WorldWideScience

Sample records for broadband hourly clear

  1. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  2. Broadband Direct UVA irradiance measurement for clear skies evaluated using a smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igoe, D.; Parisi, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    UVA wavelengths (320-400 nm) have been implicated in recent studies to contribute to melanoma induction and skin photo-aging in humans and damage to plants. The use of smartphones in UVA observations is a way to supplement measurements made by traditional radiometric and spectro-radiometric technology. Although the smartphone image sensor is not capable of determining broadband UVA irradiances, these can be reconstructed from narrowband irradiances, which the smartphone, with narrowband and neutral density filters, can quantify with discrepancies not exceeding 5 %. Three models that reconstruct direct broadband clear sky UVA were developed from narrowband irradiances derived from smartphone image sensor pixel data with coefficients of determination of between 0.97 and 0.99. Reasonable accuracy and precision in determining the direct broadband UVA was maintained for observations made with solar zenith angles as high as 70 deg. . The developed method has the potential to increase the uptake of the measurement of broadband UVA irradiances. (authors)

  3. Repeated Intra-Arterial Thrombectomy within 72 Hours in a Patient with a Clear Contraindication for Intravenous Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Laible

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Treating patients with acute ischemic stroke, proximal arterial vessel occlusion, and absolute contraindication for administering intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA poses a therapeutic challenge. Intra-arterial thrombectomy constitutes an alternative treatment option. Materials and Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old patient with concomitant gastric adenocarcinoma, who received three intra-arterial thrombectomies in 72 hours due to repeated occlusion of the left medial cerebral artery (MCA. Findings. Intra-arterial recanalization of the left medial cerebral artery was performed three times with initially good success. However, two days later, the right medial cerebral artery became occluded. Owing to the overall poor prognosis at that time and knowing the wishes of the patient, we decided not to perform another intra-arterial recanalization procedure. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case illustrating the use of repeated intra-arterial recanalization in early reocclusion of intracranial vessels.

  4. Shortened preoperative fasting time to allow oral rehydration solution clear liquid up to two hours before elective major surgery in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.N.; Maharjan, S.; Curung, R.

    2018-01-01

    To generate evidence of feasibility to allow clear liquid 2 hours before elective surgery. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Surgery, Patan Hospital, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal, from October to December 2016. Methodology: One hundred consecutive adult elective major surgery patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist criteria 1 or 2 were enrolled. The protocol was discussed with patients, nurses, anesthetists and surgeons to allow 500 ml clear liquid (ORS) up to 0600 hours on the day of surgery to maintain minimum of 2 hours (h) nil per os (NPO) before surgery. Compliance, discomfort, nausea and vomiting were observed. Institutional review committee approved the study. Microsoft excel was used for descriptive analysis. Results: All 100 patients completed the protocol of shortened fasting time. Two patients had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. Among the 98 patients analysed, age was 48 +-12.38 years with 74 females (75.51% of 98). There were 68 gastrointestinal, 20 urosurgery and 10 others surgeries. There was no discomfort, nausea or vomiting reported due to ORS 2-h before elective surgery. Conclusion: Preoperative clear liquid up to 2-h before elective surgery in adults is feasible and safe in our set-up to shorten the fasting time. (author)

  5. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  6. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most suc....... Many countries have provided active support for stimulating diffusion of broadband and national variants of this type of policies in different countries are important for an explanation of national differences in adoption of broadband....

  7. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  8. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  9. Broadband Faraday isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Michał; Rangelov, Andon A; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we theoretically propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  10. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  11. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  12. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  13. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  14. distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Clouds affect the values of insolation for solar technology and other applications. To detect the presence of variability in the sky ... It appears that the site has great potential for application of solar technologies. INTRODUCTION. Knowledge about the .... for solar collectors-part 1. Thermal performance of glazed liquid heating.

  15. Direct UV-written broadband directional broadband planar waveguide couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.......We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation....

  16. Broadband Internet and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...

  17. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  18. Broadband waveguided light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  19. Advanced broadband baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper broadband performance characteristics of robust, light-weight, diffuse-absorptive baffle surfaces fabricated from sputter-deposited beryllium on cross-rolled Be ingot sheet material and on Be foam, plasma sprayed beryllium, plasma sprayed boron-on-beryllium, and chemical vapor deposited boron carbide on graphite are described and compared to Martin Black. An overview of the Optics Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory (MODIL) Advanced Optical Baffle Program will be discussed

  20. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  1. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  2. Optimizing UV Index determination from broadband irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereszchuk, Keith A.; Rochon, Yves J.; McLinden, Chris A.; Vaillancourt, Paul A.

    2018-03-01

    A study was undertaken to improve upon the prognosticative capability of Environment and Climate Change Canada's (ECCC) UV Index forecast model. An aspect of that work, and the topic of this communication, was to investigate the use of the four UV broadband surface irradiance fields generated by ECCC's Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical prediction model to determine the UV Index. The basis of the investigation involves the creation of a suite of routines which employ high-spectral-resolution radiative transfer code developed to calculate UV Index fields from GEM forecasts. These routines employ a modified version of the Cloud-J v7.4 radiative transfer model, which integrates GEM output to produce high-spectral-resolution surface irradiance fields. The output generated using the high-resolution radiative transfer code served to verify and calibrate GEM broadband surface irradiances under clear-sky conditions and their use in providing the UV Index. A subsequent comparison of irradiances and UV Index under cloudy conditions was also performed. Linear correlation agreement of surface irradiances from the two models for each of the two higher UV bands covering 310.70-330.0 and 330.03-400.00 nm is typically greater than 95 % for clear-sky conditions with associated root-mean-square relative errors of 6.4 and 4.0 %. However, underestimations of clear-sky GEM irradiances were found on the order of ˜ 30-50 % for the 294.12-310.70 nm band and by a factor of ˜ 30 for the 280.11-294.12 nm band. This underestimation can be significant for UV Index determination but would not impact weather forecasting. Corresponding empirical adjustments were applied to the broadband irradiances now giving a correlation coefficient of unity. From these, a least-squares fitting was derived for the calculation of the UV Index. The resultant differences in UV indices from the high-spectral-resolution irradiances and the resultant GEM broadband irradiances are typically within 0

  3. An Assessment of Emerging Wireless Broadband Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountanas, Leonidas

    2001-01-01

    ... technologies in providing broadband services today, emerging wireless broadband technologies are expected to significantly increase their market share over the next years, Deploying a wireless network...

  4. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  5. Broadband unidirectional ultrasound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2017-12-12

    A passive, linear arrangement of a sonic crystal-based apparatus and method including a 1D sonic crystal, a nonlinear medium, and an acoustic low-pass filter, for permitting unidirectional broadband ultrasound propagation as a collimated beam for underwater, air or other fluid communication, are described. The signal to be transmitted is first used to modulate a high-frequency ultrasonic carrier wave which is directed into the sonic crystal side of the apparatus. The apparatus processes the modulated signal, whereby the original low-frequency signal exits the apparatus as a collimated beam on the side of the apparatus opposite the sonic crystal. The sonic crystal provides a bandpass acoustic filter through which the modulated high-frequency ultrasonic signal passes, and the nonlinear medium demodulates the modulated signal and recovers the low-frequency sound beam. The low-pass filter removes remaining high-frequency components, and contributes to the unidirectional property of the apparatus.

  6. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  7. Broadband accelerator control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  8. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  9. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  10. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  11. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  12. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  13. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  14. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma:

    OpenAIRE

    Lamovec, Janez; Pohar-Marinšek, Živa

    2003-01-01

    A case of eccrine clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of sweat gland origin is presented, disclosing its clinical behavior and morphologic characteristics asevidenced by fine needle aspiration biopsy and tissue section histology. Thepatient was a 53-years old male who had a tumor on his fifth toe for 16 years. The tumor recurred 18 months after excision and metastasized widely 17 months following the amputation of the toe due to the recurrence. In spite of chemotherapy the patient died 37 months af...

  15. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  16. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  17. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  18. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  19. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances

  20. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  1. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  2. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  3. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., 23, 37, et al. Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing..., 38, and 39 RIN 3038-0092, -0094 Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing... implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  4. A broadband electromagnetic UT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repplinger, W.; Salzburger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing system based on contactless electromagnetic acoustic (E.M.A.) transduction has been developed by which broadband ultrasonic pulses are excited. This system overcomes disadvantages of usual E.M.A. transducers with meanderlike coil configuration, namely the excitation of narrowband pulses and the symmetrical radiation pattern. By dividing up a meanderlike coil into single elements and a time-delayed firing of the elements, whereby the time delay is given by the distance of the elements and the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the surface, the ultrasonic pulse radiated in one preferred direction becomes broadband by constructive interference. The signals radiated in the opposite direction do no more interfere. Its amplitude is smaller than that of the other direction, so that the transducer becomes uni-directional. This technique can be applied for the excitation of all dispersionless waves (bulk waves and guided waves)

  5. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  6. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  7. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  8. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...

  9. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  10. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  11. Tuchola County Broadband Network (TCBN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabludowski, Antoni; Dubalski, B.; Zabludowski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    In the paper the designing project (plan) of Tuchola City broadband IP optical network has been presented. The extended version of network plan constitute technical part of network Feasibility Study, that it is expected to be implemented in Tuchola and be financed from European Regional Development...... Funds. The network plan presented in the paper contains both topological structure of fiber optic network as well as the active equipment for the network. In the project described in the paper it has been suggested to use Modular Cable System - MCS for passive infrastructure and Metro Ethernet...

  12. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  13. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  14. Pricing by timing: innovating broadband data plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangtae; Joe-Wong, Carlee; Sen, Soumya; Chiang, Mung

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Internet usage is doubling every year. Users are using more of high bandwidth data applications, and the heavy usage concentrates on several peak hours in a day, forcing ISPs to overprovision their networks accordingly. In order to remain profitable, ISPs have been using pricing as a congestion management tool. We review many of such pricing schemes in practice today and argue that they do not solve ISPs' problem of growing data traffic. We believe that dynamic, time-dependent usage pricing, which charges users based on when they access the Internet, can incentivize users to spread out their bandwidth consumption more evenly across different times of the day, thus helping ISPs to overcome the problem of peak congestion. Congestion pricing is not a new idea in itself, but the time for its implementation in data networks has finally arrived. Our key contribution lies in developing new analysis and a fully integrated system architecture, called TUBE (Time-dependent Usage-based Broadband price Engineering) that enables ISPs to implement the proposed TDP plan. The theory, simulation, and system implementation of TUBE system is further complemented with consumer surveys conducted in India and the US, along with preparations for a field trial that is currently underway.

  15. High Turbidity Solis Clear Sky Model: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ineichen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solis clear sky model is a spectral scheme based on radiative transfer calculations and the Lambert–Beer relation. Its broadband version is a simplified fast analytical version; it is limited to broadband aerosol optical depths lower than 0.45, which is a weakness when applied in countries with very high turbidity such as China or India. In order to extend the use of the original simplified version of the model for high turbidity values, we developed a new version of the broadband Solis model based on radiative transfer calculations, valid for turbidity values up to 7, for the three components, global, beam, and diffuse, and for the four aerosol types defined by Shettle and Fenn. A validation of low turbidity data acquired in Geneva shows slightly better results than the previous version. On data acquired at sites presenting higher turbidity data, the bias stays within ±4% for the beam and the global irradiances, and the standard deviation around 5% for clean and stable condition data and around 12% for questionable data and variable sky conditions.

  16. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  17. Broadband Wireline Provider Service Summary; BBRI_wirelineSum12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via all wireline technologies assessed by Broadband Rhode Island. Broadband...

  18. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... window for Public Computer Center (PCC) and Sustainable Broadband Adoption (SBA) projects. DATES: All...; Extension of Application Closing Deadline for Comprehensive Community Infrastructure (CCI) Projects. SUMMARY... Infrastructure (CCI) projects under the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00...

  19. Broadband for all closing the infrastructure gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available than just addressing the infrastructure issue. The CSIR is mapping the country’s broadband infrastructure to understand where the largest gaps are, is developing models for how those gaps in broadband infrastructure can be closed. In this presentation...

  20. Customer Churn Prediction for Broadband Internet Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. Q.; Kechadi, M.-T.; Buckley, B.

    Although churn prediction has been an area of research in the voice branch of telecommunications services, more focused studies on the huge growth area of Broadband Internet services are limited. Therefore, this paper presents a new set of features for broadband Internet customer churn prediction, based on Henley segments, the broadband usage, dial types, the spend of dial-up, line-information, bill and payment information, account information. Then the four prediction techniques (Logistic Regressions, Decision Trees, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines) are applied in customer churn, based on the new features. Finally, the evaluation of new features and a comparative analysis of the predictors are made for broadband customer churn prediction. The experimental results show that the new features with these four modelling techniques are efficient for customer churn prediction in the broadband service field.

  1. Understanding the dynamics of broadband markets : A comparative case study of Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wee, M.; Verbrugge, S.; Lemstra, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Agenda for Europe sets out clear goals for providing high speed broadband to all its residents, but leaves the implementation of this plan to the individual Member States. Because of large economic, cultural and political differences, the roads to realizing these ambitious goals are

  2. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts...

  3. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  4. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  5. 2011 Hours against hate

    OpenAIRE

    Cátedra Intercultural. UCO

    2011-01-01

    2011 Hours Against Hate is a campaign to stop bigotry and promote respect across lines of culture, religion, tradition, class, and gender. Launched by Special Representative to Muslim Communities Farah Pandith, and Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism Hannah Rosenthal, the State Department is asking young people around the world to pledge their time to stop hate—to do something for someone who doesn’t look like you, pray like you, or live like you. We are asking the next generati...

  6. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  7. Advent of broadband public-switched communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, John J.

    1992-02-01

    Advances in data communications infrastructure, display technology, and man-machine interfaces have changed business applications and the requirements of public network data transport. These changes have created opportunities for a new generation of public broadband services to more efficiently extend high speed communications capabilities beyond the customer premises. This paper provides a view of the technology and market evolution of these public broadband data communications services, and suggests early customer networked applications that justify the deployment of a public switched broadband network infrastructure.

  8. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  10. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  11. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  12. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  13. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  14. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available greener economy and environment. In this research, we investigate the concept of green radio communications in wireless networks and discuss approaches for energy efficient solutions in wireless broadband network deployments. These solutions include...

  15. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  16. Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... generates a 1.4% increase in gross domestic product (GDP) in low-income countries. ... Africa offers a good example of the potential benefits and challenges of ... the policy challenges related to providing affordable broadband services; ...

  17. Nanophotonic Design for Broadband Light Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Emily; Callahan, Dennis; Horowitz, Kelsey; Pala, Ragip; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-13

    We describe nanophotonic design approaches for broadband light management including i) crossed-trapezoidal Si structures ii) Si photonic crystal superlattices, and iii) tapered and inhomogeneous diameter III-V/Si nanowire arrays.

  18. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  19. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  20. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., 202-418-6703, [email protected] , Division of Clearing and Risk, and Camden Nunery, Economist, 202-418-5723, Office of the Chief Economist, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155...

  1. Exposure estimates based on broadband elf magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Pachon, Fernando T.; Carrero, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55 % contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78 % contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts. (authors)

  2. Broadband and Unbundling Regulations in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Broadband penetration and available speeds vary widely across OECD countries. Policymakers around the world, and especially in countries like the U.S. that lag in the rankings, are searching for policies to narrow those gaps. Relatively little empirical work tests possible reasons for these differences. In this paper I test the impacts of regulations and demographics on broadband development in a panel dataset across countries. In addition to adding to the meager empirical literature on broad...

  3. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  4. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  5. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  6. A broadband accelerator control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control Channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating System has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  7. Ultra-broadband photonic internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, there is presented a review of our today's understanding of the ultimately broadband photonic Internet. A simple calculation is presented showing the estimate of the throughput of the core photonic network branches. Optoelectronic components, circuits, systems and signals, together with analogous electronic entities and common software layers, are building blocks of the contemporary Internet. Participation of photonics in development of the physical layer in the future Internet will probably increase. The photonics leads now to a better usage of the available bandwidth (increase of the spectral efficiency measured in Bit/s/Hz), increase in the transmission rate (from Gbps, via Tbps up to probably Pbps), increase in the transmission distance without signal regeneration (in distortion compensated active optical cables), increase in energy/power efficiency measured in W/Gbps, etc. Photonics may lead, in the future, to fully transparent optical networks and, thus, to essential increase in bandwidth and network reliability. It is expected that photonics (with biochemistry, electronics and mechatronics) may build psychological and physiological interface for humans to the future global network. The following optical signal multiplexing methods were considered, which are possible without O/E/O conversion: TDM-OTDM, FDM-CO-OFDM, OCDM-OCDMA, WDM-DWDM.

  8. Adding seismic broadband analysis to characterize Andean backarc seismicity in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, P.; Giuliano, A.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.

    2007-05-01

    Characterization of the highly seismically active Andean backarc is crucial for assessment of earthquake hazards in western Argentina. Moderate-to-large crustal earthquakes have caused several deaths, damage and drastic economic consequences in Argentinean history. We have studied the Andean backarc crust between 30°S and 36°S using seismic broadband data available from a previous ("the CHARGE") IRIS-PASSCAL experiment. We collected more than 12 terabytes of continuous seismic data from 22 broadband instruments deployed across Chile and Argentina during 1.5 years. Using free software we modeled full regional broadband waveforms and obtained seismic moment tensor inversions of crustal earthquakes testing for the best focal depth for each event. We also mapped differences in the Andean backarc crustal structure and found a clear correlation with different types of crustal seismicity (i.e. focal depths, focal mechanisms, magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence) and previously mapped terrane boundaries. We now plan to use the same methodology to study other regions in Argentina using near-real time broadband data available from the national seismic (INPRES) network and global seismic networks operating in the region. We will re-design the national seismic network to optimize short-period and broadband seismic station coverage for different network purposes. This work is an international effort that involves researchers and students from universities and national government agencies with the goal of providing more information about earthquake hazards in western Argentina.

  9. Job search, hours restrictions, and desired hours of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    A structural empirical job search model is presented that incorporates the labor supply decision of individuals. The arrival of a job offer is modeled as a random draw from a wage-hours offer distribution. Subjective information is used on desired working hours to identify optimal hours from offered

  10. Broadband in schools: towards a definition and model of broadband for South African schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, Merryl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is about to provide broadband internet connectivity to all schools in the country via the implementation of the national broadband policy. The challenge is to ensure a balance between the schools’ demand-side usage and supply...

  11. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  12. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  13. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  14. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  15. Ideas for clear technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The three greatest obstacles to clear technical-report writing are probably (1) imprecise words, (2) wordiness, and (3) poorly constructed sentences. Examples of category 1 include abstract words, jargon, and vogue words; of category 2, sentences containing impersonal construction superfluous words; and of category 3, sentences lacking parallel construction and proper order of related words and phrases. These examples and other writing-related subjects are discussed in the report, which contains a cross-referenced index and 24 references.

  16. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  17. Is European Broadband Ready for Smart Grid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM/GPRS co....../GPRS connection is not enough. Whereas in the less demanding scenarios it is almost all of the European households that can be covered by a standard broadband technology for use with Smart Grid.......In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM...

  18. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)

  19. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  20. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  1. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  2. Participation in the broadband society in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    passed the threshold set by the EU with respect to the relevance of initiating a discussion on the implementation of a universal service obligation on broadband. As documented in the paper, there are groups among primarily the elderly and the unemployed who do not have Internet access. Their own......The purpose of the paper is to provide an empirical overview of broadband developments in Denmark. The overview includes sections on coverage and penetration, connection speeds, retail prices, competition, interconnection prices, and residential access to Internet. The documentation shows...

  3. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  4. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  5. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  6. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  7. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  8. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  9. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  10. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  11. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  12. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  13. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  14. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  15. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  16. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  17. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  18. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  19. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  20. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  1. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  2. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  3. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  4. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  5. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  6. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  7. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  8. 7 CFR 1738.11 - Availability of broadband service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies... given to loans to finance service to eligible rural communities in which broadband service is not...

  9. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  10. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  11. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  12. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  13. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  14. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  15. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  16. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  17. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  18. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  19. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  20. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  1. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  2. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  3. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  4. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  5. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which

  6. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  7. Broadband luminescent materials in waveguide geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  8. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  9. WIRELESS FIDELITY (Wi-Fi) BROADBAND NETWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    broadband speed and coverage, while Wi-Fi can be integrated with WiMAX networks to provide Internet ... Microwave Access (WiMAX), IEEE 802.11 standards. 1.0 INTRODUCTION .... These 2G systems provided circuit- switched data ...

  10. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... the Nation's global competitiveness in the 21st century, driving job creation, promoting innovation, and expanding markets for American businesses. Broadband access also affords public safety agencies... infrastructure has been deployed in a vast majority of communities across the country, today too many areas still...

  11. 75 FR 27984 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... applications, including: streaming video (surveillance, remote monitoring); digital imaging; automatic vehicle location; computer-aided dispatching; electronic mail; mapping and GPS; remote database access; report... entities to deploy public safety broadband systems using the 700 MHz spectrum licensed to the PSST.\\13\\ The...

  12. 75 FR 29516 - Broadband Researchers' Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... foundation for long-term economic stability and prosperity.\\1\\ The increased availability and use of... telecommunications policies pertaining to the Nation's economic and technological advancement. In order to achieve... stakeholders to develop and implement economic and regulatory policies that foster broadband deployment and...

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  14. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  15. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  16. A Discourse On Broadband Technologies And Curriculum Access In Elective Home Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MCAVOY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extent, to which broadband technologies are being considered, when accessing the curriculum, is increasingly evident in traditional learning environments such as schools and colleges. This article explores the impact that these technologies are having on the home schooling community by offering enhanced access and opportunities. It suggests that they have generated improved choices and greater freedoms for learning communities. They have shone a light on the curriculum and removed it from the shadows. The curriculum is no longer the preserve of the educational establishment. The secret garden has been breached by technologies such as broadband and the democratisation of the curriculum is progressively evident as more diverse learning communities are given increased access and control over the curriculum. The author asks how this is being reflected in policy and translated into practice by the home schooling community whilst acknowledging the contemporary nature of broadband technologies and how they are influencing the decision making process of potential home schoolers. Looking to the future, the author suggests that the political agenda is not providing clear direction and that this is being determined by social reform outside the political sphere and largely driven by the consumer. In this case the learner. The relatively current nature of this debate is in itself justification for further research if we are to develop a clearer understanding of how new technologies such as broadband are influencing policy and practice in the home schooling community.

  17. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  18. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  19. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  20. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio (https://darksky.net/dev/docs/forecast) and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  1. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  2. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  3. Broadband standard dipole antenna for antenna calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kunimasa; Sugiura, Akira; Morikawa, Takao

    1995-06-01

    Antenna calibration of EMI antennas is mostly performed by the standard antenna method at an open-field test site using a specially designed dipole antenna as a reference. In order to develop broadband standard antennas, the antenna factors of shortened dipples are theoretically investigated. First, the effects of the dipole length are analyzed using the induced emf method. Then, baluns and loads are examined to determine their influence on the antenna factors. It is found that transformer-type baluns are very effective for improving the height dependence of the antenna factors. Resistive loads are also useful for flattening the frequency dependence. Based on these studies, a specification is developed for a broadband standard antenna operating in the 30 to 150 MHz frequency range.

  4. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  5. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  6. Switched Broadband Services For The Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Don M.

    1990-01-01

    In considering the deployment of fiber optics to the residence, two critical questions arise: what are the leading services that could be offered to justify the required investment; and what is the nature of the business that would offer these services to the consumer ? This talk will address these two questions together with the related issue of how the "financial engine" of today's television distribution infrastructure - TV advertising - would be affected by an open access system based on fiber optics coupled with broadband switching. On the business side, the talk concludes that the potential for open ended capacity expansion, fair competition between service providers, and new interactive services inherent in an open access, switched broadband system are the critical items in differentiating it from existing video and TV distribution systems. On the question of broadband services, the talk will highlight several new opportunities together with some findings from recent market research conducted by BNR. The talk will show that there are variations on existing services plus many new services that could be offered and which have real consumer appeal. The postulated open access system discussed here is visualized as having ultimately 1,000 to 2,000 video channels available to the consumer. Although this may appear to hopelessly fragment the TV audience and destroy the current TV advertising infrastructure, the technology of open access, switched broadband will present many new advertising techniques, which have the potential to be far more effective than those available today. Some of these techniques will be described in this talk.

  7. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  8. Broadband S-band class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M.; van Dijk, R.; de Hek, A.P.; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 times 2.8 mm2.

  9. Diagonalizing sensing matrix of broadband RSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kokeyama, Keiko; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Somiya, Kentaro; Kawamura, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    For a broadband-operated RSE interferometer, a simple and smart length sensing and control scheme was newly proposed. The sensing matrix could be diagonal, owing to a simple allocation of two RF modulations and to a macroscopic displacement of cavity mirrors, which cause a detuning of the RF modulation sidebands. In this article, the idea of the sensing scheme and an optimization of the relevant parameters will be described

  10. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  11. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, Thierry; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz–3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification. (paper)

  12. Design and fabrication of broadband rugate filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun-Chao; Fang Ming; Shao Yu-Chuan; Jin Yun-Xia; He Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    The design and the deposition of a rugate filter for broadband applications are discussed. The bandwidth is extended by increasing the rugate period continuously with depth. The width and the smoothness of the reflection band with the distribution of the periods are investigated. The improvement of the steepness of the stopband edges and the suppression of the side lobes in the transmission zone are realized by adding two apodized rugate structures with fixed periods at the external broadband rugate filter interfaces. The rapidly alternating deposition technology is used to fabricate a rugate filter sample. The measured transmission spectrum with a reflection bandwidth of approximately 505 nm is close to that of the designed broadband rugate filter except a transmittance peak in the stopband. Based on the analysis of the cross-sectional scanning electron microscopic image of the sample, it is found that the transmission peak is most likely to be caused by the instability of the deposition rate. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Design of broadband single polarized antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Phoo Kho; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd.; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Ramli, Mohamad Hafize Bin; Fauzi, Noor Azamiah Md; Malek, Mohd Fareq Abd

    2015-05-01

    In practical wireless communication application, bandwidth enhancement becomes one of the major design considerations. At the same time, circular polarized (CP) antenna received much attention for the applications of modern wireless communication system when compared to linear polarized (LP) antenna. This is because CP antenna can reduce the multipath effect. Hence, broadband antenna with operating frequency at 2.4GHz for WLAN application is proposed. The proposed antenna is done by using L-probe amendment with rectangular patch. The rectangular patch and copper ground plane is separated with 10mm air gap. This approach is used to enhance the bandwidth and the gain of the proposed antenna. The bandwidth of the designed antenna is more than 200MHz which meet broadband application. The return loss for the antenna is below -10dB to achieved 90% matching efficiency. The position of L-probe feed is altered in order to obtained different polarizations. The broadband antenna had been designed and simulated by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. In this paper, the comparison for single polarized antenna with the design of non-inverted patch and inverted patch is discussed. The characteristics of the S-parameter, axial ratio, gain, surface current for each designed antenna are analyzed.

  14. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  15. Rail-based Broadband Synthetic Aperture Ocean Measurement System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables collection of broadband acoustic scattering databases where acoustic sources and receivers can be translated on a precise linear path under program...

  16. Handheld, Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor: Cost & Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; SanFilipo, Bill; Oren, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  17. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposed rules address risk management for cleared trades by futures commission merchants, swap dealers... Commission has proposed extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives..., 2011) (Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations). These proposed regulations...

  18. Midlatitude D region variations measured from broadband radio atmospherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng

    The high power, broadband very low frequency (VLF, 3--30 kHz) and extremely low frequency (ELF, 3--3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves generated by lightning discharges and propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide can be used to measure the average electron density profile of the lower ionosphere (D region) across the wave propagation path due to several reflections by the upper boundary (lower ionosphere) of the waveguide. This capability makes it possible to frequently and even continuously monitor the D region electron density profile variations over geographically large regions, which are measurements that are essentially impossible by other means. These guided waves, usually called atmospherics (or sferics for short), are recorded by our sensors located near Duke University. The purpose of this work is to develop and implement algorithms to derive the variations of D region electron density profile which is modeled by two parameters (one is height and another is sharpness), by comparing the recorded sferic spectra to a series of model simulated sferic spectra from using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code. In order to understand the time scales, magnitudes and sources for the midlatitude nighttime D region variations, we analyzed the sferic data of July and August 2005, and extracted both the height and sharpness of the D region electron density profile. The heights show large temporal variations of several kilometers on some nights and the relatively stable behavior on others. Statistical calculations indicate that the hourly average heights during the two months range between 82.0 km and 87.2 km with a mean value of 84.9 km and a standard deviation of 1.1 km. We also observed spatial variations of height as large as 2.0 km over 5 degrees latitudes on some nights, and no spatial variation on others. In addition, the measured height variations exhibited close correlations with local lightning occurrence rate on some nights but no correlation with local

  19. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  20. Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus

    2003-01-01

    . The first part gives a brief description of some of the existing protocols for routing and controlling resources, such as RSVP, OSPF, BGP, PNNI, etc. The remaining part concerns the following two fundamentally different approaches to resource management etc.: - Software agents - Simulated ants......This thesis - Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks - deals with different ways of optimizing the available resources of data- or telecommunication networks. Especially topics like optimal routing, load balancing and fast recovery of routes in case of link failures are covered...

  1. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2005-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...

  2. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  3. A compact broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, Kseniya; Narenda, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of high‐ and low‐impedance transmission lines. High‐impedance lines have narrow tracks in strip and microstrip technology, which allows for high flexibility and miniaturization of the layout in comparison...... to the traditional tapered line transformers. This flexibility of the broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers is experimentally demonstrated in this article allowing the length reduction by almost three times. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 54:1832–1835, 2012; View...

  4. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients.

  5. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients

  6. Hyperbolic metamaterials: Nonlocal response regularizes broadband supersingularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We study metamaterials known as hyperbolic media that in the usual local-response approximation exhibit hyperbolic dispersion and an associated broadband singularity in the density of states. Instead, from the more microscopic hydrodynamic Drude theory we derive qualitatively different optical...... properties of these metamaterials, due to the free-electron nonlocal optical response of their metal constituents. We demonstrate that nonlocal response gives rise to a large-wavevector cutoff in the dispersion that is inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity of the electron gas, but also for small...

  7. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  8. Peramalan Pengguna Broadband di Indonesia [Forecasting of Broadband Users in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Aziz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Negara Indonesia memiliki peluang yang sangat besar untuk merealisasikan potensi pitalebar, mengingat Indonesia memiliki jumlah penduduk 253 juta orang dan pengguna internet 88,1 juta orang pada tahun 2014. Di sisi lain sektor komunikasi (salah satunya termasuk telekomunikasi merupakan satu-satunya sektor yang secara konsisten memberikan kontribusi pertumbuhan terhadap Pendapatan Domestik Bruto (PDB sebesar dua angka (double digit. Kemudian peran penting pemerintah adalah selalu mengantisipasi dalam membuat regulasi telekomunikasi, salah satu nya untuk mempercepat penggelaran prasarana pitalebar, seperti menerbitkan Peraturan Presiden RI. Nomor 96 Tahun 2014 tentang Rencana Pitalebar Indonesia 2014 – 2019.  Secara riil pembangunan jaringan pitalebar di Indonesia masih dilakukan di kota-kota besar, mengingat pengguna telekomunikasi sebagian besar berada di kota-kota besar. Selain itu perangkat hanset atau handphone, ketersediaan di pasaran masih terbatas dan harganya masih mahal. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi penelitian kuantitatif dengan menghitung peramalan dan kualitatif, dengan melakukan observasi atau pengamatan langsung ke lapangan kepada perusahaan Telkom, Telkomsel, XL Axiata dan Indosat. Selanjutnya hasil penelitian ini diperoleh lima faktor yang mempengaruhi penggunaan pitalebar yaitu jumlah penduduk, produk domestik bruto, pendapatan per kapita, laju pertumbuhan ekonomi dan inflasi, dan laju penetrasi. Selain itu, hasil pitalebar menunjukkan pengguna pitalebar lima tahun kedepan selalu meningkat.*****Indonesia has a tremendous opportunity to implement the potential of broadband, as Indonesia has a population of 253 million people and 88.1 million Internet users in 2014. On the other hand, the communication sector (one of them including telecommunications is the only sector that is consistently contributed to the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP as many as two numbers (double-digit. Then the important role of government is

  9. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  10. The future of work hours--the European view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2005-01-01

    In Europe the way work hours are handled varies between different countries. However, there are some issues that dominate the discussion in Europe and seem representative for what is happening. One such is the reduction of working hours--which was attempted in several countries but which now seems to be backfiring--probably related to the competition from countries outside Europe. Another area is compressed work hours--the drive towards maximizing the hours per work day in order to increase the number of days off. The health effects are debated--some find clear positive effects. A third area is company oriented flexible work hours, permitting the employer to make moderate changes in work hours when needed. The health impacts have not been evaluated but the loss of individual influence at work is obvious. In some parts of Europe self-determined work hours have been tried with very positive effects. The EU work hour directive is intended to provide uniformity but permits a counterproductive "opting out", creating problems of imbalance.

  11. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  12. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  13. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  14. Asymmetric quantum well broadband thyristor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jiaqi; Yu, Hongyan; Zhou, Xuliang; Chen, Weixi; Li, Zhaosong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Ying; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2017-11-01

    A broadband thyristor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs asymmetric quantum well (AQW) is fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The 3-μm-wide Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser shows an S-shape I-V characteristic and exhibits a flat-topped broadband optical spectrum coverage of ~27 nm (Δ-10 dB) at a center wavelength of ~1090 nm with a total output power of 137 mW under pulsed operation. The AQW structure was carefully designed to establish multiple energy states within, in order to broaden the gain spectrum. An obvious blue shift emission, which is not generally acquired in QW laser diodes, is observed in the broadening process of the optical spectrum as the injection current increases. This blue shift spectrum broadening is considered to result from the prominent band-filling effect enhanced by the multiple energy states of the AQW structure, as well as the optical feedback effect contributed by the thyristor laser structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61604144, 61504137). Zhen Liu and Jiaqi Wang contributed equally to this work.

  15. Broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Gvozd, A.M.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions from lossy and inductive vacuum chamber components to the broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring are obtained by using both low-frequency analytical approaches and computer simulations. As was expected considering the small ring circumference (15.44m), the main contributions both to the longitudinal impedance Z || /n and the loss factor k loss come from the RF-cavity. Cavity impedance was also estimated with CST Microwave Studio (CST Studio Suite TM 2006) by simulating coaxial wire method commonly used for impedance measurements. Both estimates agree well. Finally, we performed the simulations of a number of inductive elements with CST Particle Studio 2010 by using wake field solver. We have also evaluated the bunch length in NESTOR taking the conservative estimate of 3 Ohm for the ring broadband impedance and have found that the bunch length s z = 0.5 cm could be obtained in steady state operation mode for the designed bunch current of 10 mA and RF-voltage of 250 kV.

  16. A Design of Double Broadband MIMO Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIMO antenna applied to LTE mobile system should be miniaturization and can work in the current communication frequency band; isolation between each antenna unit also should be good so as to reduce loss of radio wave energy and improve the antenna performance of the MIMO system. This paper puts forward the design scheme of a broadband MIMO double antenna. And the design of antenna unit and debugging and related technical measures, such as bending antenna bracket, are both presented; the integration design of high isolation of ultra broadband MIMO antenna is realized on the plate with the volume of 100 × 52 × 0.8 mm3; antenna working bands are 698 MHz~960 MHz and 1710 MHz~2700 MHz; in the whole spectrum, the 10 dB of port isolation can be basically achieved; in low frequency band, the isolation degree of antenna port can reach 12 dB.

  17. Broadband acoustic properties of a murine skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Turner, Jake; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-07

    It has been well recognized that the presence of a skull imposes harsh restrictions on the use of ultrasound and optoacoustic techniques in the study, treatment and modulation of the brain function. We propose a rigorous modeling and experimental methodology for estimating the insertion loss and the elastic constants of the skull over a wide range of frequencies and incidence angles. A point-source-like excitation of ultrawideband acoustic radiation was induced via the absorption of nanosecond duration laser pulses by a 20 μm diameter microsphere. The acoustic waves transmitted through the skull are recorded by a broadband, spherically focused ultrasound transducer. A coregistered pulse-echo ultrasound scan is subsequently performed to provide accurate skull geometry to be fed into an acoustic transmission model represented in an angular spectrum domain. The modeling predictions were validated by measurements taken from a glass cover-slip and ex vivo adult mouse skulls. The flexible semi-analytical formulation of the model allows for seamless extension to other transducer geometries and diverse experimental scenarios involving broadband acoustic transmission through locally flat solid structures. It is anticipated that accurate quantification and modeling of the skull transmission effects would ultimately allow for skull aberration correction in a broad variety of applications employing transcranial detection or transmission of high frequency ultrasound.

  18. Optical broadband in-home networks for converged service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Broadband access networks, and in particular fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks, are offering abundantly available bandwidth in the local loop with high quality of services. Under such broadband connectivity conditions, in-home networks should not represent the bottleneck for high capacity service

  19. Radio-over-fibre technology for broadband wireless communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless coverage of the end-user domain, be it outdoors or indoors (in-building), is poised to become an essential part of broadband communication networks. In order to offer integrated broadband services (combining voice, data, video, multimedia services, and new value added services), these

  20. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  1. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  2. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-04-07

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360° radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  3. The role of public initiatives facilitating investments in broadband infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of a developmental approach to broadband policy. The policy approaches made in Denmark and Sweden are compared, and the scope for public intervention at the broadband market is discussed. The paper includes a case study on public intervention in the rural areas of th...

  4. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  5. Analisis Perkembangan Internet Broadband di Daerah Perbatasan Sulawesi Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva'atul Adaniah Wahab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopsi teknologi internet broadband dapat memberikan dampak ekonomi bagi masyarakat perbatasan. Karenanya pemerataan pembangunan internet broadband di wilayah  ini harus segera diwujudkan. Penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif ini dilaksanakan di wilayah perbatasan Provinsi Sulawesi Utara untuk mengetahui kondisi aspek supply dan demand perkembangan internet broadband di wilayah tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari aspek supply, kondisi infrastruktur masih sangat kurang, ketersediaan layanan internet broadband berkualitas tinggi dengan tarif rendah juga masih sulit diwujudkan. Dari aspek demand, stigma atau persepsi masyarakat bahwa internet tidak penting menjadi salah satu faktor penyebab tidak memiliki akses internet. Adapun hambatan yang paling dominan adalah ketidakpahaman dalam penggunaan internet. Faktor ini juga menjadi mendasari literasi internet broadband masyarakat pada level 0 yaitu  tidak peduli akan pentinya internet. Menanggapai kondisi ini, penyusunan dan penetapan kebijakan serta regulasi seperti QoS layanan, tarif interkoneksi, infrastructure sharing dibuat untuk menyediakan internet broadband berkualitas tinggi dengan harga murah. Selain itu distribusi perangkat mobile berharga murah (smartphone juga perlu didorong dengan penerapan TKDN untuk produksi perangkat. Tidak kalah pentingnya adalah peningkatan literasi internet broadband masyarakat melalui sosialisasi atau pelatihan baik formal maupun nonformal. Abstract   Adoption of internet broadband internet can provide the economic impact for border communities. Hence equitable development of internet broadband in the region should be immediately implemented. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in the border region of North Sulawesi to determine the condition of supply and demand aspects of the development of internet broadband. Based on the results, it can be concluded that from the aspect of supply, the condition of the

  6. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-20

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-01

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks.

  8. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Gu, M.J.; Kim, M.J.; Bae, Y.K.; Choi, W.H.; Shin, D.S.; Cho, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  9. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  10. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  11. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    distances to such faint and remote objects is an enormous challenge and can only reliably be done using spectroscopy from very large ground-based telescopes [4], by measuring the redshift of the galaxy's light. Matt Lehnert takes up the story: "After the announcement of the candidate galaxies from Hubble we did a quick calculation and were excited to find that the immense light collecting power of the VLT, when combined with the sensitivity of the infrared spectroscopic instrument, SINFONI, and a very long exposure time might just allow us to detect the extremely faint glow from one of these remote galaxies and to measure its distance." On special request to ESO's Director General they obtained telescope time on the VLT and observed a candidate galaxy called UDFy-38135539 [5] for 16 hours. After two months of very careful analysis and testing of their results, the team found that they had clearly detected the very faint glow from hydrogen at a redshift of 8.6, which makes this galaxy the most distant object ever confirmed by spectroscopy. A redshift of 8.6 corresponds to a galaxy seen just 600 million years after the Big Bang. Co-author Nicole Nesvadba (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale) sums up this work, "Measuring the redshift of the most distant galaxy so far is very exciting in itself, but the astrophysical implications of this detection are even more important. This is the first time we know for sure that we are looking at one of the galaxies that cleared out the fog which had filled the very early Universe." One of the surprising things about this discovery is that the glow from UDFy-38135539 seems not to be strong enough on its own to clear out the hydrogen fog. "There must be other galaxies, probably fainter and less massive nearby companions of UDFy-38135539, which also helped make the space around the galaxy transparent. Without this additional help the light from the galaxy, no matter how brilliant, would have been trapped in the surrounding hydrogen fog and we

  12. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  13. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  14. The problem of clear air turbulence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid improvements in on-board instrumentation and atmospheric observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse weather. However, they still encounter unexpected bumpy flight conditions in regions away from storms and clouds. This is the phenomenon of clear air ...

  15. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  16. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  17. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, William J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth

  18. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I; Inman, D J

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.

    2009-11-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.

  1. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    on account of their existing telecom network (”the raw copper”), and typically they will prefer an xDSL-based strategy (various types of Digital Subscriber Line-technology: ADSL, VDSL, etc.), where the rate of speed of data connections are increased gradually to 10-50 Mbit/s or even more, in order to gain...... broadband deployment strategy is depending on a complexed set of parameters, and there is a demand for precise techno-economic cost models estimating financial feasibility. The existing cost models do not consider the dynamic developments in the market caused by competition. The PhD thesis has a profound...... the general principles from the Danish LRAIC-model (Long Run Average Incremental Cost) and divides Denmark in 4 geografical profiles. Considering the existing copper-infrastructure the most advantageous strategies for the players of each of these profiles are identified. The importance of the time horizon...

  2. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  3. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  4. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  5. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  6. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  7. Patient portals and broadband internet inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzynski, Adam T; Roach, Mary Joan; Shick, Sarah; Callahan, Bill; Gunzler, Douglas; Cebul, Randall; Kaelber, David C; Huml, Anne; Thornton, John Daryl; Einstadter, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Patient portals have shown potential for increasing health care quality and efficiency. Internet access and other factors influencing patient portal use could worsen health disparities. Observational study of adults with 1 or more visits to the outpatient clinics of an urban public health care system from 2012 to 2015. We used mixed effects logistic regression to evaluate the association between broadband internet access and (1) patient portal initiation (whether a patient logged in at least 1 time) and (2) messaging, controlling for demographic and neighborhood characteristics. There were 243 248 adults with 1 or more visits during 2012-2015 and 70 835 (29.1%) initiated portal use. Portal initiation was 34.1% for whites, 23.4% for blacks, and 23.8% for Hispanics, and was lower for Medicaid (26.5%), Medicare (23.4%), and uninsured patients (17.4%) than commercially insured patients (39.3%). In multivariate analysis, both initiation of portal use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 per quintile, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.24, P  internet access. The majority of adults with outpatient visits to a large urban health care system did not use the patient portal, and initiation of use was lower for racial and ethnic minorities, persons of lower socioeconomic status, and those without neighborhood broadband internet access. These results suggest the emergence of a digital divide in patient portal use. Given the scale of investment in patient portals and other internet-dependent health information technologies, efforts are urgently needed to address this growing inequality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Metropolitan area networks: a corner stone in the broadband era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Adel

    1991-02-01

    Deployment of Broadband ISDN is being influenced by both a market pull and a technology push. New broadband service opportunities exist in the business and residential sectors of the market place. It is envisioned that some customers will need connections directly to broadband switches because of the high bandwidth needed for their applications. At the same time Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) systems will serve those customers with bandwidth requirements less than or equal to 150 Mbps. A given MAN will have a geographical domain to serve where it will carry out the switching tasks within this domain. While MANs couldbe designed using differentarchitecturalconcepts the setofservices expected tobeprovidedby MANs could be equivalent to thelist ofservices thatwillbe supported by the targetbroadband network. This paperpositions MANs as a major building block for Broadband networks. It also examines the evolution process ofMANs as a needed step to assure the successful deployment of these new broadband services. 2. BISDN - OVERVIEW Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is being driven into existence by both a market pull as well as a technology push. Opportunities for new valueadded services are the prime market pull for future broadband networks. These services opportunities extend beyond simple voice and low speed data applications and cover both the residential and the business sectors of the market. It is noted for instance that business customers have growing needs for sophisticated telecommunication vehicles to support their

  9. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  10. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  11. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an 8-hour break between successive work periods when a break of less than 10 hours is necessary to...) Individuals who are working 8-hour shift schedules shall have at least 1 day off per week, averaged over the shift cycle; (ii) Individuals who are working 10-hour shift schedules shall have at least 2 days off per...

  12. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  13. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  14. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS.

  15. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  16. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  17. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  18. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose.

  19. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  20. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations

  1. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  2. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  3. Atmospheric effect on the ground-based measurements of broadband surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Manninen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based pyranometer measurements of the (clear-sky broadband surface albedo are affected by the atmospheric conditions (mainly by aerosol particles, water vapour and ozone. A new semi-empirical method for estimating the magnitude of the effect of atmospheric conditions on surface albedo measurements in clear-sky conditions is presented. Global and reflected radiation and/or aerosol optical depth (AOD at two wavelengths are needed to apply the method. Depending on the aerosol optical depth and the solar zenith angle values, the effect can be as large as 20%. For the cases we tested using data from the Cabauw atmospheric test site in the Netherlands, the atmosphere caused typically up to 5% overestimation of surface albedo with respect to corresponding black-sky surface albedo values.

  4. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  5. Fixed Broadband Deployment Data: June, 2016 Status V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Version 1 reflects data filed by the March 1, 2016 filing deadline and any revisions made before February 10, 2017. All facilities-based broadband providers are...

  6. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...

  7. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  8. Fixed Broadband Deployment Data: June, 2016 Status V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — This data contains status reports for June 2016, with revisions accepted through May 2017. All facilities-based broadband providers are required to file data with...

  9. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  10. Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control...

  11. 76 FR 13769 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... pharmacy work, and savings to health facilities from outsourcing specialized medical procedures. One study... international markets and enables new, small, and home-based businesses to thrive. Broadband access affords...

  12. 78 FR 8353 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... outsourcing specialized medical procedures. One study of 24 rural hospitals placed the annual cost of not... a key to economic growth. For rural businesses, broadband gives access to national and international...

  13. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  14. Broadband and High power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-21

    Broadband and High -power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of... available in extremely hostile environments, where FHSS and DSSS are completely defeated by a broadband and high -power reactive jammer. b. Wireless...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS

  15. Crosstalk analysis of a broadband data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, R. I.; Ewing, P. D.; Hayes, T. W.

    1987-11-01

    A broadband cable system represents a significant resource for data transmission within a facility. Duplication of a broadband network to provide services of varying sensitivity levels within the same area is wasteful of capital resources. The sharing of a network by different data services is financially attractive providing that sensitive data are inaccessible from nonsensitive ports. The use of equipment from two manufacturers introduces a deliberate incompatibility for the purpose of data isolation. This report presents test results obtained by this technique.

  16. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for...

  17. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... published in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of...

  18. Restricted working hours in Austrian residency programs : Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Aman, Martin; Podesser, Bruno K

    2018-04-27

    New regulations for working hours of medical doctors have been implemented in Austria based on the European directive 2003/88/EG, limiting on-duty working hours to 48 h per week. Clinical work is, therefore, substantially reduced compared to previous decades, and little is known on physician and students' opinions on this matter. We illustrate survey results concerning on-job training, its difficulties, and implications for restricted working hours. We conducted an internal survey among M.D. and Ph.D. students and medical staff members at the Medical University of Vienna using the MedCampus system (CAMPUSOnline, Graz, Austria) and SPSS (V.21, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Participants were 36.5% staff members and 63.5% students. Students rated continuous education of physicians high at 9.19 ± 1.76 and staff members at 8.90 ± 2.48 on a 1-10 (1 unimportant, 10 most important) scale. Students rated limited time resources, while staff considered financial resources as the greatest challenge for in-hospital education. Overall, 28.85% thought that restricted working hours can positively influence education, while 19.04% thought the opposite and 52.11% were undecided. Considering the limited available time and financial resources, education of tomorrow's medical doctors remains an important but difficult task. While participants of our survey rated education as very important despite its many challenges, the opinions towards limited working hours were not as clear. Given that over 50% are still undecided whether reduced work hours may also positively influence medical education, it clearly presents an opportunity to include the next generations of physicians in this undertaking.

  19. Investigating broadband acoustic adsorption using rapid manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, O.

    The reduction of nuisance noise and the removal of unwanted sound modes within a room or component enclosure-area can be accomplished through the use of acoustic absorbers. Sound absorption can be achieved through conversion of the kinetic energy associated with pressure waves, into heat energy via viscous dissipation. This occurs within open porous materials, or by utilising resonant effects produced using simple cavity and orifice configurations. The manufacture of traditional porous and resonant absorbers is commonly realised using basic manufacturing techniques. These techniques restrict the geometry of a given resonant construction, and limit the configuration of porous absorbers. The aim of this work is to exploit new and emerging capabilities of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to produce components with geometrical freedom, and apply it to the development of broadband acoustic absorption. New and novel absorber geometric configurations are identified and their absorption performance is determined. The capabilities and limitations of RM processes in reproducing these configurations are demonstrated. The geometric configuration of RM resonant absorbers is investigated. Cavity modifications aimed at damping the resonant effect by restricting the motion of cavity air, and adding increased viscous resistance are explored. Modifications relating to cavity shape, the addition of internal perforations and increased cavity surface area have all been shown to add acoustic resistance, thereby increasing the bandwidth of absorption. Decreasing the hydraulic radius of the cavity cross section and reducing internal feature dimensions provide improved resistance over conventional configurations..

  20. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Broadband over powerline : advances and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, E.W. [EnerNex Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    An overview of the broadband over powerline (BPL) industry was presented with reference to the history of the technology; current trials and deployments; applications; and, technologies currently in service. The presentation offers background information and a history of BPL, an early adopters test lab, BPL deployment map and access BPL stats. A comparison of wireless, hybrid and fiber optic communication technologies was presented along with access BPL systems and a review of how BPL can enhance utility operations. Diagnostic monitoring, operations improvement, system protection, load and DG management, distribution automation, and customer interface were included in an eye chart for operations enhancement. Suggestions on how BPL can reduce distribution line radio interference were presented along with examples of how BPL EMI analysis can find faulty electrical equipment. BPL customer services include Internet access, consumer portal, voice over Internet protocol, video surveillance, video conferencing, and building automation and energy management. BPL technical issues include installation, operation and electromagnetic compatibility. BPL regulations and standard efforts were described. It was concluded that BPL has a variety of applications in the utility sector including power quality, reliability monitoring and improvement. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  3. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  4. Broadband Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 825 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present an overview of the RFProp on-orbit research and analysis effort with particular focus on an equatorial scintillation experiment called ESCINT. The 3-year ESCINT project is designed to characterize equatorial ionospheric scintillation in the upper HF and lower VHF portions of the radio spectrum (20 - 150 MHz). Both a 40 MHz continuous wave (CW) signal and 30 - 42 MHz swept frequency signal are transmitted to the satellite receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in four separate campaigns centered on the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results from the first campaign conducted from April 22 - May 15, 2014 will be presented including (a) coherence bandwidth measurements over a full range of transmission frequencies and scintillation activity levels, (b) spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities, and (c) supporting ray-trace simulations. The broadband nature of the measurements is found to offer unique insight into both the structure of ionospheric irregularities and their impact on HF/VHF trans-ionospheric radio wave propagation.

  5. Ionomer Dynamics: Insights from Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers (polymers containing ionic functionality) have been traditionally used as packaging materials and in molding applications, and are now of increasing interest as candidate single ion conductors for energy storage devices, in energy conversion, and for other electroactive materials applications. The focus of this presentation is on the insight that broadband dielectric (impedance) spectroscopy brings to our understanding of ion and polymer dynamics of this family of materials. As an example of our recent work on relatively conductive ionomers, the first portion of the presentation will focus on anion conducting polyphosphazene ionomers, in which polymer bound cations are quaternized with either short alkyl or short ether oxygen chains. The low Tg, amorphous nature, and cation-solvating backbone distinguish polyphosphazenes as promising materials for ion conduction, the iodide variants being of particular interest in solar cells. In the second part of this overview, the first findings on the molecular dynamics of linear precise polyethylene-based ionomers containing 1-methylimidazolium bromide pendants on exactly every 9th, 15th, or 21st carbon atom will be summarized. In order to develop a robust interpretation of the dynamics of these materials, it is imperative to develop a thorough understanding of microphase separation (e.g. ion aggregation), and each of the above studies is complimented by multiangle X-ray scattering experiments. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program and DOE Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. Broadband unidirectional invisibility for airborne sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Weiwei; Guo, Mengping; Shen, Zhonghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a metafluid-based broadband cloak capable of guiding acoustic waves around obstacles along given directions while maintaining the wavefront undisturbed. The required parameter distribution of the proposed cloak is derived by coordinate transformation and practically implemented by employing the acoustic metafluid formed with periodically arranged slabs in acoustic chambers. The method for independently modulating the effective mass density and bulk modulus of the metafluid is developed by tuning the geometry parameters and the temperature of the acoustic chamber in a specific process. By virtue of this free-modulated method, the range of realizable effective parameters is substantially broadened, and the acoustic impedance of the anisotropic structures can be well matched to the background. The performance of the designed structure is quantitatively evaluated in the frequency range of 3-4 kHz by the averaged invisibility factor. The results show that the proposed cloak is effective in manipulating the acoustic field along the given direction and suppressing the wave scattering from the hidden object.

  7. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  8. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  9. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  10. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  11. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working hours fall in this category. The agreement of the parties to provide compensation for such hours... regular rate of an employee if the hours are compensated at the same rate as other working hours. The.... Activities of this type include eating meals between working hours. Where it appears from all the pertinent...

  12. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in labour supply preferences on actual working hours. The availability of subjective information on the individual’s preferred working hours gives direct measures on the degree of adjustment of working ho...

  13. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  14. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 15.710 Section 15.710 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U.S.C. 8104 sets limitations on the working hours of credentialed officers and crew members...

  15. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  16. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... flexibility would not increase safety risks or adversely impact driver health? 3. How many hours per day and... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  17. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  18. A CLEAR Plan for School Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Anthony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Although many school formulas for crisis management are well coordinated internally, many are also shortsighted in recognizing when a school crisis falls simultaneously into law enforcement's domain. An Illinois high school has devised CLEAR, a crisis management plan delineating cognizance of personnel, the linkages they establish, accountability…

  19. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  20. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode

  1. Estimate of the atmospheric turbidity from three broad-band solar radiation algorithms. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbidity is an important parameter for assessing the air pollution in local areas, as well as being the main parameter controlling the attenuation of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface under cloudless sky conditions. Among the different turbidity indices, the Ångström turbidity coefficient β is frequently used. In this work, we analyse the performance of three methods based on broad-band solar irradiance measurements in the estimation of β. The evaluation of the performance of the models was undertaken by graphical and statistical (root mean square errors and mean bias errors means. The data sets used in this study comprise measurements of broad-band solar irradiance obtained at eight radiometric stations and aerosol optical thickness measurements obtained at one co-located radiometric station. Since all three methods require estimates of precipitable water content, three common methods for calculating atmospheric precipitable water content from surface air temperature and relative humidity are evaluated. Results show that these methods exhibit significant differences for low values of precipitable water. The effect of these differences in precipitable water estimates on turbidity algorithms is discussed. Differences in hourly turbidity estimates are later examined. The effects of random errors in pyranometer measurements and cloud interferences on the performance of the models are also presented. Examination of the annual cycle of monthly mean values of β for each location has shown that all three turbidity algorithms are suitable for analysing long-term trends and seasonal patterns.

  2. Estimate of the atmospheric turbidity from three broad-band solar radiation algorithms. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbidity is an important parameter for assessing the air pollution in local areas, as well as being the main parameter controlling the attenuation of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface under cloudless sky conditions. Among the different turbidity indices, the Ångström turbidity coefficient β is frequently used. In this work, we analyse the performance of three methods based on broad-band solar irradiance measurements in the estimation of β. The evaluation of the performance of the models was undertaken by graphical and statistical (root mean square errors and mean bias errors means. The data sets used in this study comprise measurements of broad-band solar irradiance obtained at eight radiometric stations and aerosol optical thickness measurements obtained at one co-located radiometric station. Since all three methods require estimates of precipitable water content, three common methods for calculating atmospheric precipitable water content from surface air temperature and relative humidity are evaluated. Results show that these methods exhibit significant differences for low values of precipitable water. The effect of these differences in precipitable water estimates on turbidity algorithms is discussed. Differences in hourly turbidity estimates are later examined. The effects of random errors in pyranometer measurements and cloud interferences on the performance of the models are also presented. Examination of the annual cycle of monthly mean values of β for each location has shown that all three turbidity algorithms are suitable for analysing long-term trends and seasonal patterns.

  3. Estimate of the atmospheric turbidity from three broad-band solar radiation algorithms. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Batlles, F.J. [Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, EPS La Rabida, Univ. de Huelva, Huelva (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Atmospheric turbidity is an important parameter for assessing the air pollution in local areas, as well as being the main parameter controlling the attenuation of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface under cloudless sky conditions. Among the different turbidity indices, the Aangstroem turbidity coefficient {beta} is frequently used. In this work, we analyse the performance of three methods based on broadband solar irradiance measurements in the estimation of {beta}. The evaluation of the performance of the models was undertaken by graphical and statistical (root mean square errors and mean bias errors) means. The data sets used in this study comprise measurements of broad-band solar irradiance obtained at eight radiometric stations and aerosol optical thickness measurements obtained at one co-located radiometric station. Since all three methods require estimates of precipitable water content, three common methods for calculating atmospheric precipitable water content from surface air temperature and relative humidity are evaluated. Results show that these methods exhibit significant differences for low values of precipitable water. The effect of these differences in precipitable water estimates on turbidity algorithms is discussed. Differences in hourly turbidity estimates are later examined. The effects of random errors in pyranometer measurements and cloud interferences on the performance of the models are also presented. Examination of the annual cycle of monthly mean values of {beta} for each location has shown that all three turbidity algorithms are suitable for analysing long-term trends and seasonal patterns. (orig.)

  4. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Paredes, J.A.

    2007-05-01

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k -2 source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w 2 model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C d . To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C d , as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M w 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  6. BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH REDSHIFT BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Stalin, C. S., E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ( z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ( z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 ( z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2−3303 ( z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift , Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) and the Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2−3303, none of the sources were known as γ -ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ -ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical−UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ -ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  7. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2-250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550-5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806-20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  8. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin, E-mail: demetk@sabanciuniv.edu [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Orhanlı Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2–250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550−5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806−20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  9. Specdata: Automated Analysis Software for Broadband Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jasmine N.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2017-06-01

    With the advancement of chirped-pulse techniques, broadband rotational spectra with a few tens to several hundred GHz of spectral coverage are now routinely recorded. When studying multi-component mixtures that might result, for example, with the use of an electrical discharge, lines of new chemical species are often obscured by those of known compounds, and analysis can be laborious. To address this issue, we have developed SPECdata, an open source, interactive tool which is designed to simplify and greatly accelerate the spectral analysis and discovery. Our software tool combines both automated and manual components that free the user from computation, while giving him/her considerable flexibility to assign, manipulate, interpret and export their analysis. The automated - and key - component of the new software is a database query system that rapidly assigns transitions of known species in an experimental spectrum. For each experiment, the software identifies spectral features, and subsequently assigns them to known molecules within an in-house database (Pickett .cat files, list of frequencies...), or those catalogued in Splatalogue (using automatic on-line queries). With suggested assignments, the control is then handed over to the user who can choose to accept, decline or add additional species. Data visualization, statistical information, and interactive widgets assist the user in making decisions about their data. SPECdata has several other useful features intended to improve the user experience. Exporting a full report of the analysis, or a peak file in which assigned lines are removed are among several options. A user may also save their progress to continue at another time. Additional features of SPECdata help the user to maintain and expand their database for future use. A user-friendly interface allows one to search, upload, edit or update catalog or experiment entries.

  10. The Persistence of Long Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; David Black; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  11. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  12. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  13. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  14. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  15. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring is proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.

  16. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with clear cell changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT has a limited biological profile and been an attention-grabbing tumor for a century for its origin. Though described earlier, it was widely accepted after Harbitz from Norway reported about this uncommon benign tumor in 1915. There has been a long debate as whether this tumor is a hamartoma or a neoplasm. Here, we present a case of AOT in a 20-year-old female with details of clinical, radiological and histological features along with clear cell changes, signifying AOT to be more aggressive in nature than assessed from earlier literature. Thus, we did an extensive search of PubMed literature on AOT with all its histopathological features associated until date to find the report of clear cell changes yet.

  17. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. The relationship investigation between factors affecting demand for broadband and the level of satisfaction among broadband customers in the South East Coast of Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S. H. A.; Hamid, F. A.; Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between factors that affecting the demand for broadband and the level of satisfaction. Previous researchers have found that the adoption of broadband is greatly influenced by many factors. Thus, in this study, a self-administered questionnaire was developed to obtain the factors affecting demand for broadband among broadband customers as well as their level of satisfaction. Pearson correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were used for statistical interpretation of the relationship. This study shows that there are better relationships between several factors over demand for broadband and satisfaction level.

  19. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives.

  20. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  1. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  2. A clinical case treated with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

    2011-01-01

    There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign.

  3. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  4. Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of Broadband-Pumped Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechayev, Sergey; Rotschild, Carmel

    2017-09-13

    Broadband light sources are a wide class of pumping schemes for lasers including LEDs, sunlight and flash lamps. Recently, efficient coupling of broadband light to high-quality micro-cavities has been demonstrated for on-chip applications and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers via cascade energy transfer. However, the conversion of incoherent to coherent light comes with an inherent price of reduced efficiency, which has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we derive the detailed balance limit of efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers and discuss how it is affected by the need to maintain a threshold population inversion and thermodynamically dictated minimal Stokes' shift. We show that lasers' slope efficiency is analogous to the nominal efficiency of solar cells, limited by thermalisation losses and additional unavoidable Stokes' shift. The lasers' power efficiency is analogous to the detailed balance limit of efficiency of solar cells, affected by the cavity mirrors and impedance matching factor, respectively. As an example we analyze the specific case of solar-pumped sensitized Nd 3+ :YAG-like lasers and define the conditions to reach their thermodynamic limit of efficiency. Our work establishes an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers. Our general, yet flexible model also provides a way to incorporate other optical and thermodynamic losses and, hence, to estimate the efficiency of non-ideal broadband-pumped lasers.

  5. Broadband set-top box using MAP-CA processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Advances in broadband access are expected to exert a profound impact in our everyday life. It will be the key to the digital convergence of communication, computer and consumer equipment. A common thread that facilitates this convergence comprises digital media and Internet. To address this market, Equator Technologies, Inc., is developing the Dolphin broadband set-top box reference platform using its MAP-CA Broadband Signal ProcessorT chip. The Dolphin reference platform is a universal media platform for display and presentation of digital contents on end-user entertainment systems. The objective of the Dolphin reference platform is to provide a complete set-top box system based on the MAP-CA processor. It includes all the necessary hardware and software components for the emerging broadcast and the broadband digital media market based on IP protocols. Such reference design requires a broadband Internet access and high-performance digital signal processing. By using the MAP-CA processor, the Dolphin reference platform is completely programmable, allowing various codecs to be implemented in software, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and proprietary codecs. The software implementation also enables field upgrades to keep pace with evolving technology and industry demands.

  6. Spatial-temporal dynamics of broadband terahertz Bessel beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V A; Kulya, M S; Bespalov, V G

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of narrowband and broadband terahertz Bessel beams have led to a number of their applications in different fields, for example, for the depth of focusing and resolution enhancement in terahertz imaging. However, broadband terahertz Bessel beams can probably be also used for the diffraction minimization in the short-range broadband terahertz communications. For this purpose, the study of spatial-temporal dynamics of the broadband terahertz Bessel beams is needed. Here we present a simulation-based study of the propagating in non-dispersive medium broadband Bessel beams generated by a conical axicon lens. The algorithm based on scalar diffraction theory was used to obtain the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of the Bessel beam in the frequency range from 0.1 to 3 THz at the distances 10-200 mm from the axicon. Bessel beam field is studied for the different spectral components of the initial pulse. The simulation results show that for the given parameters of the axicon lens one can obtain the Gauss-Bessel beam generation in the spectral range from 0.1 to 3 THz. The length of non-diffraction propagation for a different spectral components was measured, and it was shown that for all spectral components of the initial pulse this length is about 130 mm. (paper)

  7. Broadband low-frequency sound isolation by lightweight adaptive metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunhong; Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2018-03-01

    Blocking broadband low-frequency airborne noises is highly desirable in lots of engineering applications, while it is extremely difficult to be realized with lightweight materials and/or structures. Recently, a new class of lightweight adaptive metamaterials with hybrid shunting circuits has been proposed, demonstrating super broadband structure-borne bandgaps. In this study, we aim at examining their potentials in broadband sound isolation by establishing an analytical model that rigorously combines the piezoelectric dynamic couplings between adaptive metamaterials and acoustics. Sound transmission loss of the adaptive metamaterial is investigated with respect to both the frequency and angular spectrum to demonstrate their sound-insulation effects. We find that efficient sound isolation can indeed be pursued in the broadband bi-spectrum for not only the case of the small resonator's periodicity where only one mode relevant to the mass-spring resonance exists, but also for the large-periodicity scenario, so that the total weight can be even lighter, in which the multiple plate-resonator coupling modes appear. In the latter case, the negative spring stiffness provided by the piezoelectric stack has been utilized to suppress the resonance-induced high acoustic transmission. Such kinds of adaptive metamaterials could open a new approach for broadband noise isolation with extremely lightweight structures.

  8. Tunable Broadband Nanocarbon Transparent Conductor by Electrochemical Intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Xu, Yue; Ozdemir, Burak; Xu, Lisha; Sushkov, Andrei B; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Bao; Drew, Dennis; Barone, Veronica; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-24

    Optical transparent and electrical conducting materials with broadband transmission are important for many applications in optoelectronic, telecommunications, and military devices. However, studies of broadband transparent conductors and their controlled modulation are scarce. In this study, we report that reversible transmittance modulation has been achieved with sandwiched nanocarbon thin films (containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) via electrochemical alkali-ion intercalation/deintercalation. The transmittance modulation covers a broad range from the visible (450 nm) to the infrared (5 μm), which can be achieved only by rGO rather than pristine graphene films. The large broadband transmittance modulation is understood with DFT calculations, which suggest a decrease in interband transitions in the visible range as well as a reduced reflection in the IR range upon intercalation. We find that a larger interlayer distance in few-layer rGO results in a significant increase in transparency in the infrared region of the spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, a reduced plasma frequency in rGO compared to few-layer graphene is also important to understand the experimental results for broadband transparency in rGO. The broadband transmittance modulation of the CNT/rGO/CNT systems can potentially lead to electrochromic and thermal camouflage applications.

  9. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  10. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-08

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known "brick and mortar" microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  11. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  13. Manta A New BroadBand OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Philippe, O.

    2017-12-01

    Manta is a new BroadBand OBS developed at Geoazur and commercialized by Osean. The design is inspired by 3-years autonomy MUG-OBS a Multiparameter Ocean Bottom System which carry a lot of sort of sensor types. As Mug-OBS, Manta-OBS rated 6000m is designed to resist a trawling. All the components are non corrosive such polyethylene, titanium and buoyancy is ensured by syntactic foam. Equipped in standard version with a Trillium compact OBS Manta has an autonomy of 18 months, but can accept on its 4 input channels any kind of signal as low as from an hydrophone or larger from other type of a seismometer or accelerometer. Tri-axial geophones unit (2 Hz or 4.5 Hz ) can replace the seismometer and will expend the lifespan for the instrument. The seismometer is encapsulated in a central well established by four panels of the main structure to protect it from sea current convection and is decoupled from main chassis. An health bulletin is recoverable by acoustic any time to facilitate the installation and during a visit when instrument is deployed. Main parameters for acquisition can be changed by acoustics command from surface at any time. Once at the bottom, release for the main sensor installation is programmed on a timer but controlled by the tilt of the OBS. If the tilt is too important based on programmed limits, sensor will not released automatically, but this can be forced by acoustic command after returning the tilt informations to the boat operator. Manta is equipped with flash light and AIS system for easy location at recovery, and can also send it's position by Iridium satellite in case of an unexpected ascent such caused by a possible trawling if deployed in shallow water. Clock drift calculation is automatically made against GPS time signal once the OBS return at the surface. The recovery of the OBS is initiated by an acoustic command. These new features made Manta a very versatile instrument for monitoring earthquakes.

  14. Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jungok

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and metabolic syndrome. Data based on the Sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) pertaining to a total of 1,145 paid workers were analyzed. Working hours were divided into three groups (40-51 hours/week, 52-59 hours/week, ≥ 60 hours/week). The relationship between working hours and metabolic syndrome was then analyzed after adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, using a multiple logistic regression model. Working 40-51 hours per week was associated with the lowest metabolic syndrome among female workers (11.2%), whereas it was associated with the highest metabolic syndrome among male workers (28.0%). After adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, female workers working≥60 hours per week showed odds ratios of 2.21 [95% confidence interval (1.07, 4.57)], compared to those who worked 40-51 hours per week. However, no clear association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome was found among male workers. The results suggest that working long hours, especially≥60 hours per week, is related to metabolic syndrome among female Korean workers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-01-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects. (paper)

  16. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects.

  17. Broadband and Resonant Approaches to Axion Dark Matter Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; Safdi, Benjamin R; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-09-30

    When ultralight axion dark matter encounters a static magnetic field, it sources an effective electric current that follows the magnetic field lines and oscillates at the axion Compton frequency. We propose a new experiment to detect this axion effective current. In the presence of axion dark matter, a large toroidal magnet will act like an oscillating current ring, whose induced magnetic flux can be measured by an external pickup loop inductively coupled to a SQUID magnetometer. We consider both resonant and broadband readout circuits and show that a broadband approach has advantages at small axion masses. We estimate the reach of this design, taking into account the irreducible sources of noise, and demonstrate potential sensitivity to axionlike dark matter with masses in the range of 10^{-14}-10^{-6}  eV. In particular, both the broadband and resonant strategies can probe the QCD axion with a GUT-scale decay constant.

  18. Magnetization pinning in conducting films demonstrated using broadband ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostylev, M.; Stashkevich, A. A.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Shakespeare, C.; Kostylev, N.; Ross, N.; Kennewell, K.; Magaraggia, R.; Roussigné, Y.; Stamps, R. L.

    2010-11-01

    The broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), cavity FMR, and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy techniques have been applied for detection and characterization of a magnetic inhomogeneity in a film sample. In the case of a 100 nm thick permalloy film, an additional magnetically depleted top sublayer has been detected due to pinning effect it produces on the magnetization in the bulk of the film. The pinning results in appearance of an exchange standing spin wave mode in the broadband FMR absorption spectrum, whose amplitudes are different depending on whether the film or the film substrate faces the microstrip transducer. Comparison of the experimental amplitudes for this mode with results of our theory for both film placements revealed that the depleted layer is located at the film surface facing away from the film substrate. Subsequent broadband FMR characterization of a large number of other presumably single-layer films with thicknesses in the range 30-100 nm showed the same result.

  19. National Broadband strategies – The case of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Iaskio, Emerson

    2018-01-01

    as differences in institutional factors. For instance has the government played a leading role in Japan and South Korea, while US and UK have a strong emphasis on market forces and competition. Brazil has chosen their own strategy for broadband development. This strategy is defined within a specific national...... of comparing broadband strategies in different countries. The paper first describes these dimensions, and how the framework relates to other kinds of categorisations. Second it provides a brief overview of how the Brazilian telecom market developed. The subsequent section presents various policy initiatives......). Broadband for all is a widely accepted policy objective in both developed and developing countries. However, the policy strategies for achieving this goal are very different in different countries. These differences are originated in different levels of economic and technological development, as well...

  20. Broadband electromagnetic dipole scattering by coupled multiple nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xufeng; Ye, Qiufeng; Hong, Zhi; Zhu, Dongshuo; Shi, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, the ability to manipulate light at the nanoscale is critical to future optical functional devices. The use of high refractive index dielectric single silicon nanoparticle can achieve electromagnetic dipole resonant properties. Compared with single nanosphere, the use of dimer and trimer introduces an additional dimension (gap size) for improving the performance of dielectric optical devices through the coupling between closely connected silicon nanospheres. When changing the gap size between the nanospheres, the interaction between the particles can be from weak to strong. Compared with single nanospheres, dimerized or trimeric nanospheres exhibit more pronounced broadband scattering properties. In addition, by introducing more complex interaction, the trimericed silicon nanospheres exhibit a more significant increase in bandwidth than expected. In addition, the presence of the substrate will also contribute to the increase in the bandwidth of the nanospheres. The broadband response in dielectric nanostructures can be effectively applied to broadband applications such as dielectric nanoantennas or solar cells.

  1. Broadband enhancement of infrared absorption in microbolometers using Ag nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jerome K.; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hyun, Moon Seop; Kim, Hee Yeoun; Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Won-Oh

    2015-01-01

    High performance microbolometers are widely sought for thermal imaging applications. In order to increase the performance limits of microbolometers, the responsivity of the device to broadband infrared (IR) radiation needs to be improved. In this work, we report a simple, quick, and cost-effective approach to modestly enhance the broadband IR response of the device by evaporating Ag nanocrystals onto the light entrance surface of the device. When irradiated with IR light, strong fields are built up within the gaps between adjacent Ag nanocrystals. These fields resistively generate heat in the nanocrystals and underlying substrate, which is transduced into an electrical signal via a resistive sensing element in the device. Through this method, we are able to enhance the IR absorption over a broadband spectrum and improve the responsivity of the device by ∼11%

  2. Long Work Hours: Volunteers and Conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; Mark Wooden; David Black

    2006-01-01

    Panel data from Australia are used to study the prevalence of work hours mismatch among long hours workers and, more importantly, how that mismatch persists and changes over time, and what factors are associated with these changes. Particular attention is paid to the roles played by household debt, ideal worker characteristics and gender. Both static and dynamic multinomial logit models are estimated, with the dependent variable distinguishing long hours workers from other workers, and within...

  3. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  4. Working hours: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Working hours across the world are falling, but considerable variation remains. In some countries people work 70% more hours per year, on average, than in other countries. Much of this variation is due to differences in the prevalence of part-time work and patterns of female labor market participation. Looking ahead, the question of how reducing working hours will affect productivity is significant. In addition, how individuals divide up their leisure and work time and what the appropriate wo...

  5. Economic Analysis of Long Working Hours (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set out the economic grounds for restrictions on long working hours and conduct an empirical analysis using surveys from the perspective of behavioral economics. The results of the analysis indicate that, on a year-on-year basis, if state of health improves, the probability of working more than 60 hours per week increases significantly, but that even when state of health deteriorates there is no decrease in the probability of working long hours. Moreover, among male managemen...

  6. 77 FR 62461 - Implementing Public Safety Broadband Provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wireless Broadband Network,'' ``Special Purpose Bankruptcy Remote Entity,'' ``Upper 700 MHz D Block license... definitions ``700 MHz Public/Private Partnership,'' ``Network Assets Holder,'' ``Network Sharing Agreement...,'' ``Public safety broadband network operator,'' ``Shared Wireless Broadband Network, '' ``Special Purpose...

  7. The eighty-hour workweek: surgical attendings' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Devan; Menon, Rema P; Kotwall, Cyrus A; Clancy, Thomas V; Hope, William W

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 was a sentinel year in resident education; this was the first graduating general surgery class trained entirely under the 80-hour workweek. The purpose of this study was to evaluate attending surgeon perceptions of surgical resident attitudes and performance before and after duty-hour restrictions. An electronic survey was sent to all surgical teaching institutions in North Carolina. Both surgeon and hospital characteristics were documented. The survey consisted of questions designed to assess residents' attitudes/performance before and after the implementation of the work-hour restriction. In all, 77 surveys were returned (33% response rate). The survey demonstrated that 92% of educators who responded to the survey recognized a difference between the restricted residents (RRs) and the nonrestricted residents (NRRs), and most respondents (67%) attributed this to both the work-hour restrictions and the work ethic of current residents. Most attending surgeons reported no difference between the RRs and the NRRs in most categories; however, they identified a negative change in the areas of work ethic, technical skills development, decision-making/critical-thinking skills, and patient ownership among the RR group. Most surgeons expressed less trust (55%) with patient care and less confidence (68%) in residents' ability to operate independently in the RR group. Eighty-nine percent indicated that additional decreases in work hours would continue to hamper the mission of timely and comprehensive resident education. The perception of surgical educators was that RRs are clearly different from the NRRs and that the primary difference is in work ethic and duty-hour restrictions. Although similar in most attributes, RRs are perceived as having a lower baseline work ethic and a less developed technical skill set, decision-making ability, and sense of patient ownership. Subsequent study is needed to evaluate these concerns. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  8. A case of clear cell sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...... this designation obsolete. The true incidence remains unknown, but CCS is believed to represent less than one percent of all sarcomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 22-year-old patient presented with a mass sized 2.6×2.7×2.7cm of the left gluteal region, pain, and malaise. Initially, the symptoms were interpreted...

  9. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  10. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  11. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugang Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical pendulum (VP tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP broadband tiltmeter is more superior compared with VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter because of its higher bandwidth and degree of automation.

  12. Broadband electrical impedance matching for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying; Paramo, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for designing broadband electrical impedance matching networks for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers. The design process involves three steps: 1) determine the equivalent circuit of the unmatched piezoelectric transducer based on its measured admittance; 2) design a set of impedance matching networks using a computerized Smith chart; and 3) establish the simulation model of the matched transducer to evaluate the gain and bandwidth of the impedance matching networks. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and characterization of impedance matching networks for a broadband acoustic emission sensor. The impedance matching network improved the power of the acquired signal by 9 times.

  13. Broadband sound blocking in phononic crystals with rotationally symmetric inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Seok; Yoo, Sungmin; Ahn, Young Kwan; Kim, Yoon Young

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of broadband sound blocking with rotationally symmetric extensible inclusions introduced in phononic crystals. By varying the size of four equally shaped inclusions gradually, the phononic crystal experiences remarkable changes in its band-stop properties, such as shifting/widening of multiple Bragg bandgaps and evolution to resonance gaps. Necessary extensions of the inclusions to block sound effectively can be determined for given incident frequencies by evaluating power transmission characteristics. By arraying finite dissimilar unit cells, the resulting phononic crystal exhibits broadband sound blocking from combinational effects of multiple Bragg scattering and local resonances even with small-numbered cells.

  14. Measurement uncertainty in broadband radiofrequency radiation level measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in the measurement of broadband radio frequency radiation, in this paper we propose a new approach based on the experience of the authors of the paper with measurements of radiofrequency electric field levels conducted in residential areas of Belgrade and over 35 municipalities in Serbia. The main objective of the paper is to present practical solutions in the evaluation of broadband measurement uncertainty for the in-situ RF radiation levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  15. Broadband polymer microstructured THz fiber coupler with downdoped cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband THz directional coupler based on a dual core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) design with mechanically down-doped core regions. For a center frequency of 1.3 THz we demonstrate a bandwidth of 0.65 THz.......We demonstrate a broadband THz directional coupler based on a dual core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) design with mechanically down-doped core regions. For a center frequency of 1.3 THz we demonstrate a bandwidth of 0.65 THz....

  16. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Broadband light emitters operation, which covers multiple wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, has been established as an indispensable element to the human kind, continuously advancing the living standard by serving as sources in important multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which are bulky, and energy hungry. \\tRecent demonstration of ultra-broadband emission from semiconductor light sources in the form of superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs) has paved way in realization of broadband emitters on a completely novel platform, which offered compactness, cost effectiveness, and comparatively energy efficient, and are already serving as a key component in medical imaging systems. The low power-bandwidth product is inherent in SLDs operating in the amplified spontaneous emission regime. A quantum leap in the advancement of broadband emitters, in which high power and large bandwidth (in tens of nm) are in demand. Recently, the birth of a new class of broadband semiconductor laser diode (LDs) producing multiple wavelength light in stimulated emission regime was demonstrated. This very recent manifestation of a high power-bandwidth-product semiconductor broadband LDs relies on interband optical transitions via quantum confined dot/dash nanostructures and exploiting the natural inhomogeneity of the self-assembled growth technology. This concept is highly interesting and extending the broad spectrum of stimulated emission by novel device design forms the central focus of this dissertation. \\tIn this work, a simple rate equation numerical technique for modeling InAs/InP quantum dash laser incorporating the properties of inhomogeneous broadening effect on lasing spectra was developed and discussed, followed by a comprehensive experimental analysis

  17. Analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise from VS45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundabin, P. [Renewable Energy Systems Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis of acoustic data taken from the VS45 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The aim was to investigate the dependence of aerodynamic noise on tip speed and angle of attack. In particular, the dependence of noise in individual third octave bands on these variable is examined. The analysis is divided into 3 sections: data selection, data checks and analysis of broadband nacelle noise; analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise and its sensitivity to tip speed and angle of attack. (LN)

  18. Implementation of Scientific Computing Applications on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochun Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cell Broadband Engine architecture is a revolutionary processor architecture well suited for many scientific codes. This paper reports on an effort to implement several traditional high-performance scientific computing applications on the Cell Broadband Engine processor, including molecular dynamics, quantum chromodynamics and quantum chemistry codes. The paper discusses data and code restructuring strategies necessary to adapt the applications to the intrinsic properties of the Cell processor and demonstrates performance improvements achieved on the Cell architecture. It concludes with the lessons learned and provides practical recommendations on optimization techniques that are believed to be most appropriate.

  19. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  20. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  1. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  2. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0; BBRI_cableDOCSIS12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0" technology. Broadband availability is...

  3. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  4. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Symmetric xDSL; BBRI_DSLsym12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via Symmetric xDSL technology. Broadband availability is summarized at...

  5. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  6. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - Other; BBRI_cableOther12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - Other" technology. Broadband availability is...

  7. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Asymmetric xDSL; BBRI_DSLasym12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via Asymmetric xDSL technology. Broadband availability is summarized...

  8. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  9. VT Fiber Optic Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  10. VT Current and Future Status of Broadband Availability by Sub-Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  11. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Optical Carrier - Fiber to the End User; BBRI_fiber12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Optical Carrier - Fiber to the End User" technology. Broadband...

  12. 77 FR 14340 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Broadband Technology Opportunities Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., broadband service by public safety agencies; and (5) To stimulate the demand for broadband, economic growth, and job creation. OMB also requires agencies administering grant programs to [[Page 14341

  13. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  14. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  15. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in

  16. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  17. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  18. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  19. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  20. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  1. Effectiveness of the Twelve-Hour Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Although labor unions traditionally have fought for shorter working hours, there have been recent reversals in this trend. The Pulp and Paperboard Division of Temple-Eastex Incorporated converted to a 12-hour shift and found that safety improved, productivity increased, and overtime decreased. (JOW)

  2. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  3. "Hour of Code": A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the delivery of the "Hour of Code" tutorials to college students. The college students who participated in this study were surveyed about their opinion of the Hour of Code. First, the students' comments were discussed. Next, a content analysis of the offered tutorials highlights their reliance on visual…

  4. Experience With Flexible Hours of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jo

    1976-01-01

    A summary of an 80-page booklet called Hours of Work When Workers Can Choose is presented. The booklet reports a survey and focuses on the benefits of flexible hours of work. It was published by the Business and Professional Women's Foundation and is available from that organization. (EC)

  5. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  6. Community Broadband Networks and the Opportunity for E-Government Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2017-01-01

    Community Broadband Networks (CBN) facilitate Broadband connectivity in underserved areas in many countries. The lack of Broadband connectivity is one of the reasons for the slow diffusion of e-government services in many countries.This article explains how CBNs can be enabled by governments...... to facilitate the delivery of e–government services in underserved areas in the developed and developing countries.The Community Based Broadband Mobilization (CBNM) models are used as explanatory tools....

  7. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  8. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  9. Bilateral clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, W.; Yehia, D.; Alfaar, A.S.; Elshafie, M.M.; Younes, A.A.; Zaghloul, M.S.; El-Kinaai, N.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Zekri, W.; Elshafie, M.M.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Younes, A.A.; Alfaar, A.S.; Yehia, D.

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) accounts for 2-5% of all pediatric renal malignancies, and is known for its propensity to metastasize to bone and other sites. We are reporting two cases with bilateral CCSK that were diagnosed at our institution. One patient initially presented with bilateral renal masses, as well as pulmonary, hepatic and bone metastasis; while other present only with bilateral masses with no evident distant metastasis. Both patients received aggressive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size. One patient completed his designated treatment and initially showed complete remission (CR); eventually suffering from relapse. The other patient’s tumor progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Both cases manifested brain dissemination at the time of relapse or progression. This emphasizes the importance of staging stratification in CCSK. This also illustrates CCSK’s ability to metastasize to bone and other sites including the brain (a primary relapse site in our cases)

  10. Surgeon distress as calibrated by hours worked and nights on call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Charles M; Shanafelt, Tait D; Dyrbye, Lotte; Sloan, Jeffrey A; Russell, Thomas R; Bechamps, Gerald J; Freischlag, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    The relationships of working hours and nights on call per week with various parameters of distress among practicing surgeons have not been previously examined in detail. More than 7,900 members of the American College of Surgeons responded to an anonymous, cross-sectional survey. The survey included self-assessment of their practice setting, a validated depression screening tool, and standardized assessments of burnout and quality of life. There was a clear gradient between hours and burnout, with the prevalence of burnout ranging from 30% for surgeons working hours/week, 44% for 60 to 80 hours/week, and 50% for those working >80 hours/week (p hours and nights on call (both p worked >80 hours/week reported a higher rate of medical errors compared with those who worked hours/week (10.7% versus 6.9%; p work and home conflicts were higher among surgeons who worked longer hours or had ≥2 nights on call. A significantly higher proportion of surgeons who worked >80 hours/week or had >2 nights on call/week would not become a surgeon again (p hours worked and nights on call per week appear to have a substantial impact on surgeons, both professionally and personally. These factors are strongly related to burnout, depression, career satisfaction, and work and home conflicts. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interoperability of Services in an Open Broadband Market : Cases from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmeijer, J.

    2006-01-01

    End-to-end interoperability of broadband services and networks is a condition for an open broadband market. A business model for broadband service interoperability is given. Two cases from the Netherlands, of initiatives from the market to reach interoperability, are presented: E-norm and FIST VoIP.

  12. Lower wages for less hours? A simultaneous wage-hours model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the impact of working hours on the gross hourly wage rate of West German women is analyzed. We use a simultaneous wage-hours model which takes into account the participation decision. First, our estimates show that the hourly wage rate is strongly a¤ected by the working hours. In order to avoid any assumptions about the functional form, we estimate linear spline functions. Second, we detect di¤erent wage-hours profiles for specific groups of individuals. Despite these di¤erences...

  13. Distributed Shared Memory for the Cell Broadband Engine (DSMCBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Nørgaard; Skovhede, Kenneth; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    in and out of non-coherent local storage blocks for each special processor element. In this paper we present a software library, namely the Distributed Shared Memory for the Cell Broadband Engine (DSMCBE). By using techniques known from distributed shared memory DSMCBE allows programmers to program the CELL...

  14. Will they fly? : PPPs and the ultrafast broadband initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Howell, B.

    2012-01-01

    The political perception of New Zealand's broadband market performance as ‘poor' has underpinned many significant changes to the telecommunications policy and regulatory environments since 2001. Most recently, this has been manifested in substantial government subsidies by way of public-private

  15. Impact of cyclostationarity on fan broadband noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbrandt, A.; Kissner, C.; Guérin, S.

    2018-04-01

    One of the dominant noise sources of modern Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines is the interaction of the rotor wakes with the leading edges of the stator vanes in the fan stage. While the tonal components of this noise generation mechanism are fairly well understood by now, the broadband components are not. This calls to further the understanding of the broadband noise generation in the fan stage. This article introduces a new extension to the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method, which accommodates in-depth studies of the impact of cyclostationary wake characteristics on the broadband noise in the fan stage. The RPM method is used to synthesize a turbulence field in the stator domain using a URANS simulation characterized by time-periodic turbulence and mean flow. The rotor-stator interaction noise is predicted by a two-dimensional CAA computation of the stator cascade. The impact of cyclostationarity is decomposed into various effects, which are separately investigated. This leads to the finding that the periodic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and periodic flow have only a negligible effect on the radiated sound power. The impact of the periodic integral length scale (TLS) is, however, substantial. The limits of a stationary representation of the TLS are demonstrated making this new extension to the RPM method indispensable when background and wake TKE are of comparable level. Good agreement of the predictions with measurements obtained from the 2015 AIAA Fan Broadband Noise Prediction Workshop are also shown.

  16. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar

  17. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239483472

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  18. Novel crystalline-waveguide broadband light sources for interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  19. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...

  20. Control over multiscale mixing in broadband-forced turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of explicit flow modulation on the dispersion of a passive scalar field are studied. Broadband forcing is applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence to modulate the energy cascading and alter the kinetic energy spectrum. Consequently, a manipulation of turbulent flow can be achieved

  1. Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiupu Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.

  2. Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2004-01-01

    A novel design for a broadband directional coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber is investigated numerically. It is shown that suitable index-depressing doping of the core regions in an index-guiding twin-core photonic crystal fiber can stabilize the coupling coefficient between the cores over...

  3. Multicomponent gas analysis using broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Reyes, A.; Hou, Z.; Van Mastrigt, E.; Horsten, R.C.; De Jongste, J.C.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Urbach, H.P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system covering the region between 850 and 1250 cm?1. Its robust multipass cavity ensures a constant interaction length over the entire spectral region. The device enables the detection and identification of numerous molecules present

  4. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Yue, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  5. Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to inform policies that help marginalized groups in Africa, such as women and the poor, to take advantage of the social and economic opportunities of broadband Internet. Internet access is critical for social and economic development in developing countries. According to a 2009 World Bank study, a 10% ...

  6. 75 FR 36071 - Framework for Broadband Internet Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Internet service. Introduction 3. This Commission exists ``[f]or the purpose of regulating interstate and... news groups, the ability to create a personal Web page, and the ability to retrieve information from... broadband policies. 31. Some have suggested that although the D.C. Circuit rejected the Commission's theory...

  7. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  8. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  9. Fast elliptic-curve cryptography on the Cell Broadband Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costigan, N.; Schwabe, P.; Preneel, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first to investigate the power of the Cell Broadband Engine for state-of-the-art public-key cryptography. We present a high-speed implementation of elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for this processor, which needs 697080 cycles on one Synergistic Processor Unit for

  10. PHEMT Distributed Power Amplifier Adopting Broadband Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narendra, K.; Limiti, E.; Paoloni, C.

    2013-01-01

    A non-uniform drain line distributed power amplifier (DPA) employing a broadband impedance transformer is presented. The DPA is based on GaAs PHEMT technology. The impedance transformer employs asymmetric coupled lines and transforms a low output impedance of the amplifier to a standard 50 Ω...

  11. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  12. Multiphase lattice Boltzmann on the Cell Broadband Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletti, F.; Mantovani, F.; Tripiccione, R.; Biferale, L.; Schifano, S.F.; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Computational experiments are one of the most used and flexible investigation tools in fluid dynamics. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation is a well established computational method particularly promising for multi-phase flows at micro and macro scales. Here we present preliminary results on performances of the Lbe method on the Cell Broadband Engine platform.

  13. Broadband illusion optical devices based on conformal mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method of illusion optics based on conformal mappings. By carefully developing designs with specific conformal mappings, one can make an object look like another with a significantly different shape. In addition, the illusion optical devices can work in a broadband of frequencies.

  14. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The deployment of new network equipment is resulting in increasing energy consumption in mobile broadband networks (MBNs). This contributes to higher CO2 emissions. Over the last 10 years MBNs have grown considerably, and are still growing to meet the evolution in traffic volume carried...

  15. Characterisation of optical filters for broadband UVA radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luciana C.; Coelho, Carla T.; Corrêa, Jaqueline S. P. M.; Menegotto, Thiago; Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Aparecida de Souza, Muriel; Melo da Silva, Elisama; Simões de Lima, Maurício; Dornelles de Alvarenga, Ana Paula

    2016-07-01

    Optical filters were characterized in order to know its suitability for use in broadband UVA radiometer head for spectral irradiance measurements. The spectral transmittance, the angular dependence and the spatial uniformity of the spectral transmittance of the UVA optical filters were investigated. The temperature dependence of the transmittance was also studied.

  16. Using quality improvement methods to reduce clear fluid fasting times in children on a preoperative ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard J G; Stuart, Grant M; Willdridge, Daniel J; Thomas, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We applied quality improvement (QI) methodology to identify the different aspects of why children fasted for prolonged periods in our institution. Our aim was for 75% of all children to be fasted for clear fluid for less than 4 hours. Prolonged fasting in children can increase thirst and irritability and have adverse effects on haemodynamic stability on induction. By reducing this, children may be less irritable, more comfortable and more physiologically stable, improving the preoperative experience for both children and carers. We conducted a QI project from January 2014 until August 2016 at a large tertiary pediatric teaching hospital. Baseline data and the magnitude of the problem were obtained from pilot studies. This allowed us to build a key driver diagram, a process map and conduct a failure mode and effects analysis. Using a framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles our key interventions primarily focused on reducing confusion over procedure start times, giving parents accurate information, empowering staff and reducing variation by allowing children to drink on arrival (up to one hour) before surgery. Prior to this project, using the 6,4,2 fasting rule for solids, breast milk, and clear fluids, respectively, 19% of children were fasted for fluid for less than 4 hours, mean fluid fasting time was 6.3 hours (SD 4.48). At the conclusion 72% of patients received a drink within 4 hours, mean fluid fasting reduced to 3.1 hours (SD 2.33). The secondary measures of aspiration (4.14:10 000) and cancellations have not increased since starting this project. By using established QI methodology we reduced the mean fluid fasting time for day admissions at our hospital to 3.1 hours and increased the proportion of children fasting for less than 4 hours from 19% to 72%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  18. Unbundling in Current Broadband and Next-Generation Ultra-Broadband Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Roberto; Giuliano, Romeo; Mazzenga, Franco; Valcarenghi, Luca; Vatalaro, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This article overviews the methods that are currently under investigation for implementing multi-operator open-access/shared-access techniques in next-generation access ultra-broadband architectures, starting from the traditional "unbundling-of-the-local-loop" techniques implemented in legacy twisted-pair digital subscriber line access networks. A straightforward replication of these copper-based unbundling-of-the-local-loop techniques is usually not feasible on next-generation access networks, including fiber-to-the-home point-to-multipoint passive optical networks. To investigate this issue, the article first gives a concise description of traditional copper-based unbundling-of-the-local-loop solutions, then focalizes on both next-generation access hybrid fiber-copper digital subscriber line fiber-to-the-cabinet scenarios and on fiber to the home by accounting for the mix of regulatory and technological reasons driving the next-generation access migration path, focusing mostly on the European situation.

  19. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  20. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  1. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  2. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  3. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  4. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  5. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  6. Impact of states' nurse work hour regulations on overtime practices and work hours among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-10-01

    To examine the degree to which states' work hour regulations for nurses-policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours-decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada/UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including ''mean solar altitude anti {alpha}'' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain). (author)

  8. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including 'mean solar altitude α-bar' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain)

  9. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  10. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  11. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  12. 76 FR 45730 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposing regulations to facilitate customer access to clearing and to bolster risk management through... and execution of customer transactions on a DCM or SEF on terms that have a reasonable relationship to... a reasonable relationship to the best terms available by prohibiting restrictions in customer...

  13. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  14. Evaluation of the new infrastructure for French Permanent Broadband Stations in Auvergne (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douchain, J. M.; Regis, E.; Battaglia, J.; Vergne, J.

    2017-12-01

    French seismologic and geodetic network (RESIF) is a national equipment for the observation and understanding of the solid Earth. It is an instrument aimed at acquiring new top-quality data for disciplines like seismology, geodesy and gravimetry to advance the understanding of the dynamics of our planet. The seismology component of RESIF, with its homogeneous coverage of the territory, will allow better localisation and characterisation of seismic activityover a wide range of magnitudes as well as provide high quality data for research The Auvergne Seismic Network (ASN) manages seismic stations in the center of france since the beginning of the 80's and continuously ugrades them. Nowadays, 21 stations (velocimeters and accelerometers) are deployed to monitor the Massif Central seismic activity. In the future, the ASN will run 15 broadband stations that will be part of RESIF network. Six of theses sites already have former generation instrumentation (short period sensors buried in the ground, low dynamic) but others are completely new. In june 2017, 4 permanent seismic stations have been upgraded to the new standard installation type for open environment. The chozen infrastructure is a 5 meter drilling equiped with a posthole broadband sensor. Prior to these final installations, on each site, Trillium 120 PA have been installed for 2 temporary experiments. The first one consisted of a direct burial installations at about 80 centimeters depth and lasted for 1 or 2 months. The second dataset was recorded in shallow seismic vaults, during 6 months.In this study, we compare, for each site, data recorded with the 3 configurations in order to evaluate the profits of the new RESIF installations. For this purpose, we compare the probability density fonctions to evaluate noise levels, as well as sprectrograms and hourly detection number. Our results show that the installation of sensors in drillings greatly improves the quality of data at low and high frequencies.

  15. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  17. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  18. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  19. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    . In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  20. Inter-Industry and Inter-Firm Wage and Hours Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Ramirez

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the role of demand factors on wages and hours in Switzerland. To accomplish this task, we used the 1996 Swiss Wage Structure Survey, a large employee-employer survey. Results indicate that capital intensity appears to have a certain impact on the relation between wages and hours: the "inter-industry wage-hours differentials line" we inferred is clearly positive. Further, an analysis of the determinants of inter-firm wage differentials shows that the internal o...

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of Renal Autoregulation Under Broadband Forcing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmarelis, V Z; Chon, K H; Chen, Y M

    1994-01-01

    Linear analysis of renal blood flow fluctuations, induced experimentally in rats by broad-band (pseudorandom) arterial blood pressure forcing at various power levels, has been unable to explain fully the dynamics of renal autoregulation at low frequencies. This observation has suggested...... the possibility of nonlinear mechanisms subserving renal autoregulation at frequencies below 0.2 Hz. This paper presents results of 3rd-order Volterra-Wiener analysis that appear to explain adequately the nonlinearities in the pressure-flow relation below 0.2 Hz in rats. The contribution of the 3rd-order kernel...... in describing the dynamic pressure-flow relation is found to be important. Furthermore, the dependence of 1st-order kernel waveforms on the power level of broadband pressure forcing indicates the presence of nonlinear feedback (of sigmoid type) based on previously reported analysis of a class of nonlinear...

  2. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  3. Broadband infrared absorption enhancement by electroless-deposited silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia; Raza, Søren; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2017-01-01

    Decorating semiconductor surfaces with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is considered a viable solution for enhancing the absorptive properties of photovoltaic and photodetecting devices. We propose to deposit silver NPs on top of a semiconductor wafer by a cheap and fast electroless plating technique....... Optical characterization confirms that the random array of electroless-deposited NPs improves absorption by up to 20% in a broadband of nearinfrared frequencies from the bandgap edge to 2000 nm. Due to the small filling fraction of particles, the reflection in the visible range is practically unchanged......, which points to the possible applications of such deposition method for harvesting photons in nanophotonics and photovoltaics. The broadband absorption is a consequence of the resonant behavior of particles with different shapes and sizes, which strongly localize the incident light at the interface...

  4. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Adachi, Michael M; Labelle, André J; Thon, Susanna M; Lan, Xinzheng; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great potential for large area low-cost photovoltaics. However, light utilization remains low mainly due to the tradeoff between small carrier transport lengths and longer infrared photon absorption lengths. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption without compromising charge extraction efficiency of the device. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to study the nanostructure for implementation in a realistic device and then build proof-of-concept nanostructured solar cells, which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over the wavelength range of λ = 600 to 1,100 nm, leading to a 31% improvement in overall short-circuit current density compared to a planar device containing an approximately equal volume of active material. Remarkably, the improved current density is achieved using a light-absorber volume less than half that typically used in the best planar devices.

  5. Broadband Laser Ranging for Position Measurements in Shock Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michelle; Bennett, Corey; Daykin, Edward; Younk, Patrick; Lalone, Brandon; Kostinski, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Broadband laser ranging (BLR) is a recently developed measurement system that provides an attractive option for determining the position of shock-driven surfaces. This system uses broadband, picosecond (or femtosecond) laser pulses and a fiber interferometer to measure relative travel time to a target and to a reference mirror. The difference in travel time produces a delay difference between pulse replicas that creates a spectral beat frequency. The spectral beating is recorded in real time using a dispersive Fourier transform and an oscilloscope. BLR systems have been designed that measure position at 12.5-40 MHz with better than 100 micron accuracy over ranges greater than 10 cm. We will give an overview of the basic operating principles of these systems. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and by NSTec Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  6. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  7. Radiative cooling and broadband phenomenon in low-frequency waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of radiative cooling on the pure baroclinic low-frequency waves under the approximation of equatorial -plane and semi-geostrophic condition. The results show that radiative cooling does not, exclusively, provide the damping effects on the development of low-frequency waves. Under the delicate radiative-convective equilibrium, radiative effects will alter the phase speed and wave period, and bring about the broadband of phase velocity and wave period by adjusting the vertical profiles of diabatic heating. when the intensity of diabatic heating is moderate and appropriate, it is conductive to the development and sustaining of the low-frequency waves and their broadband phenomena, not the larger, the better. The radiative cooling cannot be neglected in order to reach the moderate and appropriate intensity of diabatic heating.

  8. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  9. Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Ambrosio, Antonio; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Subwavelength structured surfaces, known as meta-surfaces, hold promise for future compact and optically thin devices with versatile functionalities. By revisiting the concept of detour phase, we demonstrate high-efficiency holograms with broadband and chiral imaging functionalities. In our devices, the apertures of binary holograms are replaced by subwavelength structured microgratings. We achieve broadband operation from the visible to the near infrared and efficiency as high as 75% in the 1.0 to 1.4 μm range by compensating for the inherent dispersion of the detour phase with that of the subwavelength structure. In addition, we demonstrate chiral holograms that project different images depending on the handedness of the reference beam by incorporating a geometric phase. Our devices' compactness, lightness, and ability to produce images even at large angles have significant potential for important emerging applications such as wearable optics.

  10. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Adachi, Michael M

    2013-10-14

    Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great potential for large area low-cost photovoltaics. However, light utilization remains low mainly due to the tradeoff between small carrier transport lengths and longer infrared photon absorption lengths. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption without compromising charge extraction efficiency of the device. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to study the nanostructure for implementation in a realistic device and then build proof-of-concept nanostructured solar cells, which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over the wavelength range of λ = 600 to 1,100 nm, leading to a 31% improvement in overall short-circuit current density compared to a planar device containing an approximately equal volume of active material. Remarkably, the improved current density is achieved using a light-absorber volume less than half that typically used in the best planar devices.

  11. Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Kangkang; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Zhixu; Wang, Shunbin; Wu, Changfeng; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Fluorotellurite microstructured fibers (MFs) based on TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Tapered fluorotellurite MFs with varied transition region lengths are prepared by employing an elongation machine. By using a tapered fluorotellurite MF with a transition region length of ∼3.3  cm as the nonlinear medium and a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser as the pump source, broadband supercontinuum generation covering from 470 to 2770 nm is obtained. The effects of the transition region length of the tapered fluorotellurite MF on supercontinuum generation are also investigated. Our results show that tapered fluorotellurite MFs are promising nonlinear media for generating broadband supercontinuum light expanding from visible to mid-infrared spectral region.

  12. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincaré sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light

  13. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  14. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  15. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  16. A broadband Soleil-Babinet compensator for ultrashort light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixiang; Ma, Yingkun; Cai, Yi; Lu, Xiaowei; Zeng, Xuanke; Chen, Hongyi; Li, Jingzhen

    2013-12-01

    This letter reports a novel design for a broadband Soleil-Babinet compensator including two pairs of optical wedges plus one plate. According to our birefringent dispersion compensation model, we can eliminate the first-order birefringent phase retardation (BPR) dispersion by using three different birefringent crystals. Our results show a Soleil-Babinet compensator based on a MgF2/ADP/KDP combination can work from 0° to 360° phase compensation with the maximal residual BPR less than 6° within the spectral region from 0.65 to 0.95 μm. The residual BPR of the compensator increases monotonically with the spectral deviation from the designed central wavelength, so our compensator is very suitable to be used for broadband laser pulses with most of their energies around the central wavelengths.

  17. A broadband Soleil–Babinet compensator for ultrashort light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shixiang; Ma, Yingkun; Cai, Yi; Lu, Xiaowei; Zeng, Xuanke; Chen, Hongyi; Li, Jingzhen

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports a novel design for a broadband Soleil–Babinet compensator including two pairs of optical wedges plus one plate. According to our birefringent dispersion compensation model, we can eliminate the first-order birefringent phase retardation (BPR) dispersion by using three different birefringent crystals. Our results show a Soleil–Babinet compensator based on a MgF 2 /ADP/KDP combination can work from 0° to 360° phase compensation with the maximal residual BPR less than 6° within the spectral region from 0.65 to 0.95 μm. The residual BPR of the compensator increases monotonically with the spectral deviation from the designed central wavelength, so our compensator is very suitable to be used for broadband laser pulses with most of their energies around the central wavelengths. (letter)

  18. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  19. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  20. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  1. Quantifying the Benefits of Shallow Posthole Installation for the Future French Permanent Broadband Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Charade, O.; Bonaime, S.; Louis-Xavier, T.; Arnold, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (réseau sismologique et géodésique français) infrastructure, more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations have to be deployed in metropolitan France within the forthcoming years. This requires a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost, especially for the 60 percent of stations that we expect to be settled in open environments. During the last two years we tested various types of sensor's hosting infrastructures with a strong focus on recently released posthole sensors that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes. Tests were performed at 3 different sites (two GEOSCOPE stations and a dedicated open-field prototype site) with geological conditions spanning from hard rocks to very soft soils. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed at different depths, from the surface to a maximum of 20m deep, and in different types of casing. Moreover, a reference sensor, either installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault, has been operated continuously. We present a comprehensive comparison of the seismic noise level measured in the different hosting infrastructures and for several frequency bands corresponding to various sources of noise. At high and low frequencies, seismic noise level in some boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. Between 0.005 and 0.05Hz, we observe a strong decrease of seismic noise level on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and is mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved clearly depends on the local geology. All these tests, together with estimated installation costs, point toward the deployment of sensors in shallow boreholes at the future French broadband stations located in open environments.

  2. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wugang; Wu, Yanxia; Zhao, Huiqin

    2015-01-01

    Vertical pendulum (VP) tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS) vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP...

  3. Economists' Statement on U.S. Broadband Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Alfred E.; Goolsbee, Austan; Bailey, Elizabeth E.; Faulhaber, Gerald R.; Mayo, John; Flamm, Kenneth; Baily, Martin Neil; Milgrom, Paul; Cramton, Peter; Gilbert, Richard; Hall, Robert E.; Litan, Robert E.; Hahn, Robert W.; Greenstein, Shane; Hazlett, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this statement, a group of economists assembled by the AEI-Brookings Joint Center makes the following two recommendations to improve the competitive provision of broadband services. First, Congress should eliminate local franchising regulations, which serve as a barrier to new entry. Second, Congress and the Federal Communications Commission should make more spectrum available to private parties and allow them to use it as they see fit or trade their licenses in the market, so that spectru...

  4. Gain-assisted broadband ring cavity enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mahmoud A.; Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-02-01

    Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy can significantly increase the effective path length of light-matter interaction to detect weak absorption lines over broad spectral range, for instance to detect gases in confined environments. Broadband cavity enhancement can be based on the decay time or the intensity drop technique. Decay time measurement is based on using tunable laser source that is expensive and suffers from long scan time. Intensity dependent measurement is usually reported based on broadband source using Fabry-Perot cavity, enabling short measurement time but suffers from the alignment tolerance of the cavity and the cavity insertion loss. In this work we overcome these challenges by using an alignment-free ring cavity made of an optical fiber loop and a directional coupler, while having a gain medium pumped below the lasing threshold to improve the finesse and reduce the insertion loss. Acetylene (C2H2) gas absorption is measured around 1535 nm wavelength using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gain medium. The system is analyzed for different ring resonator forward coupling coefficient and loses, including the 3-cm long gas cell insertion loss and fiber connector losses used in the experimental verification. The experimental results are obtained for a coupler ratio of 90/10 and a fiber length of 4 m. The broadband source is the amplified spontaneous emission of another SOA and the output is measured using a 70pm-resolution optical spectrum analyzer. The absorption depth and the effective interaction length are improved about an order of magnitude compared to the direct absorption of the gas cell. The presented technique provides an engineering method to improve the finesse and, consequently the effective length, while relaxing the technological constraints on the high reflectivity mirrors and free-space cavity alignment.

  5. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  6. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  7. Long-period pulses in broadband records of near earthquakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, J.; Plešinger, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2005), s. 1928-1939 ISSN 0037-1106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/02/0381; GA ČR GA205/03/1047 Grant - others:EC(XE) EVG3-CT-2002-80006 ( MAGMA ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : broadband records * near earthquakes * seismic signal Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2005

  8. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  10. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupl...

  11. Patterning of graphite nanocones for broadband solar spectrum absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrate a broadband vis-NIR absorber consisting of 300-400 nm nanocone structures on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The nanocone structures are fabricated through simple nanoparticle lithography process and analyzed with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain methods. The measured absorption reaches an average level of above 95% over almost the entire solar spectrum and agrees well with the simulation. Our simple process offers a promising material for solar-thermal devices.

  12. Optimization of broadband semiconductor chirped mirrors with genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dems, M.; Wnuk, P.; Wasylczyk, P.; Zinkiewicz, L.; Wojcik-Jedlinska, A.; Reginski, K.; Hejduk, K.; Jasik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithm was applied for optimization of dispersion properties in semiconductor Bragg reflectors for applications in femtosecond lasers. Broadband, large negative group-delay dispersion was achieved in the optimized design: The group-delay dispersion (GDD) as large as −3500 fs2 was theoretically obtained over a 10-nm bandwidth. The designed structure was manufactured and tested, providing GDD −3320 fs2 over a 7-nm bandwidth. The mirror performance was ...

  13. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  14. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  15. Broadband seismic : case study modeling and data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyaningtyas, M. B.; Bahar, A.

    2018-03-01

    Seismic data with wide range of frequency is needed due to its close relation to resolution and the depth of the target. Low frequency provides deeper penetration for the imaging of deep target. In addition, the wider the frequency bandwidth, the sharper the wavelet. Sharp wavelet is responsible for high-resolution imaging and is very helpful to resolve thin bed. As a result, the demand for broadband seismic data is rising and it spurs the technology development of broadband seismic in oil and gas industry. An obstacle that is frequently found on marine seismic data is the existence of ghost that affects the frequency bandwidth contained on the seismic data. Ghost alters bandwidth to bandlimited. To reduce ghost effect and to acquire broadband seismic data, lots of attempts are used, both on the acquisition and on the processing of seismic data. One of the acquisition technique applied is the multi-level streamer, where some streamers are towed on some levels of depth. Multi-level streamer will yield data with varied ghost notch shown on frequency domain. If the ghost notches are not overlapping, the summation of multi-level streamer data will reduce the ghost effect. The result of the multi-level streamer data processing shows that reduction of ghost notch on frequency domain indeed takes place.

  16. Broadband illumination of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, T; Goldie, D J; Withington, S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the detailed behaviour of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors such as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) requires knowledge of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distributions. We have previously calculated the steady state distributions resulting from uniform absorption of monochromatic sub gap and above gap frequency radiation by thin films. In this work, we use the same methods to calculate the effect of illumination by broadband sources, such as thermal radiation from astrophysical phenomena or from the readout system. Absorption of photons at multiple above gap frequencies is shown to leave unchanged the structure of the quasiparticle energy distribution close to the superconducting gap. Hence for typical absorbed powers, we find the effects of absorption of broadband pair breaking radiation can simply be considered as the sum of the effects of absorption of many monochromatic sources. Distribution averaged quantities, like quasiparticle generation efficiency η, match exactly a weighted average over the bandwidth of the source of calculations assuming a monochromatic source. For sub gap frequencies, however, distributing the absorbed power across multiple frequencies does change the low energy quasiparticle distribution. For moderate and high absorbed powers, this results in a significantly larger η–a higher number of excess quasiparticles for a broadband source compared to a monochromatic source of equal total absorbed power. Typically in KIDs the microwave power absorbed has a very narrow bandwidth, but in devices with broad resonance characteristics (low quality factors), this increase in η may be measurable. (paper)

  17. Near-perfect broadband absorption from hyperbolic metamaterial nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Conor T.; Smalley, Joseph S. T.; Brodie, Jeffrey R. J.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-02-01

    Broadband absorbers are essential components of many light detection, energy harvesting, and camouflage schemes. Current designs are either bulky or use planar films that cause problems in cracking and delamination during flexing or heating. In addition, transferring planar materials to flexible, thin, or low-cost substrates poses a significant challenge. On the other hand, particle-based materials are highly flexible and can be transferred and assembled onto a more desirable substrate but have not shown high performance as an absorber in a standalone system. Here, we introduce a class of particle absorbers called transferable hyperbolic metamaterial particles (THMMP) that display selective, omnidirectional, tunable, broadband absorption when closely packed. This is demonstrated with vertically aligned hyperbolic nanotube (HNT) arrays composed of alternating layers of aluminum-doped zinc oxide and zinc oxide. The broadband absorption measures >87% from 1,200 nm to over 2,200 nm with a maximum absorption of 98.1% at 1,550 nm and remains large for high angles. Furthermore, we show the advantages of particle-based absorbers by transferring the HNTs to a polymer substrate that shows excellent mechanical flexibility and visible transparency while maintaining near-perfect absorption in the telecommunications region. In addition, other material systems and geometries are proposed for a wider range of applications.

  18. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  19. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  20. Source Mechanism of May 30, 2015 Bonin Islands, Japan Deep Earthquake (Mw7.8) Estimated by Broadband Waveform Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, S.; Nakamura, T.; Miyoshi, T.

    2015-12-01

    May 30, 2015 Bonin Islands, Japan earthquake (Mw 7.8, depth 679.9km GCMT) was one of the deepest earthquakes ever recorded. We apply the waveform inversion technique (Kikuchi & Kanamori, 1991) to obtain slip distribution in the source fault of this earthquake in the same manner as our previous work (Nakamura et al., 2010). We use 60 broadband seismograms of IRIS GSN seismic stations with epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees. The broadband original data are integrated into ground displacement and band-pass filtered in the frequency band 0.002-1 Hz. We use the velocity structure model IASP91 to calculate the wavefield near source and stations. We assume that the fault is squared with the length 50 km. We obtain source rupture model for both nodal planes with high dip angle (74 degree) and low dip angle (26 degree) and compare the synthetic seismograms with the observations to determine which source rupture model would explain the observations better. We calculate broadband synthetic seismograms with these source propagation models using the spectral-element method (Komatitsch & Tromp, 2001). We use new Earth Simulator system in JAMSTEC to compute synthetic seismograms using the spectral-element method. The simulations are performed on 7,776 processors, which require 1,944 nodes of the Earth Simulator. On this number of nodes, a simulation of 50 minutes of wave propagation accurate at periods of 3.8 seconds and longer requires about 5 hours of CPU time. Comparisons of the synthetic waveforms with the observation at teleseismic stations show that the arrival time of pP wave calculated for depth 679km matches well with the observation, which demonstrates that the earthquake really happened below the 660 km discontinuity. In our present forward simulations, the source rupture model with the low-angle fault dipping is likely to better explain the observations.

  1. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  2. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  3. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  4. The 24-hour economy not widespread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some 74% of workers in the Netherlands usually work standard hours, while 15% normally work at weekends, 14% in the evening and 4% at night. Weekend work is frequently carried out by younger people. The sectors most associated with weekend work are: policing, nursing and elder care, hotels and

  5. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  6. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  7. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The hour equivalent solar pick, definition and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Martínez, Maykop; Morales Rodríguez; Clemente; Castro Ingeniero, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy takes advantage of the light energy of the sun to produce electricity through semiconductor plates that are altered by solar radiation, these systems are called Photovoltaic Solar Panels (PSP). In order to calculate the energy absorbed by these PSPs, it is necessary to use technical terms that are a little difficult to interpret, for those less experienced in the subject, above all because of the ambiguity, the level of abstraction required in their understanding and the variety of ways of expressing very similar ideas without offering a clear and unique definition. The main term to which this article is dedicated is the Hour Solar Pick (HSP), which in the experiences of the authors has generated strong discussions about its interpretation. In order to arrive at the desired term, it is necessary to start with others, so the aim is to propose a definition and physical and mathematical interpretation to clarify the meaning of this term. (author)

  9. [The impact of personality traits on adolescents' adaptation and compliance to clear retainers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Tang, Guo-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adolescents' adaptation and compliance to clear retainers, and to investigate their associations with personality traits. Fifty adolescents at the end of fixed orthodontic treatment were consecutively recruited. After debonding the fixed orthodontic appliances, clear retainers were used. Participants were asked to fill questionnaires 2 months after wearing the clear retainers. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate their adaptation and compliance for clear retianers. Eysenck personality questionnaire was used to assess the personality traits. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the associations between personality traits with the adaptation and compliance to clear retainers using SAS8.0 software package. Forty-two of 50 adolescents accomplished the questionnaires. 76% felt no mucous irritation, 95% felt no influence on socializing. However, 75% showed oral constraint, 71% felt impaired speech. Moreover, 40% adolescents wore the retainers less than 18 hours per day. 31% patients had their aligner lost. 83% patients did not brush their teeth after each meal. Neuroticism was positively associated with the effect of impaired chewing (r=0.32). Psychoticism was positively associated with the oral constraint (r=0.31) and facial muscular soreness (r=0.35), but negatively associated with the influence on emotion (r=-0.34). Extraversion was positively associated with the retainers' damage (r=0.31). Adolescents showed good adaptation for clear retainers, but unsatisfactory compliance. There are associations between adolescents' adaptation and compliance for clear retainers and personality traits. These results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to the compliance of adolescents when using clear retainer. Personality traits could be a useful prediction to assess the compliance for clear aligners.

  10. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2014-01-01

    them [4]. A restriction in duty hours for trainees is clearly an important environmental and contextual factor to consider in evaluating professional behaviour. In this paper I will review some key issues with respect to understanding and evaluating professionalism, and then discuss these in the context of duty hour reform. Readers should note that this is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature of either professionalism or duty hour reform, but rather a critical narrative review that uses selected articles.

  11. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  12. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Delepine Lesoille, Sylvie; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  13. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-04-18

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  14. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, S; Tokura, H

    1997-11-01

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  15. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Seika; Tokura, H.

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28° C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  16. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Working Hours on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Berniell, Maria Ines; Bietenbeck, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Does working time causally affect workers' health? We study this question in the context of a French reform which reduced the standard workweek from 39 to 35 hours, at constant earnings. Our empirical analysis exploits variation in the adoption of this shorter workweek across employers, which is mainly driven by institutional features of the reform and thus exogenous to workers' health. Difference-in-differences and lagged dependent variable regressions reveal a negative effect of working hou...

  18. 75 FR 35765 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; BroadbandMatch Web Site Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... infrastructure, public computer centers and sustainable broadband adoption projects. NTIA Administrator Larry E... the White House's Open Government Initiative that seeks to promote transparency, openness and...

  19. Security for Telecommuting and Broadband Communications: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, D

    2002-01-01

    This document is intended to assist those responsible - users, system administrators, and management - for telecommuting security, by providing introductory information about broadband communication...

  20. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  1. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  2. Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the Nigerian experience. ... Abstract. This study investigated the impact of automated clearing system on the Nigerian banking system. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  3. Dragnet: A Case Study of the CLEAR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Samuel; Keegan, Matt; Kyser, Giles

    2007-01-01

    ...). The quickest way to describe CLEAR is to mention a quote from Ron Huberman, assistant deputy superintendent, Office of Information and Strategic Services at CPD "CLEAR automates everything we do in...

  4. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal

  5. Operator alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour work shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Campbell, S.S.; Dawson, D.; Moore-Ede, M.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the alertness and performance problems of rotational shiftworkers in the nuclear power industry. Growing awareness of higher rates of human errors and accidents on night shifts and reports of operations personnel falling asleep on the job have contributed to the heightened interest in this subject. The industry is now considering the effects of different shift rotation systems, including evaluation of the most recent of industry trends in shift scheduling-schedules that include 12 hour work shifts. Surveys show that within the past 5 years about 20% of commercially operational nuclear power plants have instituted schedules that use only 12 hour shifts, or schedules using a combination of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Many more plants routinely use 12-hour work shifts during plant outages and refueling operations. In response to this growing trend, the NRC has funded research which is a first attempt to compare alertness, operator performance, and sleep-wake patterns in subjects working simulated 8-hour and 12-hour shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC), located at the Institute of Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This paper will describe in greater detail the design of the study, measurement techniques for alertness and sleep, work routine, work task performance measures, and cognitive performance test protocols. It will review the role of circadian factors in human alertness and performance, and discuss previous research findings in this area. It will discuss other variables that are known to influence human alertness in the workplace, such as caffeine, alcohol, and working environment. The physiological basis for shift worker sleep problems will be explained in the context of the ongoing research project at HARC. Finally, the paper presents previous research on shift work and fatigue which may be relevant to a comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

  6. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  7. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... drivers to take breaks when needed and would reduce safety and health risks associated with long hours... long work hours, without significantly compromising their ability to do their jobs and earn a living... between hours 3.5 and 7 of an 11-hour driving period. Working beyond the 7th hour without a break is...

  8. More hours, more jobs? The employment effects of longer working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Andrews; Hans-Dieter Gerner; Thorsten Schank; Richard Upward

    2015-01-01

    Increases in standard hours of work have been a contentious policy issue in Germany. Whilst this might directly lead to a substitution of workers by hours, there may also be a positive employment effect due to reduced costs. Moreover, the response of firms may differ between firms that offer overtime and those that do not. For a panel of German plants (2001–2006) drawn from the IAB Establishment Panel, we are the first to analyse the effect of increased standard hours on employment. Using dif...

  9. Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by electron acoustic solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubouloz, N.; Pottelette, R.; Malingre, M.; Treumann, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) bursts whose amplitude sometimes reaches about 100 mV m -1 have been observed by the Viking satellite in the dayside auroral zone. These emissions have been shown to be greatly influenced by nonlinear effects and to occur simultaneously with the observation of particle distributions favouring the destabilization of the electron acoustic mode. It is shown that electron acoustic solitons passing by the satellite would generate spectra that can explain the high-frequency part of BEN, above the electron plasma frequency

  10. Compact U-Slotted Antenna for Broadband Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The original U-shaped patch antenna is properly modified in this work to provide a compact and broadband antenna configuration with reduced cross-polar effects, well suitable for modern radar applications. The proposed antenna layout is applied to design, realize, and test two different prototypes working at P-band and C-band, typically adopted for ground-penetrating radar. The experimental results successfully demonstrate a large operating bandwidth between 15% and 20%, a significant reduction of size (about half of the standard configuration, and a low cross-polarization level within the operating frequency range.

  11. Broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Hikaru; Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2017-09-01

    We report broadband stimulated Raman measurements in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region, which enables selective probing of the aromatic amino acid residues inside proteins through the resonance enhancement. We combine the narrowband DUV Raman pump pulse (1000 cm-1) to realize stimulated Raman measurements covering a >1500 cm-1 spectral window. The stimulated Raman measurements for neat solvents, tryptophan, tyrosine, and glucose oxidase are performed using 240- and 290-nm Raman pump, highlighting the high potential of the DUV stimulated Raman probe for femtosecond time-resolved study of proteins.

  12. Narrowband pulse-enhanced upconversion of chirped broadband pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Kun; Yuan, Peng; Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Dongfang; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia; Chen, Liezun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an efficient sum-frequency mixing scheme based on narrowband and chirped broadband pulses. It combines the advantages of wider spectral acceptance bandwidth and of alleviating the temporal walk-off, which are both beneficial to higher conversion efficiency. Chirped sum-frequency pulses at 455 nm with energy up to 360 µJ, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of ∼ 40%, are obtained and the pulses can be compressed to ∼ 110 fs. The sum-frequency mixing scheme may provide a promising route to the efficient generation of deep-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses

  13. Assessment of broadband SNR estimation for hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Kowalewski, Borys; Fereczkowski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    was systematically investigated. The most accurate approach utilized an estimation of the clean speech power spectral density (PSD) and the noisy speech power across a sliding window of 1280 ms and achieved an total SNR estimation error below 3 dB across a wide variety of background noises and input SNRs......An accurate estimation of the broadband input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prerequisite for many hearing-aid algorithms. An extensive comparison of three SNR estimation algorithms was performed. Moreover, the influence of the duration of the analysis window on the SNR estimation performance...

  14. Broadband infrared absorption enhancement by electroless-deposited silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia; Raza, Søren; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2017-01-01

    Decorating semiconductor surfaces with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is considered a viable solution for enhancing the absorptive properties of photovoltaic and photodetecting devices. We propose to deposit silver NPs on top of a semiconductor wafer by a cheap and fast electroless plating technique......, which points to the possible applications of such deposition method for harvesting photons in nanophotonics and photovoltaics. The broadband absorption is a consequence of the resonant behavior of particles with different shapes and sizes, which strongly localize the incident light at the interface...

  15. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu

    2012-10-01

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  16. Broadband Control of Topological Nodes in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-05-01

    We study topological nodes (phase singularities) in electromagnetic wave interactions with structures. We show that, when the nodes exist, it is possible to bind certain nodes to a specific plane in the structure by a combination of mirror and time-reversal symmetry. Such binding does not rely on any resonances in the structure. As a result, the nodes persist on the plane over a wide wavelength range. As an implication of such broadband binding, we demonstrate that the topological nodes can be used for hiding of metallic objects over a broad wavelength range.

  17. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  18. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing

  19. Ultra-broadband mid-wave-IR upconversion detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate efficient room temperature detection of ultra-broadband mid-wave-infrared (MWIR) light with an almost flat response over more than 1200 nm, exploiting an efficient nonlinear upconversion technique. Black-body radiation from a hot soldering iron rod is used as the IR...... test source. Placing a 20 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a compact intra-cavity setup (> 20 WCW pump at 1064 nm), MWIR wavelengths ranging from 3.6 to 4.85 mu m are upconverted to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (820-870 nm). The NIR light is detected using a standard low...

  20. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...... makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes....