breast height, DBH is between 5 cm and 20 cm) occupies 76.85% of the aboveground biomass, especially the five dominant species(Lithocarpus confinis, Platycarya longipes, Itea yunnanensis, Machilus cavaleriei and Carpinus pubescens). Shrubs and lianas (DBH = 1 cm) account for more than 30% of total shrub and liana biomass, although their individuals are less than 2% of total shrub individuals and 1% of total liana individuals, respectively. The root biomass differs in root diameters, i.e. coarse root > medium root > fine root. Root biomass decreases with the increase of soil depth. Within soil depth of 20 cm, the root biomass is 20.1 Mg·hm-2, which is more than 70% of total root biomass. Within soil depth of 50 cm, the root biomass is 26.7 Mg·hm-2, which is 96.39% of total root biomass. Compared with non-karst forests in the same climate zone, karst forest has lower biomass and carbon stock, but it further has greater potential of carbon sink.

  8. Community Dynamics of Seed Rain in Mixed Evergreen Broad-leaved and Deciduous Forests in a Subtropical Mountain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hao Shen; Yuan-Yuan Tang; Nan Lü; Jun Zhao; Dao-Xing Li; Gong-Fang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal is a key process within community dynamics. The spatial and temporal variations of seed dispersal and the interspecific differences are crucial for understanding species coexistence and community dynamics. This might also hold for the mixed evergreen broadleaved and deciduous forests in the mountains of subtropical China, but until now little existing knowledge is available for this question. In 2001, we chose to monitor the seed rain process of our mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forest communities in Mount Dalaoling National Forest Park, Yichang, Hubei Province, China.The preliminary analyses show obvious variations in seed rain density, species compositions and timing of seed rain among four communities. The average seed rain densities of the four communities are 2.43 ± 5.15, 54.13 ±182.75, 10.05 ±19.30and 24.91 ± 58.86 inds./m2, respectively; about one tenth the values in other studies in subtropical forests of China. In each community, the seed production is dominated by a limited number of species, and the contributions from the others are generally minor. Fecundity of evergreen broadleaved tree species is weaker than deciduous species. The seed rain of four communities begins earlier than September, and stops before December, peaking from early September to late October.The beginning date, ending date and peak times of seed rain are extensively varied among the species, indicating different types of dispersal strategies. According to the existing data, the timing of seed rain is not determined by the climate conditions in the same period, while the density of seed rain may be affected by the disturbances of weather variations at a finer temporal resolution.

  9. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  10. Differential winter stemflow generation under contrasting storm conditions in a southern New England broad-leaved deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F., Jr.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the importance of stemflow as a hydroecological process, differential winter stemflow generation among and within precipitation types (e.g. snow, rain-to-snow) is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to understand winter stemflow generation better under contrasting meteorological conditions in a leafless deciduous forest. It is hypothesized that stemflow volume and production, expressed as a funnelling ratio, will differ significantly among and within precipitation event types. Acceptance of this hypothesis would mean that intra-event meteorological conditions have a significant and discernible effect on stemflow production in deciduous forests, differentially affecting soil moisture, groundwater recharge, soil solution chemistry, and nutrient cycling. Stemflow volumes generated from seven canopy trees were monitored in a leafless deciduous forest of southern New England on a precipitation event basis over two successive winter seasons. Stemflow volume was found to differ significantly among different and same-type precipitation events. A rain event that occurred on 8 December 1998 and snow-to-rain event on 18 January 1999 were of similar duration, magnitude, and intensity, yet produced stemflow volumes that differed by a factor of 4. For two snow-to-rain events, stemflow volumes differed by a factor of 11. Stemflow production even varies widely within a discrete precipitation event as a function of meteorological conditions. Significant differential stemflow yield under contrasting storm conditions obviates generalizations concerning stemflow production as a function of precipitation event type and necessitates a deeper, process-level understanding of winter stemflow generation before modelling exercises are undertaken.

  11. Soil organic matter quantity and quality shape microbial community compositions of subtropical broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang; Wang, Mengmeng; Sun, Xin; Cong, Jing; Deng, Ye; Lu, Hui; Yuan, Tong; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    As two major forest types in the subtropics, broadleaved evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forests have long interested ecologists. However, little is known about their belowground ecosystems despite their ecological importance in driving biogeochemical cycling. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S rRNA gene and a microarray named GeoChip targeting functional genes to analyse microbial communities in broadleaved evergreen and deciduous forest soils of Shennongjia Mountain of Central China, a region known as 'The Oriental Botanic Garden' for its extraordinarily rich biodiversity. We observed higher plant diversity and relatively richer nutrients in the broadleaved evergreen forest than the deciduous forest. In odds to our expectation that plant communities shaped soil microbial communities, we found that soil organic matter quantity and quality, but not plant community parameters, were the best predictors of microbial communities. Actinobacteria, a copiotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved evergreen forest, while Verrucomicrobia, an oligotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forest. The density of the correlation network of microbial OTUs was higher in the broadleaved deciduous forest but its modularity was smaller, reflecting lower resistance to environment changes. In addition, keystone OTUs of the broadleaved deciduous forest were mainly oligotrophic. Microbial functional genes associated with recalcitrant carbon degradation were also more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forests, resulting in low accumulation of organic matters. Collectively, these findings revealed the important role of soil organic matter in shaping microbial taxonomic and functional traits.

  12. Mixed Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Forests Interference Characteristics Mulinzi Nature Reserve in Hubei%湖北木林子自然保护区常绿落叶阔叶混交林干扰特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤景明; 翟明普

    2011-01-01

    常绿落叶阔叶混交林是木林子自然保护区的1种主要植被类型。在各种自然干扰和人为干扰的协同作用下,形成了木林子常绿落叶阔叶混交林特有的干扰体系。在常绿落叶阔叶混交林的保护和经营中,要利用封山育林、森林抚育、合理择伐和人工促进天然更新等增益性人工干扰,坚决阻止过渡的森林采伐和毁林开荒等破坏性人工干扰。应参照以自然林窗干扰,采用择伐方式经营常绿落叶阔叶混交林。%The mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests is one of the main vegetation types of the Mulinzi Nature Reserve.In a variety of natural disturbance and human disturbance of synergies,unique disturbance system of mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests in Mulinzi was formed.In the protection and management of mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests should use all kinds of human disturbance of closed forest,forest tending,reasonable selection cutting and artificial natural regeneration of human disturbance such as gain,determined to prevent excessive deforestation and deforestation and other destructive human disturbance.We should refer to the natural forest gap disturbance,operate using selective cutting mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved.

  13. 亚热带常绿阔叶林和暖温带落叶阔叶林叶片热值比较研究%Comparison of leaf calorific values in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗; 宋广艳; 赵宁; 何念鹏; 侯继华

    2015-01-01

    Gross calorific value ( GCV) has been introduced to biological research and applied to reflect the capability of plant species to fix solar radiation. Calorific value has also been considered as a coefficient characteristic to evaluate the adaptation strategies of plant species to the external environment. Therefore, understanding the variation in GCV among different ecosystems may provide a basis for assessing energy fixation, transformation, and utilization efficiency. A number of studies have indicated that GCV varies among different geographical locations and ecological categories. Some studies have suggested that the energy contents of alpine plants should be higher than those of tropical plants, and have also shown that energy content differs among different plant life forms, decreasing in the sequence tree >shrub >herb. However, little has been reported on the patterns of GCV in different typical ecosystems ( at the levels of species, life form, and community) across multiple zones. In this study, we compared the leaf calorific values of plant species in two forest ecosystem-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China. Field sampling was carried out in early August 2013 at Jiulian Mountain ( Jiangxi Province) and Dongling Mountain ( Beijing Province) , China. Leaf samples of 276 plant species were collected from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests, and the calorific values of these leaves were measured using a PARR 1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter. To explore the variability in GCV, we analyzed the data at the levels of species, life form ( trees, shrubs, and herbs) , and community in the two forest types. Furthermore, trees were subdivided into evergreen and deciduous, and coniferous and broad-leaved. The results showed that the GCV of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest was 17. 83 kJ/g ( n=191) , whereas that of the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved

  14. 叶山次生落叶阔叶林主要树种空间结构特征%Spatial structure characteristics of main tree species in secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest in Yeshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丙玉; 郝耀锋; 吴开华; 黄庆丰

    2012-01-01

    通过对铜陵叶山林场天然次生落叶阔叶混交林内具有代表性的样地调查,利用角尺度、混交度和大小比数3个林分空间结构参数分析了该次生落叶阔叶林林分空间结构特征.结果表明,该林分乔木层共有19个树种,麻栎是该森林类型的优势树种,主要伴生树种为化香、枫香、檫木等;该森林类型林分平均角尺度、平均混交度和平均大小比数分别为0.556、0.525和0.497;在林木空间格局上,林分整体呈团状分布;从林分种间隔离程度来看,整体处于中度混交状态;在林木大小分化程度上,麻栎、化香、枫香和檫木在生长上整体处于中庸状态,林木空间大小分化不大.该森林类型还处在不稳定阶段,即落叶阅叶向常绿与落叶阔叶林演替过程中.%Based on the investigation of typical plots of the natural secondary deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Yeshan Forest-farm of Tongling city, the spatial structure features of this forest type were analyzed by using three spatial structure parameters (uniform angle, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison index). The results showed that there were 19 tree species in tree layer, of which Quercus acutissima was the dominant species of this forest type, and Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana, Sassafras tzumus and so on were main associated tree species; the mean value of uniform angle index, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison of the stand in forest type were 0.556, 0.525 and 0.497, respectively. The pattern of tree spatial distribution of the stand was the cluster. The mingling degree of tree species of the stand was moderate mixed. Quercus acutissima, Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana and Sassafras tzumus were the mean state in growing in the tree's size differentiation degree. The tree's size differentiation of this forest type was small. This forest type is still in the unstable stage, namely the transition stage from the

  15. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an ancient broadleaved deciduous woodland in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of canopy-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from 2007 to 2009 above a site in Wytham Woods, an ancient temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in southern England. Gap-filled net ecosystem exchange (NEE data were partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re and analysed on daily, monthly and annual timescales. Over the continuous 24 month study period annual GPP was estimated to be 21.1 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and Re to be 19.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1; net ecosystem productivity (NEP was 1.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. These estimates were compared with independent bottom-up estimates derived from net primary productivity (NPP and flux chamber measurements recorded at a plot within the flux footprint in 2008 (GPP = 26.5 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, Re = 24.8 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, biomass increment = ~1.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Over the two years the difference in seasonal NEP was predominantly caused by changes in ecosystem respiration, whereas GPP remained similar for equivalent months in different years. Although solar radiation was the largest influence on daily values of CO2 fluxes (R2 = 0.53 for the summer months for a linear regression, variation in Re appeared to be driven by temperature. Our findings suggest that this ancient woodland site is currently a substantial sink for carbon, resulting from continued growth that is probably a legacy of past management practices abandoned over 40 years ago. Our GPP and Re values are generally higher than other broadleaved temperate deciduous woodlands and may represent the influence of the UK's maritime climate, or the particular species composition of this site. The carbon sink value of Wytham Woods

  16. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an ancient broadleaved deciduous woodland in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of canopy-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from 2007 to 2009 above a site in Wytham Woods, an ancient temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in southern England. Gap-filled Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE data were partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re and analysed on daily, monthly and annual timescales. Over the continuous 24 month study period annual GPP was estimated at 21.1 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and Re at 19.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1; Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP was 1.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. These estimates are very consistent with independent bottom-up estimates derived from Net Primary Productivity (NPP and flux chamber measurements in 2008 (GPP=20.3±1.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, Re=18.9±1.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, biomass increment =~1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Interannual variability of seasonal NEP was predominantly driven by changes in ecosystem respiration, whereas GPP remained similar for equivalent months in different years. Although solar radiation was the largest influence on daytime CO2 fluxes (R2=0.53 for the summer months, interannual variation in Re appeared to be driven by temperature. Our findings suggest that this ancient woodland site is currently a substantial sink for carbon, resulting from continued growth that is probably a legacy of past management practices abandoned over 40 years ago. Our GPP and Re values are generally higher than other broadleaved temperate deciduous woodlands and may represent the influence of the UK's maritime climate, or the particular species composition of this site. The carbon sink value of Wytham Woods supports the protection and management of temperate deciduous woodlands (including those

  17. Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Properties of a Toposequence in the Moist Semi-. Deciduous Forest ... paper describes the basic physical and chemical status of the six soil profiles. The soil profiles were ..... jor role of soil organic matter is it serves as a store and slow ...

  18. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  19. 暖温带落叶阔叶林动态变化的模拟研究%Modelling changes of a deciduous broad-leaved forest in warm temperate zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑卫国

    2004-01-01

    用森林动态林窗模型FORET1模拟了暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期变化特征.模型参数取自暖温带地区长期森林研究和经营的历史数据,对过去数据中缺少的参数进行了实地测定,并用观测的数据对模型作了检验.结果表明模型能较好地模拟暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期动态变化特征.通过模拟可以看出,森林的净初级生产力没有明显变化规律且极度不稳定,峰值出现在30a左右,相似于世界上其它地区森林动态格局变化,生物量格局呈循环状态变化,循环周期大致在110a左右.%A warm temperate deciduous forest in Dongling Mountain of Beijing was simulated with forest gap dynamics model,FORET1,in order to predict ist future changes.The model parameters were derived from both historical and currently measured data;and the model was tested against observed data.Results showed that the model simulation of forest species composition,biomass and production matched well with observed data.Model simulation of the dynamics of this warm temperate deciduous forest indicate that the changes in net primary production was clearly unregulated and extremely unstable,with a peak around 30 years and repeated patterns of dynamics in biomass production every 110 years.The patterns of temporal dynamics of this forest are comparable to other forest ecosystems worldwide.

  20. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  2. 1996-2012天目山常绿落叶阔叶混交林乔木层群落动态%Community Dynamics of Arbor Layer in the Mixed Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-Leaved Forests during 1996 -2012 in Tianmu Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游诗雪; 张超; 库伟鹏; 朱弘; 赵明水; 余树全

    2016-01-01

    要原因;中小径级个体间竞争剧烈,死亡率高。%Objective]Using long-term exploration of community dynamics ( ranging from 1996 to 2012 ) ,this study was aimed to provide scientific support for forest protection,management and operation in Tianmu Mountain.[Method]In 1996,a field site with the size of 1hm2 locating in evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest of Tianmu Mountain,a national nature reserve in Zhejiang province was built,and then each tree in the site was numbered,labeled and recorded it’s species name,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),location and other information. In 2012,the above data was determined again to compare the community dynamics of the trees with the DBH more than 10 cm during the past 16 years.[Result]The results showed that in 1996,the evergreen broad-leaved trees and deciduous broad-leaved trees accounted for 54. 97% and 45. 03% of the total number of trees,respectively,while in 2012,the ratios changed to 62. 81% and 37. 19% respectively. The community structure changed from 40 species,34 genera and 24 families in 1996 to 48 species,40 genera and 29 families in 2012. During the 16 years,there were 14 species emerged which are belonging to 11 genera and 8 families and 6 species disappeared which are belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. Among them, 66. 67% of the disappeared species were accidental species ( defined as the total number of individuals varying from 1 to 3 ) ,while in new emergent species,92. 86% of which were accidental species. . The total number of trees increased from 553 in 1996 to 597 in 2012,of which the dead was 191 and the regeneration was 235. The richness index,Simpson diversity index,Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were changed from 40,0. 72,3. 98,and 1. 03 in 1996, respectively to 48,0. 88,3. 88,and 1. 05 in 2012,respectively. The small DBH class ( DBH 60 cm) trees were 2. 53% and 2. 01%,respectively and the mortality ratio was 7. 69%; In general,the DBH class

  3. Species composition and community structure of the Donglingshan forest dynamic plot in a warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest, China%东灵山暖温带落叶阔叶次生林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海丰; 李亮; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the key features in the process of vegetation succession.Warm temperate mixed deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest is the main forest vegetation type in China's warm temperate zone.In order to better study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, we established the Donglingshan 20-ha forest plot (DLS plot) in 2009 and 2010 using the same protocol as the well-established plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama.In the plot, all free-standing woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species.Here, we address preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, and size-class, vertical, and spatial structure of the DLS plot.These datasets will serve as baseline information accessible to a wide range of future studies.We tagged a total of 52,136 genotype individuals (103,284 individuals including branches of genotype individuals), belonging to 58 species, 33 genera and 18 families.All of these tree species were deciduous.Floristic characteristics of the community suggested a temperate flora, including some subtropical and tropical elements.There were very obvious dominant species in the plot.Five species comprised 61% of all individuals, and 20 species comprised 92% of all individuals, while the other 38 species comprised only 8% of all individuals.Vertical structure was composed of an overstory layer (19 species), midstory layer (18 species), and a shrub layer (21 species).The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot generally fitted a "reverse J" distribution, indicating good regeneration across the community.The size-class structure of the main species in the overstory layer showed a bimodal or nearly normal distribution, while the most abundant species in the midstory and shrub layers showed "reverse J" or even "L" distributions.Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant species varied with size-class and

  4. Inter- and intra-specific variation in stemflow for evergreen species and deciduous tree species in a subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xu, Wenting; Zhao, Changming; Xie, Zongqiang; Ju, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Quantification of stemflow is necessary for the assessment of forest ecosystem hydrological effects. Nevertheless, variation of stemflow among plant functional groups is currently not well understood. Stemflow production of co-occurring evergreen broadleaved trees (Cyclobalanopsis multinervis and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon) and deciduous broadleaved trees (Fagus engleriana and Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata) was quantified through field observations in a mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest. The research results revealed that stemflow increased linearly with increasing rainfall magnitude, with precipitation depths of 6.9, 7.2, 10.0 and 14.8 mm required for the initiation of stemflow for C. multinervis, C. oxyodon, F. engleriana and Q. serrata, respectively. Stemflow percentage and funneling ratio (FR) increased with increasing rainfall in a logarithmic fashion. Stemflow percentage and FR tended to grow rapidly with increasing rainfall magnitude up to a rainfall threshold of 50 mm, above which, further rainfall increases brought about only small increases. For C. multinervis, C. oxyodon, F. engleriana and Q. serrata, FR averaged 19.8, 14.8, 8.9 and 2.8, respectively. The stemflow generating rainfall thresholds for evergreen species were smaller than for deciduous species. Furthermore, stemflow percentage and FR of the former was greater than the latter. For both evergreen species and deciduous species, overall funneling ratio (FRs) decreased with increasing basal area. We concluded that: (1) although stemflow partitioning represented a fairly low percentage of gross rainfall in mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests, it was capable of providing substantial amount of rainwater to tree boles; (2) the evergreen species were more likely to generate stemflow than deciduous species, and directed more intercepted rainwater to the root zone; (3) small trees were more productive in funneling stemflow than larger trees, which may provide a favorable

  5. Relationship between the decomposition process of coarse woody debris and fungal community structure as detected by high-throughput sequencing in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamashita

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between the community structure of wood-decaying fungi, detected by high-throughput sequencing, and the decomposition rate using 13 years of data from a forest dynamics plot. For molecular analysis and wood density measurements, drill dust samples were collected from logs and stumps of Fagus and Quercus in the plot. Regression using a negative exponential model between wood density and time since death revealed that the decomposition rate of Fagus was greater than that of Quercus. The residual between the expected value obtained from the regression curve and the observed wood density was used as a decomposition rate index. Principal component analysis showed that the fungal community compositions of both Fagus and Quercus changed with time since death. Principal component analysis axis scores were used as an index of fungal community composition. A structural equation model for each wood genus was used to assess the effect of fungal community structure traits on the decomposition rate and how the fungal community structure was determined by the traits of coarse woody debris. Results of the structural equation model suggested that the decomposition rate of Fagus was affected by two fungal community composition components: one that was affected by time since death and another that was not affected by the traits of coarse woody debris. In contrast, the decomposition rate of Quercus was not affected by coarse woody debris traits or fungal community structure. These findings suggest that, in the case of Fagus coarse woody debris, the fungal community structure is related to the decomposition process of its host substrate. Because fungal community structure is affected partly by the decay stage and wood density of its substrate, these factors influence each other. Further research on interactive effects is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between fungal community structure and the woody debris

  6. Invariant community structure of soil bacteria in subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Lixia; Wan, Songze; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-01-12

    Soil bacteria may be influenced by vegetation and play important roles in global carbon efflux and nutrient cycling under global changes. Coniferous and broadleaved forests are two phyletically distinct vegetation types. Soil microbial communities in these forests have been extensively investigated but few studies have presented comparable data regarding the characteristics of bacterial communities in subtropical forests. We investigated soil bacterial biomass and community composition in three pairs of coniferous and broadleaved forests across a subtropical climatic gradient. We found that bacterial biomass differed between the coniferous and broadleaved forests across the subtropical climate gradient; however, this difference disappeared at some individual sites. In contrast, the same 90 bacterial genera were found in both forest types, and their relative abundances didn't differ between the forest types, with the exception of one genus that was more abundant in broadleaved forests. Soil nitrogen or moisture was associated with bacterial groups in the coniferous and broadleaved forests, respectively. Thus, we inferred that these forests can respond differently to future changes in nitrogen deposition or precipitation. This study highlights soil bacterial invariant community composition in contrasting subtropical forests and provides a new perspective on the potential response and feedback of forests to global changes.

  7. Biocycle of nitrogen in a Cyclobalanopsis glauca-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingjian; XU Xuehong; LI Minghong; FU Hailong

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycling was elucidated in a 40-year-old subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest dominated by Cyclobalanopsis glauca growing on red soil in Zhejiang Province,East China.The concentrations of N in the representative species ranged from 0.49% to 1.64%,the order of which in various layers was liana and herb layers>understory layer > tree and subtree layers;in various organs was leaf > branch > root > trunk;and aboveground parts > underground parts.The sequence of the concentrations of N in C.glauca was understory > tree > subtree layer;young and high-growing > old organs;reproductive >vegetative organs.Seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of N in C.glauca in the tree and subtree layers was comparatively stable.It was lower in autumn (October) in root,branch,and leaf in the tree layer,and low in January in the understory.There was no evident change in regularity of the concentrations of N in varying diameter classes.The concentrations of N in the litterfall,precipitation,throughfall,litter layer,and soil were 0.74%-2.30%,0.000,038%,0.000,09%,1.94%,and 0.59%,respectively.The standing crop of N in the plant community was 1,025.28 kg/hm2,accumulation in the litter layer was 224.88 kg/hm2,and reserve in the soil was 55,151 kg/hm2.Annual retention of N was 119.47 kg/hm2,return was about 84.13 kg/hm2,among which litterfall was 78.49 kg/hm2 and throughfall,5.64 kg/hm2.Annual absorption of N was 203.60 kg/hm2.Annual input of N through incident precipitation was 4.88 kg/hm2.Compared with other forest types,cycling rate of N in the community was lower than in deciduous broad-leaved forests,rain forests,and mangroves,and was moderate in evergreen broad-leaved forests.N use efficiency of this forest was moderate among the forest types cited.According to the characteristics of the biocycle of phosphorous,it was concluded that N availability in the soil of this forest was not lower,and phosphorous not N was the limiting factor in the growth

  8. Litterfall production along successional and altitudinal gradients of subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Guan, L.; Wei, X.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Q.; Yan, J.; Wen, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Kong, G.; Mo, J.; Yu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of litterfall production is important for understanding nutrient cycling, forest growth, successional pathways, and interactions with environmental variables in forest ecosystems. Litterfall was intensively studied during the period of 1982-2001 in two subtropical monsoon vegetation gradients in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The two gradients include: (1) a successional gradient composed of pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (BF), and (2) an altitudinal gradient composed of Baiyunci ravine rain forest (BRF), Qingyunci ravine rain forest (QRF), BF and mountainous evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF). Mean annual litterfall production was 356, 861 and 849 g m-2 for PF, MF and BF of the successional gradient, and 1016, 1061, 849 and 489 g m-2 for BRF, QRF, BF and MMF of the altitudinal gradient, respectively. As expected, mean annual litterfall of the pioneer forest PF was the lowest, but rapidly increased over the observation period while those in other forests were relatively stable, confirming that forest litterfall production is closely related to successional stages and growth patterns. Leaf proportions of total litterfall in PF, MF, BF, BRF, QRF and MMF were 76.4%, 68.4%, 56.8%, 55.7%, 57.6% and 69.2%, respectively, which were consistent with the results from studies in other evergreen broadleaved forests. Our analysis on litterfall monthly distributions indicated that litterfall production was much higher during the period of April to September compared to other months for all studied forest types. Although there were significant impacts of some climate variables (maximum and effective temperatures) on litterfall production in some of the studied forests, the mechanisms of how climate factors (temperature and rainfall) interactively affect litterfall await further study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Boron stemflow chemistry in relation to species and season in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, E. E.; Levia, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient that contributes to cell wall development and other critical plant functions. Boron deficiency is not uncommon in many forest types and plantations but may be difficult to differentiate from other impacts. The magnitude and timing of B transfer to the forest floor via stemflow is poorly understood and little is known about its variation as a function of species and season in temperate deciduous forests. We characterized this transfer in a mid-Atlantic broadleaved deciduous forest where we collected and analyzed stemflow from dominant canopy species of Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.) [American beech] and Liriodendron tulipifera (L.) [yellow poplar]. Boron concentrations in stemflow were found to be greater from L. tulipifera compared with F. grandifolia over both seasons. Increased stemflow volume from F. grandifolia resulted in greater overall B contributions from these stems as well as greater enrichment ratios in both leaf and leafless conditions. When expressed on the basis of basal area, contributions of B to the forest floor were many times greater than gross precipitation and varied with season and meteorologic conditions.

  10. [Modeling of forest landscape change in Xiaoxinganling mountains under different planting proportions of coniferous and broadleaved species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-fei; He, Hong-shi; Bu, Ren-cang; Jin, Long-ru; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2008-08-01

    With spatially explicit landscape model (LANDIS), the dynamic change of forest landscape in Youhao Forest Bureau in Xiaoxinganling Mountains from 2001-2201 under 5 planting proportions of coniferous and broadleaved species, i.e., 100% broadleaved species, 70% broadleaved and 30% coniferous species, 50% broadleaved and 50% coniferous species, 30% broadleaved and 70% coniferous species, and 100% coniferous species, was studied, taking the forest under natural regeneration after harvesting as the control. The results showed that afforestation effectively promoted the recovery of forest resources, but single planting of coniferous species would lead to the area percent of broadleaved species lower than the control. When broadleaved species were planted only, the area percent of coniferous species was lower than the control. The area percent and aggregation index of Pinus koraiensis and Larix gmelini increased with increasing planting proportion of coniferous species, and those of Quercus mongolica increased with increasing planting proportion of broad-leaved species. Afforestation decreased the area percent of Betula phatyphylla, but had no significant effects on its aggregation index. Different afforestation strategies not only altered the species area percent, but also affected the species spatial pattern.

  11. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-He; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Niu; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Shu-Dong

    2017-02-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers.

  12. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-he; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-bo; Xu, Xiao-niu; Wang, Zhi-gao; Wang, Shu-dong

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers. PMID:28176873

  13. Habitat fragmentation impacts on biodiversity of evergreen broadleaved forests in Jinyun Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; ZHONG Zhangcheng; LIU Jinchun

    2007-01-01

    The plant communities and their microclimates were surveyed and observed,and the soil fertilities were determined in six plots of evergreen broadleaved forests of different sizes and similar slope aspects on Jinyun Mountains of Chongqing in China from April to October,2003.The relationships of biotic and abiotic factors were analyzed using the Simpson,Shannon-Wiener,and Hill diversity indices,and stepwise multilinear regression analyses techniques.The results showed that compared with continuous evergreen broadleaved forests,five fragmentations had a lower species diversity index,and different life forms showed differences in diversity index.With the decrease in patch areas,the daily differences in air temperature (△Ta),ground surface temperature (△Ts),daily differences in relative humidity (△RH),maximum wind velocity (Vmax),differences in photosynthetic available radiation (△PAR)(at noon)of both edges and interiors,all tended to increase.Maximum wind velocity (Vmax)and photo effective radiation in forest edges were higher than those in interior forest,which presented a stronger temperature-gained edge effect.In all the fragmentations of evergreen broadleaved forests,the depth of the edge effect was the nearest from interior forest in the biggest patch (about 15 meters away from interior forest),while the depth of the edge effect was the farthest from interior forest in the smallest patch (about 25 meters away from interior forest).With regard to the water conservation function,soil water content improved along with increasing species diversity.Some of the nutritional function substances of soil increased with increasing species diversity.The elements of microclimate,such as Ta,△Ta,△Ts,ARH,Vmax,and PAR,changed along with the extent of fragmented forest.

  14. Forest Restoration in China: Advances, Obstacles, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Hongfang Lu; Jun Wang; Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Because of the prolonged history of disturbance caused by intense human activities, restoration in China has been a major task facing many ecologists and land managers. There are six major forest types in China: cold temperate coniferous forest, temperate coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, subtropical evergreen broad...

  15. Storage dynamics of fallen trees in a mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A study of the storage dynamics in the mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forests was carried out in the Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province, P. R. China. The modifying law of fallen trees was the storage dynamics of the existing fallen trees and the annual input in the mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forest. The current storage of fallen trees was 16.25 t?hm-2 in the initially, but after 100 years, 85% of the storage in dry weight was decomposed, and little material was left after 300 years. The average annual input of fallen trees was 0.6 t?hm-2and it increased with time to 31.0 t?hm-2after 200 years, which was maintained until the climax community ended. The total storage of fallen trees increased in the early stage. The decomposition of fallen trees eventually reached equilibrium with storage being identical with the annual input of fallen trees.

  16. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy.

  17. Late Cretaceous- Cenozoic history of deciduousness and the terminal Cretaceous event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Deciduousness in mesic, broad-leaved plants occurred in disturbed, middle-latitude environments during the Late Cretaceous. Only in polar environments in the Late Cretaceous was the deciduous element dominant, although of low diversity. The terminal Cretaceous event resulted in wide-spread selection for plants of deciduous habit and diversification of deciduous taxa, thus leaving a lasting imprint on Northern Hemisphere vegetation. Various environmental factors have played important roles in subsequent diversification of mesic, broad-leaved deciduous taxa and in origination and decline of broad-leaved deciduous forests. Low diversity and rarity of mesic deciduous plants in the post-Cretaceous of the Southern Hemisphere indicate that the inferred 'impact winter' of the terminal Cretaceous event had little effect on Southern Hemisphere vegetation and climate. -Author

  18. Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests

    OpenAIRE

    Preikša Z; Brazaitis G; Marozas V; Jaroszewicz B

    2016-01-01

    Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. O...

  19. Variations of Soil Microbial Community Structures Beneath Broadleaved Forest Trees in Temperate and Subtropical Climate Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhao, Mengxin; Lu, Hui; Xie, Changyi; Yang, Caiyun; Yuan, Tong; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. However, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRI (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from -0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomy-based association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-for-time substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.

  20. Changes in understory species occurrence of a secondary broadleaved forest after mass mortality of oak trees under deer foraging pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Itô

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of mass mortality of oak trees by Japanese oak wilt has affected secondary deciduous broadleaved forests that have been used as coppices in Japan. The dieback of oak trees formed gaps in the crown that would be expected to enhance the regeneration of shade-intolerant pioneer species. However, foraging by sika deer Cervus nippon has also affected forest vegetation, and the compound effects of both on forest regeneration should be considered when they simultaneously occur. A field study was conducted in Kyôto City, Japan to investigate how these compound effects affected the vegetation of the understory layer of these forests. The presence/absence of seedlings and saplings was observed for 200 quadrats sized 5 m ×5 m for each species in 1992, before the mass mortality and deer encroachment, and in 2014 after these effects. A hierarchical Bayesian model was constructed to explain the occurrence, survival, and colonization of each species with their responses to the gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of Quercus serrata trees. The species that occurred most frequently in 1992, Eurya japonica, Quercus glauca, and Cleyera japonica, also had the highest survival probabilities. Deer-unpalatable species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera had higher colonization rates in the gaps, while the deer-palatable species Aucuba japonica had the smallest survival probability. The gaps thus promoted the colonization of deer-unpalatable plant species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera. In the future, such deer-unpalatable species may dominate gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of oak trees.

  1. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline. PMID:27526781

  2. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-08-16

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline.

  3. Recent pollen spectra from the deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests of Northeastern Minnesota: a study in pollen dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1966-01-01

    Pollen samples were taken along nine transects across local vegetational belts bordering bogs or ponds in overall deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forest regions. Three types of pollen rain are distinguished: local, extralocal, and regional. Local pollen rain is derived from plants that grow at or

  4. Spatial heterogeneity and its causes in evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation of species richness over spatial scales, and elucidating the response of plant community composition to habitat heterogeneity has been one of the major topics in the study of community ecology. Niche differentiation related to habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in shaping diversity levels and species distribution patterns of plant communities. Based on a survey of 42 plots of four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, this paper explored how community distribution and tree species richness of such forests changed along topographic and edaphic gradients. We found significant differences in community composition among the four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests. Tree species richness of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of the other forest types. Tree species richness of mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, whereas no significant difference was observed among the other forest types. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed that nine environmental gradients, including elevation, slope, soil water content, soil organic matter, were the determinants of forest community composition and tree distribution patterns. As the best predictors of tree species richness, soil available boron, elevation, soil total potassium and convexity together explained 63.2% of the variance of tree species richness. The combination of topographic and edaphic factors explained most of the variance of community composition and tree species richness of the evergreen broad leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains.

  5. Semi-deciduous forest remnants in Benin: patterns and floristic characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.C.; Akoegninou, A.; Sinsin, B.; Foucault, de B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of semi-deciduous forest are investigated in Benin by means of phytosociological releves and multivariate analyses Species and family importance values are assessed for each forest type The classifications and DCA ordination of 176 semi-deciduous forest releves result in six forest types, p

  6. Modeling diameter distribution of the broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shunzhong; DAI Limin; LIU Guohua; YUAN Jianqiong; ZHANG Hengmin; WANG Qingli

    2006-01-01

    The broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest is a native vegetation in the Changbai Mountains, northeast China. The probability density functions including the normal, negative exponential, Weibull and finite mixture distribution, were used to describe the diameter distributions of the species groups and entire forest stand. There is a strong correlation between parameters and mean DBH except the shape parameters in the mixture distribution. The diameter classes of species and entire forest stand showed not negative exponential but normal and "S" distribution. The mixture function was better than normal and Weibull to describe the model distribution. The location parameter had an effect on the estimated frequency in the first diameter class, when the estimated location parameter was bigger than the lower limit of the first diameter class.

  7. Correlations between canopy gaps and species diversity in broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiuhai; ZHANG Chunyu; ZHENG Jingming

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration of tree species associated with canopy gaps in broad-leaved Korean pine forests was investigated.Species diversity in gaps and under closed canopy was compared,the relationship between biodiversity and gap structure was analyzed.Results indicate that there were significant differences between tree species diversity in gaps and that under canopy (p<0.01).In terms of Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index,the biodiversity in gap community were higher than those under forest canopy in regeneration layer.In terms of Simpson's dominance index,the dominance of certain species in the regeneration layer increased from gaps to closed canopy (p<0.01).In contrast,trends of biodiversity changes of succession layer in gaps and under closed canopy were opposite.Tree species diversity of different layers reacted directly to the change of gap size class.For example,Shannon-Wiener index and abundance index is higher and Simpson's dominance index is the lowest in succession layer of medium-size gap (100-250 m2) in the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains.Shannon-Wiener index reached the highest in a size of≥250 m2 and<100 m2,reached the lowest in a size of 200-250 m2 in the regeneration layer.Simpson's dominance index reached its maximum when the gap size was between 200 and 250m2.Generally,species of different layers reacted differently to the changes of gap size classes.The gap size class with more seedlings did not correspond to size class containing more medium-size trees.Tree species diversity indices in the two layers behaved reciprocally during the development process of forest gaps.

  8. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  9. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liujing Huang; Hongfeng Chen; Hai Ren; Jun Wang; Qinfeng Guo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of...

  10. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutilainen, Katja; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-10-01

    The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness. Fungal diversity in other broadleaved forest habitat types is poorly known. Traditional wood pastures and man-made afforested fields are novel habitats that could potentially be important for wood-inhabiting fungi. This study compares species richness and fungal community composition across the aforementioned habitat types, based on data collected for wood-inhabiting fungi occupying all deadwood diameter fractions. Corticioid and polyporoid fungi were surveyed from 67 130 deadwood particles in four natural herb-rich forests, four birch-dominated wood pastures, and four birch-dominated afforested field sites in central Finland. As predicted, natural herb-rich forests were the most species-rich habitat. However, afforested fields also had considerably higher overall species richness than wood pastures. Many rare or rarely collected species were detected in each forest type. Finally, fungal community composition showed some divergence not only among the different habitat types, but also among deadwood diameter fractions. Synthesis and applications: In order to maintain biodiversity at both local and regional scales, conserving threatened natural habitat types and managing traditional landscapes is essential. Man-made secondary woody habitats could provide the necessary resources and serve as surrogate habitats for many broadleaved deadwood

  11. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  12. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dunmei; Lai, Jiangshan; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5]) and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0]) in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8]) in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  13. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  14. Isoprene suppression of new particle formation in mixed deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of new particles over forests is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei that can affect climate. While such particle formation events have been widely observed, their formation mechanisms over forests are poorly understood. Our observations made in a mixed deciduous Michigan forest with large isoprene emissions during the summer show surprisingly rare occurrence of new particle formation (NPF. No NPF events were observed during the 5 weeks of measurements, except two evening ultrafine particle events as opposed to the typically observed noontime NPF elsewhere. Sulfuric acid concentrations were in the 106 cm−3 ranges with very low preexisting aerosol particles, a favorable condition for NPF to occur even during the summer. The ratio of emitted isoprene carbon to monoterpene carbon at this site was similar to that in Amazon rainforests (ratio >10, where NPF is also very rare, compared with a ratio <0.5 in Finland boreal forests, where NPF events are frequent. Our results showed that large isoprene emissions can suppress NPF formation in forests although the underlying mechanism for the suppression is unclear and future studies are needed to reveal the likely mechanism. The two evening ultrafine particle events were associated with the transported anthropogenic sulfur plumes and the ultrafine particles likely formed via ion induced nucleation. Changes in landcover and environmental conditions could modify the isoprene suppression of NPF in some forest regions resulting in a radiative forcing that could influence climate.

  15. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  16. [Energy balance and evapotranspiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-jian; Yuan, Feng-hui; Chen, Ni-na; Deng, Jun-li; Yu, Xiao-zhou; Sheng, Xue-jiao

    2011-03-01

    Based on the continuous measurements of an open-path eddy covariance system, this paper analyzed the characteristics of energy balance components and evapotranspiration in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 2008, as well as the differences of energy balance components and evapotranspiration between growth season and dormant season. For the test forest, the year-round energy balance closure was 72%, being at a medium level, compared to the other studies in the Fluxnet community. The energy balance components had significant differences in their diurnal and seasonal variations. In growth season, turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward latent heat flux, accounting for 66% of available energy; while in dormant season, the turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward sensible heat flux, accounting for 63% of available energy. The accumulated annual evapotranspiration in the study site in 2008 was 484.7 mm, occupying 87% of the precipitation at the same time period (558.9 mm), which demonstrated that evapotranspiration was the main water loss item in temperate forests of northern China.

  17. Role of urban remnant evergreen broad-leaved forests on natural restoration of artificial forests in Chongqing metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永川; 李楠

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urban remnant natural evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) on the restoration of artificial pine forests surrounding it were studied with reference to species composition,biodiversity,dominant species and stand structure on Mt. Tieshanping in Chongqing metropolis,Southwest China. The seeds from the remnant EBLF naturally facilitate the restoration process of artificial Pinus massoniana forests near it. The similarity of species composition between the artificial Pinus massoniana forests and the remnant EBLF and biodiversity index of the artificial Pinus massoniana forests decrease as the distance from the remnant EBLF increases. Castanopsis carlesii var. spinusa is the dominant species in the ground vegetation,shrub layer and sub-tree layer of the Pinus massoniana forests near the remnant EBLF. However,the natural restoration processes of those farther away from the remnant EBLF are restricted for the absence of seed source of the inherent components of the remnant EBLF,and the anthropogenic measures should be taken to facilitate the restoration process.

  18. Regeneration of mixed deciduous forest in a Dutch forest-heathland, following a reduction of ungulate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Slim, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The conversion of single-species coniferous forest stands into mixed stands by promoting the natural regeneration of indigenous broadleaved tree species was studied in a forest-heathland on the Veluwe, in the central part of the Netherlands. Red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

  19. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  20. Organic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the efflux of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC in forested catchments. Concentrations of DOC and POC can be very high in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their efflux may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: (1 how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and (2 how much DOC and POC are exported from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers in a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual efflux of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual efflux of organic carbon was estimated to be about 10% of the Net Ecosystem carbon Exchange (NEE obtained by eddy covariance measurement at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon efflux from forest catchments would result in an inaccurate estimation of the carbon sink strength of forest ecosystems in the monsoon

  1. Leaf morphology of 40 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species and relationships to functional ecophysiological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, W; Heklau, H; Bruelheide, H

    2015-03-01

    We explored potential of morphological and anatomical leaf traits for predicting ecophysiological key functions in subtropical trees. We asked whether the ecophysiological parameters stomatal conductance and xylem cavitation vulnerability could be predicted from microscopy leaf traits. We investigated 21 deciduous and 19 evergreen subtropical tree species, using individuals of the same age and from the same environment in the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning experiment at Jiangxi (BEF-China). Information-theoretic linear model selection was used to identify the best combination of morphological and anatomical predictors for ecophysiological functions. Leaf anatomy and morphology strongly depended on leaf habit. Evergreen species tended to have thicker leaves, thicker spongy and palisade mesophyll, more palisade mesophyll layers and a thicker subepidermis. Over 50% of all evergreen species had leaves with multi-layered palisade parenchyma, while only one deciduous species (Koelreuteria bipinnata) had this. Interactions with leaf habit were also included in best multi-predictor models for stomatal conductance (gs ) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. In addition, maximum gs was positively related to log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness. Vapour pressure deficit (vpd) for maximum gs increased with the log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness in species having leaves with papillae. In contrast, maximum specific hydraulic conductivity and xylem pressure at which 50% loss of maximum specific xylem hydraulic conductivity occurred (Ψ50 ) were best predicted by leaf habit and density of spongy parenchyma. Evergreen species had lower Ψ50 values and lower maximum xylem hydraulic conductivities. As hydraulic leaf and wood characteristics were reflected in structural leaf traits, there is high potential for identifying further linkages between morphological and anatomical leaf traits and ecophysiological responses.

  2. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function.

  3. Modeling the impact of disturbances on the carbon cycle of a mixed-deciduous forest in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R.; Bohrer, G.; Medvigy, D.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vogel, C.; Curtis, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbances, either natural or anthropogenic, impact the carbon and water cycles. Therefore, understanding their immediate effect, as well as how fluxes evolve while forests recover from disturbances is essential to carbon and water cycle modeling. Our study area is located in northern Michigan and encompasses the mixed-deciduous forest surrounding the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). The two AmeriFlux affiliated towers operated by the UMBS, one with an undisturbed footprint and a second overlooking the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET) site, a 39 ha area where all aspen (Populus spp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) trees were girdled, provides the supporting data for our study. We used the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2) to run three scenarios: a control (undisturbed) case, a homogeneous disturbance (dist-1) where 30% of the leaf area was removed regardless of functional type, and a FASET like disturbance (dist-2) where all early successional trees, which occupy 30% of leaf area, were removed. We parameterized ED2 using observations of monthly and yearly net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent, and sensible heat fluxes from the undisturbed site (UMBS-AmeriFlux) from pre-disturbance years. We force the model using meteorological data recorded by the flux towers and evaluate the output of the three cases against NEE, latent, and sensible heat fluxes measured at the UMBS-AmeriFlux site (undisturbed case) and against the FASET tower (cases dist-1 and dist-2) after the disturbance occurred. Our results indicate that in such a case of an intermediate disturbance the results of the disturbance are defendant on the functional type that was affected. As a result of this study, we expect to improve the understanding of the role disturbances and the subsequent recovery on carbon and water fluxes of broadleaved deciduous forests.

  4. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  5. Forest carbon uptake in North America's aging temperate deciduous forests: A data-theory-model mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hardiman, B. S.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Century-old temperate deciduous forests in the US upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North America's terrestrial carbon sink, but these forests' carbon uptake capacity is expected to soon decline. But will this really happen? We marshal empirical data and ecological theory to show that declines in carbon uptake are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests during coming decades, despite long-held assumptions and modeling results that predict declining carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development. Age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, do not provide evidence for declining net primary and ecosystem production (NPP and NEP, respectively) within the age-range most regional forests will occupy over the next half-century. Ecological theory suggests a mechanism for sustained carbon uptake in the region's aging forests in which high-frequency, low-severity disturbances maintain NPP and NEP by increasing ecosystem complexity. This theoretical model is supported by observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA, but such mechanisms sustaining production in old forests are not broadly represented in ecosystem models. Ecosystems experiencing low-frequency, high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity do exhibit declining production during middle stages of succession, but we suggest that such scenarios have exerted a disproportionate influence on prevailing modeling and ecological assumptions regarding age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is wide ecological space for forests to sustain high rates of carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development, and that advancing mechanistic understanding of long-term forest carbon cycle dynamics is essential to modeling the continent's future carbon sink strength.

  6. [Spatiotemporal distribution pattern of photosynthetic photon flux density in forest gaps of Korean pine broadleaved mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin

    2011-04-01

    Taking the forest gaps of natural Pinus koraiensis broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains as test object, and by the method of grids, the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the gaps was continuously measured during growth season, and the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the PPFD were analyzed by fundamental statistics and geostatistics methods. In the forest gaps, the high-value region of PPFD presented an obvious diurnal change, with the maximum PPFD appeared at 12:00 and in the northern part of the gaps. The mean monthly PPFD was the highest in June, and then decreased in the sequence of July, August, and September, with the largest coefficient of variation at different locations occurred in July and the medium variability in all the months. In different months, the intensity and the scale of PPFD spatial heterogeneity in the gaps differed, with the variation degree being the highest in June and the sill and proportion being the largest in July. The complex degree of the monthly PPFD patches also differed, with the maximum located in the northeast part of the gaps. The variation sequence of the mean monthly PPFD in understory and open ground was consistent with that in gap, and the mean monthly PPFD was the highest in open ground, medium in forest gap, and the lowest in understory.

  7. Forest structure, productivity and soil properties in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; WANG Qin; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2008-01-01

    Structure,species composition,and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa,Japan,were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites.The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees.Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems·ha-1 (≧ 3.0 cm DBH); 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH.The total basal area was 54.4 m 2·ha-1,of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%.The forest showed high species diversity of trees.80 tree species (≧ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots.C.sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value.The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were,3.36 for Diversity index (H'),0.71 for Equitability index (J') and 4.72 for Species richness index (S'),all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant,C.sieboldii.Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility,extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity.Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH.There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+,Ca2+,and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values <0.001) and a negative relationship with N,C and P.The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa.

  8. [Macropore characteristics and its relationships with the preferential flow in broadleaved forest soils of Simian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong-jiang; Cheng, Jin-hua; Wu, Yu-he; Du, Shi-cai; Wang, Ran

    2010-05-01

    Brilliant blue dyeing and water breakthrough curve were applied to study the number and distribution of macropores and their relations to the preferential flow in typical sub-tropic broad-leaved forest soils of Simian Mountains. The radii of the macropores were mainly between 0. 3 and 3.0 mm, with the macroporosities in the range of 6.3% to 10.5%, and the macropores were always distributed in aggregation with increasing soil depth. The number of the macropores in each radius interval of dye-stained areas was tenfold increase than that of blank areas. The number of the macropores with radius larger than 0.3 mm, especially larger than 1.5 mm, was the most important factor affecting the occurrence of preferential flow. Significant correlations were found between the number of macropores and the water steady effluent volume, with the highest correlation coefficients of 0.842 and 0.879 for the radii intervals of 0.7-1.5 mm and 1.5-3.0 mm, respectively. Macro-pore continuity in dye-stained areas was better than that in blank areas, especially in the radius interval of 1.5-3.0 mm, with the biggest difference of 78.31%. In dye-stained areas, the number of macropores decreased gradually with soil depth. The filler-like distribution of macropores formed an effective water pressure gradient, which resulted in the preferential transport of water.

  9. Movements, cover-type selection, and survival of fledgling Ovenbirds in managed deciduous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor movements, cover-type selection, and survival for fledglings of the mature-forest nesting Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) at two managed forest sites in north-central Minnesota. Both sites contained forested wetlands, regenerating clearcut stands of various ages, and logging roads, but differed in mature forest composition; one deciduous with open understory, and the other mixed coniferous-deciduous with dense understory. We used compositional analysis, modified to incorporate age-specific limitations in fledgling movements, to assess cover-type selection by fledglings throughout the dependent (on adult care) post-fledging period. Compared to those that were depredated, fledglings from nests in deciduous forest that survived the early post-fledging period had more older (sapling-dominated) clearcut available, directed movements toward older clearcuts and forested wetlands, and used older clearcuts more than other cover types relative to availability. Fledglings that were depredated had more young (shrub-dominated) clearcut and unpaved logging road available, and used mature forest and roads more than expected based on availability. For birds from nests in mixed mature forest with dense understory, movements and cover-type selection were similar between fledglings that survived and those that were depredated. However, fledglings that were depredated at that site also had more young clearcut available than fledglings that survived. We conclude that Ovenbird fledgling survival is influenced by distance of their nest to various non-nesting cover types, and by the subsequent selection among those cover types, but that the influence of non-nesting cover types varies depending on the availability of dense understory vegetation in mature forest.

  10. Interannual variability in ozone removal by a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Munger, J. W.; Malyshev, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Shevliakova, E.; Paulot, F.; Murray, L. T.; Griffin, K. L.

    2017-01-01

    The ozone (O3) dry depositional sink and its contribution to observed variability in tropospheric O3 are both poorly understood. Distinguishing O3 uptake through plant stomata versus other pathways is relevant for quantifying the O3 influence on carbon and water cycles. We use a decade of O3, carbon, and energy eddy covariance (EC) fluxes at Harvard Forest to investigate interannual variability (IAV) in O3 deposition velocities (vd,O3). In each month, monthly mean vd,O3 for the highest year is twice that for the lowest. Two independent stomatal conductance estimates, based on either water vapor EC or gross primary productivity, vary little from year to year relative to canopy conductance. We conclude that nonstomatal deposition controls the substantial observed IAV in summertime vd,O3 during the 1990s over this deciduous forest. The absence of obvious relationships between meteorology and vd,O3 implies a need for additional long-term, high-quality measurements and further investigation of nonstomatal mechanisms.

  11. Education and advice contribute to increased density of broadleaved conservation trees, but not saplings, in young forest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götmark, Frank; Fridman, Jonas; Kempe, Göran

    2009-02-01

    The effectiveness of different conservation policies is debated, but the policies are rarely evaluated quantitatively. A voluntary or 'soft' policy based mainly on education provides information about ecosystems and effects of land use, to encourage conservation action. Swedish forestry relies mainly on soft policy, with substantial resources for education and advice to more than 200,000 forest owners, while legal regulation is weak. Increased retention of broadleaved trees at clear-cutting, with environmental benefits in the conifer-dominated forestry, is important in the policy. We used the Swedish National Forest Inventory to analyse this policy for young forests in southern Sweden. Between 1983-1987 and 1998-2002 the policy had no positive effect on saplings (1.3m tall to 4.9 cm dbh) of birch, oak, beech and other species that mostly decreased in density, due to planting of conifers and browsing by ungulates. However, broadleaved conservation trees (>or=15 cm dbh) increased in density, e.g. to about one oak and six birches per ha in young coniferous forest in 1998-2002. The relative increase in density was higher for large (>or=20 cm dbh) than for small trees (15-20 cm dbh). The density of conservation trees was higher on forestland of high than of low productivity. Thus, the soft conservation policy did not influence regeneration of saplings in this type of forestry system, but large broadleaved trees were increasingly saved at 'clear-cuttings'. Advice and educational programmes probably contributed to this result. A continued increase in conservation trees at harvest may require economical support to forest owners.

  12. Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preikša Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. Our study aimed at the reduction of the gap in knowledge about the ecological characteristics of dead wood-dependent organisms by focusing on species of cryptogams developing on various dead wood structures typical of temperate non-beech forests. Studies were performed in forests located in Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Russia. We recorded 48 species of cryptogams: 18 species of bryophytes, 24 species of fungi and 6 species of lichens developing on dead wood. Our study stresses the importance of all types of dead wood as a substrate for the development of rare cryptogam species. Logs were the most important substratum type for cryptogams, followed by snags, dead trees and stumps. The cryptogam species richness on logs was several times higher than on the three other types of substrata. Coarse logs of intermediate decay stages hosted the highest number of cryptogams, followed by freshly fallen logs and, finally, well decayed logs. Assessing the importance of dead wood quality for the studied cryptogams, we found that intermediate decay stages are extremely important for fungi, while bryophytes or lichens do not show a clear preference. The highest number of cryptogams was found on Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Picea abies, while other tree species had less than half cryptogam species.

  13. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liujing; Chen, Hongfeng; Ren, Hai; Wang, Jun; Guo, Qinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of urbanization. Vegetation data and soil properties were collected from 30 400-m(2) plots at 6 study sites in urban and rural areas. The difference of plant species diversity and PFTs of remnant forests between urban and rural areas were analyzed. To discern the complex relationships, multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., canonical correspondence analysis and regression analysis) were employed. Pioneer species and stress-tolerant species can survive and vigorously establish their population dominance in the urban environment. The native herb diversity was lower in urban forests than in rural forests. Urban forests tend to prefer the species with Mesophanerophyte life form. In contrast, species in rural forests possessed Chamaephyte and Nanophanerophyte life forms and gravity/clonal growth dispersal mode. Soil pH and soil nutrients (K, Na, and TN) were positively related to herb diversity, while soil heavy metal concentrations (Cu) were negatively correlated with herb diversity. The herb plant species diversity declines and the species in the remnant forests usually have stress-tolerant functional traits in response to urbanization. The factors related to urbanization such as soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and heavy metal pollution were important in controlling the plant diversity in the forests along the urban-rural gradients. Urbanization affects the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests.

  14. Recovery time of soil carbon pools of conversional Chinese fir plantations from broadleaved forests in subtropical regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Chi; Wang, Hua; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Si-Long

    2017-06-01

    The conversion from natural forest to plantation has been widely applied, with consequences on ecosystem carbon pool. The experimental results of changes of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion are often contradictory. Moreover, the recovery time of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion varies among different sites. To examine the changes of soil carbon stocks following the forest conversions in the long-term and to estimate the recovery time, we selected 116 subtropical forests, including 29 pair-wise replicates for evergreen broadleaved forests (EBF, 40-100-year-old), young Chinese fir plantations (Cunninghamia lanceolata) (YCP, 4-8-year-old), middle-aged Chinese fir plantations (MACP, 13-20-year-old), and mature Chinese fir plantations (MCP, 23-32-year-old), and estimated soil carbon stocks. Soil carbon stocks of YCP and MACP decreased in average 12.5 and 28.7Mgha(-1) compared with EBF, and showed no variation between MCP and EBF. Soil carbon stocks were positively correlated to soil total nitrogen stocks and C:N ratio. Our results showed that the forest conversions didn't cause a variation of soil carbon stocks in the long-term, although there was a short-term decline after conversion. The recovery time of soil carbon stock is 27years. These results indicate that the conversion from evergreen broadleaved forests to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical region of China causes soil carbon release in early stage, but has no effect on soil carbon stocks in the long-term. Prolonging the rotation period (>27years) would offset the adverse effects of the forest conversion on soil carbon stocks, and be critical in alleviating global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetation Composition and Community Structure of Typical Mid-Mountain Broad-Leaved Forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan%江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林的植被组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷平; 袁荣斌; 兰文军; 邹思成; 徐新宇

    2013-01-01

    以江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林为研究对象,在30 km2固定样地设置16个样方,其中13个常绿阔叶林群落、3个落叶阔叶林群落.群落乔灌层物种丰富,占物种生活型的83%.共调查到植物58科112属186种,以壳斗科、山矾科、蔷薇科、山茶科、樟科物种数最多,建群种主要为多脉青冈、闽皖八角、白檀、枫香树等,灌木层以山矾科、山茶科、禾本科为主.物种科属分布区类型以热带性质为主,具有典型的中亚热带地区特点.常绿阔叶林群落和落叶阔叶林群落均具有较高的多样性,单因素方差结果显示这2种林型在多样性指数上不存在差异显著性,乔、草优势种重要值亦不存在差异显著性,只有灌木层重要值存在差异显著性.%Set 16 plots in 30km2 fixed sample area of typical mid-mountain broad-leaved forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan,including 13 evergreen broad-leaved forest communities and 3 deciduous broad-leaved forest communities.The communities have rich species in tree layer and shrub layer,which accounting for 83% of species' life forms.A total of 186 vascular plant species,belonging to 112 genera and 58 families,were recorded,and the largest number of species is Fagaceae,Symplocaceae,Rosaceae,Theaceae and Lauraceae.The mainly constructive species are Cyclobalanopsis multiervis,Illicium minwanense,Symplocos paniculata and Liquidambar formosana etc.,and the shrub layer dominant families are Symplocaceae,Theaceae and Gramineae.Areal distribution type of species suggests that the forest is typical characteristics in subtropical regions and highly related to tropic components.Evergreen broad-leaved forest community and deciduous broad-leaved forest communities both have high species diversity; one-way ANOVA results showed that there is no significant difference on the diversity index of the two forest types,so do the important values of tree layer and herbaceous layer,but there is significant difference on the

  16. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  17. Tradeoffs, competition, and coexistence in eastern deciduous forest ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuble, Katharine L; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McCormick, Gail L; Jurić, Ivan; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-04-01

    Ecologists have long sought to explain the coexistence of multiple potentially competing species in local assemblages. This is especially challenging in species-rich assemblages in which interspecific competition is intense, as it often is in ant assemblages. As a result, a suite of mechanisms has been proposed to explain coexistence among potentially competing ant species: the dominance-discovery tradeoff, the dominance-thermal tolerance tradeoff, spatial segregation, temperature-based niche partitioning, and temporal niche partitioning. Through a series of observations and experiments, we examined a deciduous forest ant assemblage in eastern North America for the signature of each of these coexistence mechanisms. We failed to detect evidence for any of the commonly suggested mechanisms of coexistence, with one notable exception: ant species appear to temporally partition foraging times such that behaviourally dominant species foraged more intensely at night, while foraging by subdominant species peaked during the day. Our work, though focused on a single assemblage, indicates that many of the commonly cited mechanisms of coexistence may not be general to all ant assemblages. However, temporal segregation may play a role in promoting coexistence among ant species in at least some ecosystems, as it does in many other organisms.

  18. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during...... two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give...

  19. Diurnal Variations of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Mixed Broad-leaved and Coniferous Forest Soil in Dinghushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUCunyu; ZHANGDeqiang; WANGYuesi; ZHOUGuoyi; LIUShizhong; TANGXuli

    2005-01-01

    The subtropical mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest, a typical successional monsoon forest, is one of the major forests in the subtropics of China. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the fluxes of the greenhouse gases from the forest soil in order to evaluate the impact of subtropical forests on the greenhouse gas emissions or absorptions. This study investigated the diurnal variations of fluxes of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from a mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest soil. A static chamber-gas chromatograph technique was used to measure the fluxes of three greenhouse gases. By using the improved gas chromatography sampling system, the fluxes were analyzed with a single injection. In order to find out the effects of litter and seedling on the emissions or absorptions of these greenhouse gases, three treatments were set in the fleld:(1)bare soil surface (litter was removed previously); (3) litter + soil; (3) seedling + litter + soil. The experimental results demonstrated that the forest soil was a source of CO2, N2O and a weak sink of CH4.The daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the soil surface were in the range of 488.99~700.57, 0.049~0.108 and -0.025~ -0.053 mg/(m2·h ), respectively. CO2 from the litter decomposition accounted for about 1/3 of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface, while the litter and seedling had no significant effect on the fluxes of CH4 and N2O. The fluxes of CO2 and N2O measured at 9:00 -11:00 a.m. were significantly different from their daily averages. Therefore, caution must be taken if the CO2 and N2O fluxes measured within 9:00-11:00 a.m. are used for extrapolation.

  20. Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koralensis and mixed broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinxia; YIN Xiuqin; DONG Weihua

    2007-01-01

    The Mn,Zn and Cu contents of litter,soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and mixed broad-leaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing'an Mountains were analyzed in this paper,results showed that the tested microelement contents in the litter,soil fauna and soil followed the order:Mn>Zn>Cu,but varied with environmental components,for Mn the order is soil>litter>soil fauna,for Zn is soil fauna>litter and soil,and for Cu is soil fauna>soil>litter.The change range of the tested microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than those in coniferous forest.Different soil fauna differed in their microelementenrichment capability,the highest content of Mn,Zn and Cu existed in earthworm,centipede and diplopod,respectively.The contents of the tested microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values,litter decomposition rate,food habit of soil fauna,and its absorbing selectively and enrichment to microelements.The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil horizon were more than those in 0-5 cm humus layer,and their dynamics differed in various horizons.

  1. Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; van der Linde, Sietse; Newton, Adrian C.; Suz, Laura M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Setting aside overmature planted forests is currently seen as an option for preserving species associated with old-growth forests, such as those with dispersal limitation. Few data exist, however, on the utility of set-aside plantations for this purpose, or the value of this habitat type for biodiversity relative to old-growth semi-natural ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the contribution of forest type relative to habitat characteristics in determining species richness and composition in seven forest blocks, each containing an ancient old-growth stand (> 1000 yrs) paired with a set-aside even-aged planted stand (ca. 180 yrs). We investigated the functionally important yet relatively neglected ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), a group for which the importance of forest age has not been assessed in broadleaved forests. We found that forest type was not an important determinant of EMF species richness or composition, demonstrating that set-aside can be an effective option for conserving ancient EMF communities. Species richness of above-ground EMF fruiting bodies was principally related to the basal area of the stand (a correlate of canopy cover) and tree species diversity, whilst richness of below-ground ectomycorrhizae was driven only by tree diversity. Our results suggest that overmature planted forest stands, particularly those that are mixed-woods with high basal area, are an effective means to connect and expand ecological networks of ancient old-growth forests in historically deforested and fragmented landscapes for ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:26917858

  2. [Effects of forest gap size and light intensity on herbaceous plants in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wen-Biao; Wang, Li-Xia; Chen, Li-Xin; Du, Shan; Wei, Quan-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Hui

    2013-03-01

    1 m x 1 m fixed quadrats were parallelly arranged with a space of 2 m in each of six forest gaps in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest, taking the gap center as the starting point and along east-west and south-north directions. In each quadrat, the coverage and abundance of herbaceous plants at different height levels were investigated by estimation method in June and September 2011, and the matrix characteristics within the quadrats were recorded. Canopy analyzer was used to take fish-eye photos in the selected overcast days in each month from June to September, 2011, and the relative light intensity was calculated by using Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software. The differences in the relative light intensity and herbaceous plants coverage and richness between different gaps as well as the correlations between the coverage of each species and the direct light, diffuse light, and matrix were analyzed. The results showed that in opening areas and under canopy, the relative light intensity in large gaps was higher than that in small gaps, and the variation ranges of diffuse light and direct light from gap center to gap edge were bigger in large gaps than in small gaps. The direct light reaching at the ground both in large gaps and in small gaps was higher in the north than in the south direction. In the Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 zones, both the coverage and the richness of herbaceous plants were larger in large gaps than in small gaps, and the differences of species richness between large and small gaps reached significant level. The coverage of the majority of the herbaceous plants had significant correlations with diffuse light and matrix, and only the coverage of a few herbaceous plants was correlated with direct light.

  3. Spatial patterning of fuels and fire hazard across a central U.S. deciduous forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Hong S. He; Joseph M. Marschall

    2011-01-01

    Information describing spatial and temporal variability of forest fuel conditions is essential to assessing overall fire hazard and risk. Limited information exists describing spatial characteristics of fuels in the eastern deciduous forest region, particularly in dry oak-dominated regions that historically burned relatively frequently. From an extensive fuels survey...

  4. Białowieża Forest (Ne-Poland and Valday Np ( Nw-Russia – Biogeographical Characteristics of Eutrophic Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszkiewicz Jan Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During geobotanical studies in the north-eastern border of hemi-boreal zone, in Valday (NW Russia, rare eutrophic deciduous forests dominated by oak Quercus robur were observed. A comparison of these forests with the model of European deciduous forest in Białowieża National Park (NE-Poland indicates a great similarity. Therefore, eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday can be classified to the Querco-Fagetea class, the Fagetalia sylvaticae order and to the Capinion betuli alliance, despite the absence of hornbeam Carpinus betulus in the region. Rarity of eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday region results probably from strong anthropogenic pressure in the past.

  5. Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, Huangshan is one of the high mountains in eastern China and lies in the transition zone of north-south flora. It is considered a refuge of flora and fauna during the Quaternary maximum glaciation. Zonal vegetation is classified as evergreen broad-leaved forest with a vertical distribution pattern. It is not only one of China’s Biodiversity Conservation Priority Areas, but also one of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites and a world famous scenic spot. In 2014, we established a large-scale forest dynamics plot with an area of 10.24 ha in Huangshan based on international protocols (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS and completed the first field survey. The investigation aimed at revealing community characteristics by analyzing species composition, flora characteristics, diameter class structure, and spatial distribution patterns. We recorded 191 species of vascular plants, belonging to 59 families and 129 genera, in the plot. Among these, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm belonged to 46 families, 97 genera and 153 species. The number of family and genera with tropical distributions accounted for 65.79% and 45.36% of the total taxa, respectively, while those with temperate distributions accounted for 34.21% and 51.55%, respectively. A number of rare and endangered species occurred in the plots, including six species classified as Class II of State Key Protected Wild Plants, seven threatened species (VU from the China’s Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plant, one species defined in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES (Appendix II, and 64 endemic species to China, indicating their values for protection and research. We also found that the number of species increased sharply with increasing scale when the scale was less than 2,150 m2, while at a higher resolution its rate of increase decreased

  6. Hydrological characteristics of litter in different forest succession stages at Liuxihe Watershed, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuowen ZHANG; Yunfei LEI; Kaijun SU; Guang WANG; Dongyun WANG; Hongyan MA

    2009-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of litter in four different forest succession stages, i.e., a Pinus massoniana forest, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with conifer being the dominant species, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with deciduous trees as dominant species, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest, have been studied by means of substituting space for time. The results show that while a community is developing to a zonal climax, the amount of litter becomes larger and its decomposition intensity becomes stronger; there is a positive relation between its water-holding capacity and velocity and its community maturity for the halfdecomposed litter layer.

  7. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other...... thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during...... two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give...

  8. Characterization of seasonal variation of forest canopy in a temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, using daily MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyuan Zhang; Xiangming Xiao; Bobby Braswell; Ernst Linder; Scott Ollinger; Marie-Louise Smith; Julian P. Jenkins; Fred Baret; Andrew D. Richardson; Berrien III Moore; Rakesh. Minocha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved procedure for collecting no or little atmosphere- and snow-contaminated observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The resultant time series of daily MODIS data of a temperate deciduous broadleaf forest (the Bartlett Experimental Forest) in 2004 show strong seasonal dynamics of surface...

  9. Effects of selection cutting on the forest structure and species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest in northern Fujian, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ren-hui; Chen Han; Zhuo Li-xin

    2006-01-01

    The short-term effects of selection cutting of different intensities on the forest structure and species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest in northern Fujian Province were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that selection cutting of low and medium intensities caused little variation in the forest structure. After cutting, the dominant species retained their leading status in the community. However, the community structure changed significantly following selection cutting of high and extra-high intensities;the status of the dominant species of the community declined dramatically. Some tree species began to disappear from the sampling plots. Except for extra-high intensity cutting, the diversity of tree species did not change significantly for the other three cutting intensities. However, the evenness of the stands was very different among the four kinds of cutting plots. For low and medium intensity selection cutting, the evenness declined slightly. For extra-high intensity selection cutting, the evenness increased to some extent,which might be due to a more even distribution of tree species after cutting. Cutting operations resulted in some adverse reactions to development of arborous species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest, particularly serious damage to the forest canopy. But the rational selection cuttings, which may benefit the restoration and maintenance of species diversity over a long period and may come about from the variations in environmental factors such as sunlight, temperature and humidity.

  10. Study on Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest from Pinus massoniana Forest.%马尾松林恢复为常绿阔叶林的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希华; 宋永昌; 王良衍

    2001-01-01

    High coverage of Pinus massoniana forest on low mountains in Eastern China at present was studied in this paper. This forest is threatened by plant diseases, especially pines wilt, and needs to be restored urgently. Species of later successional stage or climax communities were retained or introduced to the forest through reconstruction according to vegetation ecology theory, so as to restore it quickly to zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. It formed an evergreen broad-leaved sub-tree layer of 2~3m high dominated by Schima superba from a shrub layer of 57m high after 3 years of reconstruction. The questions of restoration were discussed in this paper.

  11. Natural and anthropogenic forest fires recorded in the Holocene pollen record from a Jinchuan peat bog, northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W; Leroy, SAG; Ogle, N; G. Chu; Wang, L.; J Liu

    2008-01-01

    Pollen and charcoal particles from a Jinchuan peat (northeastern China) were examined to investigate the fire origin and interaction between climate, vegetation, fire and human activity during the Holocene. Pollen results show that: (i) a broadleaved deciduous forest was dominant during the early Holocene; (ii) from ~5500 cal. yr B.P. there was a gradual increase in coniferous trees (mainly Pinus), and a decrease in broadleaved deciduous trees (e.g. Quercus, Juglans, and Ulmus–Zelkov...

  12. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change.

  13. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radiocesium around trees in forest soil of deciduous forests, Fukushima, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Mono; Oba, Yurika; Nursal, Wim I.; Yamada, Toshihiro; Okuda, Toshinori [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi- Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    After the 2011 Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, large amount of radionuclides were deposited and remains in the forest land of Fukushima region, yet still uncertain how much deposition stays in the forest. This region is mostly covered by the secondary deciduous forest which sporadically includes Japanese fir (Abies firma). As the leaves of all deciduous trees were shed, we hypothesized that the amounts of deposition radionuclides will be exhibit difference between the conifer trees (Japanese fir) and the other deciduous trees. As these trees inhabit on steep slopes, we also hypothesized there are differences in the radionuclides deposition in soils in relation to the position around tree trunk base (upper side, lower side and mid side at the foot of trees), tree species and slope angles. Study site and method: our study was conducted in deciduous forest of Fukushima region in August 2013, two and a half years after the accident. Samples of litter layer and two soil layers (0 - 5, 5 - 10 cm) were collected under Abies firma and eight deciduous tree species. In total 23 trees in eight forest stands were investigated. Under one tree, samples were taken from four pints (upper side, lower side and mid sides at the foot of trees) around a tree trunk within a radius of one meter from the base of tree trunks. Angle of slope at each tree was also checked. The samples were dried (70 deg. C, 48 hr) and radiocesium and potassium-40 was determined by a germanium detector (GEM Series HPGe Coaxial Detector System) (measurement time 300 - 30000 sec). Results and discussion: we found that radiocesium contained in litter layer accounts for more than 80% of total amount (within litter layer to 10 cm depth from the surface), and almost all the radiocesium exists within litter layer up to 5 cm depth. Although it is well known that cesium shows similar movement to potassium in a plant body, soil contained much more amount of potassium-40 than litter layer. We predicted that

  14. Effects of Topographic and Soil Factors on Woody Species Assembly in a Chinese Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen broadleaved forests in subtropical China contain a complicated structure of diverse species. The impact of topographic and soil factors on the assembly of woody species in the forest has been poorly understood. We used Ripley’s K(t function to analyze the spatial patterns and associations of dominant species and residual analysis (RDA to quantify the contribution of topography and soil to species assembly. The 1 ha plot investigated had 4797 stems with a diameter at breast height (dbh larger than 1 cm that belong to 73 species, 55 genera, and 38 families. All stems of the entire forest and four late successional species exhibited a reversed J shape for dbh distribution, while two early successional species showed a unimodal shape. Aggregation was the major spatial pattern for entire forests and dominant species across vertical layers. Spatial associations between inter- and intra-species were mostly independent. Topographic and soil factors explained 28.1% of species assembly. The forest was close to late succession and showed the characteristics of diverse woody species, high regeneration capacity, and aggregated spatial patterns. Topographic and soil factors affected species assembly, but together they could only explain a small part of total variance.

  15. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%常绿阔叶林恢复过程植物物种多样性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.In this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Daming Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows: (a) In subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest, 178 species appeared in a 600m2 sample area after 20years'natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m. The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and min-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40~80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tolerance evergreen broad-leaved trees. (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  16. Multiscale modeling of spring phenology across Deciduous Forests in the Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, Eli K; Friedl, Mark A; Richardson, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    Phenological events, such as bud burst, are strongly linked to ecosystem processes in temperate deciduous forests. However, the exact nature and magnitude of how seasonal and interannual variation in air temperatures influence phenology is poorly understood, and model-based phenology representations fail to capture local- to regional-scale variability arising from differences in species composition. In this paper, we use a combination of surface meteorological data, species composition maps, remote sensing, and ground-based observations to estimate models that better represent how community-level species composition affects the phenological response of deciduous broadleaf forests to climate forcing at spatial scales that are typically used in ecosystem models. Using time series of canopy greenness from repeat digital photography, citizen science data from the USA National Phenology Network, and satellite remote sensing-based observations of phenology, we estimated and tested models that predict the timing of spring leaf emergence across five different deciduous broadleaf forest types in the eastern United States. Specifically, we evaluated two different approaches: (i) using species-specific models in combination with species composition information to 'upscale' model predictions and (ii) using repeat digital photography of forest canopies that observe and integrate the phenological behavior of multiple representative species at each camera site to calibrate a single model for all deciduous broadleaf forests. Our results demonstrate variability in cumulative forcing requirements and photoperiod cues across species and forest types, and show how community composition influences phenological dynamics over large areas. At the same time, the response of different species to spatial and interannual variation in weather is, under the current climate regime, sufficiently similar that the generic deciduous forest model based on repeat digital photography performed

  17. An impacts of logging operations on understory plants for the broadleaved/Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; SHAO Guo-fan; DAI Li-min; XU Dong; GU Hui-yan; WANG Fei

    2005-01-01

    Natural regeneration of tree species is important to the sustainability of native forest ecosystems in the temperate zone of northeast China. This study compared the densities and heights of seedlings and the diversities of shrubs and herbs on three sites of logging operations: log-skidding trails (LST), logging gaps (LG) and log landing sites (LLS). Sites undisturbed by logging gaps operations were sampled as control. The species, counts and height of tree seedlings and the species, counts, height and percentage coverage of shrubs and herbs were recorded in the field. The highest density and greatest height of regeneration trees were observed at LG and LST. The effects of LST on the densities of broadleaved trees were greater than those of coniferous trees. The difference in seedling density between LLS and control was significant (p=0.05). There was no significant difference in average seedling height for all the tree species between the disturbed sites and control. There were more shrub and herb species at the disturbed sites than at control. The diversity of understory plants at LG was the highest among all the sites. LST and LLS were different in shrub diversity, so were LLS and control. Both LG and LLS were different from control in herb diversity. Active measures need to be taken on the operation sites to protect the coniferous trees and the diversities of understory plants for sustaining the structure and composition of the broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain of China. Since different operation sites have different effects on different tree species, site-dependent actions must be taken to assure the regeneration of ecologically important tree species.

  18. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  19. Biological control of pedological and hydro-geomorphological processes in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Kooijman, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the effect of soil fauna andvegetation on the development of landscapes and how these actually control soil formation, geomorphological development and hydrological response. The study area is located in a semi-natural deciduous forest on marl in Luxembourg, with a strong textur

  20. Succesional change and resilience of a very dry tropical deciduous forest following shifting agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Pérez-García, E.; Meave, J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed successional patterns in a very dry tropical deciduous forest by using 15 plots differing in age after abandonment and contrasted them to secondary successions elsewhere in the tropics. We used multivariate ordination and nonlinear models to examine changes in composition and structure a

  1. Calibration of the L-MEB model over a coniferous and a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jennifer P.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model used in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 Soil Moisture algorithm is calibrated using L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave measurements over a coniferous (Pine) and a deciduous (mixed/Beech) forest. This resulted...

  2. Water Balance in a Moist Semi-Deciduous Forest of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deciduous forest of Ghana was selected for this study because most food and export crops are grown there. ... balance model can be used in place of complicated models in the determination of soil water balance in the tropics. ... complex micro-meteorological and soil ..... better soil structure due to high carbon content.

  3. Anthropogenic disturbances and status of forest and wildlife in the dry deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandra Prakash Kala; Yogesh Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The advent of modern forces and the changes in socioeconomic patterns of forest dwellers have increased the pressures on the forests.In order to mitigate such pressures and also to protect the forests and wildlife the model of protected aress networks has shifted and enhanced such pressures in the unprotected natural forests due to several reasons.Being a low profile category of protected status and continuous human settlements,the present study highlights the case of dry deciduous forests of Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh state of India.The major objectives of this study were to quantify the status of forests and wildlife and also to determine the extent of anthropogenic disturbances faced by the dry deciduous forests of central India.Transect and silent drive count methods were used for sampling wildlife and quadrat method was used for sampling vegetation.Besides,the local uses of various forest produces were also studied in view of understanding the people dependency on forests.The forest vegetation,in the study area,was predominated by Shorea robusta,which had Madhuca indica,Diospyrus melanoxylon and Buchnania lanzan as the major companion species.The forest had either the high girth class mature tree species or the saplings.The low vegetation cover and density were due to the high anthropogenic pressures mainly in the form of heavy livestock grazing and collection of ethnobotanically important species.The study though reveals that the area is not rich in wildlife and the forest is fragmented,the area still supports some important species,which include many rare and endangered plants and animals.The findings of this study have been discussed in view of the management and conservation of the forest and wildlife in the dry deciduous forests.

  4. Mercury in coniferous and deciduous upland forests in northern New England, USA: implications of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    Climatic changes in the northeastern US are expected to cause coniferous stands to transition to deciduous stands over the next hundred years. Mercury (Hg) sequestration in forest soils may change as a result. In order to understand potential effects of such a transition, we studied aboveground vegetation and soils at paired coniferous and deciduous stands on eight mountains in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Organic horizons at coniferous stands accumulated more total Hg (THg; 42 ± 6 g ha-1) than deciduous stands (30 ± 4 g ha-1). Total Hg pools in the mineral horizons were similar for coniferous (46 ± 8 g ha-1) and deciduous stands (45 ± 7 g ha-1). Soil properties (C, % clay, and pH) explained 56 % of the variation in mineral soil Hg concentration when multiply regressed. Foliar and bole wood Hg concentrations were generally greater for coniferous species than deciduous species. Using allometric equations, we estimated that aboveground accumulation of Hg in foliage and woody biomass was similar between vegetation types but that coniferous stands have significantly smaller annual litterfall fluxes (0.03 g ha-1 yr-1) than deciduous stands (0.24 g ha-1 yr-1). We conclude that organic horizon Hg accumulation is influenced by vegetation type but mineral horizon Hg accumulation is primarily controlled by soil properties. Further investigations into the effect of vegetation type on volatilization, atmospheric deposition, and leaching rates are needed to constrain regional Hg cycling rates.

  5. Woodland: Dynamics of Deciduous Tree Stand Average Diameters of the Principal Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done.

  6. Mercury in coniferous and deciduous upland forests in Northern New England, USA: implications from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Richardson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes in the northeastern US are expected to cause coniferous stands to transition to deciduous stands over the next hundred years. Mercury (Hg sequestration in forest soils may change as a result. In order to understand potential effects of this transition, we studied aboveground vegetation and soils at paired coniferous and deciduous stands on eight mountains in Vermont and New Hampshire, US. Organic horizons at coniferous stands accumulated more Total Hg (THg (42 ± 6 g ha−1 than deciduous stands (30 ± 4 g ha−1. Total Hg pools in the mineral horizons were similar for coniferous (46 ± 8 g ha−1 and deciduous stands (45 ± 7 g ha−1. Soil properties (C, % clay, and pH explained 56 % of the variation in mineral soil Hg concentration when multiple regressed. Foliar and bole wood Hg concentrations were generally greater for coniferous species than deciduous species. We estimated Hg mean residence time (MRT in the organic and mineral horizons at coniferous and deciduous stands using a simple two-box model. Organic horizon MRT were longer at coniferous stands (183 ± 44 yr than deciduous stands (65 ± 15 yr. Mineral soil horizon MRT values were also longer for coniferous stands (386 ± 57 yr than for deciduous stands (188 ± 27 yr. We concluded that organic horizon Hg accumulation is influenced by vegetation type but mineral horizons are primarily affected by soil properties. Further investigations into the effect of vegetation type on volatilization, atmospheric deposition, and leaching rates are needed to constrain regional Hg cycling rates.

  7. Deciduous forest responses to temperature, precipitation, and drought imply complex climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingying; Wang, Xiaojing; Silander, John A

    2015-11-01

    Changes in spring and autumn phenology of temperate plants in recent decades have become iconic bio-indicators of rapid climate change. These changes have substantial ecological and economic impacts. However, autumn phenology remains surprisingly little studied. Although the effects of unfavorable environmental conditions (e.g., frost, heat, wetness, and drought) on autumn phenology have been observed for over 60 y, how these factors interact to influence autumn phenological events remain poorly understood. Using remotely sensed phenology data from 2001 to 2012, this study identified and quantified significant effects of a suite of environmental factors on the timing of fall dormancy of deciduous forest communities in New England, United States. Cold, frost, and wet conditions, and high heat-stress tended to induce earlier dormancy of deciduous forests, whereas moderate heat- and drought-stress delayed dormancy. Deciduous forests in two eco-regions showed contrasting, nonlinear responses to variation in these explanatory factors. Based on future climate projection over two periods (2041-2050 and 2090-2099), later dormancy dates were predicted in northern areas. However, in coastal areas earlier dormancy dates were predicted. Our models suggest that besides warming in climate change, changes in frost and moisture conditions as well as extreme weather events (e.g., drought- and heat-stress, and flooding), should also be considered in future predictions of autumn phenology in temperate deciduous forests. This study improves our understanding of how multiple environmental variables interact to affect autumn phenology in temperate deciduous forest ecosystems, and points the way to building more mechanistic and predictive models.

  8. Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for a semi-deciduous forest and Vochysia divergens monospecific forest in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, L.; Nogueira, J. D.; Pinto Junior, O. B.

    2013-12-01

    Ecophysiological model employ the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) absorbed by the plant canopy such as critical input to diagnostic seasonal patterns in the vegetation dynamics. Here, this study focuses on the patterns of variation of transmittance, reflectance and fAPAR for two forests with different canopy structures, a forest located in a climatic transition between Amazonian rain forest (a semi-deciduous forest) and savanna and a V. divergens monospecific forest. Transmittance (t), reflectance (r) and fAPAR were calculated with meteorological data measured from the tower installed in each forest. Our results indicate the annual average fAPAR for the semi-deciduous and Vochysia divergens was 92.3 and 84.8%, respectively. Measurements indicate that the fAPAR for the V. divergens was 9% less than that for the semi-deciduous forest. The values and variation of r, t and fAPAR was due to the fraction of canopy openness, and was influenced by the fraction of canopy openness, solar zenith angle and amount of diffuse radiation.

  9. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-yao; Yang, Qing-pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha−1 yr−1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha−1 yr−1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation. PMID:28067336

  10. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-Yao; Yang, Qing-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha‑1 yr‑1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha‑1 yr‑1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation.

  11. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  12. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on carbon cycling in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon (C) stocks and sinks. A decadal (1997-2009) trend of increasing C uptake has been observed in an intensively studied temperate deciduous forest, Sorø (Zealand, Denmark). This gave the impetus to investigate the factors controlling the C cycling...... calculated ECB components based on mass balance equations, a synthesis of the carbon cycling was performed. The results showed that this temperature deciduous forest was moderately productive with both high rates of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration. Approximately 62% of the gross...... of studies in order to provide a complete assessment of the carbon storage and allocation within the ecosystem and clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability and trend in the ecosystem C fluxes. Combining all independently estimated ecosystem carbon budget (ECB) datasets and other...

  13. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  14. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jessica; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma; Cristobal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  15. [Effects of forest gap on tree species regeneration and diversity of mixed broadleaved Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Chong; Duan, Wen-Biao; Feng, Jing; Han, Sheng-Zhong

    2011-06-01

    This paper studied the quantitative characteristics of main tree species along a forest gap gradient (gap center-near gap center-gap border) of mixed broadleaved Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, as well as the effects of forest gap size on the regeneration of the tree species. In forest gap, the density of shrub species was obviously larger than that in non-gap, and the density ratio of the same shrub species in forest gap to in non-gap ranged from 1.08 to 18.15. With the increase of gap size, the regeneration density of tree seedlings increased, and that of sapling I (H > or = 1 m, DBH or = 1 m, 2 cm tree seedlings and sapling I. The mean height, mean basal diameter, species density, and individual density of trees in different locations of forest gaps were all different. From gap center to non-gap, the importance value of tree species seedlings in regeneration layer was ranked in gap center > near gap center > gap border > non-gap, the tree species evenness presented a variation of high-low-high, and the species diversity decreased in the order of early phase gap > mid phase gap > late phase gap.

  16. Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShijie; WENXuefa; YUGuirui; SUNXiaomin; LIQingkang; RENChuanyou

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m-2 s-1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  18. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  19. Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

  20. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole

    2013-01-01

    leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from...... anthropogenic NH3 sources. This suggests that an accurate description of ammonia fluxes over forest ecosystems requires a dynamic description of atmospheric and vegetation processes....

  1. Seasonal variability of interception evaporation from the canopy of a mixed deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; McNeil, David D.;

    2008-01-01

    Gross rainfall, net rainfall and stemflow were measured in a mixed deciduous woodland in southern England over a period of 14 months. Continuous measurements of standard weather data and momentum and sensible heat fluxes between the forest canopy and the atmosphere accompanied the investigation....... The gross rainfall was corrected for catch losses due to high turbulence. Reliable net rainfall data were obtained from a combined application of simple storage gauges and troughs connected to automatic tipping bucket gauges. The evaporation rates from the wet canopy were calculated with the Penman......% in the leafless period. The analytical sparse canopy rainfall interception model of Gash et al. [Gash, J.H.C., Lloyd, C.R., Lachaud, G., 1995. Estimating sparse forest rainfall interception with an analytical model. J. Hydrol. 170, 79-86] was parameterised, for the first time, for a mixed deciduous woodland...

  2. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious.

  3. Response of a deciduous forest to the Mount Pinatubo eruption: enhanced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Wofsy, Steve C; Munger, J William; Michalsky, Joseph J; Urbanski, Shawn P; Boden, Thomas A

    2003-03-28

    Volcanic aerosols from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption greatly increased diffuse radiation worldwide for the following 2 years. We estimated that this increase in diffuse radiation alone enhanced noontime photosynthesis of a deciduous forest by 23% in 1992 and 8% in 1993 under cloudless conditions. This finding indicates that the aerosol-induced increase in diffuse radiation by the volcano enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink and contributed to the temporary decline in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide after the eruption.

  4. Leaf-on canopy closure in broadleaf deciduous forests predicted during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.

  5. Trends in Spring Phenology of Western European Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliakim Hamunyela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenology is changing because of recent global warming, and this change may precipitate changes in animal distribution (e.g., pests, alter the synchronization between species, and have feedback effects on the climate system through the alteration of biogeochemical and physical processes of vegetated land surface. Here, ground observations (leaf unfolding/first leaf separation of six deciduous tree species and satellite-derived start-of-growing season (SOS are used to assess how the timing of leafing/SOS in Western European deciduous forest responded to climate variability between 2001 and 2011 and evaluate the reliability of satellite SOS estimates in tracking the response of forest leafing to climate variability in this area. Satellite SOS estimates are derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Temporal trends in the SOS are quantified using linear regression, expressing SOS as a function of time. We demonstrated that the growing season was starting earlier between 2001 and 2011 for the majority of temperate deciduous forests in Western Europe, possibly influenced by regional spring warming effects experienced during the same period. A significant shift of up to 3 weeks to early leafing was found in both ground observations and satellite SOS estimates. We also show that the magnitude and trajectory of shifts in satellite SOS estimates are well comparable to that of in situ observations, hence highlighting the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring leaf phenology under a changing climate.

  6. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  7. [Effects of light intensity heterogeneity in gaps of broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains on Pinus koraiensis seedings growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Xiu-Hua

    2009-05-01

    By using a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system, this paper studied the heterogeneity of light intensity in four different size gaps of a broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, and analyzed the diurnal change of the photosynthesis of Pinus koraiensis saplings in the gaps. In the nine orientations within the gaps, the peak value of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) varied in the sequence of west of actual gap, north of extended gap, gap center > south of actual gap, south of extended gap, east of extended gap, east of actual gap > west of extended gap, north of actual gap. Light distribution was dissymmetry in the orientations of east-west and south-north, with the variation in west and north being more significant than that in other orientations. There was no significant difference in the average PAR among the positions within specific orientations. The average PAR of the four gaps from I to IV was 21.85, 45.57, 66.02, and 23.48 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). PAR had a significant positive correlation with net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and the correlation coefficient increased with increasing PAR. With the increase of gap size, both the PAR and the P(n) of P. koraiensis saplings increased first and decreased then, with the maximum values appeared at 267 m2 of gap size.

  8. Characteristics analysis of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, Fujian Province%闽西常绿阔叶林群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥海; 黄素华; 陈小红; 邱丰艳

    2009-01-01

    On the base of 1.6 hm~2 cumulative sampling plots community ecological investigation of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, and through species composition, areal types, life form spectra, and leaf character statistics analysis, The results showed, 116 families, 235 genera and 398 species of vascular plants were recorded;The dominant seed plant families of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community in Minxi were Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Magnoliaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theaceae, and so on;The flora of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was obviously tropical and subtropical geographical character in Minxi;The constructive species of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was abundant, and different community form could be come into being by some constructive species combination which made community diversification;The evergreen broad-leaved forest community was characterized by the evergreen mesophanerophytes and microphanerophytes with simple leathery, entire mesophyllous and microphyllous leaves in Minxi;Comparison of the evergreen broad-leaved forest among Minxi and other regions, the community of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi had a transitional characteristics from typical subtropical flora to south subtropical at species composition, area type and life form spectrum, as well as the leaf character aspect.%采用群落生态学的方法对闽西常绿阔叶林植被的1.6 hm~2样地调查统计、分析,结果表明,构成闽西常绿阔叶林群落的优势科是樟科、壳斗科、木兰科、紫金牛科和山茶科等;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的植物区系具有明显的热带、亚热带地理性质;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的建群树种多,且部分不同的建群种间可组合构成不同的群丛,群落类型呈现多样化;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的外貌以单叶、革质、全缘和中小型叶为主的常绿中、小高位芽植物组成为特征;闽西常绿阔叶林群落植物在物种组成数量、科属

  9. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  10. HNO3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 mug m(-3). Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the results...... indicate substantial uncertainties in the gradient-based calculations. The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) derived fluxes are physically reasonable and are shown to be of similar magnitude to dry deposition estimates from gradient sampling. The REA derived mean deposition velocity is approximately 3 cm s...

  11. Seasonal and annual variation of CO2 flux above a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Long-term measurement of carbon metabolism of old-growth forests is critical to predict their behaviors and to reduce the uncertainties of carbon accounting under changing climate. Eddy covariance technology was applied to investigate the long-term carbon exchange over a 200 year-old Chinese broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains (128°28’E and 42°24’N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) since August 2002. On the data obtained with open-path eddy covariance system and CO2 profile measurement system from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2004, this paper reports (i) annual and seasonal variation of FNEE, FGPP and Re; (ii) regulation of environmental factors on phase and amplitude of ecosystem CO2 uptake and release Corrections due to storage and friction velocity were applied to the eddy carbon flux. Lal and soil temperature determined the seasonal and annual dynamics of FGPP and RE separately. VPD and air temperature regulated ecosystem photosynthesis at finer scales in growing seasons. Water condition at the root zone exerted a significant influence on ecosystem maintenance carbon metabolism of this forest in winter. The forest was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 and sequestered -449 g C·m-2 during the study period; -278 and -171 gC·m-2 for 2003 and 2004 respectively. FGPP and FRE over 2003 and 2004 were -1332, -1294 g C·m-2. and 1054, 1124 g C·m-2 respectively. This study shows that old-growth forest can be a strong net carbon sink of atmospheric CO2. There was significant seasonal and annual variation in carbon metabolism. In winter, there was weak photosynthesis while the ecosystem emitted CO2. Carbon exchanges were active in spring and fall but contributed little to carbon sequestration on an annual scale. The summer is the most significant season as far as ecosystem carbon balance is concerned. The 90 days of summer contributed 66.9, 68.9% of FGPp, and 60.4, 62.1% of RE of the entire year.

  12. Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

  13. Identification, distribution, and quantification of biominerals in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, C; Calvaruso, C; Morlot, C; Uroz, S; Salsi, L; Turpault, M-P

    2017-03-01

    Biomineralization is a common process in most vascular plants, but poorly investigated for trees. Although the presence of calcium oxalate and silica accumulation has been reported for some tree species, the chemical composition, abundance, and quantification of biominerals remain poorly documented. However, biominerals may play important physiological and structural roles in trees, especially in forest ecosystems, which are characterized by nutrient-poor soils. In this context, our study aimed at investigating the morphology, distribution, and relative abundance of biominerals in the different vegetative compartments (foliage, branch, trunk, and root) of Fagus sylvatica L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and tomography analyses. Biomineral crystallochemistry was assessed by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses, while calcium, silicon, and oxalic acid were quantified in the compartments and at the forest scale. Our analyses revealed that biominerals occurred as crystals or coating layers mostly in bark and leaves and were identified as opal, whewellite, and complex biominerals. In both tree species, opal was mostly found in the external tissues of trunk, branch, and leaves, but also in the roots of beech. In the stand, opal represents around 170 kg/ha. Whewellite was found to suit to conductive tissues (i.e., axial phloem parenchyma, vascular bundles, vessel element) in all investigated compartments of the two tree species. The shape of whewellite was prismatic and druses in beech, and almost all described shapes were seen in sycamore maple. Notably, the amount of whewellite was strongly correlated with the total calcium in all investigated compartments whatever the tree species is, suggesting a biologic control of whewellite precipitation. The amount of whewellite in the aboveground biomass of Montiers forest was more important than that of opal and was around 1170 kg/ha. Therefore, biominerals

  14. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Pryor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF. The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m-2 day-1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH4+ at the site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE of –6 kg-N ha-1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.

  15. Genetic differentiation and genetic diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the dominant tree species in Japanese broadleaved evergreen forests, revealed by analysis of EST-associated microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST = 0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST = 0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the

  16. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate.

  17. Extended leaf phenology and the autumn niche in deciduous forest invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Jason D

    2012-05-17

    The phenology of growth in temperate deciduous forests, including the timing of leaf emergence and senescence, has strong control over ecosystem properties such as productivity and nutrient cycling, and has an important role in the carbon economy of understory plants. Extended leaf phenology, whereby understory species assimilate carbon in early spring before canopy closure or in late autumn after canopy fall, has been identified as a key feature of many forest species invasions, but it remains unclear whether there are systematic differences in the growth phenology of native and invasive forest species or whether invaders are more responsive to warming trends that have lengthened the duration of spring or autumn growth. Here, in a 3-year monitoring study of 43 native and 30 non-native shrub and liana species common to deciduous forests in the eastern United States, I show that extended autumn leaf phenology is a common attribute of eastern US forest invasions, where non-native species are extending the autumn growing season by an average of 4 weeks compared with natives. In contrast, there was no consistent evidence that non-natives as a group show earlier spring growth phenology, and non-natives were not better able to track interannual variation in spring temperatures. Seasonal leaf production and photosynthetic data suggest that most non-native species capture a significant proportion of their annual carbon assimilate after canopy leaf fall, a behaviour that was virtually absent in natives and consistent across five phylogenetic groups. Pronounced differences in how native and non-native understory species use pre- and post-canopy environments suggest eastern US invaders are driving a seasonal redistribution of forest productivity that may rival climate change in its impact on forest processes.

  18. Functions of Biodiversity of Artificial Broadleaved-Coniferous Mixed Forest%人工针阔混交林生物多样性功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志华

    2015-01-01

    通过对红松、刺楸人工针阔混交林和红松人工纯林生物多样性功能的试验分析,结果表明:针阔混交林能增加蚯蚓的数量,林龄25年时,混交林的蚯蚓数量比人工纯林高48.4%;人工针阔混交林招引各种鸟类达33种,每天食虫量达1500条,抑制了森林虫害的发生;人工针阔混交林日平均气温0.5 m和1.8 m处分别比红松纯林低2.4~1.0℃,相对湿度0.5 m处比红松纯林提高24%,绝对湿度提高2.3%,1.8 m处混交林相对湿度比纯林提高11%,绝对湿度比纯林提高5.2%;混交林比纯林能降低风速0.7~1.2 m s-1。针阔混交林的各项功能指标都优于纯林。%The functions of the biodiversity of the artificial pure forest for Pinus koraiensis and the artificial broad-leaved-coniferous mixed forest of Pinus koraiensis and Kalopanax septemlobus were analyzed.Result shows that:broadleaved-coniferous mixed forest can increase the number of earthworms;the numbers of earthworm in the mixed forest are 48.4% higher than that of the artificial forests while the forest age being 25 years;the broadleaved-conif-erous mixed forest can attract 33 kinds of birds,and the insectivorous number are 1 500 per day,which inhibit the occurrence of forest pests;the daily average temperature of the broadleaved-coniferous mixed forest at 0.5 m and 1.8 m is 2.4 ℃ and 1.0℃ respectively lower than that of the pure forest of Pinuskoraiensis;the relative humidity and the absolute humidity is 24% and 2.3% higher than that of the pure forest at the height of 0.5 m respectively;the relative humidity and the absolute humidity is 1 1% and 5 .2% higher than that of the pure forest at the height of 1.8 m respectively;the mixed forest can reduce the wind speed by 0.7-1.2 m s-1 than that of the pure forest.The func-tion indicators of the broadleaved-coniferous mixed forest are superior to that of the pure forest.

  19. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  1. [Spatial analysis of LAIe of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, Northwest China, based on image texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An-Jiu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Liao, Cheng-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Optical remote sensing is still one of the most attractive choices for obtaining leaf area index (LAI) information, but currently may be derived from remotely sensed data with limited accuracy. Effective leaf area index (LAIe) of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan was inventoried and assessed in 83 sample field plots of 20 m x 20 m using different types of image processing techniques, including simple spectral band, simple spectral band ratios and principal component. Texture information was extracted by gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from different types of processing image. The results showed that there were correlations of different degrees between LAIe and texture parameters, and highly significant correlations were observed between LAIe with the homogeneity of the B1 band, B1/B4 band ratio or principal component PC1. Using texture information of remotely sensed data as auxiliary variables, we developed geostatistics models. Compared with the model based on NDVI auxiliary variable, the accuracy of LAIe were improved, presenting an increase by 5.3% with the homogeneity of the B1 band, 11.0% with the homogeneity B1/B4 band ratio, and 14.5% with the homogeneity principal component PC1, and the statistical errors were also reduced to some extent. The optimal LAIe model of spatial geostatistics was obtained when taking NDVI and homogeneity principal component PC1 as auxiliary variables (R2 = 0.840, RMSE = 0.212). Our results provided a new way to estimate regional spatial distribution of LAI using other auxiliary variables besides the vegetation index.

  2. [Characteristics of evaporation over broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China during snow cover period in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-dong; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Jin, Chang-jie; ShiI, Ting-ting

    2013-04-01

    Based on the measurement data of water vapor flux by open-path eddy covariance system and of the micrometeorological factors in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains during the snow cover period from 2002 to 2005, this paper analyzed the dynamics of snow cover evaporation and the relationships between the evaporation and meteorological factors. The energy balanced ratio during the snow cover period was 79. 9% , and the latent heat flux accounted for 21. 4% of net radiation. The diurnal variation of the evaporation presented a single-peak curve, and the evaporation rate during snow-melting period was higher than that during stable snow cover period. The half-hour evaporation presented liner relationship with net radiation and quadratic relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented quadratic relationship with net radiation and exponential relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented a dynamic trend of decreasing-stable-increasing, with the maximum at increasing stage and the minimum at stable stage. The maximum value of the daily evaporation was 0.73 mm d-1, and the minimum value was 0. 004 mm d-1. During the snow cover periods of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, the annual evaporation was 27.6, 25.5, and 22.9 mm, accounting for 37.9% , 19.5% , and 30. 0% of the precipitation in the same periods, respectively. The mean value of the daily evaporation in the three periods was 0. 17, 0. 19, and 0. 17 mm d-1, respectively.

  3. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation. Dominant tree canopy layers were estimated using multi-scale filtering and local maxima detection. The LiDAR estimation results were then compared to the ground inventory data and a high resolution orthophoto image for accuracy assessment. Main results: A Wilcoxon matched pair test suggests that LiDAR data is highly capable of estimating tree height in a subtropical forest (z = 4.0, p = 0.345, but has limitation to detect small understory trees and a single tree delineation. The results show that there is a statistically significant different type of crown detection from LiDAR data over forest inventory (z = 0, p = 0.043. We also found that LiDAR computation results underestimated the stand density and overestimated the crown size. Research highlights: Most studies involving crown detection and tree height estimation have focused on the analysis of plantations, boreal forests and temperate forests, and less was conducted on tropical and/or subtropical forests. Our study tested the capability of LiDAR as an effective application for analyzing a highly dense forest

  4. Simulating the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat over Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiufeng; NIU; Dong; YU; Guirui; REN; Chuanyou; WEN; X

    2005-01-01

    A process-based ecosystem productivity model BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) was updated to simulate half-hourly exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains, China. The BEPSh model is able to capture the diurnal and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat fluxes at this site in the growing season of 2003. The model validation showed that the simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) are in good agreement with eddy covariance measurements with an R2 value of 0.68, 0.86 and 0.72 for NEP, LE and Hs, respectively. The simulated annual NEP of this forest in 2003 was 300.5 gC/m2, and was very close to the observed value. Driving this model with different climate scenarios, we found that the NEP in the Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem was sensitive to climate variability, and the current carbon sink will be weakened under the condition of global warming. Furthermore, as a process-based model, BEPSh was also sensitive to physiological parameters of plant, such as maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum stomatal conductance (gmax), and needs to be carefully calibrated for other applications.

  5. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Aoki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

  6. Carbon Exchange of Central New England Deciduous Forests: Variability Related to Age and Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J. L.; Kuzeja, P. S.; Schedlbauer, J. L.; Munger, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Forests in much of the northeastern U.S. occur in hilly or mountainous terrain and vary widely in age, due to forest harvesting and natural disturbances. Sites in the NE U.S. with relatively long-term C exchange records represent two very different major tree species associations (boreal coniferous forest and oak-maple dominated deciduous forest) but cover relatively little variation in topography and age. All of the forests measured are in somewhat low-lying areas and are fairly mature, ranging from 65 to >120 years in age. Data are needed from younger forests and forests with higher slope position in order to accurately estimate forest C storage in the NE U.S. In May 2002 we began the first eddy covariance (EC) measurements in a higher deciduous forest, about 1.1 km from the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site (HFEMS), where C exchange has been measured since 1991. The higher site has similar tree species composition to HFEMS, but most trees within 300 m of the higher eddy covariance tower (and some beyond) originated after a fire in 1957. Wind direction and nocturnal turbulence strongly affect EC data at the higher site. With wind between 30 and 210 o from N, we observe large apparent C effluxes (>30 µmol m-2 s-1) at night, and sometimes during the day. Such large C effluxes have very seldom been observed at HFEMS, and at the higher site we interpret them as artifacts generated by lee-slope turbulence, due to airflow over forest that is 20-30 m higher than the point of EC measurements. With other wind directions, nocturnal C flux at the higher site increases with increasing turbulence. We attribute this to cold air drainage on the long approximately 10% slope to the W and NW. This inference is supported by very low measured C fluxes when air 20 cm from the ground is > 1.5 oC colder than air above the canopy. Accordingly, at the higher site we only accept C flux data if wind direction is between 215 and 360o and u* > 0.35 m/s. Under these conditions

  7. Deciduous Tree Species Alter Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in Mid-successional Alaskan Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In Alaskan boreal forest, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering successional processes and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Fire is a common disturbance in Interior Alaska and typically burns forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow nutrient turnover and high soil organic matter accumulation rates. Historically, low severity fires have driven black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow nutrient cycling rates and large soil organic matter stocks. In contrast, high severity fires consume the organic layer and can lead to the establishment of deciduous tree species on exposed mineral soil, which produce less recalcitrant leaf litter and exhibit faster nutrient cycling rates. To improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of tree species composition on nutrient cycling in boreal forest, we quantified nitrogen (N) cycling rates and estimated soil N, phosphorus (P), and base cation pools in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1960 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Results indicate significantly higher net N mineralization in paper birch soils relative to black spruce for both the fibric organic layer and top 10 cm of mineral soil during 30-day and 90-day lab incubation studies. Net nitrification was significantly higher in the paper birch fibric layer after 90 days. Total soil N concentrations did not differ between paper birch and black spruce stands, however the black spruce organic layer was significantly larger than that of birch, resulting in larger organic layer N stocks (130 vs. 87 g N m2). In contrast, total P concentrations were significantly higher in the organic layer in birch forest, but the total P stocks did not differ significantly between species because of the larger mass of soil organic matter in the black spruce. These findings suggest that a shift towards greater deciduous

  8. Isoprene suppression of new particle formation in a mixed deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of new particles over forests is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei that can affect climate. While such particle formation events have been widely observed, their formation mechanisms over forests are poorly understood. Our observations made in a mixed deciduous forest with large isoprene emissions during the summer displayed a surprisingly rare occurrence of new particle formation (NPF. Typically, NPF events occur around noon but no NPF events were observed during the 5 weeks of measurements. The exceptions were two evening ultrafine particle events. During the day, sulfuric acid concentrations were in the 106 cm−3 range with very low preexisting aerosol particles, a favorable condition for NPF to occur even during the summer. The ratio of emitted isoprene carbon to monoterpene carbon at this site was similar to that in Amazon rainforests (ratio >10, where NPF events are also very rare, compared with a ratio <0.5 in Finland boreal forests, where NPF events are frequent. Our results suggest that large isoprene emissions can suppress NPF formation in forests although the underlying mechanism for the suppression is unclear. The two evening ultrafine particle events were associated with the transported anthropogenic sulfur plumes and ultrafine particles were likely formed via ion-induced nucleation. Changes in landcover and environmental conditions could modify the isoprene suppression of NPF in some forest regions resulting in a radiative forcing that could have influence on the climate.

  9. Soil Drought Anomalies in MODIS GPP of a Mediterranean Broadleaved Evergreen Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS yields global operational estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP. In this study, we compared MOD17A2 GPP with tower eddy flux-based estimates of GPP from 2001 to 2010 over an evergreen broad-leaf Mediterranean forest in Southern France with a significant summer drought period. The MOD17A2 GPP shows seasonal variations that are inconsistent with the tower GPP, with close-to-accurate winter estimates and significant discrepancies for summer estimates which are the least accurate. The analysis indicated that the MOD17A2 GPP has high bias relative to tower GPP during severe summer drought which we hypothesized caused by soil water limitation. Our investigation showed that there was a significant correlation (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.0001 between the relative soil water content and the relative error of MOD17A2 GPP. Therefore, the relationship between the error and the measured relative soil water content could explain anomalies in MOD17A2 GPP. The results of this study indicate that careful consideration of the water conditions input to the MOD17A2 GPP algorithm on remote sensing is required in order to provide accurate predictions of GPP. Still, continued efforts are necessary to ascertain the most appropriate index, which characterizes soil water limitation in water-limited environments using remote sensing.

  10. Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose; Steven G. McNulty

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear...

  11. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  12. Phytosociology analysis of a fragment of Seasonal Deciduous Forest: Parque Estadual do Turvo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem formed by the Seasonal Deciduous Forest (SDF predominates in the region of Alto Uruguay in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to analyze descriptively the floristic composition and the phytosociology of trees from a fragment of SDF present in Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET located in the Municipality of Derrubadas, Rio Grande do Sul State (Yucumã forest. We used the method of fixed area, based on 18 sample units with 1,000 m2 installed randomly oriented by the main road of the park. All wood species with diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (DBH greater than 10 cm were measured and identified. It was observed the presence of 842 individuals belonging to 32 families, 67 genera and 83 species (12% were not identified. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae. Shannon index estimated was 3.72.

  13. Characteristics of bird communities between slope and valley in natural deciduous forest, South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-Jae RHIM; Wee-Haeng HUR; Woo-Shin LEE

    2003-01-01

    Bird communities were surveyed in natural deciduous forest of both slope area and valley area at Mt. Gyebangsan (37°40' 30" N, 128°30' 1" E), Gangwon Province, South Korea in winter, spring, summer and autumn from September 2000 to November 2001. The investigating results showed that there existed differences in the bird species composition, richness, bird species diversity, guild structure between slope area and valley area, and the vertical forest structure, especially coverage of understory, and diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution also had significant difference between the two study areas. The differences in habitat structure between the areas are very likely to have influences on how birds used the available habitat.

  14. Relationships between established seedling survival and growth in evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Community seedling regeneration is a crucial process for maintaining species coexistence. The stage from which an established seedling becomes a new reproductive individual is one of the most important components of community regeneration, and influences the community recruitment pattern. However, the short-term mortality of established seedlings is lower than newly germinated seedlings, and previous studies have not been able to analyze the effect of biotic neighborhoods and abiotic micro-habitat factors on established seedling survival perfectly. Therefore, we suggest that the growth status of established seedlings could predict established seedling survival during development, and analyze the effects of these biotic and abiotic factors on established seedling growth, in order to indirectly estimate their effects on established seedling survival. To test this hypothesis, we selected established seedlings in the 20 ha forest dynamics plot in Tiantong as samples. Then, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of relative growth rate, biotic neighborhood factors (conspecific/heterospecific adult neighborhood indices, density of conspecific/heterospecific seedling neighbors, the amount of conspecific/heterospecific leaf litter from neighbors and abiotic micro-habitat factors (canopy openness, herbaceous coverage, elevation, slope, aspect, pH value, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the soil on short-term established seedling survival rates. We used linear mixed models to assess the effects of biotic neighborhood factors and abiotic micro-habitat factors on relative growth rates of established seedlings. Results showed that relative growth rates have a significant, positive effect on established seedling survival, and this factor is the most important factor among potential influencing factors. In addition, canopy openness, as only one significant influencing factor, has a positive effect on relative growth rates of

  15. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Clark, James S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Mohan, Jacqueline [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  16. The impact of forest continuity on the flora in Danish deciduous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen

    forest continuity, land use history, species diversity, species distribution, flora, seed dispersal, colonization......forest continuity, land use history, species diversity, species distribution, flora, seed dispersal, colonization...

  17. Post-deposition early-phase migration and retention behavior of radiocesium in a litter-mineral soil system in a Japanese deciduous forest affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Syusaku; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Muto, Kotomi

    2016-12-01

    The fate of radiocesium ((137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident and associated radiation risks are largely dependent on its migration and retention behavior in the litter-soil system of Japanese forest ecosystems. However, this behavior has not been well quantified. We established field lysimeters in a Japanese deciduous broad-leaved forest soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident to continuously monitor the downward transfer of (137)Cs at three depths: the litter-mineral soil boundary and depths of 5 cm and 10 cm in the mineral soil. Observations were conducted at two sites within the forest from May 2011 to May 2015. Results revealed similar temporal and depth-wise variations in (137)Cs downward fluxes for both sites. The (137)Cs downward fluxes generally decreased year by year at all depths, indicating that (137)Cs was rapidly leached from the forest-floor litter layer and was then immobilized in the upper (0-5 cm) mineral soil layer through its interaction with clay minerals. The (137)Cs fluxes also showed seasonal variation, which was in accordance with variations in the throughfall and soil temperature at the sites. There was no detectable (137)Cs flux at a depth of 10 cm in the mineral soil in the third and fourth years after the accident. The decreased inventory of mobile (or bioavailable) (137)Cs observed during early stages after deposition indicates that the litter-soil system in the Japanese deciduous forest provides only a temporary source for (137)Cs recycling in plants.

  18. Organic carbon sequestration and discharge from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the sequestration and discharge of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC in forested catchments. Both DOC and POC are highly concentrated in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their discharge may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: 1 how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and 2 how much DOC and POC are discharged from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers for a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual discharge of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual discharge of organic carbon was estimated to be 4 to 14% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE obtained by eddy covariance technique at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon discharge from forest ecosystems would result in an overestimation (underestimation of the strength of forests

  19. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  1. Long-term changes in flora and vegetation in deciduous forests of Southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkengren-Grerup, U. [Lund Univ., Soil-Plant Res., Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    This article focuses on south Swedish research on soil acidification and its impact on field-layer vegetation in beech Fagus sylvatica, oak Quercus robur and hornbeam Carpinus betulus forests. Soil acidification has occurred since at least the 1950`s and is of such magnitude that it has been detected over a period of only 10 yr. Acidification can be quantified as a lowering of soil pH, most pronounced in soils with originally high pH. The cations are leached out of the soil and the pools available to plants decrease gradually. The average annual decrease in recent decades has been 1%. Changes in the occurrence of vascular plants have been investigated mainly by repeating earlier vegetation analyses after 10, 30, 40 and 60 yr. Many typical field-layer species of deciduous forests have been negatively affected, both quantitatively and qualitatively, during recent decades, especially in soils which have become too acid for them. The more intense management of beech forests today has, among other things, allowed certain weed species to establish themselves. If management trends continue in this direction, these species may become part of the `natural` species composition of these forests. The doubled N-deposition since the 1950`s is another factor that, until now, seems to have led to a higher diversity and abundance of several species in deciduous forests. Nowadays N is available in excess in many south Swedish forest soils and NO{sub 3} may leach out of the soil, leading to further acidification and accelerated leaching of other nutrients. The form of inorganic N available to plants may limit growth. Acid soils have a lower nitrification potential and NH{sub 4} as the sole N-form may be inadequate for plants usually growing in less acid soils. For some species the hydrogen ion concentration per se seems to be crucial, but decreased growth and survival may also result from a high Al concentration of Al/Ca ratio. (au) 86 refs.

  2. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance...

  3. Two new species of Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of deciduous forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Silvana Vargas Do; Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria

    2016-09-29

    Two new species of Geoplaninae from southern Brazil are described herein. The new species, belonging to the genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990, can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by colour pattern and characteristics of the copulatory apparatus, especially regarding the female organs and prostatic vesicle. Both new species seem to be endemic to areas covered by deciduous forest.

  4. Analysis of vegetation dynamics and phytodiversity from three dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the vegetation dynamics and plant diversity from the dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley. Species richness, regeneration, and change in community composition of these forests were studied and change was noticed with Shorea robusta as the main dominant species, and Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini, and Ehretia laevis as codominant tree species in all communities. The highest species richness and diversity rates were found to be increased with the decre...

  5. Relationships between large-scale circulation patterns and carbon dioxide exchange by a deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun; Huang, Gang; Notaro, Michael

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we focus on a deciduous forest in central Massachusetts and investigate the relationships between global climate indices and CO2 exchange using eddy-covariance flux measurements from 1992 to 2007. Results suggest that large-scale circulation patterns influence the annual CO2 exchange in the forest through their effects on the local surface climate. Annual gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) in the forest is closely associated with spring El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), previous fall Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and previous winter East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) pattern. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) responds to previous fall AMO and PDO, while annual respiration (R) is impacted by previous fall ENSO and Pacific/North American Oscillation (PNA). Regressions based on these relationships are developed to simulate the annual GEE, NEE, and R. To avoid problems of multicollinearity, we compute a "Composite Index for GEE (CIGEE)" based on a linear combination of spring ENSO and PDO, fall AMO, and winter EP-NP and a "Composite Index for R (CIR)" based on a linear combination of fall ENSO and PNA. CIGEE, CIR, and fall AMO and PDO can explain 41, 27, and 40% of the variance of the annual GEE, R, and NEE, respectively. We further apply the methodology to two other northern midlatitude forests and find that interannual variabilities in NEE of the two forests are largely controlled by large-scale circulation patterns. This study suggests that global climate indices provide the potential for predicting CO2 exchange variability in the northern midlatitude forests.

  6. Wildland fires and moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India:di-vergent component assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. H. Kittur; S. L. Swamy; S. S. Bargali; Manoj Kumar Jhariya

    2014-01-01

    We studied moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India (1) to assess the effect of four levels of historic wildland fire frequency (high, medium, low, and no-fire) on regeneration of seedlings in fire affected areas during pre and post-fire seasons, (2) to evaluate vegetation struc-ture and diversity by layer in the four fire frequency zones, (3) to evalu-ate the impact of fire frequency on the structure of economically impor-tant tree species of the region, and (4) to quantify fuel loads by fire fre-quency level. We classified fire-affected areas into high, medium, low, and no-fire frequency classes based on government records. Tree species were unevenly distributed across fire frequency categories. Shrub density was maximum in zones of high fire frequency and minimum in low-frequency and no-fire zones. Lower tree density after fires indicated that regeneration of seedlings was reduced by fire. The population structure in the high-frequency zone was comprised of seedlings of size class (A) and saplings of size class (B), represented by Diospyros melanoxylon, Dalbergia sissoo, Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis. Younger and older trees were more abundant for Tectona grandis and Dalbargia sis-soo after fire, whereas intermediate-aged trees were more abundant pre-fire, indicating that the latter age-class was thinned by the catastrophic effect of fire. The major contributing components of fuel load included duff litter and small woody branches and twigs on the forest floor. Total fuel load on the forest floor ranged from 2.2 to 3.38 Mg/ha. The net change in fuel load was positive in high- and medium-frequency fire zones and negative under low- and no-fire zones. Repeated fires, how-ever, slowly reduced stand stability. An ecological approach is needed for fire management to restore the no-fire spatial and temporal structure of moist deciduous forests, their species composition and fuel loads. The management approach should incorporate participatory forest manage

  7. Seasonal effects on the estimation of height of boreal and deciduous forests from interferometric TanDEM-X coherence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesk, Aire; Voormansik, Kaupo; Tamm, Tanel; Noorma, Mart; Praks, Jaan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the performance of single-pass X-band bistatic SAR interferometric forest height estimation of boreal and temperate deciduous forests under variable seasonal conditions. For this, twelve acquisitions of single- and dual-polarized TanDEM-X coherence images over 118 forest stands were analyzed and compared against LiDAR forest height maps. Strong correlations were found between interferometric coherence magnitude and LiDAR derived forest stand height for pine forests (r2=0.94) and spruce forest (r2=0.87) as well as for deciduous trees (r2=0.94) during leaf-off conditions with temperatures below 0°C. It was found that coherence magnitude based forest height estimation is influenced by leaf-on and leaf-off conditions as well as daily temperature fluctuations, height of ambiguity and effective baseline. These factors alter the correlation and should be taken into account for accurate coherence-based height retrieval. Despite the influence of the mentioned factors, generally a strong relationship in regression analysis between X-band SAR coherence and LiDAR derived forest stand height can be found. Moreover, a simple semi empirical model, derived from Random Volume over Ground model, is presented. The model takes into account all imaging geometry dependent parameters and allows to derive tree height estimate without a priori knowledge. Our results show that X-band SAR interferometry can be used to estimate forest canopy height for boreal and deciduous forests in both summer and winter, but the conditions should be stable.

  8. Plant functional traits with particular reference to tropical deciduous forests: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Chaturvedi; A S Raghubanshi; J S Singh

    2011-12-01

    Functional traits (FTs) integrate the ecological and evolutionary history of a species, and can potentially be used to predict its response as well as its influence on ecosystem functioning. Study of inter-specific variation in the FTs of plants aids in classifying species into plant functional types (PFTs) and provides insights into fundamental patterns and trade-offs in plant form and functioning and the effect of changing species composition on ecosystem functions. Specifically, this paper focuses on those FTs that make a species successful in the dry tropical environment. Following a brief overview, we discuss plant FTs that may be particularly relevant to tropical deciduous forests (TDFs). We consider the traits under the following categories: leaf traits, stem and root traits, reproductive traits, and traits particularly relevant to water availability. We compile quantitative information on functional traits of dry tropical forest species. We also discuss trait-based grouping of plants into PFTs. We recognize that there is incomplete knowledge about many FTs and their effects on TDFs and point out the need for further research on PFTs of TDF species, which can enable prediction of the dynamics of these forests in the face of disturbance and global climate change. Correlations between structural and ecophysiological traits and ecosystem functioning should also be established which could make it possible to generate predictions of changes in ecosystem services from changes in functional composition.

  9. Ecology and phytosociology of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Narasimha Murthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the species composition, abundance, density and community structure of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated from the 81 sample plots laid at random covering the entire sanctuary area. A total of 177 Angiosperms of species were enumerated from the sampled quadrats.  The species present as per preponderance are herbs 71, trees 55, climbers 33, and shrubs 18.  The species diversity indices indicate the following facts: Shannon-Weiner index as 4.15, Simpson index value as 0.91, Margalef’s species richness index as 5.20, density of trees above 10 cm GBH class as 470 individuals per hectare.  The total basal area of the tree species was 17.7m² ha-1.  These statistics along with the composition of the forest, and information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  

  10. Spatial and temporal variation in the canopy cover in a tropical semi-deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in the Mata dos Godoy State Park (23° 27’S, 51° 15’W South Brazil which present great environmental heterogeneity when its north portion (ridge is compared with the southern portion (valley, where there are some flooded areas. The forest formation is classified as tropical semi-deciduous forest. Spatial and temporal variations in the degree of the canopy cover were compared at flooded and unflooded sites. The measures were taken seasonally in 100m² plots using a spherical densiometer from spring 1995 to winter 1996. The flooded area was more open and lighter and had a greater spatial and temporal variation in the canopy cover than the unflooded areas. The greater heterogeneity in the flooded area could be due to structural characteristics of the canopy (greater spacing between individual trees, lower canopy and less stratified canopy, more frequent natural disturbances and a greater degree of deciduousness. These causes seemed to be related to the presence of the river and flooding.Este estudo foi desenvolvido no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy (23° 27’ S, 51° 15’ W, região Sul do Brasil. O Parque apresenta grande heterogeneidade ambiental quando as partes norte (espigão e sul (fundo de vale são comparadas. A floresta é classificada como tropical semi-decidual. As variações espaciais e temporais no grau de cobertura do dossel foram comparadas em sítios esporadicamente alagáveis e não alagáveis do Parque. Leituras foram realizadas sazonalmente, em parcelas de 100 m², com um densiômetro esférico, da primavera de 1995 até o inverno de 1996. A área alagável apresentou maior variação espacial e temporal na cobertura do dossel do que as áreas não alagáveis, indicando ser mais aberta e mais iluminada. Esta maior heterogeneidade da área alagável pode ser devido às características estruturais do dossel (maior espaçamento entre indivíduos arbóreos, dossel mais baixo e menos estratificado

  11. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X.; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (−22.4%) and N:P (−10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (−8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (−13.5%) and F. sylvatica (−11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled

  12. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (-22.4%) and N:P (-10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (-8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (-13.5%) and F. sylvatica (-11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled invasion of

  13. Patterns of diversity and regeneration in unmanaged moist deciduous forests in response to disturbance in Shiwalik Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied vegetation attributes in Indian tropical moist deciduous unmanaged forests to determine the influence of forest disturbances on them. We enumerated 89 species: 72 under moderate disturbance and 54 under least disturbance. The data from 3399 stems [>5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh] decreased linearly along the disturbance gradient. The basal area was largest in least disturbed forests (61 m2/ha and smallest in intensely disturbed forest (41 m2/ha. Under least and moderate disturbance, tree density-diameter distribution had negative exponential curves, whereas highly disturbed forests had unimodal-shaped curves where a few trees 5–10 cm and >50 cm in diameter were recorded. Most tree and shrub layer species under heavy and intense disturbance had impaired regeneration. Moderate disturbance intensity thus apparently benefits species diversity, stand density, and regeneration. Decline in seedlings and saplings, especially tree species, threaten forest regeneration and the maintenance of species diversity of unmanaged tropical forests.

  14. Forest Inventory Attribute Prediction Using Lightweight Aerial Scanner Data in a Selected Type of Multilayered Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sačkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning is a promising technique for efficient and accurate, remote-based forest inventory, due to its capacity for direct measurement of the three-dimensional structure of vegetation. The main objective of this study was to test the usability and accuracy of an individual tree detection approach, using reFLex software, in the evaluation of forest variables. The accuracy assessment was conducted in a selected type of multilayered deciduous forest in southern Italy. Airborne laser scanning data were taken with a YellowScan Mapper scanner at an average height of 150 m. Point density reached 30 echoes per m2, but most points belonged to the first echo. The ground reference data contained the measured positions and dimensions of 445 trees. Individual tree-detection rates were 66% for dominant, 48% for codominant, 18% for intermediate, and 5% for suppressed trees. Relative root mean square error for tree height, diameter, and volume reached 8.2%, 21.8%, and 45.7%, respectively. All remote-based tree variables were strongly correlated with the ground data (R2 = 0.71–0.79. At the stand-level, the results show that differences ranged between 4% and 17% for stand height and 22% and 40% for stand diameter. The total growing stock differed by −43% from the ground reference data, and the ratios were 64% for dominant, 58% for codominant, 36% for intermediate, and 16% for suppressed trees.

  15. Ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins in a perennial understorey herb from temperate deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Castañeda, Verónica; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-28

    Accumulation of abaxial anthocyanins is an intriguing leaf trait particularly common among deeply shaded understorey plants of tropical and temperate forests whose ecological significance is still not properly understood. To shed light on it, possible ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins were tested in the perennial understorey herb of temperate deciduous forests Saxifraga hirsuta, chosen as a model species due to the coexistence of green and anthocyanic leaves and the presence of an easily removable lower anthocyanic epidermis. Anthocyanins accumulated during autumn, which temporally matched the overstorey leaf fall. Patterns of development of abaxial anthocyanins and direct measurements of photochemical efficiency under monochromatic light were not consistent with a photoprotective hypothesis. Enhancement of light capture also seemed unlikely since the back-scattering of red light towards the lower mesophyll was negligible. Seed germination was similar under acyanic and anthocyanic leaves. A relevant consequence of abaxial anthocyanins was the dramatic reduction of light transmission through the leaf. The dark environment generated underneath the Saxifraga canopy was enhanced by the horizontal repositioning of leaves, which occurs in parallel with reddening. This might play a role in biotic interactions by inhibiting vital processes of competitors, which may be of especial importance in spring before the overstorey leaves sprout.

  16. Turbulent exchange and segregation of HOx radicals and volatile organic compounds above a deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Knaps

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance method was applied for the first time to estimate fluxes of OH and HO2 together with fluxes of isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR and the sum of monoterpenes above a mixed deciduous forest. Highly sensitive measurements of OH and HO2 were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs were measured by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS at a time resolution of 5 s, each. Wind speed was measured by a sonic anemometer at 10 Hz. The one-day feasibility study was conducted at a total height of 37 m, about 7 m above forest canopy, during the ECHO 2003 intensive field study in July 2003. The daytime measurements yielded statistically significant OH fluxes that indicate downward transport of OH into the direction of the canopy and HO2 fluxes mainly upward out of the canopy. This hints towards a significant chemical sink of OH by reaction with BVOCs and conversion of OH to HO2 at the canopy. In addition, the highly time-resolved trace gas measurements were used to calculate the intensity of segregation of OH and BVOCs, demonstrating that the effective reaction rate of isoprene and OH was slowed down as much as 15% due to inhomogeneous mixing of the reactants. The paper describes the applied methods and provides a detailed analysis of possible systematic errors of the covariance products.

  17. GROWTH OF NATIVE SPECIES OF THE DECIDUOUS/DENSE TROPICAL FOREST OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tree species caúna-da-serra (Ilex brevicuspis Reissek., cocão (Erythroxilum deciduum, tarumã-de-espinho (Cytharexylum montevidense Sprenger e capororoca (Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz & Pavon Mez, native in the deciduous seasonal forest / dense tropical forest of Santa Maria were studied using a retrospective analysis. A stem analysis was performed of each species, measuring annual growth rings. Volume growth, commercial form factor and the annual percentual increment of commercial volume were analyzed according to growth at diameter at breast height. For modelling purposes 5 different equations were tested. It could be shown that a polynome of second degree was best adjusted to the growth of commercial volume and commercial form factor while annual percentual increment of commercial volume showed best fit with an exponential function. A significantly different accumulation of volume could be found concerning the different species which were studied. While tarumã and cocão show a rapid accumulation in growth, caúna and capororoca grow more slowly. This is correlated with more cylindric stems in the case of tarumã and cocão. The annual percentual increment of commercial volume moves between the range of more than 100% at the beginning of the growth process and below 10% at the end of the studied growth period.

  18. Validation of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator over Canadian deciduous and coniferous boreal forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maayar, Mustapha; Price, David T.; Delire, Christine; Foley, Jonathan A.; Black, T. Andrew; Bessemoulin, Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Data collected during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) at four different forest stands were used to test surface energy and carbon fluxes simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). These stands included deciduous and conifer species and were located in both the BOREAS northern and southern study areas. Two runs were made: one using the original IBIS model and the other using a version modified to consider an organic soil layer (OSL) covering the mineral soil surface. Results show that the inclusion of the OSL substantially improved the simulation of soil heat flux, as well as of temperature and moisture in the topmost soil layer. Simulations show that latent and sensible heat fluxes, and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, were not affected appreciably by the presence of a thin (10 cm or less) OSL covering the forest floor. With a thick (50 cm) OSL, however, simulation of latent heat flux and net ecosystem exchange of carbon was substantially improved. Consideration of the OSL in the model also led to better simulation of the onsets of soil thawing. Correct estimation of heat diffusion to deep soil through thick organic layers requires a parameterization that accounts for the state of the organic material decomposition. Simulations presented here also show the necessity for using detailed information on soil physical properties for better evaluation of model performance.

  19. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  20. Nitrogen in soils beneath 18-65 year old stands of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Laoshan Mountains in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Kai; ZHANG Yun-qi; WANG Qin; XU Xiao-niu

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of soil nitrogen (N) cycling is useful to assess soil quality and to gauge the sustainability of management practices.We studied net N mineralization,nitrification,and soil N availability in the 0-10 cm and 11-30 cm soil horizons in east China during 2006-2007 using an in sito incubation method in four subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest stands aged 18-,36-,48-,and 65-years.The properties of surface soil and forest floor varied between stand age classes.C:N ratios of surface soil and forest floor decreased,whereas soil total N and total organic C,available P,and soil microbial biomass N increased with stand age.The mineral N pool was small for the young stand and large for the older stands.NO3-N was less than 30% in all stands.Net rates of N mineralization and nitrification were higher in old stands than in younger stands,and higher in the 0-10 cm than in the 11-30 cm horizon.The differences were significant between old and young stands (p <0.031) and between soil horizons (p < 0.005).Relative nitrification was somewhat low in all forest stands and declined with stand age.N transformation seemed to be controlled by soil moisture,soil microbial biomass N,and forest floor C:N ratio.Our results demonstrate that analyses of N cycling can provide insight into the effects of management disturbances on forest ecosystems.

  1. Charcoal reflectance reveals early holocene boreal deciduous forests burned at high intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, Victoria A; Belcher, Claire M; Kelly, Ryan; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire size, frequency, and severity are increasing in the Alaskan boreal forest in response to climate warming. One of the potential impacts of this changing fire regime is the alteration of successional trajectories, from black spruce to mixed stands dominated by aspen, a vegetation composition not experienced since the early Holocene. Such changes in vegetation composition may consequently alter the intensity of fires, influencing fire feedbacks to the ecosystem. Paleorecords document past wildfire-vegetation dynamics and as such, are imperative for our understanding of how these ecosystems will respond to future climate warming. For the first time, we have used reflectance measurements of macroscopic charcoal particles (>180μm) from an Alaskan lake-sediment record to estimate ancient charring temperatures (termed pyrolysis intensity). We demonstrate that pyrolysis intensity increased markedly from an interval of birch tundra 11 ky ago (mean 1.52%Ro; 485°C), to the expansion of trees on the landscape ~10.5 ky ago, remaining high to the present (mean 3.54%Ro; 640°C) irrespective of stand composition. Despite differing flammabilities and adaptations to fire, the highest pyrolysis intensities derive from two intervals with distinct vegetation compositions. 1) the expansion of mixed aspen and spruce woodland at 10 cal. kyr BP, and 2) the establishment of black spruce, and the modern boreal forest at 4 cal. kyr BP. Based on our analysis, we infer that predicted expansion of deciduous trees into the boreal forest in the future could lead to high intensity, but low severity fires, potentially moderating future climate-fire feedbacks.

  2. NUTRIENTS IN THE LITTER OF A SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT OF ITAARA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to quantity aboveground mass and nutrients in a deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the district of Itaara, RS, Brazil. For quantification and fractionation of the litter, sampling was carried out using two methodologies: the first one for leaves and branches with diameter smaller than 1 cm (S0 and the second one for woody material with diameter varying from 1 cm to 3 cm (S1, 3.1 cm to 6 cm (S2, and greater than 6 cm (S3.  To evaluate the S0 fraction, 50 randomly sample were collected with a metallic frame of 25 cm x 25 cm, and for S1, S2 and S3 10 plots of 3 m x 2 m were distributed randomly in the area of study.  Samples was packed and taken to the Laboratory of Forest Ecology of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, where they were dried, weighed, ground and analyzed for nutrient contents. The woody senescent litter represented about 45% of the litter layer.  Litter classes differed statistically in relation to nutrient content (p < 0.05, except for Mg and Cu; usually the S0 fraction presented higher contents. The fractions S1, S2 and S3 showed an accumulation of nutrients ranging from 53.3% to 8.7% K for Fe in the total litter, demonstrating the importance of quantification of these components during the evaluation of nutrient stocks contained in the litter of the forest ecosystem.

  3. Assimilating Multiple Data Types in the Community Land Model (CLM) for Deciduous Forests in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montane, F.; Fox, A. M.; Hoar, T. J.; Arellano, A. F.; Liu, Y.; Moreno, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Richardson, A. D.; Trouet, V.; Alexander, M. R.; Chen, M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Moore, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Networks of eddy covariance towers like AmeriFlux provide the infrastructure necessary to study relationships between ecosystem processes and environmental forcing across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent syntheses of comparisons between observations from eddy covariance tower sites in North America and output from several Land Surface Models showed that the characterization of phenology was not accurate in most of the models. In order to improve phenological models, a continental-scale phenological observatory, the PhenoCam network, provides high-frequency observations of vegetation phenology, which can be used to derive a greenness index, the green chromatic coordinate (gcc). In this study we run the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) for 10 deciduous forests sites in North America, included in the AmeriFlux and PhenoCam networks, to assimilate multiple data types including one of the key variables in most ecosystem models, fPAR, the radiometric equivalent of Leaf Area Index (LAI). fPAR characterizes vegetation canopy function and energy absorption capacity and therefore it is important for estimating canopy photosynthesis. We use fPAR data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with a pixel resolution of 1 km x 1 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. Data is assimilated in CLM with an Ensemble Kalman Filter, a sequential data assimilation technique, within the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). In our study, we also compare observations available for Harvard Forest (LAI, NEE and gcc) with model output. The CLM output for LAI and NEE is sometimes located out of the observation space delimited by LAI and NEE measurements for Harvard Forest. After assimilating data, we compare observations and mean CLM model output from all the sites for a free run, an assimilation run and an assimilation run with inflation. We investigate the impact of assimilating these observations and the resultant model state updates on ecosystem carbon

  4. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  5. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  6. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  7. Hemibeltrania urbanodendrii sp. nov. and Pseudobeltrania angamosensis: new fungal records from the brazilian tropical seasonal semi-deciduous montane forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo de Castro Fernandes; Denise Castro Lustosa; Robert Weingart Barreto; José Luiz Bezerra

    2007-01-01

    The new species Hemibeltrania urbanodendrii, associated to leaf-spots on Urbanodendron verrucosum (Lauracea) and Pseudobeltrania angamosensis, associated with leaf-spots on Virola gardneri (Myristicaceae), are recorded for the first time in Brazil. They represent additions to the mycobiota of the Tropical Seasonal Semi-Deciduous Montane Forest in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a highly threatened ecosystem.Novas ocorrências de fungos relacionados a manchas foliares são apresentadas: Hemibeltr...

  8. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen gains in an old growth deciduous forest in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Schrumpf

    Full Text Available Temperate forests are assumed to be organic carbon (OC sinks, either because of biomass increases upon elevated CO2 in the atmosphere and large nitrogen deposition, or due to their age structure. Respective changes in soil OC and total nitrogen (TN storage have rarely been proven. We analysed OC, TN, and bulk densities of 100 soil cores sampled along a regular grid in an old-growth deciduous forest at the Hainich National Park, Germany, in 2004 and again in 2009. Concentrations of OC and TN increased significantly from 2004 to 2009, mostly in the upper 0-20 cm of the mineral soil. Changes in the fine earth masses per soil volume impeded the detection of OC changes based on fixed soil volumes. When calculated on average fine earth masses, OC stocks increased by 323 ± 146 g m(-2 and TN stocks by 39 ± 10 g m(-2 at 0-20 cm soil depth from 2004 to 2009, giving average annual accumulation rates of 65 ± 29 g OC m(-2 yr(-1 and 7.8 ± 2 g N m(-2 yr(-1. Accumulation rates were largest in the upper part of the B horizon. Regional increases in forest biomass, either due to recovery of forest biomass from previous forest management or to fertilization by elevated CO2 and N deposition, are likely causes for the gains in soil OC and TN. As TN increased stronger (1.3% yr(-1 of existing stocks than OC (0.9% yr(-1, the OC-to-TN ratios declined significantly. Results of regression analyses between changes in OC and TN stocks suggest that at no change in OC, still 3.8 g TN m(-2 yr(-1 accumulated. Potential causes for the increase in TN in excess to OC are fixation of inorganic N by the clay-rich soil or changes in microbial communities. The increase in soil OC corresponded on average to 6-13% of the estimated increase in net biome productivity.

  9. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen gains in an old growth deciduous forest in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Temperate forests are assumed to be organic carbon (OC) sinks, either because of biomass increases upon elevated CO2 in the atmosphere and large nitrogen deposition, or due to their age structure. Respective changes in soil OC and total nitrogen (TN) storage have rarely been proven. We analysed OC, TN, and bulk densities of 100 soil cores sampled along a regular grid in an old-growth deciduous forest at the Hainich National Park, Germany, in 2004 and again in 2009. Concentrations of OC and TN increased significantly from 2004 to 2009, mostly in the upper 0-20 cm of the mineral soil. Changes in the fine earth masses per soil volume impeded the detection of OC changes based on fixed soil volumes. When calculated on average fine earth masses, OC stocks increased by 323 ± 146 g m(-2) and TN stocks by 39 ± 10 g m(-2) at 0-20 cm soil depth from 2004 to 2009, giving average annual accumulation rates of 65 ± 29 g OC m(-2) yr(-1) and 7.8 ± 2 g N m(-2) yr(-1). Accumulation rates were largest in the upper part of the B horizon. Regional increases in forest biomass, either due to recovery of forest biomass from previous forest management or to fertilization by elevated CO2 and N deposition, are likely causes for the gains in soil OC and TN. As TN increased stronger (1.3% yr(-1) of existing stocks) than OC (0.9% yr(-1)), the OC-to-TN ratios declined significantly. Results of regression analyses between changes in OC and TN stocks suggest that at no change in OC, still 3.8 g TN m(-2) yr(-1) accumulated. Potential causes for the increase in TN in excess to OC are fixation of inorganic N by the clay-rich soil or changes in microbial communities. The increase in soil OC corresponded on average to 6-13% of the estimated increase in net biome productivity.

  10. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  11. Hydro-physical characterization of soils under tropical semi-deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydro-physical behavior in soils using toposequences is of great importance for better understanding the soil, water and vegetation relationships. This study aims to assess the hydro-physical and morphological characterization of soil from a toposequence in Galia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The plot covers an area of 10.24 ha (320 × 320 m, located in a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. Based on ultra-detailed soil and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect from the soil in the plot was chosen. Five profiles were opened for the morphological description of the soil horizons, and hydro-physical and micromorphological analyses were performed to characterize the soil. Arenic Haplustult, Arenic Haplustalf and Aquertic Haplustalf were the soil types observed in the plot. The superficial horizons had lower density and greater hydraulic conductivity, porosity and water retention in lower tensions than the deeper horizons. In the sub-superficial horizons, greater water retention at higher tensions and lower hydraulic conductivity were observed, due to structure type and greater clay content. The differences observed in the water retention curves between the sandy E and the clay B horizons were mainly due to the size distribution, shape and type of soil pores.

  12. Estimation of LAI and above-ground biomass in deciduous forests: Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Nizalapur, Vyjayanthi; Jha, Chandra Shekhar

    2008-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of IRS P6 LISS-IV high-resolution multispectral sensor (IGFOV ˜ 6 m)-based estimation of biomass in the deciduous forests in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Regression equations describing the relationship between IRS P6 LISS-IV data-based vegetation index (NDVI) and field measured leaf area index (ELAI) and estimated above-ground biomass (EAGB) were derived. Remote sensing (RS) data-based leaf area index (PLAI) image is generated using regression equation based on NDVI and ELAI ( r2 = 0.68, p ≤ 0.05). RS-based above-ground biomass (PAGB) image was generated based on regression equation developed between PLAI and EAGB ( r2 = 0.63, p ≤ 0.05). The mean value of estimated above-ground biomass and RS-based above-ground biomass in the study area are 280(±72.5) and 297.6(±55.2) Mg ha -1, respectively. The regression models generated in the study between NDVI and LAI; LAI and biomass can also help in generating spatial biomass map using RS data alone. LISS-IV-based estimation of biophysical parameters can also be used for the validation of various coarse resolution satellite products derived from the ground-based measurements alone.

  13. Influence of gas-particle partitioning on ammonia and nitric acid fluxes above a deciduous forest in the Midwestern USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hornsby, Karen E.

    Quantifying the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen gasses (including ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3)) is crucial to assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, measuring the deposition of reactive nitrogen is challenging due...... are measured above the deciduous forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in south-central Indiana (39°53’N, 86°25’W) during a field campaign. Two relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) systems are used to measure fluxes and concentrations of NH3 and HNO3 at 44 m. The NH3 REA system operates based on wet effluent...

  14. Probing the past 30 year phenology trend of US deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yue

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenology is experiencing dramatic changes over deciduous forests in the US. Estimates of trends in phenology on the continental scale are uncertain, however, with studies failing to agree on both the magnitude and spatial distribution of trends in spring and autumn. This is due to the sparsity of in situ records, uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, and the regional focus of many studies. It has been suggested that reported trends are a result of recent temperature changes, though multiple processes are thought to be involved and the nature of the temperature forcing remains unknown. To date, no study has directly attributed long-term phenological trends to individual forcings across the US through integrating observations with models. Here, we construct an extensive database of ground measurements of phenological events across the US, and use it to calibrate and evaluate a suite of phenology models. The models use variations of the accumulative temperature summation, with additional chilling requirements for spring phenology and photoperiod limitation for autumn. Including a chilling requirement or photoperiod limitation does not improve model performance, suggesting that temperature change, especially in spring and autumn, is the dominant driver of the observed trend during the past 3 decades. Our results show that phenological trends are not uniform over the contiguous US, with a significant advance of 0.34 day yr−1 for the spring budburst in the East, a delay of 0.15 day yr−1 for the autumn dormancy onset in the Northeast and West, but no evidence of change elsewhere. Relative to the 1980s, the growing season in the 2000s is extended by about 1 week (3–4% in the East, New England, and the upper Rocky Mountains forests. These results help reconcile conflicting reports of phenological trends in the literature, and directly attribute observed trends to long-term changes in temperature.

  15. Effect of Slash Burning on Nutrient Removal and Soil Fertility in Chinese Fir and Evergreen Broadleaved Forests of Mid-Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Chinese fir forest (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) and an evergreen broadleaved forest (EB) located inFujian Province, southeastern China, were examined following slash burning to compare nutrient capital andtopsoil properties with pre-burn levels. After fire, nutrient (N, P and K) removal from burning residues wasestimated at 302.5 kg ha-1 in the CF and 644.8 kg ha-1 in the EB. Fire reduced the topsoil capitals of totalN and P by about 20% and 10%, respectively, in both forests, while K capital was increased in the topsoils ofboth forests following fire. Total site nutrient loss through surface erosion was 28.4 kg (N) ha-1, 8.4 kg (P)ha-1 and 328.7 kg (K) ha-1 in the CF. In the EB, the losses of total N, P and K were 58.5, 10.5 and 396.3kg ha-1, respectively. Improvement of soil structure and increase in mineralization of nutrients associatedwith increased microbe number and enzyme activities and elevated soil respiration occurred 5 days after fire.However, organic matter and available nutrient contents and most of other soil parameters declined one yearafter fire on the burned CF and EB topsoils. These results suggest that short-term site productivity canbe stimulated immediately, but reduced subsequently by soil and water losses, especially in South China,where high-intensity precipitation, steep slopes and fragile soil can be expected. Therefore, the silviculturalmeasurements should be developed in plantation management.

  16. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany's largest connected deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2009-05-01

    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory-diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple saplings (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L.) across a tree species diversity gradient within Germany's largest remaining deciduous forest area, and investigated whether simple beech or mixed stands were less prone to damage caused by herbivorous insects. Leaf area loss and the frequency of galls and mines were recorded for 1,040 saplings (>13,000 leaves) in June and August 2006. In addition, relative abundance of predators was assessed to test for potential top-down control. Leaf area loss was generally higher in the two species of maple compared to beech saplings, while only beech showed a decline in damage caused by leaf-chewing herbivores across the tree diversity gradient. No significant patterns were found for galls and mines. Relative abundance of predators on beech showed a seasonal response and increased on species-rich plots in June, suggesting higher biological control. We conclude that, in temperate deciduous forests, herbivory-tree diversity relationships are significant, but are tree species-dependent with bottom-up and top-down control as possible mechanisms. In contrast to maple, beech profits from growing in a neighbourhood of higher tree richness, which implies that species identity effects may be of greater importance than tree diversity effects per se. Hence, herbivory on beech appeared to be mediated bottom-up by resource concentration in the sampled forest stands, as well as regulated top-down through biocontrol by natural enemies.

  17. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on carbon cycling in a temperate deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian

    2013-03-15

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon (C) stocks and sinks. A decadal (1997-2009) trend of increasing C uptake has been observed in an intensively studied temperate deciduous forest, Soroe (Zealand, Denmark). This gave the impetus to investigate the factors controlling the C cycling and the fundamental processes at work in this type of ecosystem. The major objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate to what extent and at what temporal scales, direct climatic variability and functional changes (e.g. changes in the structure or physiological properties) regulate the interannual variability (IAV) in the ecosystem C balance; (2) provide a synthesis of the ecosystem C budget at this site and (3) investigate whether terrestrial ecosystem models can dynamically simulate the trend of increasing C uptake. Data driven analysis, semi-empirical and process-based modelling experiments were performed in a series of studies in order to provide a complete assessment of the carbon storage and allocation within the ecosystem and clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability and trend in the ecosystem C fluxes. Combining all independently estimated ecosystem carbon budget (ECB) datasets and other calculated ECB components based on mass balance equations, a synthesis of the carbon cycling was performed. The results showed that this temperature deciduous forest was moderately productive with both high rates of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration. Approximately 62% of the gross assimilated carbon was respired by the living plants, while 21% was contributed to the soil as litter production, the latter balancing the total heterotrophic respiration. The remaining 17% was either stored in the plants (mainly as aboveground biomass) or removed from the system as wood production. In general, the ECB component datasets were consistent after the cross-checking. This, together with their characterized uncertainties, can be used in model data fusion

  18. Specific and generic stem biomass and volume models of tree species in a West African tropical semi-deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goussanou, Cédric A.; Guendehou, Sabin; Assogbadjo, Achille E.

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of the contribution of tropical forests to global carbon stocks and climate change mitigation requires availability of data and tools such as allometric equations. This study made available volume and biomass models for eighteen tree species in a semi-deciduous tropical forest...... in West Africa. Generic models were also developed for the forest ecosystem, and basic wood density determined for the tree species. Non-destructive sampling approach was carried out on five hundred and one sample trees to analyse stem volume and biomass. From the modelling of volume and biomass...... predictive ability for biomass. Given tree species richness of tropical forests, the study demonstrated the hypothesis that species-specific models are preferred to generic models, and concluded that further research should be oriented towards development of specific models to cover the full range...

  19. More than Drought: Precipitation Variance, Excessive Wetness, Pathogens and the Future of the Western Edge of the Eastern Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, Jason A; Guyette, Richard; Muzika, Rose-Marie

    2016-10-01

    For many regions of the Earth, anthropogenic climate change is expected to result in increasingly divergent climate extremes. However, little is known about how increasing climate variance may affect ecosystem productivity. Forest ecosystems may be particularly susceptible to this problem considering the complex organizational structure of specialized species niche adaptations. Forest decline is often attributable to multiple stressors including prolonged heat, wildfire and insect outbreaks. These disturbances, often categorized as megadisturbances, can push temperate forests beyond sustainability thresholds. Absent from much of the contemporary forest health literature, however, is the discussion of excessive precipitation that may affect other disturbances synergistically or that might represent a principal stressor. Here, specific points of evidence are provided including historic climatology, variance predictions from global change modeling, Midwestern paleo climate data, local climate influences on net ecosystem exchange and productivity, and pathogen influences on oak mortality. Data sources reveal potential trends, deserving further investigation, indicating that the western edge of the Eastern Deciduous forest may be impacted by ongoing increased precipitation, precipitation variance and excessive wetness. Data presented, in conjunction with recent regional forest health concerns, suggest that climate variance including drought and excessive wetness should be equally considered for forest ecosystem resilience against increasingly dynamic climate. This communication serves as an alert to the need for studies on potential impacts of increasing climate variance and excessive wetness in forest ecosystem health and productivity in the Midwest US and similar forest ecosystems globally.

  20. Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki

    2012-07-01

    Decreased activity has been reported in both nocturnal and diurnal primates during the prolonged dry season in western Madagascar, and this has been interpreted as a reaction to the severe environment, with its food scarcity and/or thermal stress. Several day-active lemurs rest more as trees defoliate, although the reason for this is unclear. To understand the mechanism underpinning the diurnal resting of lemurs in seasonal deciduous forests, I observed common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) for one year in Ankarafantsika National Park, northwestern Madagascar. In Ankarafantsika, despite high fruit availability during the dry season, brown lemurs are known to engage in diurnal resting. To examine the effects of thermal factors and defoliation on lemur inactivity, I recorded the activity of a troop at 1 min intervals, hourly ambient temperature, daily rainfall, and weather during observations (06:00-18:00). I quantified the amount of leaves biweekly for 680 trees. I tested correlations between percentages of resting time and each factor across hours during the day and across seasons. During the rainy season, resting time did not differ between sunny and cloudy days, and lemurs were active throughout the daytime. At the hourly level during the dry season, lemurs rested exclusively at midday, apparently at peak sunlight intensity rather than at peak ambient temperature. At seasonal level, percentages of total resting time from 08:00 to 16:00 were greater during dry season (81.9%) than during rainy season (62.6%), and percentages increased as ambient temperatures increased. Defoliation was related to seasonal decrease in weekly rainfall, which served as an index of water retained in the forest. Defoliation probably reflected aridification as well as the penetration of sunlight into the forest. Diurnal resting increased as both the amount of leaves and weekly rainfall decreased seasonally. These results suggest that heat stress under dry conditions may promote

  1. Polarimetric SAR Interferometry based modeling for tree height and aboveground biomass retrieval in a tropical deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Khati, Unmesh G.; Chandola, Shreya; Agrawal, Shefali; Kushwaha, Satya P. S.

    2017-08-01

    The regulation of the carbon cycle is a critical ecosystem service provided by forests globally. It is, therefore, necessary to have robust techniques for speedy assessment of forest biophysical parameters at the landscape level. It is arduous and time taking to monitor the status of vast forest landscapes using traditional field methods. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are efficient tools that can monitor the health of forests regularly. Biomass estimation is a key parameter in the assessment of forest health. Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) remote sensing has already shown its potential for forest biophysical parameter retrieval. The current research work focuses on the retrieval of forest biophysical parameters of tropical deciduous forest, using fully polarimetric spaceborne C-band data with Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques. PolSAR based Interferometric Water Cloud Model (IWCM) has been used to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB). Input parameters to the IWCM have been extracted from the decomposition modeling of SAR data as well as PolInSAR coherence estimation. The technique of forest tree height retrieval utilized PolInSAR coherence based modeling approach. Two techniques - Coherence Amplitude Inversion (CAI) and Three Stage Inversion (TSI) - for forest height estimation are discussed, compared and validated. These techniques allow estimation of forest stand height and true ground topography. The accuracy of the forest height estimated is assessed using ground-based measurements. PolInSAR based forest height models showed enervation in the identification of forest vegetation and as a result height values were obtained in river channels and plain areas. Overestimation in forest height was also noticed at several patches of the forest. To overcome this problem, coherence and backscatter based threshold technique is introduced for forest area identification and accurate height estimation in non-forested regions. IWCM based modeling for forest

  2. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University; McMurtrie, Ross [University of New South Wales; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  3. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R. J.; Warren, J. M.; Iversen, C. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  4. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (pshare similar environmental conditions. explores how deciduousness influences the relationship between land-clearing and regional atmospheric conditions. Two sets of bottom-up estimates of

  5. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  6. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  7. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β0eβ1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  8. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  9. Monitoring Growing Season Length of Deciduous Broad Leaf Forest Derived From Satellite Data in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan B. Kafaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Leaf phenology describes the seasonal cycle of leaf functioning and is essential for understanding the interactions between the biosphere, the climate and biogeochemical cycles. This study aimed to quantify changes in plant phenology of deciduous broadleaf forests between the years 1982-1999 and investigate the relationships between the onset dates of phenology and climatic factors. Approach: We studied the climate changes effected on the growing season duration in vegetation of Iran, using the AVHRR/NDVI biweekly time-series data collected from 1982-1999 and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data. The first estimated fastest changes of NDVI corresponded to the vegetation green-up and dormancy from the seasonal cycle of NDVI during 1982-1999. The onset dates of vegetation green-up and dormancy were determined based on the estimated rates and the NDVI seasonal cycles. Results: The results showed that over the study period, the growing season duration has lengthened by 0.94 days year-1 in study region. The green-up of vegetation has advanced in the spring by 0.63 days year-1 and the dormancy delayed in autumn by 0.32 days year-1. The onset date of green-up for all vegetation types negatively correlated with mean preseason temperature for almost all the preseason periods significant, suggesting that the warmer winters probably benefit an earlier green-up the following spring. Conclusion: Based on NOAA/AVHRR NDVI biweekly time-series data and concurrent climate information, it was estimated that the growing season duration of Iran’s vegetation was significantly lengthened, primarily through an earlier green-up and a later dormancy during the period of 1982-1999.

  10. Influence of temperature and organic matter content on soil respiration in a deciduous oak forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kotroczó

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing temperature enhances soil respiration differently depend on different conditions (soil moisture, soil organic matter, the activity of soil microbes. It is an essential factor to predicting the effect of climate change on soil respiration. In a temperate deciduous forest (North-Hungary we added or removal aboveground and belowground litter to determine total soil respiration. We investigated the relationship between total soil CO2 efflux, soil moisture and soil temperature. Soil CO2 efflux was measured at each plot using chamber based soil respiration measurements. We determined the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The effect of doubled litter was less than the effect of removal. We found that temperature was more influential in the control of soil respiration than soil moisture in litter removal treatments, particularly in the wetter root exclusion treatments (NR and NI (R2: 0.49-0.61. Soil moisture (R2: 0.18-0.24 and temperature (R2: 0.18-0.20 influenced soil respiration similarly in treatments, where soil was drier (Control, Double Litter, Double Wood. A significantly greater increase in temperature induced higher soil respiration were significantly higher (2-2.5-fold in root exclusion treatments, where soil was wetter throughout the year, than in control and litter addition treatments. The highest bacterial and fungal count was at the DL treatment but the differences is not significant compared to the Control. The bacterial number at the No Litter, No Root, No Input treatment was significantly lower at the Control. Similar phenomenon can be observed at the fungal too, but the differences are not significant. The results of soil respiration suggest that the soil aridity can reduce soil respiration increases with the temperature increase. Soil bacterial and fungal count results show the higher organic matter content and soil surface cover litter favors the activity.

  11. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  12. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  13. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅱ.Dynamics and Decomposition Characteristics of Litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Through the long-term plot study on the litter and its decomposition in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for more than two years,it was resulted that the annual litter production was 5.85 t ha-1,most of which was the fallen leave (79.5 percent) and the withered branches and fruits were far less (7.1 and 13.4 percents respectively).The dynamics of the fallen litter was shown as a curve of two-peak pattern which appeared in April and September each year.The half-life of the litter was 1.59 years.The decay rate of the litter attenuted as an exponential function.The annual amount of the nutrient returned to the ground through the litter was as large as 223.69kg ha-1.The total current amount of the litter on the ground was 7.47t ha-1.The decay rate in the first half of a year was 45.18 percent.This ecosystem remained in the stage of litter increasing with time.

  14. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅳ.Uptake,Storage and Return of S by Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The work was carried out to study the uptake,storage and return of S in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province,based on the annuam increments of plants and Scontents per unit weight plant organs as well as the measured data about the biological return and decomposition.Results showed that the vegetation layer had an annual S uptake of 55.02kg ha-1,which accounted for 15.8% of the total S storage in the vegetation layer,The S uptake was the highest in the arbor layer but the lowest in the shrub layer,the biological return of S was 50% higher than the biological uptake,indicating the relatively high cycling effciency of S.Nevertheless,S had a relatively low rate opf biological release,so that S trended to accumulate in the litter layer,S taken up by plants each year came mostly from precipitation and the reserve of soil.

  16. [Simulation of the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni-Na; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Jin, Chang-Jie; Guan, De-Xin; Shi, Ting-Ting

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration, a process-based carbon and water coupling multi-layer model was verified, and used to simulate the canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains. This multi-layer model could well estimate canopy transpiration. The simulated values fitted well with the measured data based on eddy covariance method. The simulation of the responses of canopy transpiration to climate change indicated that the latent heat flux (LE) increased with increasing air temperature, and decreased with the decline of soil water content or the increase of air CO2 concentration. Under the climate scenarios in this study, the LE was most sensitive to the associated variation of 10% reduction of soil water content in 0-20 cm layer and 190 micromol x mol(-1) increase of CO2 concentration, but not sensitive to the synchronous variation of 10% reduce of soil water content and 3.6 degrees C increase of air temperature.

  17. Turbulent exchange and segregation of HOx radicals and volatile organic compounds above a deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kramm

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance method was applied for the first time to estimate fluxes of OH and HO2 together with fluxes of isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR and the sum of monoterpenes above a mixed deciduous forest. Highly sensitive measurements of OH and HO2 were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs were measured by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS at a time resolution of 5 s, each. Wind speed was measured by a sonic anemometer at 10 Hz. The one-day feasibility study was conducted at a total height of 37 m, about 7 m above forest canopy, during the ECHO (Emission and CHemical transformation of biogenic volatile Organic compounds intensive field study in July 2003. The daytime measurements yielded statistically significant OH fluxes directed downward into the direction of the canopy and HO2 fluxes mainly upward out of the canopy. This hints towards a significant local chemical sink of OH by reactions with BVOCs, other organic and inorganic compounds and conversion of OH to HO2 above the canopy. For OH the measured flux is locally balanced by chemical sources and sinks and direct transport of OH plays no important role for the local chemical OH budget at the measurement height, as expected from the short OH lifetime (2 the chemical lifetime (20 s is in the range of the turbulent transport time for transfer between the top of the canopy and the measuring point. In this case, the radical balance is significantly influenced by both chemistry and transport processes. In addition, the highly time-resolved trace gas measurements were used to calculate the intensity of segregation of OH and BVOCs, demonstrating that the effective reaction rate of isoprene and OH was slowed down as much as 15% due to inhomogeneous mixing of the reactants. The paper describes the results, the applied methods and provides a detailed analysis of possible systematic errors

  18. Analysis of vegetation dynamics and phytodiversity from three dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Mandal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the vegetation dynamics and plant diversity from the dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley. Species richness, regeneration, and change in community composition of these forests were studied and change was noticed with Shorea robusta as the main dominant species, and Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini, and Ehretia laevis as codominant tree species in all communities. The highest species richness and diversity rates were found to be increased with the decrease in tree density and basal area. The high Importance Value Index recorded in Thano (>150 indicates that the S. robusta forest is progressing toward the culmination stage, whereas the lower IVI values (100 and 150 in the other two sites (Selaqui – Jhajra and Asarori signify the heavy disturbance of these sites and further establishment of alien invasive species such as Cassia tora, Cassia occidentalis, Lantana camara, Urena lobata, Ipomoea carnea, Sida acuta, and Solanum torvum.

  19. Modeling biophysical properties of broad-leaved stands in the hyrcanian forests of Iran using fused airborne laser scanner data and ultraCam-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jahangir; Shataee, Shaban; Namiranian, Manochehr; Næsset, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Inventories of mixed broad-leaved forests of Iran mainly rely on terrestrial measurements. Due to rapid changes and disturbances and great complexity of the silvicultural systems of these multilayer forests, frequent repetition of conventional ground-based plot surveys is often cost prohibitive. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and multispectral data offer an alternative or supplement to conventional inventories in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. In this study, the capability of a combination of ALS and UltraCam-D data to model stand volume, tree density, and basal area using random forest (RF) algorithm was evaluated. Systematic sampling was applied to collect field plot data on a 150 m × 200 m sampling grid within a 1100 ha study area located at 36°38‧- 36°42‧N and 54°24‧-54°25‧E. A total of 308 circular plots (0.1 ha) were measured for calculation of stand volume, tree density, and basal area per hectare. For each plot, a set of variables was extracted from both ALS and multispectral data. The RF algorithm was used for modeling of the biophysical properties using ALS and UltraCam-D data separately and combined. The results showed that combining the ALS data and UltraCam-D images provided a slight increase in prediction accuracy compared to separate modeling. The RMSE as percentage of the mean, the mean difference between observed and predicted values, and standard deviation of the differences using a combination of ALS data and UltraCam-D images in an independent validation at 0.1-ha plot level were 31.7%, 1.1%, and 84 m3 ha-1 for stand volume; 27.2%, 0.86%, and 6.5 m2 ha-1 for basal area, and 35.8%, -4.6%, and 77.9 n ha-1 for tree density, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that fusion of ALS and UltraCam-D data may be useful for modeling of stand volume, basal area, and tree density and thus gain insights into structural characteristics in the complex Hyrcanian forests.

  20. The longevity of broadleaf deciduous trees in Northern Hemisphere temperate forests: insights from tree-ring series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eDi Filippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors controlling the expression of longevity in trees is still an outstanding challenge for tree biologists and forest ecologists. We gathered tree-ring data and literature for broadleaf deciduous (BD temperate trees growing in closed-canopy old-growth forests in the Northern Hemisphere to explore the role of geographic patterns, climate variability, and growth rates on longevity. Our pan-continental analysis, covering 32 species from 12 genera, showed that 300-400 years can be considered a baseline threshold for maximum tree lifespan in many temperate deciduous forests. Maximum age varies greatly in relation to environmental features, even within the same species. Tree longevity is generally promoted by reduced growth rates across large genetic differences and environmental gradients. We argue that slower growth rates, and the associated smaller size, provide trees with an advantage against biotic and abiotic disturbance agents, supporting the idea that size, not age, is the main constraint to tree longevity. The oldest trees were living most of their life in subordinate canopy conditions and/or within primary forests in cool temperate environments and outside major storm tracks. Very old trees are thus characterized by slow growth and often live in forests with harsh site conditions and infrequent disturbance events that kill much of the trees. Temperature inversely controls the expression of longevity in mesophilous species (Fagus spp., but its role in Quercus spp. is more complex and warrants further research in disturbance ecology. Biological, ecological and historical drivers must be considered to understand the constraints imposed to longevity within different forest landscapes.

  1. Radiocesium immobilization to leaf litter by fungi during first-year decomposition in a deciduous forest in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Nakamori, Taizo; Miura, Toshiko; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Masanori; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-02-01

    Vast forest areas in eastern Japan have been contaminated with radio-isotopes by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (radioCs) is known to remain bioavailable in forest ecosystems for a long time, and it is necessary to terminate the cycling process to decontaminate the forest ecosystem. We observed radiocesium concentrations of leaf litter during decomposition on a forest floor where radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination was ∼155 kBq/m(2). Litter bag experiments were conducted with newly fallen mixed deciduous leaf litter in a deciduous forest (alt. 610 m) about 50 km from the FDNPP. Litter bags were retrieved in April, June, August, October, and December 2012. Fresh litter (137)Cs concentration was ∼3000 Bq/kg in December 2011. During the decomposition process on the forest floor, litter (137)Cs concentration increased rapidly and exceeded 25,000 Bq/kg after 6 months, whereas potassium (K) concentration in the litter was rather stable, indicating that radiocesium and K showed contrasting dynamics during the early decomposition phase. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and (137)Cs contents were positively correlated to fungal biomass, evaluated by phospholipid fatty acids in the litter during decomposition. The increase of radiocesium concentration mainly occurred during from April to October, when fungal growth peaked. Therefore, this suggests fungal translocation of nutrients from outside the litter substrate (immobilization) is the mechanism to increase radiocesium in the decomposing litter. The amount of (137)Cs contained in the 1-year-old decomposed leaf litter was estimated to be 4% per area of the soil-contaminated (137)Cs.

  2. A robust approach for tree segmentation in deciduous forests using small-footprint airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamraz, Hamid; Contreras, Marco A.; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a non-parametric approach for segmenting trees from airborne LiDAR data in deciduous forests. Based on the LiDAR point cloud, the approach collects crown information such as steepness and height on-the-fly to delineate crown boundaries, and most importantly, does not require a priori assumptions of crown shape and size. The approach segments trees iteratively starting from the tallest within a given area to the smallest until all trees have been segmented. To evaluate its performance, the approach was applied to the University of Kentucky Robinson Forest, a deciduous closed-canopy forest with complex terrain and vegetation conditions. The approach identified 94% of dominant and co-dominant trees with a false detection rate of 13%. About 62% of intermediate, overtopped, and dead trees were also detected with a false detection rate of 15%. The overall segmentation accuracy was 77%. Correlations of the segmentation scores of the proposed approach with local terrain and stand metrics was not significant, which is likely an indication of the robustness of the approach as results are not sensitive to the differences in terrain and stand structures.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NDVI AND FLORISTICS IN SEASONALLY DECIDUOUS FOREST IN THE PARANA VALLEY, GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potira Meirelles Hermuche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between NDVI and the patterns of the dominant species in three fragments of seasonally deciduous forest (SDF in the Parana Valley in Goias State, Brazil. Landsat 7 ETM+ images from the year 2001 were used. The study showed a relation between NDVI and floristic patterns during the dry and rainy seasons for the three fragments studied. Exclusive species showed greater influence in the spectral response measured by NDVI than did the total species. The results confirmed the three fragments as SDF showing that even within the same physiognomy there were small phenological variations.

  4. Phytosociology and structure in a alluvial deciduous forest fragment in Santa Maria - RS = Fitossociologia e estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual Aluvial em Santa Maria - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Eduardo Bianchin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest environments are profoundly altered, mainly due to human action. Specially the alluvial forests, which by its location and ecological function should be preserved and restored, for that it is essential to know the phytosociological and forest structure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytosociological parameters and structure of a fragment of Alluvial Deciduous Forest in Santa Maria, RS. For this, we measured 74 contiguous plots of 10 x 10 m (100 m², and considered all individuals with CBH greater than 10 cm. Thus, we identified 32 species, mostly pioneer species, from 19 families. The number of species sampled in the fragment was low, while the dead individuals showed relatively high amount, which is possibly due to human interventions in the area and the process of secondary succession. Some species, such as Casearia sylvestris, Symplocos uniflora, Mimosa bimucronata, Lithrea molleoides and Zanthoxylum rhoifollium stood out with higher rates of phytosociological parameters, with a predominance of the first two. Similarly, analysis of the Expanded Importance Value showed that C. sylvestris and S. uniflora are the most important species of the fragment, as they are more evenly distributed across all vertical strata. = As formações florestais encontram-se alteradas, sobretudo devido à ação antrópica. Principalmente as florestas aluviais, que por sua localização e função ecológica, devem ser preservadas e recuperadas, para isso é fundamental conhecer a fitossociologia e estrutura da floresta. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os parâmetros fitossociológicos e estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual Aluvial em Santa Maria, RS. Para isso, foram mensuradas 74 parcelas contíguas de 10 x 10 m (100 m², e considerados todos os indivíduos com CAP maior que 10 cm. Foram identificadas 32 espécies, na sua grande maioria espécies pioneiras, pertencentes a 19 famílias botânicas. O

  5. Above-ground sulfur cycling in adjacent coniferous and deciduous forest and watershed sulfur retention in the Georgia Piedmont, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellato, R.; Peters, N.E.; Meyers, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and above-ground cycling of sulfur (S) were evaluated in adjacent deciduous and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia U.S.A. Total atmospheric S deposition (wet plus dry) was 12.9 and 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, from October 1987 through November 1989. Dry deposition contributes more than 40% to the total atmospheric S deposition, and SO2 is the major source (~55%) of total dry S deposition. Dry deposition to these canopies is similar to regional estimates suggesting that 60-km proximity to emission sources does not noticeably impact dry deposition at PMRW. Below-canopy S fluxes (throughfall plus stemflow) in each forest are 37% higher annually in the deciduous forest than in the coniferous forest. An excess in below-canopy S flux in the deciduous forest is attributed to leaching and higher dry deposition than in the coniferous forest. Total S deposition to the forest floor by throughfall, stemflow and litterfall was 2.4 and 2.8 times higher in the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, than annual S growth requirement for foliage and wood. Although A deposition exceeds growth requirement, more than 95% of the total atmospheric S deposition was retained by the watershed in 1988 and 1989. The S retention at PMRW is primarily due to SO2+4 adsorption by iron oxides and hydroxides in watershed soils. The S content in while oak and loblolly pine boles have increased more than 200% in the last 20 yr, possibly reflecting increases in emissions.

  6. Species composition and minimum sampling area of a riparian mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fang-zhou; XU Dong; DENG Hong-bing

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas are unique although often small component of the overall watershed landscape. The structure of riparian forests along Erdaobai River on the north slope of Changhai Mountain were investi- gated by using field data collected from eight sampling transects perpen- dicular to the Erdaobai River channel. Two kinds of species-area satura- tion curves were used to examine the relationship between species num- ber and minimum sampling area. The results showed that riparian gym- nosperms accounted for a high proportion of all gymnosperms in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve while riparian ferns and angiosperms accounted for a relatively low proportion. The average minimum sam- pling areas of riparian forest that included 60%, 80%, and 90% of the community species pool were about 85, 185, and 328 m, respectively; while those for nonriparian forest were about 275, 390, and 514 m, correspondingly.

  7. Persistent and pervasive compositional shifts of western boreal forest plots in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2017-02-01

    Species compositional shifts have important consequences to biodiversity and ecosystem function and services to humanity. In boreal forests, compositional shifts from late-successional conifers to early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves have been postulated based on increased fire frequency associated with climate change truncating stand age-dependent succession. However, little is known about how climate change has affected forest composition in the background between successive catastrophic fires in boreal forests. Using 1797 permanent sample plots from western boreal forests of Canada measured from 1958 to 2013, we show that after accounting for stand age-dependent succession, the relative abundances of early-successional deciduous broadleaves and early-successional conifers have increased at the expense of late-successional conifers with climate change. These background compositional shifts are persistent temporally, consistent across all forest stand ages and pervasive spatially across the region. Rising atmospheric CO2 promoted early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves, and warming increased early-successional conifers at the expense of late-successional conifers, but compositional shifts were not associated with climate moisture index. Our results emphasize the importance of climate change on background compositional shifts in the boreal forest and suggest further compositional shifts as rising CO2 and warming will continue in the 21st century. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Establishment of the evergreen broad-leaved tree species Castanopsis cuspidata in an abandoned secondary forest in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Kimiko; Kawamura, Shota; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Takahara, Hikaru

    2010-09-01

    Recently, populations of Castanopsis cuspidata have often expanded into secondary forests in western Japan. To determine the establishment processes of this species, we analyzed its spatial distribution in a secondary forest dominated by Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata that is located adjacent to a stand dominated by C. cuspidata. Saplings, defined as >or=30 cm stem length (SL) and DBH), were abundant and their size distribution was inversely J-shaped, indicating continuous recruitment. Although seedlings (SL trees of this species, some were found >or=40 m from the nearest adults, suggesting that there is animal-aided dispersal of acorns. The distribution of larger-sized individuals (>or=100 cm SL) of C. cuspidata was unrelated to distance from the nearest flowering C. cuspidata or dominant Quercus species (>or=5 cm DBH), but was associated with dead Pinus densiflora trees, which were abundant at the site. Thus, the establishment of C. cuspidata in this forest is controlled mainly by two factors, viz. patterns of acorn dispersal by animals, and forest disturbance regime (i.e., deaths of pine trees).

  9. 上阔下竹复合经营模式对毛竹生长的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on bamboo growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 艾文胜; 杨明; 胡伟; 李美群; 涂佳

    2016-01-01

    为给科学、合理、可持续经营毛竹林提供参考数据,以上阔下竹复合经营模式和毛竹纯林经营模式的竹林为研究对象,对两种经营模式下毛竹的竿形生长和地上各部分生物量等指标进行了测定,研究了上位阔叶林对下位毛竹林生长的影响情况。结果表明:同在上坡位的毛竹,上阔下竹复合经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标均显著大于或高于毛竹纯林经营模式的,毛竹的相对竿径随竿高而变化的趋势也较纯林模式的平缓,而毛竹的相对壁厚随相对竿高的变化趋势较纯林模式的陡峭。两种经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标在中坡位和下坡位的竹林间均无显著差异。%To provide some reference data for scientifically, reasonably and sustainably managing bamboo forest, using compound management mode of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest and pure P. edulis forest as study objects, some indexes of culm growth and aboveground biomass in P. edulis were determined under the two kinds of management modes, and the influences of upper broad-leaved forest on growth of bamboo forest were studied. The results indicated that, the indexes of in P. edulis at uphill position under the compound management mode of broad-leaved and P. edulis mixed forest were significantly better than those under the management mode of pure P. edulis forest, include diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness, culm mass and leaf mass. The variation trend of relative culm diameter with culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was smoother than that in pure P. edulis forest. The variation trend of relative culm-wall thickness with relative culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was steeper than that in pure P. edulis forest. The diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness

  10. Diversity of soil fungi in dry deciduous forest of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats of southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar P.Banakar; B.Thippeswamy; B.V.Thirumalesh; K.J.Naveenkumar

    2012-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity in the dry deciduous forest of a Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary of the Western Ghats (210.31 m a.s.(l).; N 13°44′ and E75°37′).Soil samples were collected by random mixed sampling during winter (November,2008),summer (March,2009) and monsoon (August,2009) seasons,and physico-chemical parameters were recorded.During winter,summer,and monsoon seasons,49,45 and 49of fungal species belongs to 20,18 and 19 of genera were isolated,respectively.Isolated soil fungi were mainly of the Mitosporic fungi,followed by Zygomycotina,Ascomycotina,Oomycotina and Coelomycetes.Indices of diversity,dominance and fisher alpha during winter,summer and monsoon seasons were 3.756,3.638 and 3.738 (H′),0.9737,0.9694and 0.9726 (1-D) and 18.84,29.83 and 19.46 (α),respectivelv.Spearman's (r) correlation coefficient of fungal population with physicochemical parameters of soils showed significantly positive and negative correlations (p<0.01) during winter,summer and monsoon seasons.Physico-chemical soil parameters played an important role in the occurrence,diversity,distribution,and relative abundance of fungal species in the tropical dry deciduous forest soil.

  11. How competitive is drought deciduousness in tropical forests? A combined eco-hydrological and eco-evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Dralle, David; Feng, Xue; Thompson, Sally; Manzoni, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Drought-deciduous and evergreen species are both common in tropical forests, where there is the need to cope with water shortages during periodic dry spells and over the course of the dry season. Which phenological strategy is favored depends on the long-term balance of carbon costs and gains that leaf phenology imposes as a result of the alternation of wet and dry seasons and the unpredictability of rainfall events. This study integrates a stochastic eco-hydrological framework with key plant economy traits to derive the long-term average annual net carbon gain of trees exhibiting different phenological strategies in tropical forests. The average net carbon gain is used as a measure of fitness to assess which phenological strategies are more productive and more evolutionarily stable (i.e. not prone to invasion by species with a different strategy). The evergreen strategy results in a higher net carbon gain and more evolutionarily stable communities with increasing wet season lengths. Reductions in the length of the wet season or the total rainfall, as predicted under climate change scenarios, should promote a shift towards more drought-deciduous communities, with ensuing implications for ecosystem functioning.

  12. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  13. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  14. Landscape composition influences abundance patterns and habitat use of three ungulate species in fragmented secondary deciduous tropical forests, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García-Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary forests are extensive in the tropics. Currently, these plant communities are the available habitats for wildlife and in the future they will possibly be some of the most wide-spread ecosystems world-wide. To understand the potential role of secondary forests for wildlife conservation, three ungulate species were studied: Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Pecari tajacu. We analyzed their relative abundance and habitat use at two spatial scales: (1 Local, where three different successional stages of tropical deciduous forest were compared, and (2 Landscape, where available habitats were compared in terms of landscape composition (proportion of forests, pastures and croplands within 113 ha. To determine the most important habitat-related environmental factors influencing the Sign Encounter Rate (SER of the three ungulate species, 11 physical, anthropogenic and vegetation variables were simultaneously analyzed through model selection using Akaike’s Information Criterion. We found, that P. tajacu and O. virginianus mainly used early successional stages, while M. temama used all successional stages in similar proportions. The latter species, however, used early vegetation stages only when they were located in landscapes mainly covered by forest (97%. P. tajacu and O. virginianus also selected landscapes covered essentially by forests, although they required smaller percentages of forest (86%. All ungulate species avoided landscape fragments covered by pastures. For all three species, landscape composition and human activities were the variables that best explained SER. We concluded that landscape is the fundamental scale for ungulate management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for ungulate conservation.

  15. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m(3) ha(-1) ~14.13 Mg C ha(-1)) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R(2) = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha(-1)). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R(2) and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  16. Growing season variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire in the broad-leaved forest zone of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Volkova, E.; Karataeva, T.; Novenko, E.

    2013-09-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia in the Tula region was described using results from field measurements. NEE and ET were measured using a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2/H2O analyzer, LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and in May 2013. The results of the field measurements showed significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation and ground water level. The seasonal patterns of NEE and ET within the mire were quite different. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere. NEE reached maximal values in June-July (-6.8 ± 4.2 μmol m-2 s-1). The southern peripheral part of the mire, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere in June-July only. ET reached maximal values in the well-lighted central parts of the mire in May (0.34 ± 0.20 mm h-1) mainly because of high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. Herbaceous species made the maximum contribution to the total gross primary production (GPP) in both the central and the peripheral parts of the mire. The contribution of sphagnum to the total GPP of these plant communities was relatively small and ranged on sunny days of July-August from -1.1 ± 1.1 mgC g-1 of dry weight (DW) per hour in the peripheral zone of the mire to -0.6 ± 0.2 mgC g-1 DW h-1 at the mire center. The sphagnum layer made the maximum contribution to total ET at the mire center (0.25 ± 0.10 mm h-1) and the herbaceous

  17. Climatic and management influence on the carbon sequestration capacity of a deciduous oak coppice forest in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belelli Marchesini, L.; Rey Simó, A.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent updated estimates of the carbon balance of European forests based on a suite of ecological inventories and models confirmed their active role as sink (Ciais at al. 2008, Luyssaert et al. 2010), determined primarily by the management applied in the last decades with wood removals being lower than Net Primary Productivity (NPP). Eddy covariance (EC) continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes can detect responses of the carbon dynamics to environmental or management factors in the short term, overcoming the limitation of inventories representing a snapshot of the carbon pools typically at temporal resolution of several years or decades. However the majority of EC studies, so far performed mostly on middle-aged or mature stands, still have poorly investigated the role of actively managed forest types such as coppices, the changes in the Net Ecosystem Produtivity (NEP) over long chronosequence data and ultimately their capacity to store the uptaken atmospheric carbon in the long term. In the framework of the Carbo-Extreme EU project, we present an analysis of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of a deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) coppice forest in central Italy (Roccarespampani site) monitored during the years 2000-2008 over two differently aged forest stands covering almost all the stages of the 20 years rotation period. After coppicing the forest ecosystem turned into a net C source for 1 year only, then it intensified its sink strength along with stand age (R2=0.66; Pcoppice forest still shows sink capacity of 190 g C m-2 yr-1: we discuss the fate of sequestered carbon and the sustainability of the carbon sequestration service. Ciais P, Schelhaas MJ, Zaehle S et al. (2008). Carbon accumulation in European forests. Nature Geoscience, 1, 425-429. Lyussaert S., Ciais P., Piao S.L. et al. (2010). Global Change Biology, 16, 1429-1450.

  18. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  19. Separating overstory and understory leaf area indices for global needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests by fusion of MODIS and MISR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Ronggao; Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing M.

    2017-03-01

    Forest overstory and understory layers differ in carbon and water cycle regimes and phenology, as well as ecosystem functions. Separate retrievals of leaf area index (LAI) for these two layers would help to improve modeling forest biogeochemical cycles, evaluating forest ecosystem functions and also remote sensing of forest canopies by inversion of canopy reflectance models. In this paper, overstory and understory LAI values were estimated separately for global needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests by fusing MISR and MODIS observations. Monthly forest understory LAI was retrieved from the forest understory reflectivity estimated using MISR data. After correcting for the background contribution using monthly mean forest understory reflectivities, the forest overstory LAI was estimated from MODIS observations. The results demonstrate that the largest extent of forest understory vegetation is present in the boreal forest zones at northern latitudes. Significant seasonal variations occur for understory vegetation in these zones with LAI values up to 2-3 from June to August. The mean proportion of understory LAI to total LAI is greater than 30 %. Higher understory LAI values are found in needleleaf forests (with a mean value of 1.06 for evergreen needleleaf forests and 1.04 for deciduous needleleaf forests) than in deciduous broadleaf forests (0.96) due to the more clumped foliage and easier penetration of light to the forest floor in needleleaf forests. Spatially and seasonally variable forest understory reflectivity helps to account for the effects of the forest background on LAI retrieval while compared with constant forest background. The retrieved forest overstory and understory LAI values were compared with an existing dataset for larch forests in eastern Siberia (40-75° N, 45-180° E). The retrieved overstory and understory LAI is close to that of the existing dataset, with an absolute error of 0.02 (0.06), relative error of 1.3 % (14.3 %) and RMSE of 0

  20. Photosynthetic characteristics of dominant tree species and canopy in the broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Based on the light-photosynthesis response measurement at leaf level, combined with over- and under-canopy eddy covariance measurements, research on photosynthetic characteristics of single trees and forest canopy was conducted. The relationship between light intensity and photo-synthetic rates for leaves and canopy can be well fitted by a non-rectangular hyperbola model. Mongolian oak presented a high light compensation point, Lcp (28μmol·m-2·s-1), a light saturation point Lsp (>1800μmol·m-2·s-1), and a maximal net photosynthetic rate Pmax (9.96μmol·m-2·s-1), which suggest that it is a typical heliophilous plant. Mono maple presented the highest apparent quantum efficiencyα(0.066) but the lowest, Lcp (16μmol·m-2·s-1), Lsp (=800μmol·m-2·s-1), and Pmax (4.51μmol·m-2·s-1), which suggest that it is heliophilous plant. Korean pine showed the lowestαvalue but a higher Pmax, which suggest that it is a semi-heliophilous plant. At the canopy level, the values of both or and Pmax approached the upper limit of reported values in temperate forests, while Lcp was within the lower limit. Canopy photosynthetic characteristics were well consistent with those of leaves. Both showed a high ability to photosynthesize. However, environmental stresses, especially high vapor pressure deficits, could significantly reduce the photosynthetic ability of leaves and canopy.

  1. Eddy flux corrections for CO2 exchange in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Jiabing; GUAN; Dexin; SUN; Xiaomin; YU; Guirui; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    Based on analysis of mechanisms causing energy no-closure and nocturnal low fluxes issues for CO2 exchange studies by eddy covariance method, corrections were done with the raw data sets obtained from Changbai Mountains forest flux site, to evaluate the impacts of sonic anemometer tilt, frequency response limitations and advection on estimation of CO2 exchange, respectively. The results show that the planar fit coordinate transforming method is superior to the streamline coordinate transforming method in tilt correction. The latter could cause a systematical underestimation of eddy fluxes relating with the angle of sensor and terrain tilt. The underestimation of CO2 and energy fluxes for frequency response limitations average 3.0% and 2.0% during daytime, respectively, which increase by 9.0% and 5.5% during nighttime, respectively. The corrections of frequency response limitations are closely related to atmospheric stability. The advection loss of CO2 fluxes is dominated by nocturnal vertical advection, which is at least 18% when the horizontal advection is neglected. It is suggested that more work be done to understand the characteristics of horizontal advection and turbulent eddies under a complexcircumstance.

  2. Deposição de nutrientes pela serapilheira em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Rio Grande do Sul Nutrients input from litter in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Savian Marafiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do aporte de nutrientes das espécies que compõem a Floresta Estacional Decidual é ainda incipiente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar a deposição de nutrientes pela serapilheira de diferentes espécies, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual, no município de Itaara, RS. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 25,0 m x 17,0 m cada, sendo distribuídos cinco coletores em cada parcela. As coletas de serapilheira foram realizadas mensalmente, no período de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2007. A serapilheira foi separada em folhas, galhos finos (diâmetro Knowledge on nutrient deposition from species that compose the Deciduous Forest is incipient. The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient input by different species, from litter deposition in a Seasonal Deciduous Forest in Itaara, RS. Six plots (25.0 m x 17.0 m were installed for litter collection,. In each plot, 5 mesh-screen traps were allocated. The litter was monthly collected from January 2006 to December 2007. Litter was sorted out in leaves, twigs (diameter < 0.5 cm and mixture (flowers, fruits, seeds and non identified plant parts. Leaves were separated regarding the most representative species in the forest. The material was analyzed for the levels of macro and micronutrients. The concentration of nutrients differed between species. The highest nutrient input occurred from the leaf fraction, followed by twigs and mixture. Among the evaluated species, Parapiptadenia rigida showed the highest nutrient transfer, except for Mn that was highest in Matayba elaeagnoides, and Ocotea pulchella.

  3. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  4. Hydrological Characteristics of Forest Litter and Soil in Different Successional Stages in the Hilly Region of Central Hubei%鄂中低丘区不同演替阶段森林凋落物和土壤水文特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀红; 曾毅; 周志翔; 高大雄; 谢经荣; 郭国志

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of the litter and soil in three different forest successional stages as coniferous forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,and deciduous broad-leaved forest (8 forest stands) were studied in Taizishan forest farm,central Hubei,by using the method of substituting time with space.The results showed that the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had the biggest total litter amount(9.76~12.01 t/hm2),the maximum water holding ratio of the litter in deciduous broad-leaved forest was the highest.The effective retain capacity of litters under coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests and deciduous broad-leaved forests were greater.And there were no significant differences between them.The effective retain capacity of the litter in Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the biggest,reaching to 16.81 t/hm2.In different successional periods,the order of NCWHC(non-capillary water-holding capacity) and MWHC(maximal water-holding capacity) below the depth of 0-40 cm soil layer was as follows:Coniferous forest <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forestdeciduous broad-leaved forest.Water-holding capacity of soil under Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the highest(2 145.8 t/hm2).In conclusion,the deciduous broad-leaved forest was optimal among three forest types in terms of water conservation,suggested that during the restoration of forest vegetation in study area deciduous broad-leaved forests should be improved in the process of the forest succession.%采用空间代替时间的方法,研究鄂中低丘区太子山林场针叶林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3个不同演替阶段(共8类林分)林下凋落物和土壤的水文特性.结果表明:太子山林场3个演替阶段的林下凋落物总量以针阔混交林最大(介于9.76~12.01 t/hm2之间),林下凋落物最大持水率以落叶阔叶林最高;针阔混交林与落叶阔叶林林下凋落物对降水的有效拦蓄量较高,但两者差异不显著,其中

  5. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The CO2 flux has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia in Hokkaido, where incidental damage by the strong Typhoon Songda in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the CO2 flux within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP, ecosystem respiration (Re, and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m−2 yr−1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and −97 g C m−2 yr−1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed into a net carbon source. Because of increased light intensity at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead trees remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon balance over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds

  6. Floristic and phytosociological investigation of trees in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment at São Miguel do Oeste, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geniane Schneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests in Santa Catarina have been reduced and fragmented, and seasonal deciduous forests are among the most afflicted. The aim of the investigation was to describe arboreal composition and structure in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment. We established ten sample units of 20x20 m, covering a total area of 0.4 ha. Trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 25 cm were identified, and species richness and diversity were evaluated. A total of 205 individuals was sampled from 54 species, representing 44 genera and 23 families. Tree diversity was estimated to be 3.472 (nats using the Shannon-Weiner index (H’, and Pielou’s evenness (J’ was estimated at 0.87. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae and Sapindaceae. The species with the highest importance and coverage values were Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C. Burger, Lanjouw & Boer, and Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn. Mez. Species richness and diversity are within the range of values cited for seasonal deciduous forests in the Floristic Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, which shows the impact of exploration and fragmentation on this habitat. Nevertheless, the studied area has apparently conserved a significant portion of the tree species cited for this forest type.

  7. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

  8. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  9. Relative Linkages of Canopy-Level CO2 Fluxes with the Climatic and Environmental Variables for US Deciduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Khandker S.; Abdul-Aziz, Omar I.

    2015-04-01

    We used a simple, systematic data-analytics approach to determine the relative linkages of different climate and environmental variables with the canopy-level, half-hourly CO2 fluxes of US deciduous forests. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principal component and factor analyses were utilized to classify and group climatic, environmental, and ecological variables based on their similarity as drivers, examining their interrelation patterns at different sites. Explanatory partial least squares regression models were developed to estimate the relative linkages of CO2 fluxes with the climatic and environmental variables. Three biophysical process components adequately described the system-data variances. The `radiation-energy' component had the strongest linkage with CO2 fluxes, whereas the `aerodynamic' and `temperature-hydrology' components were low to moderately linked with the carbon fluxes. On average, the `radiation-energy' component showed 5 and 8 times stronger carbon flux linkages than that of the `temperature-hydrology' and `aerodynamic' components, respectively. The similarity of observed patterns among different study sites (representing gradients in climate, canopy heights and soil-formations) indicates that the findings are potentially transferable to other deciduous forests. The similarities also highlight the scope of developing parsimonious data-driven models to predict the potential sequestration of ecosystem carbon under a changing climate and environment. The presented data-analytics provides an objective, empirical foundation to obtain crucial mechanistic insights; complementing process-based model building with a warranted complexity. Model efficiency and accuracy ( R 2 = 0.55-0.81; ratio of root-mean-square error to the observed standard deviations, RSR = 0.44-0.67) reiterate the usefulness of multivariate analytics models for gap-filling of instantaneous flux data.

  10. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  11. Influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna of deciduous forests of Ukraine’s steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The litter in a forest ecosystem acts as a trophic substrate, and at the same time it is the environment for litter invertebrates. But despite this fact, there has been very little research conducted on the influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna. The litter of steppe forests contains most types of integrated communities of forest ecosystems. This means that its thickness cannot avoid playing a significant role in the functioning of the ecosystem. Following to the standard methodologies, Invertebrates were collected using pit-fall traps in deciduous forests of Nikolaev, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Kharkiv oblasts, which are characterized by different types of geomorphological profile, different moisture conditions, soil salinity, tree crown and herbaceous vegetation density, soil texture and other factors. The total number of macrofauna increases in conditions where litter thickness exceeds40 mmin comparison with forest ecosystems with fragmented and average capacity litter. The number of litter macrofauna species also increases from 11–23 to 38 species on average when litter thickness increases to more than40 mm. The Shannon and Pielou diversity indexes show no definite tendencies to change in relation to changing degrees of litter thickness. At sites of greater thickness of the litter layer, the corresponding increase in the absolute number of litter mesofauna invertebrates is mostly due to saprophages, and the increase the number of species – due to zoophages. The optimum structure of domination was observed at sites with maximum thickness of litter. The proportion of large species shows no statistically significant change in relation to variations in litter thickness. The qualitative compound of the fauna at sites with thick litter changes mainly due to an increase in the number of Carabidae species.

  12. Overyielding of temperate mixed forests occurs in evergreen–deciduous but not in deciduous–deciduous species mixtures over time in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Huicui; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Goudiaby, V.; Sterck, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that mixed species forests sometimes have higher stand productivity than monospecific forests, which we refer to as overyielding. Yet, results for temperate forests are ambiguous, possibly because forests differ in local site conditions, thinning history and forest age. In line w

  13. 大兴安岭南段阔叶次生林空间格局及种间关系%Spatial Distribution Pattern and Interspecific Relationship of Broadleaved Secondary Forest in Southern Daxing’ an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾楠; 周梅; 赵鹏武; 魏江生; 陈翔; 舒洋

    2014-01-01

    In Saihanwula Forest Ecosystem Research Station of southern Daxing ’ an Mountains we used the CTFS ( Center for tropical forest science ) sample area construction standards to build 6 hm2 fixed sample plot of broadleaved secondary forest . By using point pattern analysis , we studied the community within the main population spatial distribution pattern and inter-specificrelationship.Incommunity,thereweresevenspecies,atotalof13906trees,thepopulationdensityof2317hm2. The dominant population of broadleaved secondary forest in southern Daxing ’ an Mountains are aggregation distribution , and the intensity of population aggregation change is more obvious .Intensity aggregation value L( t) is Quercusmongolica>Betuladahurica>Betulaplaty phylla>Populus davidiana Dode.The interspecific relationship of broadleaved secondary forest in southern Daxing ’ an Mountains is positive correlation with less competition and replacement of tree species within the community , and the community composition and structure are in a stable state .The main cause of the high proportion of dry wood in community is not the competition between species .%在大兴安岭南段的赛罕乌拉森林生态系统定位研究站,采用CTFS样地建设标准,设置面积为6 hm2的阔叶次生林固定样地。采用点格局分析方法,对群落内主要种群的空间格局及种间关系进行了研究。结果表明:群落内乔木层共出现7个种群,树木共计13906株,群落密度2317株/hm2;大兴安岭南段阔叶次生林优势种群均呈现聚集分布,种群的聚集强度随尺度变化较明显;聚集强度L( t)值:蒙古栎>黑桦>白桦>山杨;大兴安岭南段阔叶次生林群落种间关系以正相关为主,群落内树种之间的竞争以及物种更替现象并不激烈,群落组成和结构正处于稳定状态,群落内较高比例枯立木的产生并非是种群竞争所致。

  14. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  15. Hypholoma lateritium isolated from coarse woody debris, the forest floor, and mineral soil in a deciduous forest in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese A. Thompson; R. Greg Thorn; Kevin T. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Fungi in the Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) are the primary decomposers in temperate forests of dead wood on and in the forest soil. Through the use of isolation techniques selective for saprotrophic Agaricomycetes, a variety of wood decay fungi were isolated from a northern hardwood stand in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. In particular,

  16. Evidence of formation of submicrometer water-soluble organic aerosols at a deciduous forest site in northern Japan in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Jung, Jinsang; Fu, Pingqing; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2012-10-01

    Semicontinuous measurements of submicrometer water-soluble organic aerosols and particle size distributions were conducted at a deciduous forest site in northern Japan in August 2010. Increases in particle number concentration were frequently observed in daytime, accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). We found that daily averaged WSOC concentrations positively correlated with gross primary production of CO2 by the forest ecosystem (r2 = 0.63) and ambient temperature during daytime. These relations suggest that the formation of WSOC is closely linked to photosynthetic activity by the forest ecosystem, which depends on both temperature and solar radiation. Off-line chemical analysis of samples of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm collected during a 2 day event of elevated WSOC levels suggests that photochemical aging of both α- andβ-pinene and isoprene oxidation products contributes to the particle growth and the WSOC mass. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) showed distinct diurnal variations with a maximum around noontime, also indicating that higher temperature and light intensity induce emissions of PBAPs. However, their contribution to the submicrometer WSOC mass was likely insignificant. During the day, the concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) showed a strong dependence on temperature, and the ratios of WSOC to particle volume concentration increased with an increase in the concentration ratios of 3-MBTCA to pinonic acid (PA). This result supports a previous proposal that the 3-MBTCA/PA ratios in submicrometer particles can be a useful tracer for chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from forest vegetation.

  17. Deciduous Forest Structure Estimated with LIDAR-Optimized Spectral Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Defibaugh y Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage and frequency of remotely sensed forest structural information would benefit from single orbital platforms designed to collect sufficient data. We evaluated forest structural information content using single-date Hyperion hyperspectral imagery collected over full-canopy oak-hickory forests in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, USA. Hyperion spectral derivatives were used to develop machine learning regression tree rule sets for predicting forest neighborhood percentile heights generated from near-coincident Leica Geosystems ALS50 small footprint light detection and ranging (LIDAR. The most successful spectral predictors of LIDAR-derived forest structure were also tested with basal area measured in situ. Based on the machine learning regression trees developed, Hyperion spectral derivatives were utilized to predict LIDAR forest neighborhood percentile heights with accuracies between 2.1 and 3.7 m RMSE. Understory predictions consistently resulted in the highest accuracy of 2.1 m RMSE. In contrast, hyperspectral prediction of basal area measured in situ was only found to be 6.5 m2/ha RMSE when the average basal area across the study area was ~12 m2/ha. The results suggest, at a spatial resolution of 30 × 30 m, that orbital hyperspectral imagery alone can provide useful structural information related to vegetation height. Rapidly calibrated biophysical remote sensing techniques will facilitate timely assessment of regional forest conditions.

  18. Soluble organic and inorganic nutrient fluxes in clearcut and mature deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Qualls; B.L. Haines; W.T. Swank; S.W. Tyler

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms by which forest ecosystems retain or lose soluble inorganic nutrients after disturbance are well known, but substantial amounts of soluble organic nutrients may also be released from cut vegetation. Our objective was to compare the leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients in cut and mature forest stands and to develop hypotheses about...

  19. Strategic management of five deciduous forest invaders using Microstegium vimineum as a model species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    This paper links key plant invasive traits with key landscape traits to define strategic management for five common forest invaders, using empirical data of Microstegium vimineum dispersal into forests as a preliminary model. Microstegium vimineum exhibits an Allee effect that may allow management to focus on treating its source...

  20. Water repellency under coniferous and deciduous forest - Experimental assessment and impact on overland flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, Verena; Seeger, Manuel; Marruedo, Amaia; Jonge, de Lianne; Wengel, René; Ries, Johannes B.; Casper, Markus C.

    2015-01-01

    Current climate change makes it necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the runoff generation processes in Central European forests. A changing climate might affect soil water repellency (SWR) which can be seen as an import trigger for overland flow generation in forested areas. In this study

  1. Patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) fluxes in deciduous and coniferous forests under historic high nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, S.; Vandenbruwane, J.; de Schrijver, A.; Wuyts, K.; Moeskops, B.; Verheyen, K.; de Neve, S.

    2009-07-01

    Numerous recent studies have indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) play an important role in C and N cycling in natural ecosystems, and have shown that N deposition alters the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic substances and may increase leaching losses from forests. Our study was set up to accurately quantify concentrations and flux patterns of DOC, DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in deciduous and coniferous forest in Flanders under historical high nitrogen deposition. We measured DOC, DON and DIN concentrations at two weekly intervals in a silver birch (SB) stand, a corsican pine (CP) stand and a pine stand with higher N deposition (CPN), and used the SWAP model (calibrated with PEST) for generating accurate water and matter fluxes. The input with precipitation was an important source of DON, but not for DOC. Release of DOC from the forest floor was minimally affected by forest type, but higher N deposition (CPN stand) caused an 82% increase of DOC release from the forest floor. Adsorption to mineral soil material rich in iron and/or aluminum oxyhydroxides was suggested to be the most important process removing DOC from the soil solution, responsible for substantial retention (67-84%) of DOC entering the mineral soil profile with forest floor leachate. Generally, DON was less reactive (i.e. less removal from the soil solution) than DOC, resulting in decreasing DOC/DON ratios with soil depth. We found increased DOC retention in the mineral soil as a result of higher N deposition (84 kg N ha-1 yr-1 additional DOC retention in CPN compared to CP). Overall DON leaching losses were 2.2, 3.3 and 5.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for SB, CP and CPN, respectively, contributing between 9-28% to total dissolved N (TDN) leaching. DON loss from SB and CP was not much higher than from unpolluted forests, and its relative contribution to TDN leaching was mainly determined by (large) differences in DIN leaching. The large TDN leaching losses

  2. Patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON fluxes in deciduous and coniferous forests under historic high nitrogen deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sleutel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous recent studies have indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON play an important role in C and N cycling in natural ecosystems, and have shown that N deposition alters the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic substances and may increase leaching losses from forests. Our study was set up to accurately quantify concentrations and flux patterns of DOC, DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN in deciduous and coniferous forest in Flanders under historical high nitrogen deposition. We measured DOC, DON and DIN concentrations at two weekly intervals in a silver birch (SB stand, a corsican pine (CP stand and a pine stand with higher N deposition (CPN, and used the SWAP model (calibrated with PEST for generating accurate water and matter fluxes. The input with precipitation was an important source of DON, but not for DOC. Release of DOC from the forest floor was minimally affected by forest type, but higher N deposition (CPN stand caused an 82% increase of DOC release from the forest floor. Adsorption to mineral soil material rich in iron and/or aluminum oxyhydroxides was suggested to be the most important process removing DOC from the soil solution, responsible for substantial retention (67–84% of DOC entering the mineral soil profile with forest floor leachate. Generally, DON was less reactive (i.e. less removal from the soil solution than DOC, resulting in decreasing DOC/DON ratios with soil depth. We found increased DOC retention in the mineral soil as a result of higher N deposition (84 kg N ha−1 yr−1 additional DOC retention in CPN compared to CP. Overall DON leaching losses were 2.2, 3.3 and 5.0 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for SB, CP and CPN, respectively, contributing between 9–28% to total dissolved N (TDN leaching. DON loss from SB and CP was not much higher than from unpolluted forests, and its relative contribution to TDN leaching was mainly determined by

  3. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  4. Rainfall distribution is the main driver of runoff under future CO2-concentration in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, S.; Körner, C.

    2009-04-01

    Reduced stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 results in increased soil moisture, provided all other factors remain constant. Whether this results in increased runoff critically depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, soil water storage capacity and plant responses. To test the sensitivity of runoff to these parameters under elevated CO2, we combine transpiration and soil moisture data from the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC) FACE experiment with 104 years of daily precipitation data from an adjacent weather station to drive a three-layer bucket model (mean yearly precipitation 794 mm). The model adequately predicts the water budget of a temperate deciduous forest and runoff from a nearby gauging station. A simulation run over all 104 years based on sap flow responses resulted in only 5.5 mm (2.9 %) increased ecosystem runoff under elevated CO2. Out of the 37986 days (1.1.1901 to 31.12.2004), only 576 days produce higher runoff under in the elevated CO2 scenario. Only 1 out of 17 years produces a CO2-signal greater than 20 mma-1, which mostly depends on a few single days when runoff under elevated CO2 exceeds runoff under ambient conditions. The maximum signal for a double pre-industrial CO2-concentration under the past century daily rainfall regime is an additional runoff of 46 mm (year 1938). More than half of all years produce a signal of less than 5 mma-1, because trees consume the 'extra' moisture during prolonged dry weather. Increased runoff under elevated CO2 is 9 times more sensitive to variations in rain pattern than to the applied reduction in transpiration under elevated CO2. Thus the key driver of increased runoff under future CO2-concentration is the day by day rainfall pattern. We argue that increased runoff due to a first-order plant physiological CO2-effect will be very small (<3 %) in the landscape dominated by temperate deciduous forests, and will hardly increase flooding risk in forest catchments. It is likely that these results are equally

  5. Above- and belowground controls on water use by trees of different wood types in an eastern US deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; Eissenstat, David M; Lin, Henry S; Adams, Thomas S; McCulloh, Katherine A

    2013-04-01

    Stomata control tree transpiration by sensing and integrating environmental signals originating in the atmosphere and soil, and co-occurring species may differ in inherent stomatal sensitivity to these above- and belowground signals and in the types of signals to which they respond. Stomatal responsiveness to environmental signals is likely to differ across species having different types of wood (e.g., ring-porous, diffuse-porous and coniferous) because each wood type differs in the structure, size and spatial distribution of its xylem conduits as well as in the scaling of hydraulic properties with stem diameter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of variation in soil water availability and atmospheric evaporative demand on stomatal regulation of transpiration in seven co-occurring temperate deciduous forest species representing three wood types. We measured whole-tree sap flux and soil and atmospheric variables in a mixed deciduous forest in central Pennsylvania over the course of a growing season characterized by severe drought and large fluctuations in atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D). The relative sensitivity of sap flux to soil drying was ∼2.2-2.3 times greater in the diffuse-porous and coniferous species than in the ring-porous species. Stomata of the ring-porous oaks were only about half as responsive to increased D as those of trees of the other two wood types. These differences in responsiveness to changes in the below- and aboveground environment implied that regulation of leaf water potential in the ring-porous oaks was less stringent than that in the diffuse-porous angiosperms or the conifers. The results suggest that increases in the frequency or intensity of summer droughts in the study region could have multiple consequences for forest function, including altered successional time courses or climax species composition and cumulative effects on whole-tree architecture, resulting in a structural and physiological legacy that

  6. The autotrophic contribution to soil respiration in a northern temperate deciduous forest and its response to stand disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Varon, Jennifer H; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the contribution of oak trees (Quercus spp.) and their associated mycorrhizal fungi to total community soil respiration in a deciduous forest (Black Rock Forest) and to explore the partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Trees on twelve 75 × 75-m plots were girdled according to four treatments: girdling all the oaks on the plot (OG), girdling half of the oak trees on a plot (O50), girdling all non-oaks on a plot (NO), and a control (C). In addition, one circular plot (diameter 50 m) was created where all trees were girdled (ALL). Soil respiration was measured before and after tree girdling. A conservative estimate of the total autotrophic contribution is approximately 50%, as indicated by results on the ALL and OG plots. Rapid declines in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flux from both the ALL and OG plots, 37 and 33%, respectively, were observed within 2 weeks following the treatment, demonstrating a fast turnover of recently fixed carbon. Responses from the NO and O50 treatments were statistically similar to the control. A non-proportional decline in respiration rates along the gradient of change in live aboveground biomass complicated partitioning of the overall rate of soil respiration and indicates that belowground carbon flux is not linearly related to aboveground disturbance. Our findings suggest that in this system there is a threshold disturbance level between 35 and 74% of live aboveground biomass loss, beyond which belowground dynamics change dramatically.

  7. FLORISTIC AND STRUCTURE OF A SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST, IN THE PARQUE MUNICIPAL DA SAPUCAIA , MONTES CLAROS (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Manoel dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the floristic composition and the structure of an area of 30.2 ha of dry forest(Seasonal Deciduous Forest in Montes Claros municipality (MG. A sample of 40 (10 × 10m plots was assessed. All individuals withcircumference at the breast height (CBH greater than 10 cm were included in the survey. In the analysis of structural parameters,density, dominancy, frequency and index of importance value (IVI were calculated. The Shannon s diversity index (H and eqüabilityof Pielou (J were calculated. Sixty one arboreal species were classified with diversity of H = 3.3 and J = 80%. In all tested structuralparameters the species Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan presented the largest values(Dominance: 49% and 35.2%; Density: 19.4% and 13%; Frequency: 11.3% and 4% and IVI: 26.5% and 17.4%, respectively.These values are related with the high abundance and low values of CBH of those species. These results coincide with those of otherworks developed in Caatinga area in the north of Minas Gerais state.

  8. Species richness and ecological characterization of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms in the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittler, Martin; Unterseher, Martin; Tesmer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The ecological community of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms (MMLO) in the canopy of living deciduous trees was studied in a riparian deciduous forest at Leipzig, Germany. A systematic survey carried out with a total of 146 moist chamber cultures resulted in 386 records of 37 taxa, with 32 myxomycetes, two myxobacteria, two protostelids and the fruit body forming ciliate Sorogena stoianovitchae, the latter recorded for the first time for Europe. With 94% of all cultures positive for MMLO, these organisms are present consistently in the investigated sections of white-rotten twigs attached to living trees at 10-30 m above the ground. Our sampling recovered a majority of the likely species, with 37 out of the 42-45 predicted according to a species-accumulation curve and two other estimators of species richness. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed pH, water-holding capacity and stage of decay to explain most of the variation in species distribution. Arcyria cinerea and Perichaena depressa as the most common species occurred in 32% and 29% of all samples, respectively. Viewing the sampled twigs as habitat islands and a single spore as sufficient to establish a population, a simulation program assuming a random spore rain estimated an average of 0.4 and 0.35 spore hits per twig as necessary to explain the observed frequencies. This is matched by the potential productivity of the substrate. All fruit bodies from the cultured twigs would be able to create a spore rain of 86 (A. cinerea) or 40 (P. depressa) spore hits per twig when dispersed evenly over the plot. The terminal fall velocity of spores was measured, revealing that it took about 5 h for a spore to land (30 m) in still air and indicating high dispersal ability for canopy-inhabiting MMLO.

  9. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wódkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Białowieża Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

  10. Patterns of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen fluxes in deciduous and coniferous forests under historic high nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, S.; Vandenbruwane, J.; de Schrijver, A.; Wuyts, K.; Moeskops, B.; Verheyen, K.; de Neve, S.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) play an important role in C and N cycling in natural ecosystems, and have shown that N deposition alters the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic substances and may increase leaching losses from forests. Our study was set up to accurately quantify concentrations and flux patterns of DOC, DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in deciduous and coniferous forest in Flanders, Belgium, under historical high nitrogen deposition. We measured DOC, DON and DIN concentrations at two weekly intervals in a silver birch (SB) stand, a corsican pine (CP) stand and a pine stand with higher N deposition (CPN), and used the SWAP model (calibrated with PEST) for generating accurate water and matter fluxes. The input with precipitation was an important source of DON, but not for DOC. Release of DOC from the forest floor was minimally affected by forest type, but higher N deposition (CPN stand) caused an 82% increase of DOC release from the forest floor. Adsorption to mineral soil material rich in iron and/or aluminum oxyhydroxides was suggested to be the most important process removing DOC from the soil solution, responsible for substantial retention (67-84%) of DOC entering the mineral soil profile with forest floor leachate. Generally, DON was less reactive (i.e. less removal from the soil solution) than DOC, resulting in decreasing DOC/DON ratios with soil depth. We found increased DOC retention in the mineral soil as a result of higher N deposition (84 kg ha-1 yr-1 additional DOC retention in CPN compared to CP). Overall DON leaching losses were 2.2, 3.3 and 5.0 kg N yr-1 for SB, CP and CPN, respectively, contributing between 9-28% to total dissolved N (TDN) leaching. The relative contribution to TDN leaching from DON loss from SB and CP was mainly determined by (large) differences in DIN leaching. The large TDN leaching losses are alarming, especially in the CPN stand that

  11. Patterns of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen fluxes in deciduous and coniferous forests under historic high nitrogen deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sleutel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous recent studies have indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON play an important role in C and N cycling in natural ecosystems, and have shown that N deposition alters the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic substances and may increase leaching losses from forests. Our study was set up to accurately quantify concentrations and flux patterns of DOC, DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN in deciduous and coniferous forest in Flanders, Belgium, under historical high nitrogen deposition. We measured DOC, DON and DIN concentrations at two weekly intervals in a silver birch (SB stand, a corsican pine (CP stand and a pine stand with higher N deposition (CPN, and used the SWAP model (calibrated with PEST for generating accurate water and matter fluxes. The input with precipitation was an important source of DON, but not for DOC. Release of DOC from the forest floor was minimally affected by forest type, but higher N deposition (CPN stand caused an 82% increase of DOC release from the forest floor. Adsorption to mineral soil material rich in iron and/or aluminum oxyhydroxides was suggested to be the most important process removing DOC from the soil solution, responsible for substantial retention (67–84% of DOC entering the mineral soil profile with forest floor leachate. Generally, DON was less reactive (i.e. less removal from the soil solution than DOC, resulting in decreasing DOC/DON ratios with soil depth. We found increased DOC retention in the mineral soil as a result of higher N deposition (84 kg ha−1 yr−1 additional DOC retention in CPN compared to CP. Overall DON leaching losses were 2.2, 3.3 and 5.0 kg N yr−1 for SB, CP and CPN, respectively, contributing between 9–28% to total dissolved N (TDN leaching. The relative contribution to TDN leaching from DON loss from SB and CP was mainly determined by (large differences in DIN leaching. The large TDN leaching

  12. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  14. Acidotolerant Bacteria and Fungi as a Sink of Methanol-Derived Carbon in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareen Morawe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is an abundant atmospheric volatile organic compound that is released from both living and decaying plant material. In forest and other aerated soils, methanol can be consumed by methanol-utilizing microorganisms that constitute a known terrestrial sink. However, the environmental factors that drive the biodiversity of such methanol-utilizers have been hardly resolved. Soil-derived isolates of methanol-utilizers can also often assimilate multicarbon compounds as alternative substrates. Here, we conducted a comparative DNA stable isotope probing experiment under methylotrophic (only [13C1]-methanol was supplemented and combined substrate conditions ([12C1]-methanol and alternative multi-carbon [13Cu]-substrates were simultaneously supplemented to (i identify methanol-utilizing microorganisms of a deciduous forest soil (European beech dominated temperate forest in Germany, (ii assess their substrate range in the soil environment, and (iii evaluate their trophic links to other soil microorganisms. The applied multi-carbon substrates represented typical intermediates of organic matter degradation, such as acetate, plant-derived sugars (xylose and glucose, and a lignin-derived aromatic compound (vanillic acid. An experimentally induced pH shift was associated with substantial changes of the diversity of active methanol-utilizers suggesting that soil pH was a niche-defining factor of these microorganisms. The main bacterial methanol-utilizers were members of the Beijerinckiaceae (Bacteria that played a central role in a detected methanol-based food web. A clear preference for methanol or multi-carbon substrates as carbon source of different Beijerinckiaceae-affiliated phylotypes was observed suggesting a restricted substrate range of the methylotrophic representatives. Apart from Bacteria, we also identified the yeasts Cryptococcus and Trichosporon as methanol-derived carbon-utilizing fungi suggesting that further research is needed to

  15. [Spatiotempaoral distribution patterns of photosynthetic photon flux density, air temperature, and relative air humidity in forest gap of Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xi-ao Xing' an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin

    2009-12-01

    A continuous measurement of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), air temperature, and relative air humidity was made in the forest gap in primary Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains to compare the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the parameters. The diurnal maximum PPFD in the forest gap appeared between 11:00 and 13:00 on sunny and overcast days. On sunny days, the maximum PPFD during various time periods did not locate in fixed locations, the diurnal maximum PPFD occurred in the canopy edge of northern part of the gap; while on overcast days, it always occurred in the center of the gap. The mean monthly PPFD in the gap was the highest in June and the lowest in September, with the largest range observed in July. The maximum air temperature happened between 9:00 and 15:00 on sunny days, between 15:00 and 19:00 on overcast days, the locations were 8 m in the southern part of gap center both on sunny and overcast days. From 5:00 to 9:00, the air temperature at measured positions in the gap was higher on overcast days than on sunny days; but from 9:00 to 19:00, it was opposite. The mean monthly air temperature was the highest in June, and the lowest in September. The maximum relative humidity appeared between 5:00 and 9:00 on sunny and overcast days, and occurred in the canopy border of western part of the gap, with the relative air humidity on overcast days being always higher than that on sunny days. The mean monthly relative humidity was the highest in July, and the lowest in June. The heterogeneity of PPFD was higher on sunny days than on overcast days, but the heterogeneities of air temperature and relative humidity were not obvious. The maximum PPFD, air temperature, and relative humidity were not located in the same positions among different months during growing season. For mean monthly PPFD and air temperature, their variation gradient was higher in and around the center of gap; while for mean monthly

  16. Mercury concentrations and pools in four adjacent coniferous and deciduous upland forests in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Gao, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Understanding of forest mercury (Hg) pools is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg removal. We studied gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations, litterfall Hg depositions, and pool sizes in four adjacent stands at Mount Dongling to assess Hg dynamics in the forested catchment and the potential of Hg release during wildfires. The average GEM concentration was 2.5 ± 0.5 ng m-3, about 1.5 times of the background levels in the Northern Hemisphere. In all four stands, Hg concentrations increase in the following order: bole wood < branch/twig < bark < mineral soil < needles/leaves < litterfall < Oi litter < Oe soil < Oa organic soil. The Hg pools of aboveground biomass were comparable in the forests of larch, oak, and Chinese pine, which were much greater than that of mixed broadleaf stands due to lower biomass. The total Hg pools in ecosystems were similar in the four stands, because of the comparable Hg pool in the soil horizons (0-40 cm), which accounted for over 97% of the total ecosystem Hg storage in the four stands. Although Hg pools of the forest ecosystem in north China were comparable to North America and North Europe, Hg storage in forests constituted a high threat for large Hg emission pulses to the atmosphere by wildfires. The potential Hg emissions from the combustion at the four stands were ranged from 0.675 to 1.696 mg m-2.

  17. Linking canopy phenology to the seasonality of biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a temperate deciduous forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Toomey, M. P.; Aubrecht, D.; Sonnentag, O.; Ryu, Y.; Hilker, T.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology - the annual rhythm of canopy development and senescence - is a key control on the seasonality of surface-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, water, and energy. Phenology is also a highly sensitive indicator of the biological impacts of climate change. In many biomes, there is strong evidence of trends towards earlier spring onset, and later autumn senescence, over the last four decades. These shifts in phenology may play an imprortant role in mitigating - or amplifying - feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system. To better understand relationships between canopy structure and function in a temperate deciduous forest, we installed a wide array of radiometric instruments and imaging sensors near the top of a 40-m high tower at Harvard Forest beginning in 2011. Our data set includes: - incoming and outgoing visible (including incoming direct and diffuse components), shortwave, and longwave radiation; - narrowband (five visible and three near-infrared channels) canopy reflectance; - leaf area index (LAI, from continuous below-canopy digital cover photography), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR, from above- and below-canopy quantum sensors), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from broad- and narrow-band radiometric sensors), and photochemical reflectance index (PRI, from narrow-band radiometric sensors); - visible and near-infrared PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) canopy imagery; - multi-angular narrowband hyperspectral canopy reflectance (AMSPEC, in 2012); and - beginning in 2013, hyperspectral and thermal canopy imagery. Together with eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and water fluxes from the Harvard Forest AmeriFlux site, located in similar forest about 1 km to the east, on-the-ground visual observations of phenology, and continuous stem diameter measurements with automated band dendrometers, these data provide an unusually detailed view of phenological processes at scales from leaves to trees to

  18. Forest protection as a climate measure. Valuable forest types for biodiversity and carbon storage; Skogvern som klimatiltak. Verdifulle skogtyper for biologisk mangfold og karbonlagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framstad, E.; Stokland, J.N.; Hylen, G.

    2011-07-01

    Norwegian forests are important for the forest industry, for the conservation of biodiversity as well as for carbon storage and uptake of Co2. In this project we have identified valuable forest types for biodiversity and conservation interests, and examined how data from the National Forest Inventory can be used to calculate the carbon storage and uptake of Co2 of these forest types, as well as their theoretical profitability for forestry. The selection of biologically valuable forest types are partly based on important habitats according to DN Handbook 13, forest habitats with high incidence of redlisted species, priority forest types for protection, as well as the Red List of forest types according Nature Types in Norway (NiN). Identification and occurrence of these different forest types may be partly based on underlying ecological gradients, especially for nutrients and moisture, on bioclimatic gradients, forest age, and presence of special terrain features (e.g. stream gullies). To identify similar forest types based on the National Forest Inventory data, simplified and adapted criteria were applied: vegetation type, site quality, age/development class, tree species, and climate zone, plus some special natural features such as stream gullies. With these selection criteria the sum of biologically valuable forest covers 27% of the total forest area, where unproductive older deciduous forests alone account for more than 15% of forest land and other forest types each make up 2-4%. Hence, this selection of forest types includes forest areas with limited value for biodiversity. The biologically valuable forest types have approximately the same significance for carbon stor-age and uptake of Co2 as other forests with similar productivity. The largest carbon stocks per unit area are found in old forests, especially old spruce and mature deciduous broadleaved forests, whereas unproductive mature deciduous forest has the lowest carbon stocks per unit area. Summed over

  19. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  20. 万木林自然保护区不同群落优势种高度结构研究%Height structures of dominant species of different subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest communities in Wanmulin Natural Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕晓丽; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 闫淑君; 封磊; 王新功

    2003-01-01

    Based on the data of four subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest communities in Wanmulin Natural Reserve, whose dominant species were Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun, Cinnamomum micranthum Hayata, Castanopsis fabri Hance and Pinus massoniana, respectively, the height class and diameter class structures and the dynamics of height structure were analyzed. The results showed that the relationships between tree species, tree density, basal area at D. B. H, and height class (or diameter class) could be simulated by different equations. There was a significant positive correlation between tree species and tree density for different height class or different D. B. H. class. The structure dynamic analysis showed that the community of Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun was very unstable, and the species sharing degree in four communities was fairly lower, indicating that the dominant species were very obvious. The results could give a useful clue for the studies on endangered mechanism of rare species.

  1. Spring flowering herbaceous plant species of the deciduous forests of eastern Canada and 20th century climate warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houle, G. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-02-15

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions during the second half of the twentieth century has been associated with global climate warming. High latitude areas are particularly sensitive to such changes, with significant impacts on plant pheno logy. This article presented the results of a study that estimated changes in the flowering dates of 18 spring-flowering herbaceous plant species typical of the deciduous forests of eastern North America in three areas of eastern Canada, namely the Ottawa region, Montreal, and Quebec. Analyses were carried out for those species comprising more than 30 specimens covering a period of more than 50 years between 1900 to 2000. The purpose was to determine if spring-flowering herbaceous perennials showed signs for earlier flowering due to a rise in temperature. Only a few species from the 3 regions showed a significant flowering date/year regression, indicating that most species tended to flower earlier towards the end of the twentieth century. The data on indigenous plant species of natural habitats revealed noticeable shifts in phenology, particularly in the Montreal region. It was determined that the effects of climate warming on plant phenology may be exacerbated by local conditions associated with large urban areas. It was concluded that the species-specific response to climate change presented in this study may lead to important changes in ecosystem functions and community composition. 45 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. The role of dung beetles as a secondary seed disperser after dispersal by frugivore mammals in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Hideto; Kozakai, Chinatsu; Arimoto, Isao; Soga, Masashi; Yamazaki, Koji; Koganezawa, Masaaki

    2012-05-01

    We studied the effects of dung beetles on the fates of endozoochorous seeds of five species (Prunus jamasakura, Prunus verecunda, Prunus grayana, Swida controversa, and Vitis coignetiae) in a temperate deciduous forest in Japan during 2004-2006. In field experiments using dung of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), we investigated the depths that dung beetles (Onthophagus atripennis, Onthophagus lenzii, and Phelotrupes auratus) buried seeds (4.8-6.8 mm diameter) and plastic markers (2 or 5 mm diameter), the levels of predation on buried and unburied seeds, and germination rates of seeds buried to different depths. All three species buried the 2-mm markers, but only P. auratus buried the seeds and 5-mm markers. There were seasonal differences in mean seed burial rates (range, 27-51%) and depths (range, 1-27 mm). Significantly more seeds were buried in June, July, and September than in August or October, and the mean burial depth was significantly deeper in June and July. Most seeds and markers were buried to a 3-6 cm depth. Germination of seeds that were positioned at depths of 1-4 cm was significantly greater than that of seeds left on the surface or buried at greater depths. Buried seeds were less likely to disappear than seeds at the surface, which may reflect differential predation. These results suggested that dung beetles, especially P. auratus, acted as a secondary seed disperser that affected the survival and distribution of seeds dispersed by a frugivore.

  3. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  4. Vertical and seasonal distribution of flying beetles in a suburban temperate deciduous forest collected by water pan trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMINSETYOLEKSONO; KENTATAKADA; SHINSAKUKOJI; NOBUKAZUNAKAGOSHI; TJANDRAANGGRAENI; KOJINAKAMURA

    2005-01-01

    Vertical and seasonal distributions of flying beetles were investigated in asuburban temperate deciduous forest in Kanazawa, Japan using water pan traps to determine the abundance and composition among vertical strata, change in the abundance and composition through seasons and determinant factors in generating the distributions. Traps were placed at three levels (0.5 m, 10 m, and 20 m above ground) on a tower. Samplings were carried out seasonally from May to November in 1999 and 2000. Variations in the abundance of flying beetles were observed from different layers. The results showed that the abundance and composition of flying beetles varied among strata and seasons. In both 1999 and 2000,Elateridae was consistently most abundant in the bottom layer, while Attelabidae and Cantharidae were most abundant in the upper layer. In 1999, Eucnemidae and overall scavengers were most abundance in the bottom layer, but results were not consistent with those in 2000. In general, the abundance of herbivores reaches a peak in the early season(May/June) and decreases in the following months. Peaks of abundance in predators vary vertically. In the bottom layer a peak was observed in the early season (May/June), while in the upper layer this was observed in July. Scavengers had two peaks, in May/June and September. These patterns indicated that vertical distributions in the abundance of differentfeeding guilds varied through seasons.

  5. New insights on the link between phenology and productivity of temperate and boreal broadleaf deciduous forests across the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Shifts in the timing of key phenological phases in plants have been indentified as useful indicators to track the impact of ongoing climate change. Phenological responses themselves provide important feedbacks to the climate system as they exert control over most above- and belowground ecosystem processes and productivity. Recent advances in near-surface remote sensing enable automated and consistent observation of vegetation status at spatial and temporal scales suitable for integration with eddy covariance measurements. This allows us to gain phenological understanding of biosphere-atmosphere energy, water vapor and trace gas exchanges and thus productivity. Several previous studies have investigated the link between key phenological phases in temperate and boreal forests and their productivity across sites and years. Most of these studies focused on shifts in the timing of spring phenological events such as budburst. Few studies, however, have investigated the importance of the rates of changes across key phenological phases such as leaf development and senescence in spring and autumn, respectively, as explanatory variables of observed interannual and across-site variability in forest productivity. To shed light on this question we first optimized and evaluated a popular bioclimatic index (the growing season index of Jolly et al., 2005) that integrates known controls on temperate and boreal forest canopy development (i.e., air temperature, photoperiod, soil water balance) with multiple years of digital repeat photography at different sites from the PhenoCam network. Next, using meteorological and eddy covariance measurements from 24 temperate and boreal broadleaf deciduous forest sites across the globe (113 site years) as provided by the FLUXNET 'La Thuile' data set, we characterized continuous canopy development with the optimized bioclimatic index and derived spring and autumn phenological dates and rates and annual integrals of net ecosystem productivity (NEP

  6. Influence of gas-particle partitioning on ammonia and nitric acid fluxes above a deciduous forest in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hornsby, K. E.; Boegh, E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen gasses (including ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3)) is crucial to assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, measuring the deposition of reactive nitrogen is challenging due to bi-directionality of the flux, and the dynamics of the chemical gas/aerosol equilibrium of NH3 and HNO3 (or other atmospheric acids) with aerosol-phase ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). NH3 and HNO3 are both very reactive and typically exhibit higher deposition velocities than aerosol NH4+. Therefore, the phase partitioning between gas and aerosol phases can have a significant effect on local budgets and atmospheric transport distances (Nemitz et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2004). In this study, fluxes of NH3, HNO3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) along with size-resolved N-aerosol concentrations are measured above the deciduous forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in south-central Indiana (39°53'N, 86°25'W) during a field campaign. Two relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) systems are used to measure fluxes and concentrations of NH3 and HNO3 at 44 m. The NH3 REA system operates based on wet effluent diffusion denuders with detection by florescence and half-hourly flux measurements are calculated. HNO3 REA system is based on gas capture on sodium chloride (NaCl) coated denuders with subsequent analysis by ion-chromatography, and the resulting fluxes have a resolution of 3-4 hours. CO2 fluxes are measured by eddy covariance using a closed-path Licor LI-7500, while two MSP MOUDI-110 impactors are used to measure the 24-hourly average inorganic and 48 hourly averaged organic ion concentrations in 11 size bins, respectively, just above the canopy level (28 m). The results of this field campaign are used to quantify the fluxes of NH3, HNO3, CO2 to/from the forest during the transition towards senescence, and to investigate process-level controls (e.g. the role of phase

  7. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars; Smolander, Aino; Prescott, Cindy; Ranger, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical-chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of stand development, former land use and current management. We present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production is usually similar or lower in DA stands than in stands of EGs. Aboveground production of dead organic matter appears to be of the same order of magnitude between tree species groups growing on the same site. Some DAs induce more rapid decomposition of litter than EGs because of the chemical properties of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters that distinguish litter decomposition rates of EGs from DAs. Although it has been suggested that DAs can result in higher accumulation of soil carbon stocks, evidence from

  8. Background concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric ammonia over a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.; Pryor, S. C.; Boegh, E.;

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, we present two months of half-hourly NH3 fluxes and concentrations measured using a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation system during late summer and fall 2013 above a remote forest site in the central Midwest in USA. Supplementary nitric acid (HNO3) flux and size-resolved aerosol-N measurements are used.......11 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. The wetness of the forest surfaces (assessed using a proxy of time since precipitation) was found to be crucial in controlling both deposition and emission of atmospheric NH3. Size resolved aerosol concentrations (of NH4+, NO3−, Cl− and SO42−) indicated that the aerosol and gas...

  9. Seasonal variations of stable carbon isotopic composition and biogenic tracer compounds of water-soluble organic aerosols in a deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miyazaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the seasonal changes in biogenic water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC aerosols in a boreal forest, aerosol samples were collected continuously in the canopy of a deciduous forest in northern Japan during 2009–2010. Stable carbon isotopic composition of WSOC (δ13CWSOC in total suspended particulate matter (TSP exhibited a distinct seasonal cycle, with lower values from June through September (−25.5±0.5 ‰. This cycle follows the net CO2 exchange between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere, indicating that δ13CWSOC likely reflects the biological activity at the forest site. WSOC concentrations showed the highest values in early summer and autumn. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis indicated that the factor in which biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs dominated accounted for ~40 % of the highest concentrations of WSOC, where BSOAs mostly consisted of α-/β-pinene SOA. In addition, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs made similar contributions (~57 % to the WSOC near the forest floor in early summer. This finding indicates that the production of both primary and secondary WSOC aerosols is important during the growing season in a deciduous forest. The methanesulfonic acid (MSA maximum was also found in early summer and had a distinct vertical gradient with larger concentrations near the forest floor. Together with the similar vertical gradients found for WSOC and δ13CWSOC as well as the α-/β-pinene SOA tracers, our results indicate that the forest floor, including ground vegetation and soil, acts as a significant source of WSOC in TSP within a forest canopy at the study site.

  10. Postfire macromycetes from deciduous wood in the Chrzanów forest inspectorate (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dyląg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the studies of postfire macromycetes in a burnt forest near Chrzanów. Fifty one species of fungi and three species of Myxomycetes were found in the investigated area. Pholiota carbonaria was the most abundantly fructifying fungus. Its seasonal frequency was observed on 8 sample plots (1m x 1m over two subsequent years: 1993 and 1994. Gradual overgrowth of the plots by mosses. flowering plants and other fungi was also observed.

  11. An Experimental Test of Competition among Mice, Chipmunks, and Squirrels in Deciduous Forest Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Brunner

    Full Text Available Mixed hardwood forests of the northeast United States support a guild of granivorous/omnivorous rodents including gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus, and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus. These species coincide geographically, co-occur locally, and consume similar food resources. Despite their idiosyncratic responses to landscape and patch variables, patch occupancy models suggest that competition may influence their respective distributions and abundances, and accordingly their influence on the rest of the forest community. Experimental studies, however, are wanting. We present the result of a large-scale experiment in which we removed white-footed mice or gray squirrels from small, isolated forest fragments in Dutchess County, New York, and added these mammals to other fragments in order to alter the abundance of these two species. We then used mark-recapture analyses to quantify the population-level and individual-level effects on resident mice, squirrels, and chipmunks. Overall, we found little evidence of competition. There were essentially no within-season numerical responses to changes in the abundance of putative competitors. Moreover, while individual-level responses (apparent survival and capture probability did vary with competitor densities in some models, these effects were often better explained by site-specific parameters and were restricted to few of the 19 sites we studied. With only weak or nonexistent competition among these three common rodent species, we expect their patterns of habitat occupancy and population dynamics to be largely independent of one another.

  12. [Original humus forms in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, G

    2001-08-01

    Humus profiles underneath the canopy of dominant tree species in two secondary semi-evergreen forest sites in Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) were analysed with a micromorphological method. In the vertisol of a tree plantation, the humus formed was rather similar under all tree species being an eumull and essentially due to the activity of the endoanecic earthworm Polypheretima elongata. In a natural secondary forest located on a steep slope and associated with a rendzina soil (without endoanecic earthworms), the humus forms were described at lower, mid- and upper slope. In this forest, two particular humus forms were observed. At the middle slope, underneath the canopy of Pisonia subcordata L. that produces nitrogen-rich litter, a calcareous amphimull, characterised by an OH horizon made of millipede faecal pellets, was formed. In the upper slope, underneath the canopy of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. that produces a litter rich in resins and aromatic compounds that are poorly consumed by soil animals, a dysmull with a thick root mat (OFRh horizon) developed. Other humus forms were intermediate. The formation of these humus forms is discussed.

  13. Are Boreal Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, More Prone to Move across Inhospitable Landscapes in Alberta's Boreal Mixedwood Forest than in Southern Québec's Temperate Deciduous Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.

  14. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  15. The Potential of EnMAP and Sentinel-2 Data for Detecting Drought Stress Phenomena in Deciduous Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Dotzler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of forest ecosystems, the availability of reliable, spatially explicit information about the site-specific climate sensitivity of tree species is essential for implementing suitable adaptation strategies. In this study, airborne hyperspectral data were used to assess the response of deciduous species (dominated by European beech and Sessile and Pedunculate oak to water stress during a summery dry spell. After masking canopy gaps, shaded crown areas and non-deciduous species, potentially indicative spectral indices, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI, Moisture Stress Index (MSI, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, and Chlorophyll Index (CI, were analyzed with respect to available maps of site-specific soil moisture regimes. PRI provided an important indication of site-specific photosynthetic stress on leaf level in relation to limitations in soil water availability. The CI, MSI and NDWI revealed statistically significant differences in total chlorophyll and water concentration at the canopy level. However, after reducing the canopy effects by normalizing these indices with respect to the structure-sensitive simple ratio (SR vegetation index, it was not yet possible to identify site-specific concentration differences in leaf level at this early stage of the drought. The selected indicators were also tested with simulated EnMAP and Sentinel-2 data (derived from the original airborne data set. While PRI proved to be useful also in the spatial resolution of EnMAP (GSD = 30 m, this was not the case with Sentinel-2, owing to the lack of adequate spectral bands; the remaining indicators (MSI, CI, SR were also successfully produced with Sentinel-2 data at superior spatial resolution (GSD = 10 m. The study confirms the importance of using earth observation systems for supplementing traditional ecological site classification maps, particularly during dry spells and heat waves when ecological gradients are increasingly

  16. Mycorrhizae respond to plant diversity in monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest succession choronsequence%季风常绿阔叶林演替系列菌根资源及其与群落多样性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑克举; 唐旭利; 张静; 韩天丰

    2013-01-01

    Plant species diversity, community structure, productivity and edaphic factors varied significantly with forest succession, these variations may influence the diversity of mycorrhizae. To understand how forest structure and function impact on mycorrhizae at ecosystem level, three subtropical forests were chosen along a forest succession series in South China to investigate mycorrhizae, ectomycorrhizae ( ECM ), arbuscular mycorrhizae ( AM ), and mycorrhizal fungal spores in the top soil ( 0-20 cm depth ). Potential influences of forest structure on mycorrhizae were analyzed based on field census together with plant diversity and soil nutrients. The results showed that nearly 70% of fine roots less than 2 mm diameter in the top soil of each forest were colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, but dominate mycorrhizae types varied significantly in the three successional forests. AM accounted for 78% of total mycor-rhizae in the pine forest at early successional stage, ECM contributed to 75% of mycorrhizae in the mixed forest at middle succes-sional stage, and AM and ECM contributed equivalently to total mycorrhizae in the monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest at late succession stage. Mycorrhizal fungal spore density was highest in the pine forest (2 925 spores per 20 g dry soil), which was 2.5 and 2 times of those in the mixed forest and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest, respectively. We found that the difference of mycor-rhizae composition was associated with plant diversity, community structure and soil nutrient condition in successional forests. Spe-cies-rich and individual high density of grass plants and poor soil nutrient level in the pine forest may result in relatively high propor-tion of AM in the pine forest. Mycorrhizae were dominated by ECM resulting from the dominance of ECM plant in the mixed forest. Abundant plant species and complex community structure in the monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest contributed AM and ECM to equal distribution in the forest

  17. Small scale spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration in an old growth temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jordan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The large scale spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration caused by differences in site conditions is quite well understood. However, comparably little is known about the micro scale heterogeneity within forest ecosystems on homogeneous soils. Forest age, soil texture, topographic position, micro topography and stand structure may influence soil respiration considerably within short distance. In the present study within site spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration has been evaluated. To do so, an improvement of available techniques for interpolating soil respiration data via kriging was undertaken.

    Soil respiration was measured with closed chambers biweekly from April 2005 to April 2006 using a nested design (a set of stratified random plots, supplemented by 2 small and 2 large nested groupings in an unmanaged, beech dominated old growth forest in Central Germany (Hainich, Thuringia. A second exclusive randomized design was established in August 2005 and continually sampled biweekly until July 2007.

    The average soil respiration values from the random plots were standardized by modeling soil respiration data at defined soil temperature and soil moisture values. By comparing sampling points as well as by comparing kriging results based on various sampling point densities, we found that the exclusion of local outliers was of great importance for the reliability of the estimated fluxes. Most of this information would have been missed without the nested groupings. The extrapolation results slightly improved when additional parameters like soil temperature and soil moisture were included in the extrapolation procedure. Semivariograms solely calculated from soil respiration data show a broad variety of autocorrelation distances (ranges from a few centimeters up to a few tens of meters.

    The combination of randomly distributed plots with nested groupings plus the inclusion of additional relevant parameters like soil

  18. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  19. Leaf angle, tree species, and the functioning of broadleaf deciduous forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, B. E.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fahey, R. T.; King, C. J.; Flamenco, E. A.; Rescorl, S.; Erazo, D.; Heimerl, T.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of temperate forests on the global cycles of carbon, water, and energy depends strongly on how individual tree species adjust to the novel environmental conditions of the Anthropocene. Here, we seek to identify and understand ecological variability in one important component of tree canopies, the inclination angles of leaves. Leaf angle has important effects on forest albedo, photosynthesis, and evapotranspiration, but there is relatively little data to constrain the many models that include (or perhaps should include) this essential aspect of canopy architecture. We employ a relatively new technique for using an electronic protractor to measure leaf angles from leveled digital photographs. From a suite of observation platforms (e.g. UAVs, eddy flux towers, old fire towers) in Connecticut, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA, we have measured leaf angles periodically throughout the 2014, 2015, and 2016 growing seasons. Based on over 25,000 measurements taken from 15 tree species, we find highly significant differences in mean leaf angle by canopy position, tree species, location, and observation date. In addition to replicating findings where upper-canopy sun leaves are more vertical than lower-canopy shade leaves, our analysis on sun leaves also finds other ecologically meaningful differences. For instance, we find that the mesic, shade tolerant sugar maple had significantly more horizontal leaf angles than drought-resistant species such as white oak. Species also appear to have unique patterns of leaf angle phenology, with most species tending toward more vertical leaf angles during droughty conditions later in the year. We discuss these empirical results in light of an emerging theoretical framework that positions leaf angle as a functional trait. Like leaf traits such as %N or SLA, we suggest that leaf angle is an essential part of the adaptive resource strategy of each tree species. Finally, by linking our leaf angle

  20. The Influence of DEM Quality on Mapping Accuracy of Coniferous- and Deciduous-Dominated Forest Using TerraSAR‑X Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kändler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a factor that largely contributes to the increase of forest areas affected by natural damages. Therefore, the development of methodologies for forest monitoring and rapid assessment of affected areas is required. Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery with high resolution is now available for large-scale forest mapping and forest monitoring applications. However, a correct interpretation of SAR images requires an adequate preprocessing of the data consisting of orthorectification and radiometric calibration. The resolution and quality of the digital elevation model (DEM used as reference is crucial for this purpose. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the DEM quality used in the preprocessing of the SAR data on the mapping accuracy of forest types. In order to examine TerraSAR-X images to map forest dominated by deciduous and coniferous trees, High Resolution SpotLight images were acquired for two study sites in southern Germany. The SAR images were preprocessed with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM (resolution approximately 90 m, an airborne laser scanning (ALS digital terrain model (DTM (5 m resolution, and an ALS digital surface model (DSM (5 m resolution. The orthorectification of the SAR images using high resolution ALS DEMs was found to be important for the reduction of errors in pixel location and to increase the classification accuracy of forest types. SAR images preprocessed with ALS DTMs resulted in the highest classification accuracies, with kappa coefficients of 0.49 and 0.41, respectively. SAR images preprocessed with ALS DTMs resulted in greater accuracy than those preprocessed with ALS DSMs in most cases. The classification accuracy of forest types using SAR images preprocessed with the SRTM DEM was fair, with kappa coefficients of 0.23 and 0.32, respectively.Analysis of the radar backscatter indicated that sample plots dominated by coniferous trees

  1. Seasonal variations of stable carbon isotopic ratios and biogenic tracer compounds of water-soluble organic aerosols in a deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miyazaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the seasonal changes in biogenic water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC aerosols in a boreal forest, aerosol samples were collected continuously in the canopy of a~deciduous forest in Northern Japan during 2009–2010. Stable carbon isotopic ratios of WSOC (δ13CWSOC in aerosols exhibited a distinct seasonal cycle, with lower values from June through September (−25.5 ± 0.5‰. This cycle follows the net CO2 exchange between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere, indicating that δ13CWSOC likely reflects the biological activity at the forest site. WSOC concentrations showed the highest values in early summer and autumn. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis indicated that the factor in which biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs dominated accounted for ~ 40% of the highest concentrations of WSOC, where BSOAs mostly consisted of α-/β-pinene SOA. In addition, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs made similar contributions (~ 57% to the WSOC near the canopy floor in early summer. This finding indicates that the production of both primary and secondary WSOC aerosols is important during the growing season in a deciduous forest. The methanesulfonic acid (MSA maximum was also found in early summer and had a distinct vertical gradient with larger concentrations near the canopy floor. Together with the similar vertical gradients found for WSOC and δ13CWSOCas well as the α-/β-pinene SOA tracers, our results indicate that the forest floor, including ground vegetation and soil, acts as a significant source of the WSOC within a~forest canopy at the study site.

  2. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  3. The importance of deciduous forest for alkalinity, phosphorus burial and isoetid macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleo study in a soft water Lobelia Lake (Grane Langsø, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Marie; Reitzel, Kasper; Mortensen, Morten F.

    Langsø changed during the last ca. 200 years from deciduous forest to open heathland with some agriculture and afterwards to coniferous forest. To determine the effects of these changes on the lake, macrofossils, metals and different phosphorus (P) forms were analyzed in dated short sediment cores from...

  4. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  5. Tree species diversity and stand structure along major community types in lowland primary and secondary moist deciduous forests in Tripura,Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koushik Majumdar; Uma Shankar; Badal Kumar Datta

    2012-01-01

    Tree species diversity and population structure at different community types were described and analyzed for primary and secondary lowland moist deciduous forests in Tripura.Overall 10,957 individual trees belonging to 46 family,103 genera and 144 species were counted at ≥30 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) using 28 permanent belt transects with a size of 1 ha (10 m × 1000 m).Four different tree communities were identified.The primary forests was dominated by Shorea robusta (mean density 464.77 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Schima wallichii (336.25 trees·ha-1,82 species),while the secondary forests was dominated by Tectona grandis (333.88 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Hevea brasiliensis (299.67 trees·ha-1,82 species).Overall mean basal area in this study was 18.01 m2·ha-1; the maximum value was recorded in primary Shorea forest (26.21 m2·ha-1).Mean density and diversity indices were differed significantly within four different communities.No significant differences were observed in number of spccies,genera,family and tree basal cover area.Significant relationships were found between the species richness and different tree population groups across the communities.Results revealed that species diversity and density were increased in those forests due to past disturbances which resulted in slow accumulation of native oligarchic small tree species.Seventeen species were recorded with <2 individuals of which Saraca asoka (Roxb,) de Wilde and Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.etc.extensively used in local ethnomedicinal formulations.The present S.robusta Gaertn dominated forest was recorded richer (105 species) than other reported studies.Moraceae was found more speciose family instead of Papilionaceae and Euphorbiaceae than other Indian moist deciduous forests.Seasonal phenological gap in such moist deciduous forests influenced the population of Trachypithecus pileatus and capped langur.The analysis of FIV suggested a slow trend of shifting the population of

  6. Natural regeneration dynamics of three dry deciduous forest species in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve, Nicaragua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Castro Marín; Mulualem Tigabu; Benigno González Rivas; Per Christer Odén

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the natural regeneration of three dry forest species, Lysiloma divaricatum (Jacq.), Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) and Lonchocarpus minimiflorus (Donn. Sm.) over a three-year period and to analyze heterogeneity of regeneration in relationship to topographic slope and incidence of light in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve in Nicaragua. Permanent sample plots were established in 2001, and all individuals with height as low as 10 cm and diameter as large as 10 cm were recorded for three consecutive years from 2001 to 2003. The results show that the density of naturally regenerated individuals varied significantly among species, as well as over time. L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea had higher densities compared with L. divaricatum, and the net change in population density was slightly positive for T. ochracea only. Regeneration was more abundant in the gentle and steep slopes under partial exposure of the crown to sunlight, thus resulting in aggregated pattern of distribution, especially for L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea. We concluded that natural regeneration alone is not sufficient to maintain the desired number of stocks of these species, and an immediate restoration measure should be taken to assist the natural regeneration process.

  7. Segmentation and classification of high resolution imagery for mapping individual species in a closed canopy, deciduous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy; A.; Warner; James; B.; McGraw; Rick; Landenberger

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a shadow-based delineation program for identifying segments in imagery of a closed canopy, deciduous forest, in West Virginia, USA, as a way to reduce the noise associated with per-pixel classification in forested environments. Shadows typically cluster along the boundaries of trees and therefore can be used to provide a network of nodes for the delineation of segments. A minimum cost path algorithm, where cost is defined as the cumulative sum of brightness values traversed along the connecting route, was used to connect shadow clumps. To test this approach, a series of classifications was undertaken using a multispectral digital aerial image of a six hectare test site and a minimum cost path segmentation. Three species were mapped: oaks, red maple and yellow poplar. The accuracy of an aspatial maximum likelihood classification (termed PERPIXEL classification) was 68.5%, compared to 74.0% for classification using the mean vector of the segments identified with the minimum cost path algorithm (MEAN_SEG), and 78% when the most common class present in the segment is assigned to the entire segment (POSTCLASS_SEG). By comparison, multispectral classification of the multispectral data using the field-mapped polygons of individual trees as segments, produced an accuracy of 82.3% when the mean vector of the polygon was used for classification (MEAN_TREE), and 85.7% when the most common class was assigned to the entire polygon (POSTCLASS_TREE). A moving window-based post-classification majority filter (POSTCLASS_MAJ5BY5) produced an intermediate accuracy value, 73.8%. The minimum cost path segmentation algorithm was found to correctly delineate approximately 28% of the trees. The remaining trees were either segmented, aggregated, or a combination of both segmented and aggregated. Varying the threshold that was used to discriminate shadows appeared to have little effect on the number of correctly delineated trees, or on the overall

  8. Carbon storage and sequestration rate assessment and allometric model development in young teak plantations of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration through plantations is one of the important mitigation measures for rising levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This study aimed to assess C stocks and their sequestration rate, and to develop allometric models for estimation of C stocking in age-series young teak (Tectona grandis) planta-tions (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) by using biomass and productivity estimation and regression, respectively. These plantations were raised in tropical moist deciduous forests of Kumaun Himalayan tarai. Total C stocks estimated for these plantations were 1.6, 15.8, 35.4, 39.0, 61.5 and 73.2 Mg ha-1, respectively. Aboveground and belowground C storage in-creased with increasing plantation age;however, the range of their percentage contribution showed little variation (87.8–88.2 and 11.7–12.7%, respectively). The rate of C sequestration for these respective plantations was 1.06, 6.95, 5.46, 5.42, 3.39 and 5.37 Mg ha-1 a-1. Forty percent of the aboveground annual storage was retained in the tree while 60%was released in the form of foliage, twigs, and fruit litter. In the case of total (tree) annual production, 43%was retained while 57%was released as litter including root. C stock, C sequestration rate, accumulation ratio (1.4–18.1), root:shoot C ratio (0.61–0.13) and production efficiency (0.01–0.18) were comparable to some previous reports for other species and forests. These data could be useful in deciding the harvesting age for young teak with respect to C storage and sequestration rate. Four allometric models using linear regression equations were developed between biomass (twice the C stock) and diameter, girth, and height of the tree at different ages. The diameter model was found more suitable for C stock predic-tion in similar areas.

  9. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  10. 长白山针阔混交林秋季净生态系统水气交换量%Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温学发; 于贵瑞; 孙晓敏

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002.To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mgm-2 s-1 (100%),14.8 mgm-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage,respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m-2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  11. Different characteristics of new particle formation between urban and deciduous forest sites in Northern Japan during the summers of 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate new particle formation (NPF) events in urban and forest environments, number size distributions of ultrafine particles were measured at an urban site and a deciduous forest site in Sapporo, Northern Japan, during the summers of 2011 and 2010, respectively. The burst of nucleation mode particles at the urban site typically started in the morning (07:00-11:30 local time, LT) with simultaneous increases in SO2 and O3 concentrations and the UV index under clear (sunny) weather conditions. The growth rates of nucleated particles at the urban site ranged from 5.0 to 7.8 nm h-1 with an average of 6.3 ± 1.1 nm h-1. NPF events at the urban site were separated into events with or without subsequent particle growth after the burst of nucleation mode particles. This division was found to relate to prevailing wind direction because the subsequent growth of freshly nucleated particles typically occurred when wind direction shifted to northwesterly (from residential and public park areas), whereas it did not occur under southeasterly winds (from the downtown area). During the periods with NPF events, elevated concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were obtained under conditions of northwesterly winds when compared to southeasterly winds, whereas no difference in SO2 levels was recorded. These results suggest that variations in NMHC concentration may play an important role in the growth of freshly nucleated particles at the urban site. The burst of nucleation mode particles at the forest site typically started around noon (10:30-14:30 LT), which was 3-4 h later than that at the urban site. Interestingly, at the forest site the burst of nucleation mode particles usually started when air masses originating from urban Sapporo arrived at the forest site. The present study indicates that the inflow of these urban air masses acted as a trigger for the initiation of the burst of nucleation mode particles in the deciduous forest.

  12. Effects of drought on leaf gas exchange in an eastern broadleaf deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. T.; Brzostek, E. R.; Dragoni, D.; Rahman, A. F.; Novick, K. A.; Phillips, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding plant physiological adaptations to drought is critical for predicting changes in ecosystem productivity that result from climate variability and future climate change. From 2011-2013, southern Indiana experienced a late growing season drought in 2011, a severe early season drought in 2012, and a wet growing season in 2013 characterized by an absence of water stress with frequent precipitation and milder temperatures. The 2012 drought was unique due to the severity and early onset drought conditions (compared to the more frequent late season drought) and was characterized by a Palmer Drought severity index below -4 and precipitation totals from May - July that were 70% less than the long-term (2000 - 2010) mean. During the 2012 drought, an 11% decline in net ecosystem productivity relative to the long-term mean was observed at the AmeriFlux tower in Morgan Monroe State Forest despite a growing season that started ~25 days earlier. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate species-specific contributions to the canopy-scale response to inter-annual variability in water stress. We investigated differences between tree species in their response to climate variability using weekly leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential measurements during the growing seasons of 2011-2013. We used this unique dataset, collected at the top of the canopy with a 25 m boom lift, to evaluate changes in leaf water status and maximum assimilation capacity in the drought versus non-drought years. The leaf-level physiology of oak (Quercus) species appears to be less sensitive to drought than other species (tulip poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera], sassafras [Sassafras albidum] and sugar maple [Acer saccharum]). Preliminary data shows mean canopy leaf water potential for oaks was 30.5% more negative in May-July 2012 versus the same time period in 2013. During these same periods the rate of C assimilation in oaks was reduced by only 3%, whereas other species were reduced by

  13. Effects of Chinese Fir,Loblolly Pine and Deciduous Oak Forests on Nutrient Status of Soils in Northern Subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUORU-YING; GAOZHI-QIN

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with a study on the effects of Chinese fir,lobolly pine and deciduous oak forests o the nutrient status of soils in northern subtropics of China,adopting the principle of forest ecology in the case of similar climate and soil type.The experimental area was situated in the Xiashu Experimental Centre of Forest,where the soil is yellow-brown soil derved from siliceous slope wash.Sample plots of these 3 stands were established to study the nutrient status in litter ,the amount of nutrient uptake by roots,the quantity of nutrient output by percolating water outside the deep layer of soil,and the seasonal dynamics of available nutrient in surface soil.It was whown that the intensity of nutrient cycling in soil under deciduous oak was the highest,and the effect of oak in improving soil fertility was the best.The result of improving soil fertility by Chinese fir was the most inferior,though the intensity of nutrient cycling under that stand was higher than that under loblolly pine stand.The influence of loblolly pine on the improvement of soil fertility was better than that of Chinese fir,in spite of its lowest intensity of nutrient cycling.

  14. Spatial Patterns and Associations of Dominant Tree Spe-cies in Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest in Southern China%中国亚热带常绿阔叶林优势种的空间格局与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃林; 温远光; 梁宏温; 朱宏光

    2014-01-01

    Objective]It is well known that the spatial pattern in plant communities plays an im-portant role in community assembly and dynamic.[Methods]We analyzed the population struc-ture of eight dominant tree species at a 3.2hm2 subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest plot in Damingshan Nature Reserve in southern China.Based on the O-ring statistic,a technique of spatial point pattern analysis,we analyzed small-scale intraspecific spatial distribution patterns and intra-or inter-specific spatial association patterns among eight dominant species.[Results]The results showed that significant aggregated for intraspecific,and for smaller trees within species at small scales.Large trees of Huodendron biaristatum and Diospyros morrisiana showed significant positive association with their smaller trees at small scales,while large tree of Acer fabric showed significant negative association with its smaller trees at all scales of 0~40m.Only 2 of 58 species pairs among these species showed significant small-scale positive as-sociation.[Conclusion]These results revealed that seed dispersal limitation and microhabitat heterogeneity might contribute to the coexistence of these dominant species at subtropical ever-green broadleaved forest in Damingshan.However,the ecological assembly rules in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest are required to further explore in southern China.%【目的】种群空间格局对阐明植物群落构建与动态具有重要意义。【方法】在广西大明山国家级自然保护区建立了一个面积3.2hm2的常绿阔叶林固定样地。运用O-ring空间点格局分析方法对样地8个优势种的空间格局以及种群大小关联和种间关联进行了研究。【结果】8个优势树种及其小径级个体在小尺度上均为聚集分布;云贵山茉莉和毛狗骨柴的大径级与其小径级个体在小尺度上呈正相关,而罗浮槭的大径级与小径级在0~40m上为负相关;58个种对中有2个种对在小尺度

  15. Daily Activities of the Giant Pill-Millipede Zephronia cf. viridescens Attems, 1936 (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Zephroniidae) in a Deciduous Forest in Northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongthamwanich, N.; Panha, S.; Sitthicharoenchai, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Daily activities of the giant pill-millipede Zephronia cf. viridescens Attems, 1936 (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Zephroniidae) in a deciduous forest in northern Thailand. Zoological Studies 51(7): 913-926. For the 1st time in the order Sphaerotheriida, daily activities of the giant pill-millipede....... It was concluded that females tend to accumulate energy throughout the day, probably for reproduction, while males tend to spend more time walking, probably for the purpose of finding mates. http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/51.7/913.pdf...

  16. Effect of Radiocesium Transfer on Ambient Dose Rate in Forest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Hisadome, Keigo; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (beech with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). In decreasing order of total Cs-137 deposition from the canopy to forest floor were the mature cedar stand, the young cedar stand, and the broad-leaved forest. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied by forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rates at the canopy (approx. 10 m-) decreased earlier than physical attenuation of radiocesium, whereas those at the forest floor varied among three forest stands. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor.

  17. NATURAL VEGETATION AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES RELATED TO AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: TROPOSPHERIC OZONE REMOVAL BY EVERGREEN AND DECIDUOUS FORESTS IN LATIUM (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Manes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The background concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3 are increasing in both industrialized and developing countries, thus posing a concrete risk to human health, natural vegetation and crops. Several papers have reported that the total O3 flux from the atmosphere to canopy surfaces can have positive effects on air quality, and consequently to human health and wellbeing. In this work, we have estimated the role of the main natural woody vegetation classes of the CORINE Land cover Classification System in the Latium Region (Central Italy in removing O3 during the growing season of the year 2005. Cumulated O3 fluxes data allowed to estimate the externality value of this ecosystem service provided by deciduous and evergreen forests in the Latium region to be around a total value of 85025821.  In the Apennine chain Province, this value should be around 57248431 $ while  in the Tyrrhenian Borderland Province 2286567 $, 22376136 $ and 3114686 $ for deciduous and evergreen forests, respectively. This corresponds, for the growing season 2005, to a total value of 85025821 $ attributable to the ecosystem service of tropospheric O3 removal provided by the natural forests of the Latium region. Although we acknowledge the uncertainty in producing such estimate, we think our effort  as a useful first contribution addressed to the monetization of one of the ecosystem services of Italian forests at a regional level, and more in general, to open the discussion in a field that would be very useful in forest management and environmental policy-making. 

  18. Mapping tropical forests and deciduous rubber plantations in Hainan Island, China by integrating PALSAR 25-m and multi-temporal Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Li, Xiangping; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhao, Bin; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Qin, Yuanwei; Yang, Chuan; Wu, Zhixiang; Sun, Rui; Lan, Guoyu; Xie, Guishui

    2016-08-01

    Updated and accurate maps of tropical forests and industrial plantations, like rubber plantations, are essential for understanding carbon cycle and optimal forest management practices, but existing optical-imagery-based efforts are greatly limited by frequent cloud cover. Here we explored the potential utility of integrating 25-m cloud-free Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic product and multi-temporal Landsat images to map forests and rubber plantations in Hainan Island, China. Based on structure information detected by PALSAR and yearly maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), we first identified and mapped forests with a producer accuracy (PA) of 96% and user accuracy (UA) of 98%. The resultant forest map showed reasonable spatial and areal agreements with the optical-based forest maps of Fine Resolution Observation and Monitoring Global Land Clover (FROM-GLC) and GlobalLand30. We then extracted rubber plantations from the forest map according to their deciduous features (using minimum Land Surface Water Index, LSWI) and rapid changes in canopies during Rubber Defoliation and Foliation (RDF) period (using standard deviation of LSWI) and dense canopy in growing season (using maximum NDVI). The rubber plantation map yielded a high accuracy when validated by ground truth-based data (PA/UA > 86%) and evaluated with three farm-scale rubber plantation maps (PA/UA >88%). It is estimated that in 2010, Hainan Island had 2.11 × 106 ha of forest and 5.15 × 105 ha of rubber plantations. This study has demonstrated the potential of integrating 25-m PALSAR-based structure information, and Landsat-based spectral and phenology information for mapping tropical forests and rubber plantations.

  19. A metagenomics-based approach to the top-down effect on the detritivore food web: a salamanders influence on fungal communities within a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Donald M; Lawrence, Brandy R; Esterline, Dakota; Graham, Sean P; Edelbrock, Michael A; Wooten, Jessica A

    2014-11-01

    The flow of energy within an ecosystem can be considered either top-down, where predators influence consumers, or bottom-up, where producers influence consumers. Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) is a terrestrial keystone predator who feeds on invertebrates within the ecosystem. We investigated the impact of the removal of P. cinereus on the detritivore food web in an upland deciduous forest in northwest Ohio, U.S.A. A total of eight aluminum enclosures, each containing a single P. cinereus under a small log, were constructed in the deciduous forest. On Day 1 of the experiment, four salamanders were evicted from four of the eight enclosures. Organic matter and soil were collected from the center of each enclosure at Day 1 and Day 21. From each sample, DNA was extracted, fungal-specific amplification performed, and 454 pyrosequencing was used to sequence the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region and partial ribosomal large subunit (LSU). Changes in overall fungal community composition or species diversity were not statistically significant between treatments. Statistically significant shifts in the most abundant taxonomic groups of fungi were documented in presence but not absence enclosures. We concluded that P. cinereus does not affect the overall composition or diversity of fungal communities, but does have an impact on specific groups of fungi. This study used a metagenomics-based approach to investigate a missing link among a keystone predator, P. cinereus, invertebrates, and fungal communities, all of which are critical in the detritivore food web.

  20. [Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-Yong; Wang, Li-Hai; Sun, Mo-Long

    2013-07-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.

  1. 云南高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林的群落特征%Community Characteristics of the Mid-Montane Humid Ever-Green Broad-Leaved Forest in Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广涛; 柴勇; 袁春明; 艾怀森; 李贵祥; 王骞; 李品荣; 蔺汝涛

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic observation of the mid - montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest and the community characteristics analysis were conducted in a 4 - hm2 permanent plot located in ecological corridor in southern region of Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve during 2009-2010. The results showed that there were 10 546 freestanding individuals with DBH ≥1. 0 cm in the 4 hm plot, belonging to 95 species, 64 genera and 35 families. The species richness was higher and the proportion of rare species was lower in the plot, compared with other plots of the same kind forest. Lauraceae, Theaceae, Araliaceae, Fagaceae, and Symplocaceae were dominant families in the plot and they comprised 44. 21 % of all species and 56. 70% of all individuals. Symplocas ramosissima, Eurya pseudocerasifera , Gordonia longicarpa, Neolitsea lunglingensis, Lithocarpus hancei, and Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa had more importance value in the plot, but no one had obvious advantage, namely the plot did not contain an obviously dominant species. Floristic characteristics of the community indicated that the tropical elements were much more than temperate elements, implying that this area could be an origin of tropics. The minimal area of the community is 1. 32 hm , which could comprise more than 80% of all species. The structure of DBH size class of all species and some dominant species in the plot showed a typical pyramid structure with a wide bottom and a narrow top, implying a good regeneration in the community. The survival curve of most of dominant species tended to be of the Deevey-Ⅲ type, with a high mortality rate at small DHB size class and a low and stable mortality rate at large DBH size class.

  2. Minor changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations detected in a temperate deciduous forest a year after an experimental slash-and-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-06-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. We investigated the effects of slash-and-burn at a long-term experimental burning site and determined soil organic carbon and charcoal carbon concentrations as well as the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year later. The main results are that (i) only a few of the charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix, presumably by soil mixing animals. In the 0-1 cm layer, during one year, the charcoal C concentration increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentration increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness decreased significantly in the topmost soil layer and correlated well with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in the samples from the 0-5 cm layer. We concluded that Holocene biomass burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  3. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-02-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i) only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0-1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in samples 0-5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  4. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, George L.; de Souza Nogueira, José; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Pinto, Osvaldo Borges

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are important in controlling regional and global climate; however, climate and evaportranspiration ( E) vary significantly across multiple time scales. To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Niño. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Niño. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 mm/year and accounted for 52 % of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42 % of the annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Niño and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin.

  5. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L* in the topmost soil material (0–1, 1–2.5 and 2.5–5 cm depths before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0–1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg−1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87** and SOC (r=−0.94** in samples 0–5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  6. Habitat associations of woody plant species in Baishanzu subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest%百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的生境相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 骆争荣; 周荣飞; 许大明; 哀建国; 丁炳扬

    2011-01-01

    Both unified neutral theory and niche theory have played an important role in understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence in tropical rain forests. Using Toms-translation tests, we examined the relationships between microtopography (elevation, convexity, and slope) and the distribution of 89 wood species with >5 individuals and diameter at breast height (DBH) > 1.0 cm in a 5-ha permanent plot in a subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province. We classified plants into three growth stages (sapling, juvenile and mature stages) based on their diameter-classes, and compared relationships between microtopography and the distribution of plants in different growth stages for each species.Species with less than 40 individuals always showed few associations with their habitats, while most common species in the 89 studied showed significant associations with their habitats. The majority of species exhibited shifts in habitat preference among growth stages; the exceptions were Rhododendron latoucheae,Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana and Cleyera pachyphylla, whose associations with habitats were similar at all stages. Our study suggests that topographical differentiation is important for maintaining species diversity in this subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest, and that habitat associations of species change ontogenetically.%中性理论和生态位理论在解释热带雨林中物种共存机制上发挥了重要作用.本文通过Torus-translation榆测方法对百山祖常绿阔叶林5 ha样地中DBH≥1 cm、个体数大于5的89种木本植物与4个根据地形和物种组成划分的小生境进行了关联性分析.同时按植物的胸径径级大小将其分为幼树期、生长期、成熟期3个生长阶段,并分别分析了植物在这3个生长阶段与生境的关联性.结果表明:89个木本植物中,没有表现出显著的生境相关件的物种多是稀有种或是个体数较少的物种,而大部分的常见

  7. Biologic diversity, forest fuels and silviculture: Effects of biomass harvesting in deciduous tree stands. Final report; Biologisk maangfald, skogsbraensle och skoetsel av bestaand: effekter av biomassauttag i loevskog. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Bjoern [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.; Goetmark, Frank [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-06-01

    This report concerns a research project studying biodiversity effects of partial cutting for biofuel harvest in temperate deciduous forest dominated by oaks (abandoned woodland pastures). Partial cutting (30%) resulted in fewer species of wood-decay fungi and bryophytes, but increase of vascular plants. It did not increase survival of oak seedlings in the short term. For epixylic bryophytes and lichens, wood-decay fungi, beetles and mycetophilids, area of valuable forest patches at the landscape level increased local species species richness, but not the number of red-listed and indicator species of vascular plants. We recommend that partial cutting for biofuel is not applied indiscriminantly, and a share of at least 25% of stands should be left as no intervention forests when oak grows mixed with other trees. More caution should be taken in regional areas rich in old deciduous forest, and in south-eastern Sweden.

  8. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandra Shekhar Jha; Kiran Chand Thumaty; Suraj Reddy Rodda; Ajit Sonakia; Vinay Kumar Dadhwal

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we report initial results on analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat flux) over teak mixed deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh, central India, during winter (November 2011 and January 2012) and summer (February–May 2012) seasons using eddy covariance flux tower datasets. During the study period, continuous fast response measurements of CO2, H2O and heat fluxes above the canopy were carried out at 10 Hz and averaged for 30 minutes. Concurrently, slow response measurements of meteorological parameters are also being carried out. Diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2, H2O and heat fluxes were analysed and correlated with the meteorological variables. The study showed strong influence of leaf off and on scenario on the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes due to prevalence of deciduous vegetation type in the study area. Maximum amount of CO2 was sequestered for photosynthesis during winter (monthly mean of −25 mol/m2/s) compared to summer (monthly mean of −2 mol/m2/s). Energy flux analysis (weekly mean) showed more energy being portioned into latent heat during winter (668 W/m2) and sensible heat during summer (718 W/m2).

  9. Ecogeographical Distribution of Soil Fauna in Pinus koraiensis Mixed Broad-leaved Forest of Changbai Mountains%长白山红松阔叶混交林土壤动物生态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷秀琴; 蒋云峰; 陶岩; 安静超; 辛未冬

    2011-01-01

    对长白山红松阔叶混交林分布的上缘、典型分布区和分布下缘土壤动物群落进行研究。结果表明,红松阔叶混交林三个分布区土壤动物群落组成存在差异,其中典型分布区土壤动物多样性指数较高,群落组成均匀。甲螨亚目、辐螨亚目、节跳虫科、球角跳虫科、革螨亚目和山跳虫科相关性较大,共同出现在各分布区。土壤动物垂直分布具有明显的表聚性,且红松阔叶混交林的上缘和典型分布区表聚性更为突出。通过灰色综合关联度分析表明,土壤全钾、全氮和有机质含量对土壤动物群落影响较大,而土壤全磷含量和pH对土壤动物的影响次之。%The Changbai Mountains,located in the Northeast China(41°23′–42°36′N,126°55′–128°8′E),are rich in natural resources and have always been concerned by scientists.Soil faunas play crucial roles in forest ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization,and also have effects on soil formation and quality.To understand the ecogeographical distribution of soil faunal community and provide the scientific basis for the conservation of forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountains,community composition,structure and biodiversity of soil fauna were investigated in top,typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest of Changbai Mountain in July 2008.The sample area was 50 cm×50 cm for soil macrofauna and 10 cm×10 cm for soil meso-microfauna.Soil macrofauna was picked out by hands.Soil meso-microfauna was extracted by Tullgren funnel.All extracted soil samples were identified to the suborder or family level under a stereoscopic microscope.Soil pH was measured with PHS-3B acidity meter.Soil organic C was determined by K2Cr2O7 oxidation method and total N by Kjeldahl method.Total P was analyzed by using the colorimetric method with molybdenum in sulphuric acid.Total K was determined with flame photometer

  10. Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marando

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10 removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg. By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1 was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate. This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas.

  11. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Decidual de encosta, Monte Alegre, GO, Brasil Floristic and structure of a seasonal deciduous forest fragment, Monte Alegre, GO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Terra Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a composição de espécies arbóreas e a estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual, na região Nordeste de Goiás, Brasil. Foram levantadas 25 unidades amostrais quadradas de 20x20m, totalizando uma amostra de um hectare, sendo incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com diâmetros iguais ou superiores a 5cm. Foram amostrados 663 indivíduos pertencentes a 52 espécies arbóreas, destacando-se pela densidade as espécies Combretum duarteanum Camb., Casearia rupestris Eichl., Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allem., Machaerium acutifolium Vog. e Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. Foram encontradas 21 famílias botânicas, com maior representatividade da família Leguminosae (17 espécies e das famílias Bignoniaceae (4 espécies, Anacardiaceae (3 espécies e Bombacaceae (3 espécies. A vegetação estudada apresentou dossel descontínuo e distribuição diamétrica desequilibrada, com valores do quociente de Liocourt "q" variando de q1= 0,66 a q6 = 0,14. Estes remanescentes florestais desempenham papel importante na manutenção da diversidade biológica e possuem espécies arbóreas madeiráveis de importância econômica, que se tornaram raras em outros locais da região Nordeste de Goiás.The objective of this study was to describe the floristic composition and the structure of the tree layer of a fragment of a seasonal deciduous forest in northeastern Goiás state, Brazil. A sample of 25 (20x20 plots was assessed totaling one hectare. All individuals for 5cm dbh were included in the survey. A total of 663 trees in 52 arboreal species was found; the most abundant species were Combretum duarteanum Camb., Casearia rupestris Eichl., Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allem., Machaerium acutifolium Vog. and Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. There were 21 families with a higher proportion of Leguminosae (17 species Bignoniaceae (4 species, Anacardiaceae (3 species and

  12. Spread of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Spread of Microstegium vimineum, an invasive exotic grass, in closed-canopy forests of West Virginia, U.S. was evaluated across a local (roadside to forest interior) and regional (across two geographic provinces) environmental gradient. Seed dispersal distances from roadside populations into forest interiors based on seed rain and soil seed bank data...

  13. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  14. Initial Growth Effect of Mixed Forests with Eucalypt and Two Native Broadleaved Tree Species of Guangxi%桉树与乡土阔叶树种混交林的初期生长效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞玲; 项东云; 陈健波

    2012-01-01

    以红锥(Castanopsis hystrix)、米老排(Mytilaria laosensis)2种广西乡土阔叶树种为混交树种,对不同混交模式下桉树与红锥、米老排的林木生长情况进行了分析。研究结果表明:在桉树与米老排(3∶1)混交模式下,桉树树高、胸径生长量明显高于桉树纯林。而混交模式下,红锥生长量增加,而米老排生长量降低。初步认为,混交能促进桉树生长,但最佳混交造林模式因混交树种而异。%Growth of eucalypt,Castanopsis hystrix and Mytilaria laisensis in different patterns of mixed forests was analyzed using two native broadleaved tree species,C.hystrix and M.laosensis of Guangxi as mixed tree species.The results showed that tree height and DBH of eucalypt from mixed plantations of eucalypt and C.hystrix(3∶1) were significantly greater than that from pure eucalypt plantations.The growth of C.hystrix increased,while that of M.laosensis decreased in the condition of mixed planting.In preliminary conclusion, mixed planting was able to promote the growth of eucalypt,but the optimal pattern of mixed planting depended on mixed tree species.

  15. 小兴安岭红松阔叶混交林土壤动物群落研究%Study on Soil Animals Community of Pinus koraiensis Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Xiaoxing' an Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗雅杰; 殷秀琴

    2005-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Pinus koraiensis broad-leaved mixed forest were studied. The purpose was to discuss the dynamic characteristic of soil animals and relationship with environmental factors. The ecosystem geography distribution law of soil animals, soil animals' role and function in ecological system were revealed. In June, August, October each year, three plots were selected. In each plot, four layers were sampled( litter layer,0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm & 20 - 30 cm), adding up to 72 soil sample. The area for large-sized soil animals was 50 cm × 50 cm, and the area for middle-small-sized soil animals was 10 cm × 10 cm. Separated soil animals through adopting hand-picking method and Tullgren method respectively. Sampled the soil animals in two continuing years. Shannon-Wiener index was adopted to analyze the diversity of soil animals. Monad liner regression was used to search the relationship between soil animals and environmental factors. The dominant groups were Oribatida, Isotomidae. There were relatively great changes in groups and individual numbers of dominant groups and rare groups when the reason changed. The individual numbers of dominant groups and the groups of rare groups changed. The number of individual and group was the most in August. Obviously it correlated with climatic factors in middle temperate zone. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was not most. Among the annual fluctuating there was a increasing trend. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was low. It conformed with the law of reason change. The correlation between soil animals and atmospheric temperature, rainfall, ground temperature and sunlight showed the correlation with rainfall and soil temperature was the most significant.

  16. Transfer of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accident-derived radionuclides in forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the forest environment in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures. In this study, we analyzed radiocesium concentrations in rainwater, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall to characterize the transfer of the deposited radiocesium in various forest stands (evergreen conifers and broad-leaved forests), in Tochigi (Cs-137 fallout < 10 kBq/m^2) and Fukushima (Cs-137 fallout = 300-600 kBq/m^2) prefectures. Furthermore, in-situ measurement of radiocesium were conducted to delineate spatio-temporal variability of radiocesium in the canopy and forest floor. The result of this study demonstrated that a large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest were initially trapped by canopies, and subsequently transferred to forest floor in association with throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall. In the deciduous broad-leaved forest, the highest radioactivity was found at the forest floor; however, 25-40% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy of evergreen coniferous forests one year after the reactor accident.

  17. Responses of fine roots and soil N availability to short-term nitrogen fertilization in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunguo; Han, Shijie; Zhou, Yumei; Yan, Caifeng; Cheng, Xubing; Zheng, Xingbo; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N) availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (Psoil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha(-1), Psoil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0-10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account.

  18. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex B.; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Using local observed emission factor, meteorological data, vegetation 5 information and dynamic MODIS LAI, MEGANv2.1 was constrained to predict the isoprene emission from Dinghushan forest in the Pearl River Delta region during a field campaign in November 2008, and the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimates were quantified by the Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that MEGAN can predict the isoprene emission reasonably during the campaign, and the mean value of isoprene emission is 2.35 mg m-2 h-1 in daytime. There are high uncertainties associated with the MEGAN inputs and calculated parameters, and the relative error can be as high as -89 to 111% for a 95% confidence interval. The emission factor of broadleaf trees and the activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence are the most important contributors to the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated for the Dinghushan forest during the campaign. The results also emphasize the importance of accurate observed PAR and temperature to reduce the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated by model, because the MEGAN model activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence is highly sensitive to PAR and temperature.

  19. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  20. Analysis on Plant Diversity Quanfu Village Basin of Water-holding Forest in of Yuanyang Terrace%元阳梯田全福庄流域水源涵养林的植物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和弦; 宋维峰; 彭永刚; 王惠生; 崔吉林

    2012-01-01

    元阳梯田已有1200多年的历史,水源涵养林的存在对于梯田的延续具有重要的价值。为得到元阳梯田水源涵养林的植物多样性分布特征,对元阳梯田全福庄流域4种主要植被类型水源涵养林下的植物物种数量特征、物种丰富度、多样性、均匀度等多样性规律进行了标准样地调查。结果表明,研究区共有植物155种,隶属66科,其中,山茶科、禾本科、蓼科植物占有绝对优势,不同植被类型森林群落的优势种不同;物种丰富度大小为:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林;物种多样性特征表现为,乔木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉杂木林〉人工水冬瓜林;灌木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林,人工水冬瓜林无灌木层分布;草本层:次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林〉次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林。植被分布的物种丰富度和均匀度对物种多样性存在交叉影响。%Yuanyang terrace with over 1 200 years of history, the existence of water-holding forest has an important value for development of Yuanyang terrace. In order to investigate the distribution of plant diversity in water-holding forest of Yuanyang terrace this study adopted the method of standard statistical and on-site investigation. The study on the quantitative features, the species richness, diversity and evenness, etc. char- acteristics in 4 types of vegetation regions in Quanfu middle village basin were carried out. The results showed that there were 155 species of plants in this area, belonging to 66 families, and Theaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae were 3 dominant families. The different vegetation regions had different dominant species. The species richness index followed the order of secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest〉weed tree forest〉 secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest〉artificial Alder forest. Within

  1. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Shuping; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    With local observed emission factor and meteorological data, this study constrained the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) v2.1 to estimate isoprene emission from the Dinghushan forest during fall 2008 and quantify the uncertainties associated with MEGAN parameters using Monte Carlo approach. Compared with observation-based isoprene emission data originated from a campaign during this period at this site, the local constrained MEGAN tends to reproduce the diurnal variations and magnitude of isoprene emission reasonably well, with correlation coefficient of 0.7 and mean bias of 47.5%. The results also indicate high uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated, with the relative error varied from -89.0-111.0% at the 95% confidence interval. The key uncertainty sources include emission factors, γTLD, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature. This implies that accurate input of emission factor, PAR and temperature is a key approach to reduce uncertainties in isoprene emission estimation.

  2. Responses of fine roots and soil N availability to short-term nitrogen fertilization in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunguo Wang

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (P<0.001 and ammonium-N by 6% (P<0.01 compared to control plots. Fine root biomass and necromass in 0-20 cm soil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 and 34% (1.39 vs. 1.86 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 less in N fertilization plots than those in control plots. The fine root mass was significantly negatively correlated with soil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0-10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account.

  3. Broad-Leaved Forest Community Structure Features in Different Habitats without Human Disturbance%无人为干扰下不同生境阔叶林的群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷平; 郭洪兴; 邹志安; 邹思成; 兰文军; 徐新宇; 袁荣斌

    2014-01-01

    以江西武夷山国家级自然保护区核心区为无干扰环境,选取河岸带、内陆森林和林线3种生境阔叶林群落为研究对象。群落结构特征分析结果显示:1)不同生境类型的群落建群种不同,但群落各层主要优势种的重要值均呈差异不显著,物种组成上均以壳斗科、樟科、山茶科、山矾科、杜鹃花科、蔷薇科、冬青科等为常见,且种属数较多。2)立木总株数(乔灌木)林线群落高于其他生境群落,但不同生境类型的群落间乔木与灌木平均株数均呈差异不显著。3)群落各层物种的种数及各物种多样性指数均有河岸带>内陆森林>林线,乔木层、草本层与层间植物物种种数以及物种多样性Patrick、Gleason、Margalef和Shannon-Weiner指数,河岸带均与其他生境类型群落差异呈显著性;而灌木层物种种数及多样性Simpson和Pielou指数差异不呈显著性。4)散点图和线性回归得出林线群落活立木平均高度和平均胸径均高于其他生境类型的群落。%In core area of Jiangxi Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, as the non-disturbance condition, three habitats broad-leaved community of riparian zone, inland and forest line were selected for study aspects. Community structure characteristics analysis results showed that: 1) there were different constructive species of the community in different habitats, but the important value of the main dominant species in the communities’ layers has no significant difference. Species composition dominated by Fagaceae, Theaceae, Lauraceae, Symplocaceae, Ericaceae, Rosaceae, Aquifoliaceae with much of genera and species in all types of the habitats. 2) The total number of the standing timber (including trees and shrubs) in the forest line community was more than other communities, but the average number of the trees and shrubs in different habitats has no significant difference. 3) Community species and each

  4. Response of Quercus velutina growth and water use efficiency to climate variability and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Katie A; Guerrieri, Rossella; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Asbjornsen, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and changing climate patterns in the northeastern USA can influence forest productivity through effects on plant nutrient relations and water use. This study evaluates the combined effects of N fertilization, climate and rising atmospheric CO2on tree growth and ecophysiology in a temperate deciduous forest. Tree ring widths and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopes were used to assess tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) ofQuercus velutinaLamb., the dominant tree species in a 20+ year N fertilization experiment at Harvard Forest (MA, USA). We found that fertilized trees exhibited a pronounced and sustained growth enhancement relative to control trees, with the low- and high-N treatments responding similarly. All treatments exhibited improved iWUE over the study period (1984-2011). Intrinsic water use efficiency trends in the control trees were primarily driven by changes in stomatal conductance, while a stimulation in photosynthesis, supported by an increase in foliar %N, contributed to enhancing iWUE in fertilized trees. All treatments were predominantly influenced by growing season vapor pressure deficit (VPD), with BAI responding most strongly to early season VPD and iWUE responding most strongly to late season VPD. Nitrogen fertilization increasedQ. velutinasensitivity to July temperature and precipitation. Combined, these results suggest that ambient N deposition in N-limited northeastern US forests has enhanced tree growth over the past 30 years, while rising ambient CO2has improved iWUE, with N fertilization and CO2having synergistic effects on iWUE.

  5. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  6. Dynamics of a temperate deciduous forest under landscape-scale management: Implications for adaptability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew G. Olson; Benjamin O. Knapp; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    Landscape forest management is an approach to meeting diverse objectives that collectively span multiple spatial scales. It is critical that we understand the long-term effects of landscape management on the structure and composition of forest tree communities to ensure that these practices are sustainable. Furthermore, it is increasingly important to also consider...

  7. Establishment of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Establishment of Microstegium vimineum, an invasive exotic grass, in closed-canopy U.S. eastern forests was evaluated across a local (roadside to forest interior) and regional (across two geographic provinces) environmental gradient in West Virginia. The two geographic provinces were the Allegheny Plateau (more mesic) and the Ridge and Valley...

  8. Comparison of soil organic matter dynamics at five temperate deciduous forests with physical fractionation and radiocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karis J. McFarlane; Margaret S. Torn; Paul J. Hanson; Rachel C. Porras; Christopher W. Swanston; Mac A. Callaham; Thomas P. Guilderson

    2013-01-01

    Forest soils represent a significant pool for carbon sequestration and storage, but the factors controlling soil carbon cycling are not well constrained.We compared soil carbon dynamics at five broadleaf forests in the Eastern US that vary in climate, soil type, and soil ecology: two sites at the University of Michigan Biological Station (MI-Coarse, sandy;MI-Fine,...

  9. Carbon allocation to biomass production of leaves, fruits and woody organs at seasonal and annual scale in a deciduous- and evergreen temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon taken up by the forest canopy is allocated to tree organs for biomass production and respiration. Because tree organs have different life span and decomposition rate, the tree C allocation determines the residence time of C in the ecosystem and its C cycling rate. The study of the carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. Previous studies mostly focused on comparison of the annual NPP-GPP ratio among forests of different functional types, biomes and age. In this study, we extend the current knowledge by assessing (i the annual NPP-GPP ratio and its interannual variability (for five years for five tree organs (leaves, fruits, branches, stem and coarse roots, and (ii the seasonal dynamic of NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and stems, for two stands dominated by European beech and Scots pine.

    The average NPP-GPP ratio for the beech stand (38% was similar to previous estimates for temperate deciduous forests, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio for the pine stand (17% is the lowest recorded till now in the literature. The proportion of GPP allocated to leaf NPP was similar for both species, whereas beech allocated a remarkable larger proportion of GPP to wood NPP than pine (29% vs. 6%, respectively. The interannual variability of the NPP-GPP ratio for wood was substantially larger than the interannual variability of the NPP-GPP ratio for leaves, fruits and overall stand and it is likely to be controlled by previous year air temperature (both species, previous year drought intensity (beech and thinning (pine. Seasonal pattern of NPP-GPP ratio greatly differed between beech and pine, with beech presenting the largest ratio in early season, and pine a more uniform ratio along the season. For beech, NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and stems peaked during the same period in the early season, whereas they peaked in opposite periods

  10. Spatio-temporal variations of CO2 concentration within the canopy in a temperate deciduous forest,Northeast China%温带落叶阔叶林冠层CO2浓度的时空变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦振; 王传宽; 王兴昌

    2011-01-01

    为了研究温带落叶阔叶林CO2浓度(摩尔分数,[CO2])的时空变化特征,利用帽儿山通量塔8层[CO2]廓线系统分析了[CO2]的时间动态及垂直梯度,并结合森林小气候的同步测定数据探讨了影响[CO2]时空变化的因子.结果表明:帽儿山温带落叶阔叶林的[CO2]及其垂直梯度具有明显的日变化和季节变化.在日尺度上,[CO2]呈"单峰"曲线,在夜间或日出前后出现最大值,日出后迅速降低,在午后达到最低值,日落时分又开始迅速升高.在季节尺度上,生长季的[CO2]日变幅明显大于非生长季,且冬季(1、2和12月)白天呈"V"型,其他季节白天呈"U"型,这与白天对流边界层的持续时间随季节的变化趋势一致.在垂直方向上,[CO2]及其日变幅随高度增加而降低,并且在生长季夜间湍流交换较弱时其垂直梯度最显著;植被冠层的光合作用改变了生长旺季白天的[CO2]垂直格局,使冠层高度的[CO2]最低;休眠季节该垂直梯度大大减弱.近地层日均[CO2]与土壤温度的趋势相似,呈单峰曲线;而林冠上[CO2]在5月初和10月各出现一次峰值,最低值出现在8月初,与植被光合作用紧密相关.日尺度上[CO2]及其垂直梯度主要受控于大气边界层和生态系统碳代谢过程;年尺度上近地层[CO2]主要受控于土壤呼吸,而林冠上的[CO2]则受生态系统光合作用和呼吸作用的共同控制.%Aims Although temperate broadleaved deciduous forest accounts for two-thirds of the forest area in northeastern China, its spatio-temporal variations of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have not been quantified. Our objectives were to quantify diurnal and seasonal variations and vertical gradients of [CO2] and explore controlling factors.Methods A [CO2] flux tower with an 8-level [CO2] profile system (at 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 20.0, 28.0 and 36.0 m) was installed at the Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Research Station in Heilongjiang Province (45°24′ N,127°40

  11. Production potential and stability of a broadleaved mixed oak/hornbeam forest stand situated on a eutrophic site, Ždánický les

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Hurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on assessing the growth and production of a mixed oak/hornbeam forest stand established by combined regeneration in 1940 to 1942. The stand is situated at an altitude of 460 m. Since 1961, it is left to its natural development. The 25–year–old stand was characterized as an individually mixed, both diameter- and height-differentiated pole-stage stand. The proportion of tree species was as follows: sessile oak 77 %, hornbeam 19 %, birch 1 %, lime 1 %, black poplar 1 %, wild cherry tree, wild service tree, and field maple. During 41 years of measurements, the proportion of oak slightly decreased to 76 %, on the other hand, the proportion of hornbeam increased to 22%. The initial growing stock of the 25–year–old stand, 75 m3.ha−1, increased to 323 m3.ha−1 at an age of 66 years in 2008. At present, current volume increment ranged between 6.3 m3.ha−1.year−1 and 11.6 m3.ha−1.year−1 during years 1967 and 1998. Since the age of 61, the growth of the stand has decreased and then even ceased due to increased mortality of oak.

  12. Mapping Local Effects of Forest Properties on Fire Risk across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Y. Bernier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant mechanism of forest renewal in most of Canada’s forests and its activity is predicted to increase over the coming decades. Individual fire events have been considered to be non-selective with regards to forest properties, but evidence now suggests otherwise. Our objective was therefore to quantify the effect of forest properties on fire selectivity or avoidance, evaluate the stability of these effects across varying burn rates, and use these results to map local fire risk across the forests of Canada. We used Canada-wide MODIS-based maps of annual fires and of forest properties to identify burned and unburned pixels for the 2002–2011 period and to bin them into classes of forest composition (% conifer and broadleaved deciduous, above-ground tree biomass and stand age. Logistic binomial regressions were then used to quantify fire selectivity by forest properties classes and by zones of homogeneous fire regime (HFR. Results suggest that fire exhibits a strong selectivity for conifer stands, but an even stronger avoidance of broadleaved stands. In terms of age classes, fire also shows a strong avoidance for young (0 to 29 year stands. The large differences among regional burn rates do not significantly alter the overall preference and avoidance ratings. Finally, we combined these results on relative burn preference with regional burn rates to map local fire risks across Canada.

  13. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively.

  14. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  15. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  16. 广东南岭国家级自然保护森林景观格局分析%Analysis of Forest Landscape Pattern in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳均; 何嘉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the forest landscape in Nanling Na-tional Nature Reserve to provide information for the protection of local forest ecosys-tems. [Method] With the documents of 1∶10 000 topographic maps, updated Forest Resource Inventory Data, based on the GIS platform and Fragstats software, the paper analyzed the patterns and heterogeneity of forest landscapes by adopting the landscape ecological theory and the method of landscape index. [Result] The forest landscape types, in terms of area occupation from large to smal , are in the order of evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous mixed forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, shrubs, mixed needle leaf forest, suitable land for forest deciduous broad-leaved forest and non-forest. [Conclusion] Overal , the Reserve had maintained sufficient forest landscape diversity with a low level fragmentation. The distribution of various types of forest landscape was extremely uneven, dominated by several types such as evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, etc.%[目的]分析南岭国家级自然保护区森林景观格局,为该保护区的森林生态系统的保护提供支持。[方法]以1∶10000地形图、森林资源二类调查数据和实地补充调查数据为基础资料,基于GIS平台和 Fragstats软件,运用景观生态学原理和景观指数分析方法,对研究区内森林景观的格局和异质性进行分析。[结果]森林景观类型面积大小依次为常绿阔叶林、针叶林、针阔混交林、阔叶混交林、灌丛、针叶混交林、宜林地、落叶阔叶林和非林地。[结论]研究区域森林景观格局分析表明,保护区景观异质性较高,连通性较好,破碎化程度不明显,各景观组分的面积和比例分布极不均衡,常绿阔叶林和针叶林等少数几种组分在景观中占绝对优势。

  17. Brief analysis on canopy interception effect and influencing factors of five forest types in Simian Mountain of Chongqing%重庆四面山5种森林类型林冠截留影响因素浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焜; 张洪江; 程金花; 张君玉; 孙龙; 马西军

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to probe into the primary and secondary relation of factors influencing canopy interception of different forest types in Three Gorge Reservoir Region of Yangtze River.【Method】 Related data of 25 rainfalls from May to September in 2009 were observed.The paper made a grey correlation analysis on the research of factors influencing canopy interception among five forest type in Simian Mountain of Chongqing.【Result】 ①According to the general interception ratios from high to low,the five forest types are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(42.70%)temperate needle-leaved forest(39.35%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(39.05%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(36.28%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(27.73%);According to the average interception ratios from high to low,the five types of forests are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(50.08%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(44.91%)temperate needle-leaved forest(44.18%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(42.13%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(31.33%).②The influencing priority of meteorological factors for temperate needle-leaved forest is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.For broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,the priority is precipitationwind velocityrainfall intensitytemperature air humidity.For evergreen broad-leaved forest,the priority is precipitation=rainfall intensitywind velocity=temperatureair humidity.For evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.And for warm needle-leaved forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.③Between the canopy interception amount of each forest types and precipitation,a power function is shown.The precipitation of temperate needle-leaved forest,broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,evergreen broad-leaved forest,evergreen and

  18. Deposition velocity of PM2.5 in the winter and spring above deciduous and coniferous forests in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengbin; Yin, Zhe; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Zhao, Yang; Li, Renna; Shi, Fangtian; Yu, Xinxiao

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the deposition effect of PM2.5 (particle matter with aerodynamic diameter coniferous forest in Jiufeng National Forest Park. Six aerosol samplers were placed on two towers at each site at heights of 9, 12 and 15 m above the ground surface. The sample filters were exchanged every four hours at 6∶00 AM, 10∶00 AM, 2∶00 PM, 6∶00 PM, 10∶00 PM, and 2∶00 AM. The daytime and nighttime deposition velocities in Jiufeng Park and Olympic Park were compared in this study. The February deposition velocities in Jiufeng Park were 1.2±1.3 and 0.7±0.7 cm s-1 during the day and night, respectively. The May deposition velocities in Olympic Park were 0.9±0.8 and 0.4±0.5 cm s-1 during the day and night, respectively. The May deposition velocities in Jiufeng Park were 1.1±1.2 and 0.6±0.5 cm s-1 during the day and night, respectively. The deposition velocities above Jiufeng National Forest Park were higher than those above Olympic Forest Park. The measured values were smaller than the simulated values obtained by the Ruijgrok et al. (1997) and Wesely et al. (1985) models. However, the reproducibility of the Ruijgrok et al. (1997) model was better than that of the Wesely et al. (1985) model. The Hicks et al. (1977) model was used to analyze additional forest parameters to calculate the PM2.5 deposition, which could better reflect the role of the forest in PM2.5 deposition.

  19. 长白山阔叶红松林系统发育和功能性状beta多样性%Phylogenetic and functional beta diversity in a broadleaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王均伟; 侯嫚嫚; 黄利亚; 张君; 周海城; 程艳霞

    2016-01-01

    4 functional traits of 45 woody species ( maximum plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf nitrogen contents) in a well-mapped 40 ha broadleaved Korean pine mixed forest plot in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China. Next, we calculated the functional and phylogenetic beta diversity through the Sørensen index and compared observed pattern with null model approach to test for non-random functional and phylogenetic beta diversity at different spatial scales ( radius 10 , 20 , 25 , 50 , and 75 m ) . Our results showed that:1 ) the phylogenetic and functional similarity decreased with distances and increased with grain sizes. 2) All the phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed non-random pattern. As the increase of grain size, the phylogenetic beta diversity showed random only in the 25--50 m scale, while lower than random in the scales of 10--20 m and 75 m. The functional beta diversity turned from random (10--50 m) to lower than random (75 m) . The results suggest that in the middle and small scales (10--50 m), neutral process is more important, but we cannot rule out the role of niche process, and with the increase of scale, habitat filtering determines the community assembly in the broadleaved Korean pine forest. 3 ) The mismatch between functional and phylogenetic beta diversity patterns could be partly explained by the lack of phylogenetic signal for most traits.

  20. Impact of fencing on the recovery of the ground flora on heavily eroded slopes of a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Massant, Wim; Weyembergh, Gisele; Koedam, Nico

    2003-07-01

    This paper seeks to outline early stages in the recovery of forest ground flora on eroded slopes impacted by recreation activities and to suggest how these data might be applied in the formulation of management policies for forest recreation areas. Based on a fencing experiment in the Sonian Forest near Brussels, we investigated whether, over a 6-year period, the vegetation was able to recover after having been destroyed by recreation use. Short-term trends in overall species composition were already observable during this 6-year study. Species recovery on eroded hills was related to slope, aspect, and soil type. During the considered time scale, the proportion of hemicryptophytes and the number of ancient forest species increased significantly. A downward trend was detected for Ellenberg's nitrogen and temperature indexes and for the proportion of therophytes and pioneer plants of disturbed places. Changes in species' frequencies suggest six recovery strategies: early, late, expanding, disappearing, transient, and fluctuating species. Aside from seedling reproduction from overstory influences, Luzula sylvatica appeared to be the most resilient of the species identified in the study since this species has the highest global frequency in our sampling plots and has increased its cover during the study period. Study results indicate that (1) protection from recreation has initiated the recovery of species in the herb layer, but (2) it may take a long time before vegetation previously present in the ground flora may recover in both density and species composition.

  1. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on the interannual variation of the carbon balance in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; van der Linden, Leon; Lasslop, G.

    2012-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between the atmosphere and a temperate beech forest showed a significant interannual variation (IAV) and a decadal trend of increasing carbon uptake (Pilegaard et al., 2011). The objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent and at which temporal...

  2. Rapid rebound of soil respiration following partial stand disturbance by tree girdling in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Varon, Jennifer H; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2014-04-01

    Forests serve an essential role in climate change mitigation by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Within a forest, disturbance events can greatly impact C cycling and subsequently influence the exchange of CO2 between forests and the atmosphere. This connection makes understanding the forest C cycle response to disturbance imperative for climate change research. The goal of this study was to examine the temporal response of soil respiration after differing levels of stand disturbance for 3 years at the Black Rock Forest (southeastern NY, USA; oaks comprise 67% of the stand). Tree girdling was used to mimic pathogen attack and create the following treatments: control, girdling all non-oaks (NOG), girdling half of the oak trees (O50), and girdling all the oaks (OG). Soil respiratory rates on OG plots declined for 2 years following girdling before attaining a full rebound of belowground activity in the third year. Soil respiration on NOG and O50 were statistically similar to the control for the duration of the study although a trend for a stronger decline in respiration on O50 relative to NOG occurred in the first 2 years. Respiratory responses among the various treatments were not proportional to the degree of disturbance and varied over time. The short-lived respiratory response on O50 and OG suggests that belowground activity is resilient to disturbance; however, sources of the recovered respiratory flux on these plots are likely different than they were pre-treatment. The differential taxon response between oaks and non-oaks suggests that after a defoliation or girdling event, the temporal response of the soil respiratory flux may be related to the C allocation pattern of the affected plant group.

  3. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  4. Thelephora versatilis and Thelephora pseudoversatilis: two new cryptic species with polymorphic basidiomes inhabiting tropical deciduous and sub-perennial forests of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, Itzel; Villegas-Ríos, Margarita; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Alvarez-Manjarrez, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Thelephora is a genus of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes with basidiomes of varied shape which has been poorly studied in tropical ecosystems. In this paper, we present Thelephora versatilis and Thelephora pseudoversatilis, two new species collected in the same localities of deciduous and sub-perennial tropical forests of Jalisco, Mexico. Basidiomes of both species are brownish gray to violet brown with clavarioid-mesopodal, sub-resupinate or completely resupinate growth forms. In turn, phylogenetic analyses using nrDNA ITS sequences showed that these species are not closed related, nevertheless they are part of a well-supported clade conformed by several species of Thelephora, Tomentella and some undescribed Thelephorales. Morphological segregation of these species was attained by analyzing spore and hyphae characters using a wide sample. Significant statistical differences between the new species were observed regarding spore size, spine size and context hyphae width. This work exemplifies the relevance of integrating both morphological and molecular data, as well of the use of an appropriate sample size in order to discriminate among morphological cryptic species.

  5. 大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及其生态位特征%Classification and ecological niche of natural secondary forest in the Nature Reserve of Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓文; 王永健; 唐亚坤; ULRICH Apel; 王艳; 肖宋高; 李振

    2012-01-01

    Based on data with important values for classification and niche measuring,the classification, niche breadth and overlap of dominant woody species of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were studied by means of sampling, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) ,detrend-ed correspondence analysis (DCA) and niche analysis. The results showed that communities of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were divided into six community types (coniferous forest I and II 籧oniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and IJ , deciduous broad-leaved forest E and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest F) based on TWINSPAN and DCA. DCA ordination figures also reflected the pattern of communities changing from the coniferous forest I and H to coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and JJ ,then to deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. Pinus massoni-ana and Pinus hivangshanensis had a large niche breadth in coniferous forest I and JJ . Pinus and Quer-cus both had larger niche in coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and TJ . Many woody species had larger niche in deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. The niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in different communities might change according to the succession trend. It was feasible for using niche overlap index and species characteristic as the main evaluation criterion in terms of majority species relationships in different community succession.%通过样方调查、TWINSPAN分类与DCA排序及生态位分析,以物种重要值为分类排序与生态位计测的数据指标,研究湖北省大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及优势木本生态位宽度与重叠.结果表明:应用TWINSPAN分类并结合DCA排序,可将植被划分为6个群落类型(针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,E落叶阔叶林和F常绿落叶阔叶混交林).同时DCA排序图中反映了植被由针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——落叶阔叶林与

  6. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  7. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ceballos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  8. Radiocarbon-based Turnover Time Estimates of Soil Organic Carbon in a Cool-temperate Deciduous Forest in Asian Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M.; Uchida, M.; Ohtsuka, T.; Murayama, S.; Shirato, Y.; Shibata, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Significantly more carbon is stored in the soils than in present in the atmosphere. Although the potential for C storage rates may change in the future as climate change progresses, the dynamics of soil carbon is unknown enough. We separated two density fractions on the soil down to 75 cm depth and estimated turnover time of these SOC fractions for volcanic ash soils in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan, at one of AsiaFlux monitoring sites. According to the eddy-covariance based and biometric based carbon flux measurements over 10 years long in this site, this ecosystem is storing C (net ecosystem exchange (NEE): -2.4 tC ha-1 year- 1). However, the partitioning of C storage among vegetation and soils at this site is unknown. Measurements of carbon and radiocarbon (14C) inventory were used to determine the turnover time of two fractions of SOM: humified low density material 2 g/cc. Total SOC stocks down to the depth of 75 cm were 26.2 kg C m-2, with the majority of SOC (52 percent) in the AB horizon (20 - 50 cm). Storage of SOC in our site was larger and differed considerably from that in other temperate forests in North America and Europe. The major part of the SOC (74 percent) was carbon in low density fraction. In the AB horizon, carbon in low density fraction accounted for 75 percent of the total SOC. The age of this fraction in lower AB horizon (35 - 50 cm) was significantly old (2490 years) as well as high density fraction (2930 years), although this fraction seems to consist of labile carbon. Turnover times in all fractions are investigated for some layers in the soil depth of 75cm, as well as fine roots, low density humified material and carbon associated with minerals. Turnover times in both fractions increased with soil depth and 11-2780 year for low density fractions and 610- 3740 year for high density fractions. The turnover times of SOC were relatively long (1760 - 3740 years) in lower AB and B horizons as compared with other temperate forests

  9. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997......–2009) trend in carbon uptake when global parameter estimates were used. Annual parameter estimates were able to reproduce the decadal scale trend; the yearly fitted posterior parameters (e.g. the light use efficiency) indicated a role for changes in the ecosystem functional properties. A possible role...

  10. Simulated Seasonal Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture, Temperature, and Net Radiation in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Howington, Stacy E.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Smith, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature and moisture regimes in a forest are key components in the forest ecosystem dynamics. Observations and studies indicate that the internal temperature distribution and moisture content of the tree influence not only growth and development, but onset and cessation of cambial activity [1], resistance to insect predation[2], and even affect the population dynamics of the insects [3]. Moreover, temperature directly affects the uptake and metabolism of population from the soil into the tree tissue [4]. Additional studies show that soil and atmospheric temperatures are significant parameters that limit the growth of trees and impose treeline elevation limitation [5]. Directional thermal infrared radiance effects have long been observed in natural backgrounds [6]. In earlier work, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal imaging [7-8]. In this paper, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal, and net radiation in a adeciduous forest using our recently developed three-dimensional, macro-scale computational tool that simulates the heat and mass transfer interaction in a soil-root-stem systems (SRSS). The SRSS model includes the coupling of existing heat and mass transport tools to stimulate the diurnal internal and external temperatures, internal fluid flow and moisture distribution, and heat flow in the system.

  11. Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old‐Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilanee Suchewaboripont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural complexity, especially canopy and gap structure, of old‐growth forests affects the spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs. Without considering this variation, the upscaling of Rs from field measurements to the forest site will be biased. The present study examined responses of Rs to soil temperature (Ts and water content (W in canopy and gap areas, developed the best fit modelof Rs and used the unique spatial patterns of Rs and crown closure to upscale chamber measurements to the site scale in an old‐growth beech‐oak forest. Rs increased with an increase in Ts in both gap and canopy areas, but the effect of W on Rs was different between the two areas. The generalized linear model (GLM analysis identified that an empirical model of Rs with thecoupling of Ts and W was better than an exponential model of Rs with only Ts. Moreover, because of different responses of Rs to W between canopy and gap areas, it was necessary to estimate Rs in these areas separately. Consequently, combining the spatial patterns of Rs and the crown closure could allow upscaling of Rs from chamber‐based measurements to the whole site in the present study.

  12. 帽儿山天然次生林主要阔叶树种叶量分布模拟%Simulation of Foliage Distribution for Major Broad-Leaved Species in Secondary Forest in Mao'er Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 李凤日; 张会儒; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of foliage is the fundamental composition of crown structure, moreover, it is convenient to understand the mechanism of the energy convert to biomass above-ground through the crown by evaluating the spatial distribution of foliage and researching the relationship between foliage and factors in individual trees and stand. In Mao' er Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, 30 permanent sample plots in secondary forest were established where 3 401 biomass of living branches from 176 stem analysis sample trees with 10 different broad-leaved species were measured, 2007. This study presents 10 individual tree models for the prediction of vertical distribution of living crown. The 3 parameters Chapman-Richards model was used to estimate the distribution of the crown biomasses between the lower and upper limits of the crown. In the models for the relative cumulative living crown, parameters estimate results show that all coefficiens of determination are high more than 0. 91 especially 0. 98 for birch. The highest relative height at which the foliage reached its maximum point was 0. 82 CL( crown length) for manchurian ash and the lowest was 0. 52 CL for cork tree. The peak points for other species were between these two values, e. G. 0. 66 CL for birch and 0. 78 CL for oak. The percentage of foliage for broad-leaved species in secondary forestry at the top crown (above 0. 3 CL)was very small, which in middle crown and below it(0. 4 CL -0. 8 CL)took about 60% -70% of total biomass, especially 72. 22% for birch, 72. 55% for poplar and the minimum was 57. 51% for manchurian ash, however at under-part of the crown for all species occupied about 10% of total foliage. The models can be used for the planning of harvesting operations, for the selection of feasible harvesting methods, and for the estimation of nutrient removals of different harvesting practices.%2007年,在黑龙江省帽儿山林区,设置30块天然次生林固定标准地,获取10

  13. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  14. Patterns of tree growth in relation to environmental variability in the tropical dry deciduous forest at Mudumalai, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheryl D Nath; H S Dattaraja; H S Suresh; N V Joshi; R Sukumar

    2006-12-01

    Tree diameter growth is sensitive to environmental fluctuations and tropical dry forests experience high seasonal and inter-annual environmental variation. Tree growth rates in a large permanent plot at Mudumalai, southern India, were examined for the influences of rainfall and three intrinsic factors (size, species and growth form) during three 4-year intervals over the period 1988–2000. Most trees had lowest growth during the second interval when rainfall was lowest, and skewness and kurtosis of growth distributions were reduced during this interval. Tree diameter generally explained < 10% of growth variation and had less influence on growth than species identity or time interval. Intraspecific variation was high, yet species identity accounted for up to 16% of growth variation in the community. There were no consistent differences between canopy and understory tree growth rates; however, a few subgroups of species may potentially represent canopy and understory growth guilds. Environmentally-induced temporal variations in growth generally did not reduce the odds of subsequent survival. Growth rates appear to be strongly influenced by species identity and environmental variability in the Mudumalai dry forest. Understanding and predicting vegetation dynamics in the dry tropics thus also requires information on temporal variability in local climate.

  15. Characteristics of evaporation over broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains,Northeast China during snow cover period in winter%长白山阔叶红松林冬季雪面蒸发特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉东; 关德新; 王安志; 吴家兵; 金昌杰; 施婷婷

    2013-01-01

    利用2002-2005年冬季积雪期涡度相关水汽通量和微气象观测资料,对长白山阔叶红松林雪面蒸发动态及其与气象因子的关系进行分析.结果表明:该涡度相关观测系统积雪期能量平衡闭合度为79.9%,潜热通量占净辐射的21.4%.研究期间,该区蒸发日变化呈单峰曲线形式,蒸发速率在融雪期大于稳定积雪期.30 min平均蒸发速率与净辐射呈线性关系,与气温呈二次曲线关系;蒸发日总量与净辐射呈二次曲线关系,与气温呈指数关系.积雪期蒸发日总量呈下降-稳定-上升的动态变化趋势,且上升期>下降期>稳定期,蒸发日总量最大值为0.73 mm·d-1,最小值为0.004 mm·d-1.2002-2003、2003-2004和2004-2005年积雪期蒸发总量分别为27.6、25.5和22.9 mm,占同期降水量的37.9%、19.5%和30.0%,平均蒸发日总量分别为0.17、0.19和0.17mm·d-1.%Based on the measurement data of water vapor flux by open-path eddy covariance system and of the micrometeorological factors in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains during the snow cover period from 2002 to 2005, this paper analyzed the dynamics of snow cover evaporation and the relationships between the evaporation and meteorological factors. The energy balanced ratio during the snow cover period was 79. 9% , and the latent heat flux accounted for 21. 4% of net radiation. The diurnal variation of the evaporation presented a single-peak curve, and the evaporation rate during snow-melting period was higher than that during stable snow cover period. The half-hour evaporation presented liner relationship with net radiation and quadratic relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented quadratic relationship with net radiation and exponential relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented a dynamic trend of decreasing-stable-increasing, with the maximum at increasing stage and the minimum at stable stage. The maximum

  16. Effects of N and P addition on soil nitrogen mineralization in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest%氮磷添加对亚热带常绿阔叶林土壤氮素矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 张驰; 赵竑绯; 徐小牛

    2013-01-01

    Three treatments (no nutrient addition,CK; N addition,100 kg N hm-2 a-1 and N+P addition,100 kg N · hm-2 · a-1 + 50 kg P · hm-2 · a-1) were installed in an evergreen broadleaved forest in northern subtropics to study the effects of nutrient addition on the soil nitrogen dynamics and mineralization in the forest.The annual mean inorganic N concentrations (NH4+-N + NO3--N) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers for the treatments CK,N addition,and N+P addition were 7.27 and 6.80 mg · kg-1,13.94 and 8.92 mg · kg-1,and 11.20 and 7.13 mg · kg-1,respectively,among which,the percentages of NH4 +-N to total inorganic N were 90.66% and 91.15%,65.78% and 72.85%,and 84.64% and 85.08%,respectively.The net ammonification,nitrification,and N mineralization rates in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers of the three treatments showed the similar seasonal patterns,with the maximum in summer and the minimum in winter.There were no significant differences for the net rates of N transformation in spring and autumn.Nutrient addition (N and N+P) decreased the annual average net rates of nitrogen mineralization.N addition decreased the net nitrification rate but increased the net ammonification rate,whereas N+P addition increased the net nitrification rate but decreased the net ammonification rate.Due to the long-term dynamic processes of forest ecosystems in response to nutrient addition,it would be necessary to conduct a long-term observation on the nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems under scenario of increasing N deposition.%设计了2种处理(即氮添加,100 kg N·hm-2·a-1;氮磷添加,100 kgN·hm-2·a-1+50kgP·hm-2·a-1),研究了氮磷添加对亚热带北部常绿阔叶林土壤无机氮和氮素矿化的影响.结果表明,不同处理0 ~ 10 cm和10 ~ 20 cm土层无机氮(铵态氮+硝态氮)含量年平均值分别为:对照7.27和6.80 mg·kg-1、氮添加13.94和8.92 mg·kg-1、氮磷添加11.20和7.13 mg·kg-1,其中铵态氮分别占90.66%和91

  17. Monitoring phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and mixed deciduous forests using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2016-12-01

    Evergreen conifers in boreal and temperate regions undergo strong seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperatures, which determines their phenology of high photosynthetic activity in the growing season and downregulation during the winter. Monitoring the timing of the transition between summer activity and winter downregulation in evergreens is difficult since this is a largely invisible process, unlike in deciduous trees that have a visible budding and a sequence of leaf unfolding in the spring and leaf abscission in the fall. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model estimates gross primary productivity (GPP) and may be parameterized using remotely sensed vegetation indices. Using spectral reflectance data, we derived the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of leaf "greenness", and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a proxy for chlorophyll:carotenoid ratios which is related to photosynthetic activity. To better understand the relationship between these vegetation indices and photosynthetic activity and to contrast this relationship between plant functional types, the phenology of NDVI, PRI and photosynthesis was monitored in an evergreen forest and a mixed deciduous forest at the leaf and canopy scale. Our data indicates that the LUE model can be parameterized by NDVI and PRI to track forest phenology. Differences in the sensitivity of PRI and NDVI will be discussed. These findings have implications to address the phenology of evergreen conifers by using PRI to complement NDVI in the LUE model, potentially improving model productivity estimates in northern hemisphere forests, that are dominated by conifers.

  18. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  19. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  20. Nutrient Analysis of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits of Deciduous Forests of India; an Explorative Study towards Non Conventional Bio-Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Mahapatra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing need to identify alternative bio-nutritional sources, 15 wild edible fruits consumed in deciduous forest zone of India were evaluated for their nutritive value in order to prioritize edible wild fruits suitable for domestication. The result showed significance of wild fruit species as important source of nutrient for rural poor. The nutritional value of many wild fruits some compared well with domesticated popular fruits as mango, banana, guava, papaya, sapota, pomegranate, strawberry etc. in terms of protein, carbohydrate or Vitamin content. The carbohydrate content in wild varieties as Mimusops elengi (18.1% is found to be at par with mango (17% and pomegranate (17.1%. High concentration of sugar was noted in Ziziphus rugosa (20.7% compared to domesticated sapota (21.4%, grapes (16.2% and pomegranate (16.5%. Protein content in Bridelia tomentosa (3.1%, Carissa spinarum (3.6% and P. suberosa (1.9% was found similar to cultivated fruits, viz., guava (2.5%, banana (1.09% and lemon (1.1%. Maximum proportion of Ascorbic acid/Vitamin-C content was seen in case of Solanum torvum (37.4 mg/100 g, Terminalia citrina (53.52 mg/100 g, which is in higher level to banana (8.7 mg/100 g, apple (4.6 mg/100 g, pomegranate (6.1 mg/100 g and mango (27.7 mg/100 g. Of particular importance are Eugenia rothii, Mimusops elengi, Ziziphus oenoplia, Zizipus rugosa, Bridelia tomentosa and Carissa spinarumo that had significant level of micronutrient and minerals and therefore were identified as promising species for promotion as backyard planting especially farming systems suffering from crop loss, food shortage and chronic malnutrition.

  1. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  2. Population ecology of small rodents and marsupials in a semi-deciduous tropical forest of the southeast Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S. de Andreazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal is a South American biome characterized by extensive plains and stark environmental seasonality. Several habitats are subject to annual flooding, forcing small mammal species to aggregate in dry forest patches, which most likely influences their population dynamics and life history strategies. In order to investigate the seasonal influence on the life history traits of these small mammals, we conducted a 2-year mark-recapture study in the southeastern region of the Brazilian Pantanal (Nhecolândia and analyzed the population dynamics of the most abundant small mammal species with the jackknife estimator. A trapping effort of 21,560 trap-nights resulted in 615 individuals in 1,171 captures (success = 5.43%. Three species of rodents - Oecomys mamorae (Thomas, 1906, Thrichomys pachyurus (Wagner, 1845, and Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1841 - and three species of marsupials - Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, Thylamys macrurus (Olfers, 1818, and Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842 - were obtained. The most abundant species was O. mamorae, followed by G. agilis and T. pachyurus. Oecomys mamorae was more abundant in the wet season and presented an opportunistic reproductive strategy. Gracilianus agilis displayed increased population sizes in the dry season and synchronized, seasonal reproduction during the rainy season. Thrichomys pachyurus had a small population size, delayed response to variations in environmental conditions and higher reproductive rates in the dry season. All species revealed different life history strategies (seasonal, opportunistic or delayed response to environmental variations, coinciding with periods of higher resource availability in order to maximize survival.

  3. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in Northern Subtropical Deciduous Broad-leaved Forest%模拟氮沉降对北亚热带落叶阔叶林土壤呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正华; 李涵茂; 杨燕萍; 陈书涛; 李岑子; 申双和

    2010-01-01

    于2008年4月~2009年4月在龙王山北亚热带落叶阔叶林地进行模拟氮沉降试验,利用静态箱-气相色谱法测定土壤呼吸,研究氮沉降增加对森林土壤呼吸的影响.结果表明,氮沉降没改变土壤呼吸的季节性变化规律和日变化规律.与对照(CK)相比,低氮(TL)、中氮(TM)和高氮(TH)处理使森林土壤年平均呼吸速率分别降低了8.51%、9.74%和11.24%,使日平均呼吸速率分别降低了4.42%、11.09%和12.17%.森林土壤呼吸与土壤温度存在极显著的指数关系(p<0.01),CK、TL、TM和TH的土壤呼吸温度敏感系数(Q10)分别为2.53、3.22、2.64和2.92,氮沉降提高了林地土壤呼吸的温度敏感系数.本研究表明,氮沉降显著降低了森林土壤呼吸,但提高了土壤呼吸的温度敏感性.

  4. Structural Characteristics and Diversity of the Tree Species in the mid-montane Humid Ever-green Broad-leaved Forest in the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan%高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林树种结构及多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴勇; 孟广涛; 李贵祥; 袁春明; 李品荣

    2015-01-01

    Structural characteristics and diversity of the tree species in the mid-montane humid ever-green broad-leaved forest in the Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan Province were studied .The results showed that the forest is characterized by evergreen mesophanerophytes with simple and leathery and entire mesophylls , having a few decid-uous trees in the canopy layer and an unconspicuous seasonal aspect .In the plot , the species richness and the a-bundance are most among trees with height <5 m or with 1 cm≤DBH<5 cm, and decreased with the increase of the height or DBH class, respectively, which can be fitted very well with linear function or negative exponential function.The basal area are largest among trees with 11 m≤H<14 m or with 20 cm≤DBH<25 cm.In the plot, there were 10 546 individuals in 95 species, and ite Shannon-Weiner indes is 1.716, its Simpson index is 0.014, and its evenness index is 0.867 , indicating a higher level of species diversity in the whole .The species richness , the abundance and the Shannon-Weiner index were decreased gradually with the increase of the height and DBH class, but the Simpson index and the evenness index showed the opposite trend .Compared with other domestic plots, the species richness , density, basal area per ha of Gaoligongshan plot were at the middle level , but the maximum importance value was the lowest , and the proportion of the rare species was only higher than one plot , showing a higher diversity among these plots .%对高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林树种结构及多样性特征进行了研究。结果表明,高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林动态监测样地中树种以单叶、革质、全缘、中型叶为主,群落外貌以常绿的中高位芽植物为主,落叶树种较少,群落季相变化不明显。群落中树种数、树木个体数分别在H<5 m高度级及1 cm≤DBH<5 cm胸径级最多,并随高度或胸径的增加而不断减少,这种变化趋势可用直线函数或

  5. Chlorine-36 and chlorine concentrations within several compartments of a deciduous forest ecosystem in Meuse/Haute-Marne (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupier, Julie; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Thiry, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine-36 is a cosmogenic nuclide mainly produced in the atmosphere by interactions between energetic particles originating from the cosmic radiations and 40Ar. Because of its long half-life (T1-2 = 3.01 105 yr) and its high mobility, chlorine-36 is a critical radionuclide concerning radioactive waste repository sites. Moreover, it has been shown that inorganic chlorine could be enriched along the trophic chain due to its high solubility and bioavailability (Ashworth and Shaw, 2006). Additionally, many studies during the last decades have established that due to chlorination process, organic chlorine may account for a large proportion of the total soil chlorine pool (more than 80 % in surface soils of temperate ecosystems. Redon et al., 2012). The aim of this study is thus to measure chlorine-36 in all the compartments of the biogeochemical cycle, to better understand its recycling in the biosphere. The study site is the experimental beech forest site of the Andra long-term monitoring and testing system (OPE*). It is located at Montiers-sur-Saulx, North-East of France and is associated to the future radioactive waste repository site of Bure. Since March 2012, rainwater above (rainfall collected from a 45 m high tower built on purpose) and below (throughfall and stemflow) the canopy, has been collected monthly, as well as soil solutions (gravitational and bound waters) at four depths (0, 10, 30, 60 cm deep). Chlorine-36 and chlorine have been measured in the rainfall samples between March and July 2012 and in water solutions collected from all compartments of the biosphere using isotope dilution mass spectrometry at the french AMS national facility ASTER located at CEREGE. The results yielded from the rainfall samples allow to study the temporal fluctuations of chlorine-36 in the atmosphere, which represents the main inflow of chlorine-36 in its biogeochemical cycle. The first results indicate a flow increase during the late spring-early summer. Santos et al

  6. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  7. Suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em Pinus elliottii Engelm, Eucalyptus sp. E floresta estacional decidual Adequate sampling for collection of litter accumulated on the soil in Pinus elliottii engelm, Eucalyptus sp. And seasonal deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sandra Kleinpaul

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou determinar a suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em povoamentos de Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus sp., ambos plantados no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e em uma área de Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED localizada no Morro do Elefante, Santa Maria, RS. Para a realização do estudo, foram coletadas 100 amostras de serapilheira por floresta, com o auxílio de uma moldura quadrada de 25 cm de lado, totalizando 300 amostras, as quais foram separadas nas seguintes frações: acículas ou folhas, galhos, estruturas reprodutivas, cascas e resíduos. Com base nos pesos de matéria seca de cada fração, realizou-se a análise estatística dos dados, visando à estabilização dos valores do coeficiente de variação (CV%. Para Pinus elliottii, a maior contribuição na formação da serapilheira foi dada pelas acículas, com 57,2%; em Eucalyptus sp., isso ocorreu com os galhos (38,8% e na FED, novamente com as folhas, que representaram 49,6% da serapilheira. No Pinus elliottii, o maior CV% se deu nos resíduos, seguido de estruturas reprodutivas. Em Eucalyptus sp., o maior CV% foi encontrado em cascas, seguido de galhos. Na FED, as cascas tiveram o maior CV%. A suficiência amostral necessária para Pinus elliottii foi de 40, sendo esse o povoamento que necessitou de menos amostras para estabilizar o CV%. Em Eucalyptus sp., a suficiência amostral foi de 70, enquanto na FED foram necessárias 80 amostras.This study determined the sample sufficiency for the collection of litter accumulated on the soil, in Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus sp. stands, planted in the Campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria and a Seasonal Deciduous Forest, located at the "Morro do Elefante", Santa Maria - RS. To carry out this study, 100 samples were collected per site, using a square frame (25 cm², totaling 300 samples. The samples were separated in the following fractions: needles or

  8. Hygroscopic properties of newly formed ultrafine particles at an urban site surrounded by deciduous forest (Sapporo, northern Japan) during the summer of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the hygroscopic properties of ultrafine particles during new particle formation events, the hygroscopic growth factors of size-segregated atmospheric particles were measured at an urban site in Sapporo, northern Japan, during the summer of 2011. The hygroscopic growth factor at 85 % relative humidity [g(85%)] of freshly formed nucleation mode particles was 1.11 to 1.28 (average: 1.16 ± 0.06) at a dry particle diameter (Dp) centered on 20 nm, which is equivalent to 1.17 to 1.35 (1.23 ± 0.06) at a dry Dp centered on 100 nm after considering the Kelvin effect. These values are comparable with those of secondary organic aerosols, suggesting that low-volatility organic vapors are important to the burst of nucleation mode particles. The equivalent g(85%) at a dry Dp of 100 nm for nucleated particles that have grown to Aitken mode sizes (1.24 to 1.34; average: 1.30 ± 0.04) were slightly higher than those of newly formed nucleation mode particles, suggesting that the growth of freshly formed nucleation mode particles to the Aitken mode size can be subjected to condensation of not only low-volatility organic vapors, but also water-soluble inorganic species. Based on this result, and previous measurement of radiocarbon in aerosols, we suggest that the burst of nucleation mode particles and their subsequent growth were highly affected by biogenic organic emissions at this measurement site, which is surrounded by deciduous forest. Gradual increases in mode diameter after the burst of nucleation mode particles were observed under southerly wind conditions, with a dominant contribution of intermediately hygroscopic particles. However, sharp increases in mode diameter were observed when the wind direction shifted to northwesterly or northeasterly, with a sharp increase in the highly hygroscopic particle fraction of the Aitken mode particles, indicating that the hygroscopic growth factor of newly formed particles is perturbed by the local winds that deliver

  9. Validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 fAPAR Products in a Deciduous Beech Forest Site in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Nestola

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of new fAPAR satellite products requires simultaneous efforts in validation to provide users with a better comprehension of product performance and evaluation of uncertainties. This study aimed to validate three fAPAR satellite products, GEOV1, MODIS C5, and MODIS C6, against ground references to determine to what extent the GCOS requirements on accuracy (maximum 10% or 5% can be met in a deciduous beech forest site in a gently and variably sloped mountain site. Three ground reference fAPAR, differing for temporal (continuous or campaign mode and spatial sampling (single points or Elementary Sampling Units—ESUs, were collected using different devices: (1 Apogee (defined as benchmark in this study; (2 PASTIS; and (3 Digital cameras for collecting hemispherical photographs (DHP. A bottom-up approach for the upscaling process was used in the present study. Radiometric values of decametric images (Landsat-8 were extracted over the ESUs and used to develop empirical transfer functions for upscaling the ground measurements. The resulting high-resolution ground-based maps were aggregated to the spatial resolution of the satellite product to be validated considering the equivalent point spread function of the satellite sensors, and a correlation analysis was performed to accomplish the accuracy assessment. PASTIS sensors showed good performance as fAPARPASTIS appropriately followed the seasonal trends depicted by fAPARAPOGEE (benchmark (R2 = 0.84; RMSE = 0.01. Despite small dissimilarities, mainly attributed to different sampling schemes and errors in DHP classification process, the agreement between fAPARPASTIS and fAPARDHP was noticeable considering all the differences between both approaches. The temporal courses of the three satellite products were found to be consistent with both Apogee and PASTIS, except at the end of the summer season when ground data were more affected by senescent leaves, with both MODIS C5 and C6 displaying

  10. [Diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Marcial, Malinalli; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60 km2, while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144 km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H' = 2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargen- teus (IAR = 0.23) and Pecari tajacu (IAR = 0.20). By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR = 2.62) and Nasua narica (IAR = 1.28). In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mam- mals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  12. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  13. The effect of interspecific variation in photosynthetic plasticity on 4-year growth rate and 8-year survival of understorey tree seedlings in response to gap formations in a cool-temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Hiura, Tsutom; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2017-04-19

    Gap formation increases the light intensity in the forest understorey. The growth responses of seedlings to the increase in light availability show interspecific variation, which is considered to promote biodiversity in forests. At the leaf level, some species increase their photosynthetic capacity in response to gap formation, whereas others do not. Here we address the question of whether the interspecific difference in the photosynthetic response results in the interspecific variation in the growth response. If so, the interspecific difference in photosynthetic response would also contribute to species coexistence in forests. We also address the further relevant question of why some species do not increase their photosynthetic capacity. We assumed that some cost of photosynthetic plasticity may constrain acquisition of the plasticity in some species, and hypothesized that species with larger photosynthetic plasticity exhibit better growth after gap formation and lower survivorship in the shade understorey of a cool-temperate deciduous forest. We created gaps by felling canopy trees and studied the relationship between the photosynthetic response and the subsequent growth rate of seedlings. Naturally growing seedlings of six deciduous woody species were used and their mortality was examined for 8 years. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax) and the relative growth rate (RGR) of the seedlings of all study species increased at gap plots. The extent of these increases varied among the species. The stimulation of RGR over 4 years after gap formation was strongly correlated with change in photosynthetic capacity of newly expanded leaves. The increase in RGR and Pmax correlated with the 8-year mortality at control plots. These results suggest a trade-off between photosynthetic plasticity and the understorey shade tolerance. Gap-demanding species may acquire photosynthetic plasticity, sacrificing shade tolerances, whereas gap-independent species may acquire

  14. Estudo fenológico em três fases sucessionais de uma floresta estacional decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS, Brasil Phenology study in three successional stages of a seasonal deciduous forest in Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáren Andreis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em 40 parcelas de área fixa pertencentes a três estágios sucessionais, denominados: Capoeirão, Floresta Secundária e Floresta Madura, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS. Foram realizadas observações fenológicas quinzenais em 53 espécies arbóreas, numa média de 8,4 indivíduos por espécie, durante o período de 16 de novembro de 2001 a 10 de novembro de 2002. As fenofases observadas foram floração, frutificação e mudança foliar. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade reprodutiva manteve uma porcentagem relativamente baixa nos três estágios sucessionais durante o período observado, com tendências em ser menor durante a estação de inverno. A quantidade total de folhas na árvore, não se distinguindo estágio sucessional, diminuiu de aproximadamente 85% no período de maior atividade vegetativa para até 35% no inverno, período de repouso, sendo a Floresta Madura a subsere, que manteve os maiores porcentuais de folhas durante o período estudado.The present study was accomplished in forty permanent plots belonging to three forest successional stages, denominated: Brush Forest, Secondary Forest and Mature Forest, in a seasonal deciduous forest in the municipal district of Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil. Phenologic observations were accomplished fortnightly for 53 arboreal species, in an average of 8,4 individuals per species, during the period of November 2001 to November 2002. The stages observed were flowering, fruiting and foliage change. The results indicate that the reproductive activity remained relatively low for three successional stages during the observed period, with a tendency to be even lower during winter. The total amount of leaves on the trees, regardless of the successional stage, decreased from approximately 85%, in the period of higher vegetative activity, to 35% in the winter, resting season. The Mature Forest maintained the largest percentage

  15. Detection of upward and downward Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emissions at the forest floor in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Tsujimoto, K.; Nasahara, K. N.; Akitsu, T.; Murayama, S.; Noda, H.; Muraoka, H.

    2016-12-01

    Strong representation of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) for the ecosystem-level photosynthesis activity has been confirmed by satellite studies [Frankenberg et al., 2011; Joiner et al., 2013] and by field studies [Porcar-Castell, 2011, Yang et al., 2015]. However, the lack of taking care of SIF emission below the tree canopy top may underestimate the contribution of sub-canopy and the understory species to total ecosystem CO2dynamics. To examine the potential contribution of SIF emission from lower part of tree ecosystem to total ecosystem SIF emission, the downward SIF from tree canopy and upward SIF from understory were calculated from the spectrum data in a cool temperate forest in in central Japan (36°08'N, 137°25'E, 1420 masl) as well as the upward SIF from canopy top, and the fractional ratios among them are compared on half-hourly and daily bases from 2006 to 2007. The top canopy is dominated by Oak and Birches, and the sub-canopy layer and shrub layers are dominated by Acer, Hydrangea and Viburnum species. The understory is dominated by an evergreen dwarf bamboo Sasa senanensis, and covered partially by the seedlings of oak and maple, and herbaceous species [Muraoka and Koizumi, 2005]. The SIF was estimated from the spectrums of downward and upward irradiances measured at two heights of 18m and 2m above ground by HemiSpherical Spectro-Radiometer, consisting of the spectroradiometer (MS700, Eko inc., Tokyo, Japan) with the FWHM of 10 nm and wavelength interval of 3.3 nm. The SIF around 760nm (O2-A band) was calculated according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth principle with additional arrangements. Our preliminary results show that the SIF emission intensity was kept in the order as canopy upward > canopy downward > understory upward for most of growing season, except for short spring time between snow melt and canopy greening because of the evergreen Sasa bamboo grass at the forest floor. On the other hand, the relative intensities among three SIF emissions

  16. A study on reserves and water holding function of litter in four types of evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical zone of China%亚热带4种常绿阔叶林林分枯落物储量及持水功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雨虹; 范少辉; 夏晨

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the litter hydrological functions in four types of forest stands in the process of Phyllostachys edulis expansion to evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical zone of China, this paper studied the reserves and hydro⁃logical parameters of litter in semi⁃decomposed layer and undecomposed layer such as the maximum water holding capac⁃ity and rate, the water absorption rate and the effective interception amount under four kinds of forest stand: evergreen broad⁃leaved forest, bamboo( 20%)-broadleaf( 80%) mixed forest, bamboo( 80%)-broadleaf( 20%) mixed forest and Mao bamboo pure forest in Dagangshan mountain forest ecological station, Jiangxi Province. The results were shown as follows:① the total litter reserves in four kinds of forest stand could be arranged from high to low as:Mao bamboo pure forest > bamboo(80%)-broadleaf(20%) mixed forest > bamboo(20%)- broadleaf(80%) mixed forest > evergreen broadleaved forest. And litter reserves of semi⁃decomposed layer was higher than that of undecomposed layer. Effective interception rate of bamboo(20%)-broadleaf(80%) mixed forest was the highest, which was 0.78, slightly higher than that of the Mao bamboo forest (0.77). The lowest interception rate was found in broad⁃leaved forest (0.42). ②The wa⁃terholding capacity of litter in different stands with various decomposition rate was consistent. Due to limited reserves, the waterholding quantities in broad⁃leaved forest were the smallest in both undecomposed and semi⁃decomposed layers, which were respectively 0.33 mm and 0.44 mm. ③ The relationship between water holding capacity and immersion time in litter of four forest stands could be shown in the equation:S=aln( t)+b, water holding capacity of litter increased rap⁃idly within the first four hours, then rose slowly. While, the equation of the relationship between water absorption rate and immersion time was:V=atn , and the litter water absorption rate decreased rapidly within

  17. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    for deciduous forest and negatively biased for coniferous forest. Species type specific (coniferous, deciduous, or mixed forest) models reduced root mean squared error by 3–12% and removed the bias. In application, model predictions will be improved by stratification into deciduous and coniferous forest using e...

  18. Global greenhouse to icehouse and back again: The origin and future of the Boreal Forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ralph E.; Cross, Aureal T.

    2009-02-01

    The Boreal Forest biome (Taiga), dominated by evergreen and deciduous coniferous trees (Pinaceae), is circumpolar in its present distribution, covering a significant part of the total land area of the Northern Hemisphere and representing perhaps a third of the total forest area of the planet. Nothing comparable to this extant biome existed during the global "greenhouse" interval of the Late Mesozoic and Paleogene. Latitudinal temperature gradients should have confined boreal taxa to extremely high latitudes, but evergreen taxa do not appear to have been competitive in the lowlands of the high arctic, where the vegetation consisted of a unique circumpolar forest dominated by deciduous conifers and broad-leaved taxa. Probable sources for the pinaceous taxa that now characterize boreal latitudes were the Paleogene evergreen montane coniferous forests of the western North American Cordillera. Taphonomic factors limit the fossil record for such forests, but assemblages such as the Eocene Thunder Mountain (Idaho) and Bull Run (Nevada) floras were dominated by evergreen and deciduous Pinaceae that dominate extant montane, subalpine, and Boreal Forest associations. In response to post-Eocene global cooling, such forests presumably would have migrated to lower elevations, eventually spreading across high-latitude North America, subsequently reaching Eurasia via the Beringian corridor. This high-diversity coniferous forest was differentially winnowed and modified during subsequent migration southward in both the New and Old World. Despite its extensive geographic distribution, the Boreal Forest may be the youngest of the major forest biomes. If global warming ultimately results in a significant redistribution of terrestrial vegetation, the history of the Boreal Forest may well be reversed. Northward migration of the Boreal Forest may be characterized by loss of taxa and extensive community reorganization as individual taxa are pushed to their limits with respect to rates of

  19. 重庆地区主要森林类型的空气负离子水平及其评价1)%Air Anions Content and Its Evaluation for Main Forest Types in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶浩; 刘访兵; 周小舟; 刘茜; 李彬

    2014-01-01

    With AIC1000 portable air anions tester, the air anion concentration of six main forest types had been measured in 41 monitoring plots of Chongqing in 2012.All forest types significantly can improve air anion content (Pdeciduous broad-leaved forest>evergreen broad-leaved forest>coniferous forest>bamboo forest>mixed conifer-broadleaved forest>CK(Jiefangbei Business District).For evergreen broad-leaved forest and mixed conifer forest, the air anions content in sunny day is higher than that in cloudy day and rain day (P0.05).Air anions of every forest types presents an obviously seasonal variation (P<0.01).The air anions content is the most in spring for mixed conifer-broadleaved forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest and mixed conifer forest, but it is the most in autumn for deciduous broad-leaved forest.Except bamboo forest and mixed conifer forest, air anions of other forest types are the least in winter.The air anions content mainly located in the grade of V level ( 400-1 000 air anions/cm-3 ) in the monitoring spots, and the air quality of Simian Mountains Nature Reserve is the best in all monitoring spots.%利用便携式空气负离子测定仪( AIC1000),对重庆地区6种主要森林类型的41个监测点进行为期1 a的空气负离子监测和研究。结果表明:各森林类型均能显著提高空气负离子水平(P<0.01),从大到小依次为针叶混交林、落叶阔叶林、常绿阔叶林、针叶纯林、竹林、针阔混交林、对照(解放碑商务区);常绿阔叶林和针叶混交林在晴天时的空气负离子水平显著高于阴天和雨天的(P<0.01),而落叶阔叶林却相反;天气阴晴对其它森林类型的空气负离子影响则不显著(P>0.05)。各森林类型的空气负离子呈明显的季节变化(P<0.01),针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林和针叶混交林均以春季最大,落叶阔叶林则以秋季最大;除竹林和针叶混交林外,其它森

  20. Temporal patterns of storage and flux of N and P in young Teak planta-tions of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) ranks among the top five tropical hardwood species and is being promoted for use in plantations in its non-native range due to its high economic value. However, there is a general lack of data on ecosystem functioning of teak plantations. We aimed at understanding storage and flux of nutrients related to young plantations of teak. Cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a chronosequence of plantations (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) was studied in the Moist Deciduous Forest Region of North India with the objective of investigating the nutrient cycling pattern at younger age since the current trend of harvesting age of the species in several tropical countries is being drastically reduced for quick return from this high value crop. Standing state, nutrient uptake, nutrient return and nutrient retransloca-tion in these plantations were estimated by tree harvesting and chemical analysis methods. The range of total standing nutrient across all these plantations was 20.3 to 586.6 kg⋅ha-1 for N and 5.3 to 208.8 kg⋅ha-1 for P. Net uptake of N ranged from 19.4 to 88.9 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and P from 3.8 to 18.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1. Retranslocation of N and P among all the stands ranged from 8.7 to 48.0 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and 0.01 to 3.5 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1, respectively. Range of total nutrient return was 25.8 to 91.3 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for N and 2.7 to 10.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for P. N and P use efficiency was between 107.4 and 192.5 g dry organic matter (OM) g-1N, and 551.9 and 841.1 g OM g-1P, respec-tively. The turnover time ranged from 2.04-13.17 years for N and be-tween 2.40-22.66 years for P. Quantity of N and P in the soil nutrient pool ranged from 2566.8 to 4426.8 kg⋅ha-1 and 372 to 520 kg⋅ha-1, re-spectively. Storage and flux of components in different plant parts of different aged plantations were assessed and depicted in compartment models. Percentage storage in soil, litter and vegetation ranged from 82% to 99%, 0.6% to 2.4% and 0.5% to

  1. Diversity and Distribution of Vascular Epiphytes in Different Restoration Stages of Monsoonal Broad-leaved Evergreen Forest Communities%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段附生维管植物多样性及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 苏建荣; 刘万德; 张志钧; 刘庆云; 李忠文

    2011-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of species richness in monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest.Field data collection on vascular epiphytes was based on 0.81 hm2 plot ( including 9 subplots) in different restoration stages (community of 15 years restoration (15 a), community of 30 years restoration (30 a) ) and primary monsoonal broadleaved evergreen forest distribute in Caiyanghe Nature Reserve, Yixiang Township and Xinfang reservoir, Pu' er city, Yunnan, China. On the basis of analyzing vascular epiphytes species richness, abundance, distribution, similarity coefficient,the relationship between epiphytes and phorophytes was discussed. The results showed that: ( 1 ) 3 116 vascular epiphytes,belonging to 22 species in 20 genera and 9 families were recorded in all plots. (2) The diversity of vascular epiphytes was low in restoration stages ( 15 a, 5 spp. and 30 a, 7 spp. ) compared to primary forest (17 spp. ). (3) The composition of epiphytic species in primary forests and the stand in restoration stages differed markedly: 15a harboured no orchid species but more fern species and primary forest hold more orchid species. Probably the families occurring only in primary forest sites which the authors studied may be used as bioindicators to determine the degree of restoration in monsoonal broadleaved evergreen forest. (4) The epiphyte abundance was also lower in restoration stages. The declines in species number and abundance as well as the differences in species composition were mainly due to the less diversified phorophyte structure and less differentiated microclimate in the disturbed and secondary vegetation compared to the primary forest. Sφrensen coefficient between 15 a and primary forest was higher than that between 30a and primary forest. (5) The vascular epiphytes were clumped horizontally iu 3 eommunity types. Vertically, vascular epiphytes of 15a were mainly distributed at 0 ~ 5 m and that of primary forest was up to 20 m. (6) Both the

  2. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8...

  3. The importance of deciduous forest for alkalinity, phosphorus burial and isoetid macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleo study in a soft water Lobelia Lake (Grane Langsø, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Marie; Reitzel, Kasper; Mortensen, Morten F.;

    in macrofossils of calcium (Ca)-sensitive species (as reflected in Daphnia ephippia and Cristatella mucedo statoblasts) and followed by increases in acidophilic species (as reflected in Juncus seeds and Sphagnum leaves). 2) The contents of organic material and organic P forms were clearly lower in sediments...... that were deposited during the period of least forest cover. Especially humic bound P seems to be positively related to the presence of deciduous trees which may be linked to a stabilizing effect of calcium. 3) An erosion event (as reflected in Cenococccum geophilum sclerotia) during the open-land period...... of nutrient-poor soft water lakes to changes in their catchments vegetation and their partial irreversible consequences and is therefore of importance for lake management....

  4. 闽北天然阔叶林径阶材种结构分析及出材率表的编制%Compilation of Output Structure of Diameter Grade Wood Assortments and Volume Ratio Table for Natural Broad-Leaved Forest Tree Species in North Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓景; 江希钿; 庄崇洋; 李小铃

    2012-01-01

    应用闽北天然阔叶林现场造材资料,在分析径阶材种结构规律的基础上,选择适合的方程建立材种出材率模型并编制二元材种出材率表.经检验,该表精度较高,在林业生产上有实用价值.为方便生产中应用,还建立了树高曲线模型,由二元材种出材率袁导出了一元材种出材率表.%The volume ratio model of wood assortment was built by choosing the proper equation, and the two dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were compiled based on structure analyses of diameter grade wood assortments, with on the spot sample timber data collected from the natural broad-leaved forests in the north Fujian Province. The wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were tested to be with high precision and practicable in forestry production. In order to facilitate the production and application, tree height model was established, and the one dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were derived from the two dimension tables.

  5. Enamel Hypoplasia of Deciduous Canine

    OpenAIRE

    加納, 隆; 平出, 百合子; 舟津, 聡; 峯村, 隆一; 恩田, 千爾; 正木, 岳馬

    1993-01-01

    From observation of frequency and measurement of the lengths and widths of enamel hypoplasia on the maxillary and mandibular deciduous canines, extracted from 50 Indians' skulls, the following results were obtained. 1) Enamel hypoplasia occurred in 15% of the maxillary deciduous canines and 44% of the mandibular deciduous canines. 2) Symmetrical cases of enamel hypoplasia occurred in 8.0% of the maxillary deciduous canins and in 34% of the mandibular deciduous canines. The enamel hypoplasia o...

  6. Predicting Potential Habitat of Conifer and Broad-leaved Tree Using Environmental Variables and Seed Dispersal Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, H. K.; Lee, D. K.; Mo, Y.; Kim, H. G.

    2016-12-01

    Research into predicting potential species distribution within forests is ongoing in relation to forest management. Conifer and broad-leaved tree, two main distinctive components in forests which are important concerning the management of forest, are used to predict potential forest distribution. Regarding prediction of potential tree species habitat distribution, environmental variables are commonly used to determine conditions that species can inhabit. However, seed dispersal ability was not used in species distribution model because it reflects succession process which is difficult to use.In this research, in addition to environmental variables, distance value was used to represent seed dispersal ability to predict tree distribution. Research was done in Namsan (Mt.) Sangju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, where few tree species exist according to detailed vegetation map, as a case study. To analyze the suitable environmental conditions and dispersal ability of conifer and broad-leaved trees, past distribution changing patterns were used. Past forest distribution maps (1984, 1995, 2005 and 2014) were used which was classified by Landsat images. Using these results, potential habitats of conifer and broad-leaved trees were predicted for 2024 and 2034. Furthermore, to quantify the uncertainty of prediction, monte carlo simulation was proceeded. As a result, it was possible to predict potential habitats using environmental variables and seed dispersal ability. Moreover, the dispersal ability turned out to be an important variable to predict change of potential habitat.

  7. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  8. Light-exposed shoots of seven coexisting deciduous species show common photosynthetic responses to tree height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Rie; Kohyama, Takashi S

    2016-10-01

    Functional traits of light-exposed leaves have been reported to show tree height-dependent change. However, it remains unknown how plastic response of leaf traits to tree height is linked with shoot-level carbon gain. To answer this question, we examined the photosynthetic properties of fully lit current-year shoots in crown tops with various heights for seven deciduous broad-leaved species dominated in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan. We measured leaf mass, stomatal conductance, nitrogen content, light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (all per leaf lamina area), foliar stable carbon isotope ratio, and shoot mass allocation to leaf laminae. We employed hierarchical Bayesian models to simultaneously quantify inter-trait relationships for all species. We found that leaf and shoot traits were co-varied in association with height, and that there was no quantitative inter-specific difference in leaf- and shoot-level plastic responses to height. Nitrogen content increased and stomatal conductance decreased with height. Reflecting these antagonistic responses to height, photosynthetic rate was almost unchanged with height. Photosynthetic rate divided by stomatal conductance as a proxy of photosynthetic water use efficiency sufficiently explained the variation of foliar carbon isotope ratio. The increase in mass allocation to leaves in a shoot compensated for the height-dependent decline in photosynthetic rate per leaf lamina mass. Consequently, photosynthetic gain at the scale of current-year shoot mass was kept unchanged with tree height. We suggest that the convergent responses of shoot functional traits across species reflect common requirements for trees coexisting in a forest.

  9. Fatty acid profiles of great tit ( Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N.; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit ( Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  10. Fatty acid profiles of great tit (Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit (Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  11. Dynamic Change of Forests in Xinjiang in Recent 25 Years%近25年来新疆森林的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雷

    2011-01-01

    新疆森林主要有落叶针叶林、常绿针叶林、落叶阔叶林以及特殊灌木林4种类型,面积约为全疆植被面积的2%,但新疆森林在经济、社会和生态效益等方面却发挥着重要的作用.不同森林类型具有不同的NDVI变化特征,利用GIMMS NDVI数据集首先对新疆植被进行专家分类,然后分析近25年来新疆森林面积、蓄积量和密度的动态变化及其可能原因.结果发现:近25年来,森林面积和蓄积量分别增加5.83×105hm2和4.02×1077m3,森林密度以0.019%的相对年变化率增长,说明新疆森林整体向良性方向发展.虽然,近25年来阔叶林密度呈下降趋势(相对密度变化率为-0.62%),但是,造林面积增加导致的蓄积量增加大于阔叶林密度减少造成的蓄积量减少,因此阔叶林蓄积量整体增加.可见,在新疆干旱气候区实施林业工程,对保护当地的生态具有举足轻重的作用.%Four types of forests ( i.e. , deciduous coniferous forest, evergreen coniferous forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and shrub) are distributed in Xinjiang. Forest coverage is only 2% of vegetation area, but the forests play an important role in social effects, economic returns and ecological benefits. The forests in Xinjiang were firstly classified with an expert classification method based on the seasonal change of NDVI curves of the forest types and the GIMMS NDVI datasets during the periods of 1982 - 1984, 1984 - 1988, 1989 - 1993, 1994 - 1998, 1999 - 2003 and 2004 - 2006, and then the changes of area, growing stock volume and density of the forests as well as their affecting factors were analyzed. The results show that the forest area and the growing stock volume were increased by 5.83 ×l05 hm2 and 4.02 ×107 m3 in recent 25 years respectively, and the forest density was increased with an annual increase rate of 0.019%, indicating that the forests in Xinjiang were developed in a virtuous circle.Moreover, the forest density of

  12. Water-holding characteristics of litter in different forests at the Lianxiahe watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhuowen; CHEN Yusheng; ZHANG Zhiyong; CUI Hongxia; LEI Yunfei; WANG Dongyun; SUI Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the forest litter amount at the Lianxiahe watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and analyzed some hydrological characteristics such as the maximum water-holding capacity and water absorption rate of litter in six types of forests,i.e.the Cupressus funebris forest,the coniferous mixed forest,the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,the broad-leaved forest,the Pinus massoniana forest,the bush forest.Results showed that the litter amount follows the order of the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the pure C.funebris forest,the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.The maximal water holding capacity of the undecomposed litter is in the order of the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the bush forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest >the broad-leaved forest>the P.massoniana forest.The maximal water-holding capacity of the half-decomposed litter is the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.In this watershed,the water holding capacity of the litter in the C.funebris forest is the highest,followed by the coniferous mixed forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,P.massoniana forest,broad-leaved forest and bush forest.When the soil is covered only by litter,both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.

  13. Effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Reforestation is one of the best solutions to mitigate warming gases release and to store in soil. Typhoon is one of the most hazards to disturb forest ecosystem and change carbon cycle. Typhoon disturbance is also affect soil carbon cycle such as soil respiration, carbon storage. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan. Fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Twelves continuous soil respiration chambers was divided two treatments (trench and non-trench) and observed since 2011 to 2014. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Forest biometric such as tree high, DBH, litterfall was measured in 2011-2014. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (pnegative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the tree was still young and did not reach crown closure.

  14. Mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition of selected trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest watershed. [Roles of dry and wet deposition concentrations measured in Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Harriss, R.C.; Turner, R.R.; Shriner, D.S.; Huff, D.D.

    1979-06-01

    The critical links between anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and their effects on ecosystems are the mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition. The atmospheric input of several trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest canopy is quantified and the major mechanisms of deposition are determined. The study area was Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) in eastern Tennessee. The presence of a significant quantity of fly ash and dispersed soil particles on upward-facing leaf and flat surfaces suggested sedimentation to be a major mechanism of dry deposition to upper canopy elements. The agreement for deposition rates measured to inert, flat surfaces and to leaves was good for Cd, SO/sub 4//sup =/, Zn, and Mn but poor for Pb. The precipitation concentrations of H/sup +/, Pb, Mn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ reached maximum values during the summer months. About 90% of the wet deposition of Pb and SO/sub 4//sup =/ was attributed to scavenging by in-cloud processes while for Cd and Mn, removal by in-cloud scavenging accounted for 60 to 70% of the deposition. The interception of incoming rain by the forest canopy resulted in a net increase in the concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ but a net decrease in the concentration of H/sup +/. The source of these elements in the forest canopy was primarily dry deposited aerosols for Pb, primarily internal plant leaching for Mn, Cd, and Zn, and an approximately equal combination of the two for SO/sub 4//sup =/. Significant fractions of the total annual elemental flux to the forest floor in a representative chestnut oak stand were attributable to external sources for Pb (99%), Zn (44%), Cd (42%), SO/sub 4//sup =/ (39%), and Mn (14%), the remainder being related to internal element cycling mechanisms. On an annual scale the dry deposition process constituted a significant fraction of the total atmospheric input. (ERB)

  15. Allocation of Carbon Storage in the Arbor Layer of Young and Old-growth Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in Wanmulin%万木林青年和老龄常绿阔叶林乔木层碳贮量分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 王超; 杨智杰; 陈光水

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of forest biomass carbon on forest carbon storage,carbon sink measurement and management,as well as biodiversity conservation,this paper analyses the evergreen broad-leaved forests,including the young forest(about 47 a)and old-growth forest(about 120 a)in the Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Fujian.According to the results of biodiversity investigation and Biomass Different Speed Equation,we figure out the carbon storage in tree layer and its distribution features in different heights,diameter classes and tree species.The results are shown as follows:1)The carbon storage of young forest is 115.03 t·hm-2,while that of the old-growth forest is 224.43 t·hm-2.2)In young forest,the maximum carbon storage is 23.17 t·hm-2 in height class Ⅶ(15~17 m),in old-growth forest,it(62.96 t·hm-2)happens in height class Ⅷ(17~19 m).3)In young forest,the maximum carbon storage which amounts to 34.25 t·hm-2,lies in DBH class Ⅵ(15 cm≤DBH17 cm);in old-growth forest,the maximum carbon storage lies in class XIX(DBH≥41 cm)which amounts to 60.03 t·hm-2,taking up 26.78% of total carbon storage.4)Most carbon is stored in a small minority of trees,in other words,most tree species contribute only a tiny part to the total carbon storage.%了解森林生物量碳分配特征,对于森林碳贮量和碳汇估算、森林碳汇经营和生物多样性保护有重要意义.本课题选择福建省万木林自然保护区青年(约47 a生)和老龄(约120 a生)常绿阔叶林为研究对象,根据生物多样性调查结果和生物量异速方程,计算乔木层生物量碳贮量,并分析其高度级、径级和树种间的分配特征.结果表明:1)青年林碳贮量为115.03 t.hm-2,老龄林碳贮量为224.43 t.hm-2;2)青年林最大碳贮量出现在高度级Ⅶ级(15~17 m),为23.17 t.hm-2,而老年林最大碳贮量出现在高度级Ⅷ级

  16. Study on Litterfall, Nutrient Returned by Litterfall and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Scenic Forests of Central Japan%日本中部风景林凋落物量、养分归还量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛达; 薛立; 罗山

    2001-01-01

    研究了日本中部的3个风景林——常绿针叶林、常绿阔叶林和常绿落叶阔叶混交林的凋落物,养分归还量和养分利用效率.常绿针叶林、常绿阔叶林和常绿落叶阔叶混交林的年凋落量分别为7562、6023和5565kg/hm2,养分年归还量分别为233.87、125.20和140.23kg/hm2.各养分中N、K和Ca的归还量大于P和Mg.叶的养分归还量占养分年归还量的64.19%~79.29%.常绿针叶林和常绿阔叶林中Mg的利用效率高,表明Mg可能是这2种风景林生长的限制因子.%Litterfall amounts, nutrients returned by litterfall and nutrientuse efficiency in evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, and evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest of Central Japan were studied. Annual amounts of litterfall in evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, and mixed forest were 7 562, 6 023 and 5 565 kg/hm2, respectively, which resulted in the amount of nutrient contained in litterfall being 233.87, 125.20 and 140.23 kg/hm2, respectively. Returned amounts of N, K and Ca were greater than P and Mg in all scenic forests, and leaves contributed 64.19%~79.29% of the total. A high Mg use efficiency in evergreen coniferous forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest indicates that Mg may be in a limited supply in the two scenic forests.

  17. Effect of land-use types on soil enzymatic activities and chemical properties in semi-deciduous forest areas of Central-West Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnety, JT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activities play a key role in the biochemical functioning of soils. As a consequence, they have been proposed as indicators of soil quality. This study was conducted at the Oumé benchmark site (Central-West, Côte d'Ivoire, and aimed at measuring the enzymatic activities involved in the phosphorus (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase and carbon (β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase cycles. Soil from four main agro-ecological units (a secondary forest, a 20 year-old cocoa plantation, a 2 year-old Chromolaena odorata-based fallow and a continuous maize crop, representative of land-use systems in the area, were sampled for the measurement of enzymatic activities and chemical characteristics. Results showed that the enzymatic activity values were the highest in the fallow soil, whereas the maize crop displayed the lowest levels of enzymatic activity in soil. Moreover, soil from C. odorata fallow displayed the highest values of C, N, exchangeable bases (Mg2+, K+ contents, and CEC, and the lowest C:N ratio, which are characteristics of good quality soil. A Principal Component Analysis revealed a marked relationship between C, N and enzymatic activity levels, showing that these enzymes are suitable for monitoring soil quality in semi-deciduous forest areas in Central-West Côte d'Ivoire.

  18. Leaf area index is the principal scaling parameter for both gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration of Northern deciduous and coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Anders; Lagergren, Fredrik; Aurela, Mika; Bjarnadottir, Brynhildur; Christensen, Torben; Dellwik, Ebba; Grelle, Achim; Ibrom, Andreas; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lankreijer, Harry; Launiainen, Samuli; Laurila, Tuomas; Mölder, Meelis; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pilegaard, Kim; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Vesala, Timo

    2008-04-01

    Data on net CO2 exchange from eight forests in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Iceland were used to analyse which factors were controlling photosynthesis and respiration. The forests consisted of different species ranging in climatic condition from temperate to subarctic. Only well mixed conditions were analysed (u* > 0.3 m s-1). The parameters of a light response function showed strong seasonal variations with similar behaviour for all stands except for a beech forest where the development of a vigorous ground vegetation in spring affected the photosynthesis parameters differently as compared to the other forests. The beech forest also showed the highest respiration rates in the earlier part of the growing season in contrast to the other forests that showed maximum values in late part of July. The mean half-monthly nighttime respiration rates were well explained by an equation with one fitting parameter, the respiration rate at 10 °C, with an r2 = 0.864 for all stands together. The difference between the stands concerning both photosynthesis and respiration parameters were largely explained by the differences in LAI. After normalizing for LAI, the only remaining correlation was between respiration and stand age. These results are promising for application of remote sensing for estimation of respiration as well as gross primary productivity from forests.

  19. 温带阔叶红松林中不同树种和倒木对土壤性质的影响%Effects of tree species and fallen trees on the soil properties in a temperate Korean pine and broad-leaved mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗献宝; 张颖清; 徐浩; 郑俊强

    2011-01-01

    以长白山温带阔叶红松林为研究对象,通过野外采集土壤样品,综合研究老龄树及倒木对周边表层土壤性质的影响.研究结果显示,在本研究样地条件下,不同树种周边的表层土壤性质存在显著性差异,红松(Pinus koraiensis)周边土壤中水溶性有机碳WSOC的质量分数和特征吸光系数SUVA254值都高于紫椴(Tilia amurensis)和水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica),但是土壤水溶性总氮WSTN和交换性无机氮的质量分数却是红松低于紫椴和水曲柳.对倒木影响的森林表层土壤性质的研究结果显示,倒木下方森林表层土壤中WSOC、WSTN以及交换性矿质氮的质量分数都明显地高于林间土壤,说明在小尺度空间区域内,倒木可能是森林表层土壤活性碳、氮库的重要输入源.此外,本研究还利用主成分分析探讨了受树种影响的森林表层土壤不同性质之间的关联性,并对树种和倒木影响周边土壤性质的可能性机制进行分析.%This paper focused on the temperate Korean pine and broad-leaved mixed forest of Changbai mountain, and investigated on the soil properties of forest floor influenced by old-growth trees or fallen trees in the direct vicinity. The results indicated that different tree species have significant effects on the soil properties of forest floor in current experimental plot. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and the specific ultra-violet absorbance (SUVA254) of forest soil in the vicinity of Pinus koraiensis were higher than that of Tilia amurensis and Fraximis mandshurica; but as to water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, it was higher in Tilia amurensis and Fraxinus mandshurica, and lower in Pinus koraiensis. The study of soil properties of forest floor influenced by fallen trees indicated that forest soil under fallen tree had greater content of WSOC, WSTN and exchangeable inorganic nitrogen than that of forest soil in interstem-areas. The

  20. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of