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Sample records for broad-band ft-icr penning

  1. Simultaneous monitoring of the radial modes of the ion motion and their manipulation in Penning traps by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Herlert, A; Marxa, G; Schweikhard, L

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated how FT-ICR MS can be used to monitor both the coherent magnetron motion and the cyclotron motion of ions stored in a Penning trap. By use of the ICR signal intensity at the magnetron frequency, ν−, and the reduced cyclotron frequency, ν+, the manipulation of the ion motion by dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar excitation has been followed. In particular, the conversion between the magnetron and the cyclotron motion by quadrupolar and octupolar excitation at the corresponding resonance frequencies νc = ν+ + ν− and 2νc, respectively, has been observed by detection of the magnetron and the cyclotron signal. While the ion motion under the influence of a quadrupolar excitation has already been studied extensively, the octupolar excitation has been introduced only recently. As compared to other techniques, such as the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance detection method, FT-ICR MS allows to simultaneously investigate the influence of an excitation on the cyclotron und the magnetron ...

  2. Advanced mass calibration and visualization for FT-ICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F; Kharchenko, Andriy; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2012-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for FT-ICR MS imaging were investigated. Sub-parts-per-million mass accuracy is demonstrated over an entire tissue section. Ion abundance fluctuations are corrected by addition of total and relative ion abundances for a root-mean-square error of 0.158 ppm on 16,764 peaks. A new approach for visualization of FT-ICR MS imaging data at high resolution is presented. The "Mosaic Datacube" provides a flexible means to visualize the entire mass range at a mass spectral bin width of 0.001 Da. The high resolution Mosaic Datacube resolves spectral features not visible at lower bin widths, while retaining the high mass accuracy from the calibration methods discussed.

  3. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  4. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

  5. Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry platform that provides the highest levels of performance for mass accuracy and resolving power, there is room for improvement in analyzer cell design as the ideal quadrupolar trapping potential has yet to be generated for a broadband MS experiment. To this end, analyzer cell designs have improved since the field’s inception, yet few research groups participate in this area because of the high cost of instrumentation efforts. As a step towards reducing this barrier to participation and allowing for more designs to be physically tested, we introduce a method of FT-ICR analyzer cell prototyping utilizing printed circuit boards at modest vacuum conditions. This method allows for inexpensive devices to be readily fabricated and tested over short intervals and should open the field to laboratories lacking or unable to access high performance machine shop facilities because of the required financial investment.

  6. Protein Identification Via Surface-Induced Dissociation in an FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer and a Patchwork Sequencing Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Facundo; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Futrell, Jean H.; Laskin, Julia

    2006-05-01

    Surface-induced dissociation (SID) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) are ion activation techniques based on energetic collisions with a surface or gas molecules, respectively. One noticeable difference between CID and SID is that SID does not require a collision gas for ion activation and is therefore directly compatible with the high vacuum requirement of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometers (FT-ICR MS). Eliminating the introduction of collision gas into the ICR cell for collisional activation dramatically shortens the acquisition time for MS/MS experiments, suggesting that SID could be utilized for high-throughput MS/MS studies in FT-ICR MS. We demonstrate for the first time the utility of SID combined with FT-ICR MS for protein identification. Tryptic digests of standard proteins were analyzed using a hybrid 6-Tesla FT-ICR MS with SID and CID capabilities. SID spectra of mass-selected singly and doubly charged peptides were obtained using a diamond-coated target mounted at the rear trapping plate of the ICR cell. The broad internal energy distribution deposited into the precursor ion following collision with the diamond surface allowed a variety of fragmentation channels to be accessed by SID. Composition and sequence qualifiers produced by SID of tryptic peptides were used to improve the statistical significance of database searches. Protein identification MASCOT scores obtained using SID were comparable or better than scores obtained using sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) –the conventional ion activation technique in FT-ICR MS.

  7. Compositional analysis of heavy crude oil fractions by ultrahigh resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.; Marshall, A.G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab; McKenna, A.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The need to characterize heavy, high sulphur crudes is essential as the global oil supply of light, sweet crudes is depleted. Due to the high sulphur content in bitumen and heavy crudes, detailed compositional characterization is needed to help develop recovery strategies in the refinery. This study characterized the middle distillate fractions of Athabasca bitumen to define the structural evolution of polycyclic aromatics that may also contain nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur atoms as a function of boiling point. The higher distillate fractions were then analyzed along with vacuum resids to prove that the structural distribution in petroleum is continuous. The basic differences in solution-phase behaviour between asphaltene and maltene fractions were discussed. An argument was presented for the structural evolution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and the compositional boundary between asphaltene and maltene was defined. The study suggested that asphaltenes and maltenes share the same carbon number. The characterization was extended to vanadyl porphyrins by electrospray and atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). tabs., figs.

  8. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  9. FT-ICR MS analysis of blended pine-microalgae feedstock HTL biocrudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Corilo, Yuri E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2018-03-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is utilized for direct comparison of the chemical composition of biocrudes generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of 100% pine, 100% algae, 75:25 pine:algae, and 50:50 pine:algae feedstocks. This analysis reveals that the of the 72:25 and 50:50 pine:algal HTL biocrudes is essentially a composite of the two parent feeds (i.e., pine and algae) with a lower relative abundance of Ox species and a higher relative abundance of nitrogen-containing species than the pine HTL biocrude. Alternatively, the biocrude blends have a lower relative abundance of nitrogen-containing species where N>2 than the algal HTL biocrude. The 75:25 pine:algal HTL biocrude has more elemental formulae in common with the pine HTL biocrude than the 50:50 blend; however, both blends have more elemental formulae in common with the algal HTL biocrude. Interestingly, >20% of the elemental formulae assigned to monoisotopic peaks within the 75:25 and 50:50 biocrude blends are species not present in either the pine or algal HTL biocrudes. The highest relative abundance of these new species belong to the N2O4-6 classes, which correspond to heteroatom classes with a moderate number of nitrogen atoms and higher number of oxygen atoms per molecules than the species within the pure algal HTL biocrude. Compositionally, the novel species have the same structural motif but are of higher DBE and carbon numbers than the species within the algal HTL biocrude. These original species are most likely generated from reactions between molecules from both feeds, which results in compounds wotj higher oxygen content than typically seen in the algal HTL biocrude but also higher nitrogen contents than observed in the pine HTL biocrude.

  10. TG/DTG, FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry, and NMR Spectroscopy Study of Heavy Fuel Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in the comprehensive study of heavy fuel oil (HFO) due to its growing use in furnaces, boilers, marines, and recently in gas turbines. In this work, the thermal combustion characteristics and chemical composition of HFO were investigated using a range of techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to study the nonisothermal HFO combustion behavior. Chemical characterization of HFO was accomplished using various standard methods in addition to direct infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APCI-FTICR MS), high resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectroscopy. By analyzing thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) results, three different reaction regions were identified in the combustion of HFO with air, specifically, low temperature oxidation region (LTO), fuel deposition (FD), and high temperature oxidation (HTO) region. At the high end of the LTO region, a mass transfer resistance (skin effect) was evident. Kinetic analysis in LTO and HTO regions was conducted using two different kinetic models to calculate the apparent activation energy. In both models, HTO activation energies are higher than those for LTO. The FT-ICR MS technique resolved thousands of aromatic and sulfur containing compounds in the HFO sample and provided compositional details for individual molecules of three major class species. The major classes of compounds included species with one sulfur atom (S1), with two sulfur atoms (S2), and purely hydrocarbons (HC). The DBE (double bond equivalent) abundance plots established for S1 and HC provided additional information on their distributions in the HFO sample. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results revealed that nearly 59% of the 1H nuclei were distributed as paraffinic CH2 and 5% were in aromatic groups. Nearly 21% of 13C nuclei were

  11. Analysis of Photoirradiated Water Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oils Using Tandem TIMS and FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Paolo; Sandoval, Kathia; Thompson, Christopher J; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Gardinali, Piero; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2017-06-06

    For the first time, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) in tandem with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is applied to the analysis of the low energy water accommodated fraction (WAF) of a crude oil as a function of the exposure to light. The TIMS-FT-ICR MS analysis provided, in addition to the heteroatom series identification, new insights into the WAF isomeric complexity (e.g., [m/z; chemical formula; collision cross section] data sets) for a better evaluation of the degree of chemical and structural photoinduced transformations. Inspection of the [m/z; chemical formula; collision cross section] data sets shows that the WAF composition changes as a function of the exposure to light in the first 115 h by initial photosolubilization of HC components and their photo-oxidation up to O4-5 of mainly high double bond equivalence species (DBE > 9). The addition of high resolution TIMS (resolving power of 90-220) to ultrahigh resolution FT-ICR MS (resolving power over 400k) permitted the identification of a larger number of molecular components in a single analysis (e.g., over 47k using TIMS-MS compared to 12k by MS alone), with instances of over 6-fold increase in the number of molecular features per nominal mass due to the WAF isomeric complexity. This work represents a stepping stone toward a better understanding of the WAF components and highlights the need for better experimental and theoretical approaches to characterize the WAF structural diversity.

  12. Comparing discrimination capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy versus FT-ICR-MS for sources and hydrophobicity of sediment organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Morgane; Lee, Yun Kyung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2017-11-04

    Characterizing the chemical and molecular composition of sediment organic matter (SeOM) provides critical information for a complete picture of global carbon and nutrient cycles, and helps to track the sources and the fate of organic carbon in aquatic environments. In this study, we examined fluorescence properties and the molecular composition of the alkaline-extractable organic matter (AEOM) of sediments in a coastal lake (Lake Sihwa) and its surrounding creeks (rural, urban, wetland, and industrial areas). Five fluorescence-based indices and 20 molecular parameters were selected from fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), respectively, and utilized to discriminate the AEOM among five different sources as well as the chemical composition of hydrophobic acid (HoA) and hydrophilic (Hi) fractions. Ordination based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices showed that the fluorescence-based indices distinguished among urban, lake, and the three other sources, while the molecular parameters from FT-ICR-MS performed better in discriminating among the sources of rural, wetland, and industrial areas. Irrespective of the sources, the two different chemical fractions were statistically distinguished by their relative distributions of the UVA-humic-like fluorescent component and the carbohydrate molecular group. However, a rigorous test based on percent dissimilarities indicated no superior capability of either of the two tools in discriminating the sources or their two chemical fractions, which might be attributed to the inherent structural heterogeneity of SeOM and the limited analytical window of FT-ICR-MS for relatively large-sized molecules.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil extracts investigated by FT-ICR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Steffen, D.; Jablonowski, N. D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting usually increases the release of xenobiotics like pesticides present in agricultural soils. Besides the effect on the release of two aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues we focus on the characterisation of simultaneously remobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to gain new insights into structure and stability aspects of soil organic carbon fractions. The test soil (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) was obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45°C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (2000 g). This extraction procedure was repeated several individual times, for both setups. The first three individual extractions, respectively were used for further investigations. Salt was removed from samples prior analysis because of a possible quench effect in the electrospray (ESI) source by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Chromabond C18 Hydra-cartridges (Macherey-Nagel) and methanol as backextraction solvent. The so preconcentrated and desalted samples were introduced by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for complex natural systems attributed by their outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1ppm) by simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds and was successful applied for the investigations of natural organic matter (NOM) different sources like marine and surface water, soil, sediment, bog and crude oil

  14. Cello-, malto- and xylooligosaccharide fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation using QIT and FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Salla; Jänis, Janne; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2007-05-01

    In order to study the effects of the precursor ion type and the carbohydrate structure on the fragmentation of neutral unsubstituted oligosaccharides in collision-induced dissociation (CID), a systematic study of deprotonated, protonated, ammoniated and alkali metal cationized cello-, malto- and xylooligosaccharides was carried out using a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The fragmentation pathway was highly dependent on the choice of the precursor ion type. Deprotonated precursors gave rise to both glycosidic and cross-ring fragmentation, with clear differences among the three oligosaccharides, therefore being the most prominent for structural analysis. The fragmentation behavior of the xylooligosaccharides differed from that of the cello- and maltooligosaccharides for all the precursor ions studied, most remarkably with the deprotonated and ammoniated precursors. Stereochemical differentiation of cello- and maltooligosaccharides was possible with the use of deprotonated, lithiated and sodiated precursors. In general, as the size of the alkali metal cation increased the amount of structurally informative cross-ring fragmentation increased, but the probability for metal ion loss from the precursor ion also increased. The CID spectra of xylooligosaccharides measured with the QIT and FT-ICR were surprisingly similar.

  15. Trapping, detection, and charge and mass measurement of large individual ions (up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 8} Daltons) by electrospray ionization FT-ICR MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ruidan; Mitchell, D.W.; Wu, Quinyuan; Chen, Xueheng; Bruce, J.E.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Rockwood, A.L.; Sherman, M.G.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI), has become a powerful tool for the analysis of large biomolecules. Because of the extensive multiple charging generally observed for large (i.e., > 50 kDa) molecules, this laboratory has recently shown that individual ions can be trapped and detected by FT-ICR MS. In this poster, the authors present recent results which describe the optimization of experimental conditions for routine trapping and detection of large individual ions, and describe the experiments designed for independent determination of ion charge.

  16. Chemical Analysis of Water-accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil Spills Using TIMS-FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Paolo; Marin, Rebecca; Sandoval, Kathia; Gardinali, Piero; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2017-03-03

    Multiple chemical processes control how crude oil is incorporated into seawater and also the chemical reactions that occur overtime. Studying this system requires the careful preparation of the sample in order to accurately replicate the natural formation of the water-accommodated fraction that occurs in nature. Low-energy water-accommodated fractions (LEWAF) are carefully prepared by mixing crude oil and water at a set ratio. Aspirator bottles are then irradiated, and at set time points, the water is sampled and extracted using standard techniques. A second challenge is the representative characterization of the sample, which must take into consideration the chemical changes that occur over time. A targeted analysis of the aromatic fraction of the LEWAF can be performed using an atmospheric-pressure laser ionization source coupled to a custom-built trapped ion mobility spectrometry-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (TIMS-FT-ICR MS). The TIMS-FT-ICR MS analysis provides high-resolution ion mobility and ultrahigh-resolution MS analysis, which further allow the identification of isomeric components by their collision cross-sections (CCS) and chemical formula. Results show that as the oil-water mixture is exposed to light, there is significant photo-solubilization of the surface oil into the water. Over time, the chemical transformation of the solubilized molecules takes place, with a decrease in the number of identifications of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing species in favor of those with a greater oxygen content than were typically observed in the base oil.

  17. Spatial Segmentation of MALDI FT-ICR MSI Data: A Powerful Tool to Explore the Head and Neck Tumor In Situ Lipidome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Hoffmann, F.; Ernst, G.; Trede, D.; Alexandrov, T.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Guntinas-Lichius, O.; von Eggeling, F.; Crecelius, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2015), s. 36-43 ISSN 1044-0305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13038 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MALDI * MSI * FT-ICR Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  18. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS. Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50–500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only, sulfur (S containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter.

  19. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Creissen, Alain V.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-07

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it had many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices one could employ in their studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus Subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  20. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  1. High-field FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach for structural identification of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harir, Mourad; Yassine, Mahmoud M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large and often dominant fraction, (20 to 90%) of the submicron atmospheric particulate mass, and its effects are becoming increasingly important in determining climatic and health effects of atmospheric aerosols. Despite the abundance of OA, our understanding of the sources, formation processes and atmospheric properties of OA is limited. Atmospheric OA has both primary (directly emitted) and secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor gases) sources, which can be natural (e.g. vegetation) and/or anthropogenic (e.g. fossil-based vehicle exhaust or biomass burning). A significant fraction of OA contains as much as 20-70% of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC). The WSOC fraction is a very complex mixture of low volatility, polyfunctional aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing carboxyl, alcohol, carbonyl, sulfo, nitro, and other functionalities. This high degree of chemical complexity of atmospheric organics has inspired a number of sophisticated approaches that are capable of identifying and detecting a variety of different analytes in OA. Accordingly, one of the most challenging areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) analysis is to comprehend the molecular complexity of the OA, especially WSOC fraction, a significant component of atmospheric fine PM (PM2.5). The sources of WSOC are not well understood, especially the relative contributions of primary vs. secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, the molecular characterization of WSOC is important because it allows gaining insight into aerosol sources and underlying mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and transformation. In this abstract, molecular characterization of WSOC was achieved using high-field mass spectrometry FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach. Aromaticity equivalent (Xc), defined recently as a new parameter calculated from the assigned molecular formulas (complementary to the aromaticity index [1]), is introduced to improve

  2. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    Full Text Available The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR and hypersensitive reaction (HR such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents.

  3. Eugenia calycina Cambess extracts and their fractions: Their antimicrobial activity and the identification of major polar compounds using electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Morais, Sandra R; Bara, Maria T F; Conceição, Edemilson C; Paula, José R; Carvalho, Thays C; Vaz, Boniek G; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Rezende, Maria H

    2014-10-01

    Eugenia calycina, which is described as "red pitanga or pitanga cherry of cerrado," is widely distributed in the Cerrado area of Brazil. Its leaf and bark extracts are used in folk medicine for many applications. In this study, the compositions of the major polar compounds of the bark and leaf extracts and their fractions were obtained from a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water. They were then evaluated using electrospray ionization negative FT-ICR mass spectrometry (ESI(-) FT-ICR MS), which revealed a large number of oxygen-containing compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes, tanins, steroids, and fat acids. The biological activity of these extracts towards several bacterial and fungal strains was then evaluated. The highest activity was found using aqueous fractions, in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed compounds with a high content of oxygen (e.g., glycosed flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenolic compounds) against Cryptococcus sp. D (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=15.62μg/mL). Strong activity was also found using the hexanic fractions-in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that the compounds contained a decreased amount of oxygen (e.g., fat acids and steroids)-towards Cryptococcus gatti L48, Cryptococcus neoformans L3 (MIC=31.2μg/mL), and Cryptococcus sp. D (MIC=62.5μg/mL). Therefore, antimicrobial assays using the bark/leaf extracts of E. calycina present prospects for the research of active substances that may be used for the treatment of cryptococcosis, a disease that is common in immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Ying [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yingding@red.semi.ac.cn; Kan Qiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Junling [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pan Jiaoqing [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou Fan [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Weixi [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Wei [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different thicknesses and thin bulk tensile-strained active layers were fabricated and studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra and gain spectra of SOAs were measured and analyzed at different CW biases. A maximal 3 dB ASE bandwidth of 136 nm ranging from 1480 to 1616 nm, and a 3 dB optical amplifier gain bandwidth of about 90 nm ranging from 1510 to 1600 nm, were obtained for the very thin bulk active SOA. Other SOAs characteristics such as saturation output power and polarization sensitivity were measured and compared.

  5. High molecular weight SOA formation during limonene ozonolysis: insights from ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The detailed molecular composition of laboratory generated limonene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol (SOA was studied using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Approximately 1200 molecular formulas were identified in the SOA over the mass range of 140 to 850 Da. Four characteristic groups of high relative abundance species were observed; they indicate an array of accretion products that retain a large fraction of the limonene skeleton. The identified molecular formulas of each of the groups are related to one another by CH2, O and CH2O homologous series. The CH2 and O homologous series of the low molecular weight (MW SOA (m/z < 300 are explained with a combination of functionalization and fragmentation of radical intermediates and reactive uptake of gas-phase carbonyls. They include isomerization and elimination reactions of Criegee radicals, reactions between alkyl peroxy radicals, and scission of alkoxy radicals resulting from the Criegee radicals. The presence of compounds with 10–15 carbon atoms in the first group (e.g. C11H18O6 provides evidence for SOA formation by the reactive uptake of gas-phase carbonyls during limonene ozonolysis. The high MW compounds (m/z > 300 were found to constitute a significant number fraction of the identified SOA components. The formation of high MW compounds was evaluated by molecular formula trends, fragmentation analysis of select high MW compounds and a comprehensive reaction matrix including the identified low MW SOA, hydroperoxides and Criegee radicals as building blocks. Although the formation of high MW SOA may occur via a variety of radical and non-radical reaction channels, the combined approach indicates a greater importance of the non-condensation reactions over aldol and ester condensation reaction channels. Among these hemi-acetal reactions appear to be most

  6. Dynamically Harmonized FT-ICR Cell with Specially Shaped Electrodes for Compensation of Inhomogeneity of the Magnetic Field. Computer Simulations of the Electric Field and Ion Motion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury I.; Vladimirov, Gleb N.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.

    2012-12-01

    The recently introduced ion trap for FT-ICR mass spectrometers with dynamic harmonization showed the highest resolving power ever achieved both for ions with moderate masses 500-1000 Da (peptides) as well as ions with very high masses of up to 200 kDa (proteins). Such results were obtained for superconducting magnets of very high homogeneity of the magnetic field. For magnets with lower homogeneity, the time of transient duration would be smaller. In superconducting magnets used in FT-ICR mass spectrometry the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in its axial direction prevails over the inhomogeneity in other directions and should be considered as the main factor influencing the synchronic motion of the ion cloud. The inhomogeneity leads to a dependence of the cyclotron frequency from the amplitude of axial oscillation in the potential well of the ion trap. As a consequence, ions in an ion cloud become dephased, which leads to signal attenuation and decrease in the resolving power. Ion cyclotron frequency is also affected by the radial component of the electric field. Hence, by appropriately adjusting the electric field one can compensate the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field and align the cyclotron frequency in the whole range of amplitudes of z-oscillations. A method of magnetic field inhomogeneity compensation in a dynamically harmonized FT-ICR cell is presented, based on adding of extra electrodes into the cell shaped in such a way that the averaged electric field created by these electrodes produces a counter force to the forces caused by the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

  7. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  9. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2017-11-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Front-End Electron Transfer Dissociation Coupled to a 21 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer for Intact Protein Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Syka, John E. P.; Early, Lee; Mullen, Christopher; Dunyach, Jean-Jacques; English, A. Michelle; Anderson, Lissa C.; Blakney, Greg T.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.; Hunt, Donald F.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry is a key technology for in-depth protein characterization. High-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables high-level interrogation of intact proteins in the most detail to date. However, an appropriate complement of fragmentation technologies must be paired with FTMS to provide comprehensive sequence coverage, as well as characterization of sequence variants, and post-translational modifications. Here we describe the integration of front-end electron transfer dissociation (FETD) with a custom-built 21 tesla FT-ICR mass spectrometer, which yields unprecedented sequence coverage for proteins ranging from 2.8 to 29 kDa, without the need for extensive spectral averaging (e.g., 60% sequence coverage for apo-myoglobin with four averaged acquisitions). The system is equipped with a multipole storage device separate from the ETD reaction device, which allows accumulation of multiple ETD fragment ion fills. Consequently, an optimally large product ion population is accumulated prior to transfer to the ICR cell for mass analysis, which improves mass spectral signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and scan rate. We find a linear relationship between protein molecular weight and minimum number of ETD reaction fills to achieve optimum sequence coverage, thereby enabling more efficient use of instrument data acquisition time. Finally, real-time scaling of the number of ETD reactions fills during method-based acquisition is shown, and the implications for LC-MS/MS top-down analysis are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Changes in the expression of N- and O-glycopeptides in patients with colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma quantified by full-MS scan FT-ICR and multiple reaction monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Darebná, P.; Novák, Petr; Kučera, R.; Topolčan, O.; Sanda, M.; Goldman, R.; Pompach, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, SI (2017), s. 44-52 ISSN 1874-3919 Grant - others:Ministerstvo pro místní rozvoj(CZ) CZ2.16./3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Glycomics * FT-ICR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  12. Chromatographic enrichment and subsequent separation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from natural seeps and molecular characterization by positive electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Jonathan C; Rowland, Steven M; Corilo, Yuri E; McKenna, Amy M

    2014-11-04

    We report a novel chromatographic method to enrich and separate nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from a natural seep sample and combine molecular level characterization by positive-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Vanadyl and nickel porphyrin model compound elution from primary secondary amine (PSA) stationary phase combined with UV-vis spectroscopy confirms enrichment and subsequent fractionation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins into polarity-based subfractions. A more than 100-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio for nickel porphyrins enables unequivocal elemental composition assignment confirmed by isotopic fine structure for all isotopes >1% relative abundance, and the first mass spectral identification of (61)Ni porphyrin isotopologues derived from natural seeps. Oxygen-containing vanadyl porphyrins and sulfur-containing vanadyl porphyrins are isolated in the same fraction simultaneously from the same sample. We provide the first chromatographic evidence of carboxylic acid functionalities peripheral to the porphyrin core, in agreement with previous studies.

  13. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  14. Comparative Study of Graphite-Supported LDI- and ESI-FT-ICR-MS of a Pyrolysis Liquid from a German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Philipp; Wolf, Bianca; Kroll, Marius M; Otto, Matthias

    2015-08-04

    Pyrolysis liquids from coal are complex mixtures of organic compounds with low to high molecular mass and low to high polarity. Compared to low-molecular-weight compounds, little information is available regarding high-molecular-weight compounds in pyrolysis liquids, although their characterization is important for the elucidation of degradation pathways. In this study, laser desorption ionization (LDI) using graphite powder as the support material has been used in conjunction with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) for the analysis of a pyrolysis liquid from brown coal. The acquired data is compared to previous results of the same sample using electrospray ionization (ESI). Using LDI, compounds with masses between 300 and 900 Da were detected by LDI. An evaluation of the spectra was based on the frequency of molecular formulas with a different number of heteroatoms. Hydrocarbon compounds and heteroatomic compounds containing oxygen and sulfur were found. A comparison to ESI results shows that the numbers of observed molecular formulas are virtually the same, but a higher quantity of molecular formulas with a low number of oxygen can be detected by LDI. The observation of molecular formulas without oxygen is a unique feature of the LDI spectra. A more detailed investigation was possible by the utilization of double bond equivalent plots versus carbon number, which revealed a prevalence of LDI for the ionization of compounds with higher DBE.

  15. Design of Metamaterial Surfaces with Broad-band Absorbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chihhui; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple design paradigm for making broad-band ultra-thin plasmonic absorbers is introduced. The absorber's unit cell is composed of sub-units of various sizes, resulting in nearly 100% absorbance at multiple adjacent frequencies and high absorbance over a broad frequency range. A simple theoretical model for designing broad-band absorbers is presented. It uses a single-resonance model to describe the optical response of each sub-unit and employs the series circuit model to predict the overal...

  16. Semi-Targeted Analysis of Complex Matrices by ESI FT-ICR MS or How an Experimental Bias may be Used as an Analytical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Dufour, Anthony; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia is well suited to favor deprotonation process in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to increase the formation of [M - H]-. Nevertheless, NH3 may react with carbonyl compounds (aldehyde, ketone) and bias the composition description of the investigated sample. This is of significant importance in the study of complex mixture such as oil or bio-oil. To assess the ability of primary amines to form imines with carbonyl compounds during the ESI-MS process, two aldehydes (vanillin and cinnamaldehyde) and two ketones (butyrophenone and trihydroxyacetophenone) have been infused in an ESI source with ammonia and two different amines (aniline and 3-chloronaniline). The (+) ESI-MS analyses have demonstrated the formation of imine whatever the considered carbonyl compound and the used primary amine, the structure of which was extensively studied by tandem mass spectrometry. Thus, it has been established that the addition of ammonia, in the solution infused in an ESI source, may alter the composition description of a complex mixture and leads to misinterpretations due to the formation of imines. Nevertheless, this experimental bias can be used to identify the carbonyl compounds in a pyrolysis bio-oil. As we demonstrated, infusion of the bio-oil with 3-chloroaniline in ESI source leads to specifically derivatized carbonyl compounds. Thanks to their chlorine isotopic pattern and the high mass measurement accuracy, (+) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) unambiguously highlighted them from the numerous CxHyOz bio-oil components. These results offer a new perspective into the detailed molecular structure of complex mixtures such as bio-oils. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Differences in DOM of rewetted and natural peatlands - Results from high-field FT-ICR-MS and bulk optical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzsprung, Peter; Osterloh, Katja; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Meissner, Ralph; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Friese, Kurt

    2017-05-15

    Peatlands can be a potential source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in fresh water catchment areas. The quantity and quality of DOM can differ between pristine, degraded and rewetted peatlands. Due to the large scale and continuing losses of peatlands, their conservation and restoration has been increasingly emphasized. Mostly rewetting measures are required to improve the hydrology of damaged peatlands, which is a precondition for the resettlement of peat-forming plant species. Thus, in term of DOM, there is a special need to understand how rewetting measures affect DOM characteristics and concentrations. To estimate the potential leaching of humic substances from rewetted areas two natural sites were compared with four artificially rewetted sites in a peatland area of the Harz Mountains National Park, Germany. This was done with regards to DOM quality by combining the results from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, measured at one time in Spring) and excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMF, measured monthly for the period of one year). The DOM quality was significantly less variable in the pristine peatland soil water compared to the rewetted peatland soil waters, from both a spatial and a seasonal perspective. The soil water from the rewetted peatland sites showed a higher degree of humification compared to pristine peatland. DOC concentration was mostly consistent in the pristine peatland over the year. The rewetted peatlands showed higher DOC levels in Summer months and lower DOC in Winter months compared to the pristine peatland. It can be concluded that the rewetting of peatlands is coupled with high concentrations of DOC in soil water and its quality is highly aromatic (as reflected by the observed values from the humification index) during times with elevated temperature. The results may have a significant input for dynamic catchment area studies with regards to rewetting peatland sites. Copyright

  18. Recent developments in ion detection techniques for Penning trap mass spectrometry at TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ferrer, R.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Repp, J.; Schweikhard, L.; Smorra, C.; Sturm, S.; Ulmer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The highest precision in the determination of nuclear and atomic masses can be achieved by Penning trap mass spectrometry. The mass value is obtained through a measurement of the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particle. Two different approaches are used at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP for the mass determination: the destructive Time-Of-Flight Ion Cyclotron Resonance (TOF-ICR) technique and the non-destructive Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) method. New developments for both techniques are described, which will improve the detection efficiency and the suppression of contaminations in the case of TOF-ICR. The FT-ICR detection systems will allow for the investigation of an incoming ion bunch from a radioactive-beam facility on the one hand, and for the detection of a single singly charged ion in the Penning trap on the other hand.

  19. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  20. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36...

  1. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...

  2. Fatigue failure of materials under broad band random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Lanz, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The fatigue life of material under multifactor influence of broad band random excitations has been investigated. Parameters which affect the fatigue life are postulated to be peak stress, variance of stress and the natural frequency of the system. Experimental data were processed by the hybrid computer. Based on the experimental results and regression analysis a best predicting model has been found. All values of the experimental fatigue lives are within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicting equation.

  3. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  4. An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Lingyun; Dong, Guoyan; Zhou, Ji

    2011-10-24

    We propose a design of an extremely broad frequency band absorber based on destructive interference mechanism. Metamaterial of multilayered SRRs structure is used to realize a desirable refractive index dispersion spectrum, which can induce a successive anti-reflection in a wide frequency range. The corresponding high absorptance originates from the destructive interference of two reflection waves from the two surfaces of the metamaterial. A strongly absorptive bandwidth of almost 60 GHz is demonstrated in the range of 0 to 70 GHz numerically. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct broad band absorber in stealth technology, as well as the enhanced transmittance devices. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. FT-ICR study on hydrogenation of niobium cluster cations Nbn+ (n=2-15) in seeded supersonic jet and multiple-collision-induced dissociation of NbnHm+ hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Sugawara, Ko-ichi

    1999-12-01

    Hydrogenation of niobium cluster cations Nbn+ (n=2-15) in a seeded supersonic jet of H2/He and multiple-collision-induced dissociation (MCID) of the resulting NbnHm+ hydrides have been studied using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The nascent NbnHm+ hydrides trapped in the FT-ICR cell have broad m distributions with no apparent prevalence of odd or even m. A pulse of argon applied to the trapped clusters causes a dramatic squeezing of the initial m distribution (through the collision-induced removal of weakly bound H2 molecules), favoring several particular hydrides for each cluster size n, e.g., Nb7H8+, Nb7H11+, and Nb7H12+ for n=7. The maximum m values of these stable hydrides are close to the stoichiometric composition of NbH2 for the clusters with nMCID of the NbnHm+ clusters occurs through the sequential desorption of H2 molecules yielding NbnH+ and Nbn+ as final dissociation products for odd and even m, respectively. Based on the experiments on the MCID of Nb12H18+, an explanation is suggested for different reactivities of the Nb12+ clusters toward H2 in the ICR and fast-flow-reactor experiments.

  6. Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies in Human Serum as a Model for Clinical Monoclonal Gammopathy by Use of 21 Tesla FT-ICR Top-Down and Middle-Down MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lidong; Anderson, Lissa C.; Barnidge, David R.; Murray, David L.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid growth of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), stringent quality control is needed to ensure clinical safety and efficacy. Monoclonal antibody primary sequence and post-translational modifications (PTM) are conventionally analyzed with labor-intensive, bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is limited by incomplete peptide sequence coverage and introduction of artifacts during the lengthy analysis procedure. Here, we describe top-down and middle-down approaches with the advantages of fast sample preparation with minimal artifacts, ultrahigh mass accuracy, and extensive residue cleavages by use of 21 tesla FT-ICR MS/MS. The ultrahigh mass accuracy yields an RMS error of 0.2-0.4 ppm for antibody light chain, heavy chain, heavy chain Fc/2, and Fd subunits. The corresponding sequence coverages are 81%, 38%, 72%, and 65% with MS/MS RMS error 4 ppm. Extension to a monoclonal antibody in human serum as a monoclonal gammopathy model yielded 53% sequence coverage from two nano-LC MS/MS runs. A blind analysis of five therapeutic monoclonal antibodies at clinically relevant concentrations in human serum resulted in correct identification of all five antibodies. Nano-LC 21 T FT-ICR MS/MS provides nonpareil mass resolution, mass accuracy, and sequence coverage for mAbs, and sets a benchmark for MS/MS analysis of multiple mAbs in serum. This is the first time that extensive cleavages for both variable and constant regions have been achieved for mAbs in a human serum background.

  7. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-06-01

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Binding of an organo-osmium(II) anticancer complex to guanine and cytosine on DNA revealed by electron-based dissociations in high resolution Top-Down FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Christopher A; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Liu, Hong-Ke; Barrow, Mark P; Sadler, Peter J; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-02-28

    The Os(II) arene anticancer complex [(η(6)-bip)Os(en)Cl](+) (Os1-Cl; where bip = biphenyl, and en = ethylenediamine) binds strongly to DNA. Here we investigate reactions between Os1-Cl and the self-complementary 12-mer oligonucleotide 5'-TAGTAATTACTA-3' (DNA12) using ultra high resolution Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Identification of the specific sites of DNA osmiation with {(η(6)-bip)Os(en)}(2+) was made possible by the use of Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) which produced a wide range of assignable osmiated MS/MS fragments. In contrast, the more commonly used CAD and IRMPD techniques produced fragments which lose the bound osmium. These studies reveal that not only is guanine G3 a strong binding site for {(η(6)-bip)Os(en)}(2+) but, unexpectedly, so too is cytosine C10. Interestingly, the G3/C10 di-osmiated adduct of DNA12 also formed readily but did not undergo such facile fragmentation by EDD, perhaps due to folding induced by van der Waal's interactions of the bound osmium arene species. These new insights into osmium arene DNA adducts should prove valuable for the design of new organometallic drugs and contribute to understanding the lack of cross resistance of this organometallic anticancer complex with cisplatin.

  9. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  10. Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the simple ratio (SR were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for.

  11. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    subsequent separation into asphaltenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, neutral nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen (NSO) compounds and carboxylic acids. The asphaltene fractions are analysed using pyrolysis-GC, all other fractions are analysed by GC-MS. Additionally Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is used to study the chemical composition of the samples on the molecular level using different ionisation methods.

  12. High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Garry W; Svatek, Simon A; Hague, Lee; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Mellor, Christopher J; Beton, Peter H; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya S; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Vdovin, Evgeny E; Marsden, Alex J; Wilson, Neil R; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures is achieved by exploiting the broad-band transparency of graphene, the direct bandgap of InSe, and the favorable band line up of InSe with graphene. The photoresponsivity exceeds that for other van der Waals heterostructures and the spectral response extends from the near-infrared to the visible spectrum. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. BL Lacertae is one of the famous AGN that shows convincing evidence to support periodic variability. We compile R-band data and radio 22 GHz database from the available literature to build the light curves and to calculate broad-band spectral indices. This paper employs the wavelet periodic estimation method.

  14. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(convolution in Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Thielen

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute. This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only.

  15. Bitumen content estimation of Athabasca oil sand from broad band infrared reflectance spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, B.; Feng, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation Systems Laboratory; Lyder, D. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gallie, A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Cloutis, E. [Winnipeg Univ., MB (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Dougan, P.; Gonzalez, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cox, D. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    Oil sand deposits are not homogeneous. The ore has a large variability in clay, bitumen and fines, which impact bitumen recovery. This paper reported on a study in which a linear model was developed to estimate total bitumen content (TBC) with good accuracy and independent of mine location. The purpose of the study was to enable oil sands mining operators to estimate TBC in real time. Modelling of the TBC in the Athabasca oil sands of western Canada was undertaken on the basis of hyperspectral reflectance spectra. A variety of bitumen, water, and clay mineral spectral features were used to develop broad-band TBC predictive models, with less than 1.5 percent error with respect to laboratory methods of bitumen assay. Simple broad band models, based upon previously identified Gaussian features or wavelet features, provided an incremental improvement over the two-band ratio model presently used by industry. This paper also presented a newly developed and improved two-band model which combines the same two bands, normalized to their mean. The influence of water, clay, and textural variation on selected bitumen features was addressed by a wavelet-based, broad-band model comprised of indices and five bands, where the bands were normalized to the mean of the bands. The most robust estimator of TBC appeared to be the five-band model which can be used at different sites within a mine as well as in different mines without additional tuning or calibration. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  17. Measuring pulse times of arrival from broad-band pulsar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Desvignes, G.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, instrumentation enabling pulsar observations with unprecedentedly high fractional bandwidth has been under development which can be used to substantially improve the precision of pulsar timing experiments. The traditional template-matching method used to calculate pulse times of arrival (ToAs) may not function effectively on these broad-band data due to a variety of effects such as diffractive scintillation in the interstellar medium, profile variation as a function of frequency, dispersion measure (DM) evolution, and so forth. In this paper, we describe the channelized discrete Fourier transform method that can greatly mitigate the influence of the aforementioned effects when measuring ToAs from broad-band timing data. The method is tested on simulated data, and its potential in improving timing precision is shown. We further apply the method to PSR J1909-3744 data collected at the Nançay Radio Telescope with the Nançay Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument. We demonstrate removal of systematics due to the scintillation effect as well as improvement on ToA measurement uncertainties. Our method also determines temporal variations in DM, which are consistent with multichannel timing approaches used earlier.

  18. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  19. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. 11th International Conference On Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xhafa, Fatos; Yim, Kangbin

    2017-01-01

    The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other in ubiquitous way whenever necessary. The aim of the volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of broadband and wireless computing. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication And Applications (BWCCA-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea. .

  1. Non relativistic Broad Band wake fields and potential-well distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Quatraro, D; Findlay, A; Mikulec, B

    2010-01-01

    The study of the interaction between a particle beam and wake fields is usually based on the assumption of ultra relativistic beams. This is not the case, for example, for the Proton Synchrotron Booster(PSB), in which protons cover the energy range. There are some examples in literature which derive nonultra relativistic formulae for the resistive wall impedance. In this paper we have extended the Broad-Band resonator model, allowing the impedance to have poles even in the upper half complex plane, in order to obtain a wake function different from zero for. The Haissinski equation has been numerically solved showing longitudinal bunch shape changes with. In addition some longitudinal bunch profile measurements, taken for two different bunch intensities at the PSB, are shown.

  2. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  3. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollefs, K. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Meckenstock, R.; Spoddig, D.; Römer, F. M.; Hassel, Ch.; Schöppner, Ch.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ney, V.; Ney, A., E-mail: andreas.ney@jku.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Halbleiter-und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-06-14

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L{sub 3}-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect.

  4. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B; Austin, M E; Ellis, R F

    2013-10-01

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  5. Broad-band polarization-independent metamaterial absorber for solar energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağmancı, Mehmet; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Ünal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Karadağ, Faruk; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-06-01

    A novel broad-band polarization-independent with wide-angle metamaterial absorber(MA) is investigated and demonstrated for solar energy harvesting applications. The proposed MA is composed of two metal layers which have different thickness and a dielectric layer which is sandwiched between these metal layers. By this combination, the proposed MA indicates plasmonic resonance characteristic. Numeric results show that proposed MA has perfect absorption characteristic which is above 88.28% with wide-angle for all visible region. It shows almost perfect absorption of 98.4% at the resonance frequency of 621.76 THz and has also 90% absorption between frequencies of 445 THz and 770 THz which is nearly all visible light region. Besides, numerical results validate that the proposed MA could achieve very high absorption at wide-angles of incidence for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves.. The proposed MA and its variations enable for solar cell applications due to have upper ratio of 90% in the widest range of visible spectrum comparing to the studies in literature. In order to show additional features of the proposed structure, parametric studies are realized and discussed. Furthermore, the absorption characteristic of proposed MA is investigated for infrared and ultraviolet region. The enhancement of absorption of the structure will provide new type of sensors in these frequency ranges.

  6. PKS 1718-649: a broad-band study of a young radio jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, Malgosia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Migliori, Giulia; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hardcastle, Martin; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    Physical conditions required to launch and sustain a jet and the jet's impact on black hole surroundings are believed to be strongly linked, and lie at the core of the AGN feedback idea. The physics of the initial stages of a radio jet expansion is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, highly relativistic plasma contained within young radio lobes and shocks accompanying a powerful jet expansion are expected to generate high energy radiation. However, this initial phase is short-lived and observing young radio sources at high energies has been challenging, with only a few sources detected before the Chandra and XMM-Newton era. We compiled a sample of Compact Symmetric Objects (CSO) that have kinematic age determination to study their high energy properties. Here we discuss one of the sources from our sample, PKS 1718-649 (z=0.014), hosting the most compact (2 pc) and youngest (100 years) extragalactic radio jet known to date. We observed PKS 1718-649 for the first time in X-rays and found that it is a low luminosity X-ray source, L(2-10 keV) ~ 6 x 1041 erg s-1, and its X-ray spectrum is consistent with a mildly (intrinsically) absorbed power law (Gamma ~ 1.75, NH ~ 1021 cm-2). In addition, using the Fermi/LAT archive we established that this source is the first robustly confirmed gamma-ray CSO emitter. Merging the archival radio-to-optical data and our high energy results, we constructed a high quality broad-band spectral energy distribution of this source. We tested a theoretical scenario in which the high energy emission of the source arises due to the Inverse Compton upscattering of the low energy photons off the non-thermal electrons in the expanding radio lobes. We discuss the impact of the expanding lobes on the environment, and constraints imposed by the data on the electron distribution within the lobes.

  7. A comparison between two permanent broad band ocean bottom seismometers in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, T.; Deschamps, A.; Ugalde, A.; Jara, J. A.; Hello, Y.; Goula, X.; Olivera, C.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to compare two permanent broad band ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in terms of noise conditions by taking to account their similar instrumentation types, but their very different site characteristics. Both OBS stations have Güralp CMG-3T three component broad band sensors and differential pressure gauges (DPG). The first sensor operates since August 2005 under the framework of a research project that aims to improve the knowledge of the seismicity and seismic risk in the Tarragona region (north eastern Spain). This pioneering project in Spain is being carried out by the Institut Geològic de Catalunya (IGC) and the Observatori de l'Ebre, in collaboration with the Spanish oil company Repsol Investigaciones Petrolíferas, and is being financed by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (CASABLANCA REN2003-06577), FEDER funding, the IGC and the Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. The OBS is installed inside the security perimeter of the Casablanca oil platform, which is located 40 km offshore Tarragona. The sensors are submerged at about 400 m to the SW of the oil platform at about 150 m in depth. Data are digitized on-site and are transmitted through a submarine cable to the platform, where they are recorded. In July 2007 some improvements were made: i) the OBS was completely buried and the DPG was moved about 10 m away from the OBS; and ii) via satellite signal transmission was implemented, which allowed to have continuous and real time data in Barcelona so that the OBS could be integrated into the Catalan Seismic Network. The second seismometer operates in the frame of the Antares neutrino telescope project developed in Liguria Sea. Geoazur is carrying out the project of deployment of a broad band seismological instrument in the aim of developing the permanent sea floor observation knowledge necessary to characterize Ligurian Sea seismicity and seismic risk along French Riviera coast (SE France). The operation was facilitated by the

  8. Broad band spectral analysis of 24 h continuous finger blood pressure: Comparison with intra-arterial recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglioni, P.; Parati, G.; Omboni, S.; Mancia, G.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Rienzo, M. di

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares the spectral characteristics of 24-h blood pressure variability estimated invasively at the brachial artery level with those estimated by measurement of blood pressure at the finger artery using the non-invasive Portapres device. Broad-band spectra (from 3 x

  9. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco; O' Connor, Peter B.; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  10. High-efficiency, broad band, high-damage threshold high-index gratings for femtosecond pulse compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Frederico; Clady, Raphael; Chambaret, Jean-Paul; Flury, Manuel; Tonchev, Svtelen; Fechner, Renate; Parriaux, Olivier

    2007-11-12

    High efficiency, broad-band TE-polarization diffraction over a wavelength range centered at 800 nm is obtained by high index gratings placed on a non-corrugated mirror. More than 96% efficiency wide band top-hat diffraction efficiency spectra, as well as more than 1 J/cm(2) damage threshold under 50 fs pulses are demonstrated experimentally. This opens the way to high-efficiency Chirped Pulse Amplification for high average power laser machining by means of all-dielectric structures as well as for ultra-short high energy pulses by means of metal-dielectric structures.

  11. Using multi-criteria decision-making for selecting broad-band technology for the National University of Colombia, Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Antonio Cortés Aldana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia, Bogotá, has proposed a prolect for improving Internet access by using broad band technology. Four possible technologies have been selected in the first step: LMDS, ADSL, cable modem and optical fibre. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP has been applied for taking such decision. This method, based on multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA allows decision-taking criteria to be established, pondered and the alternatives evaluated regarding the priorities established for each criterion. Different experts’ opinions have been considered as support during the decision-making process. MCDA was used for ranking these alternatives. AHP was used for helping such decision-making.

  12. Fast High-Intensity Single-Bunch Transverse Coherent Instability in Synchrotrons due to a Broad-Band Resonator Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, Elias

    2001-01-01

    The instability rise-time is computed when it is faster than the synchrotron period, using the mode-coupling formalism. The case is treated of a bunch interacting with a broad-band resonator impedance, and whose length is greater than the inverse of twice the resonance frequency. The formula is compared to the one obtained by Brandt and Gareyte in a beam break-up approach, and to the one first obtained by Ruth and Wang in a fast blow-up theory, and later re-derived by Kernel et al. in a post-head-tail formalism. Stabilisation by synchrotron oscillation is also discussed.

  13. Pen dosimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    SC/RP Group

    2006-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group has decided to withdraw all pen dosimeters from the main PS and SPS access points. This will be effective as of January 2006. The following changes will be implemented: All persons working in a limited-stay controlled radiation area must wear an operational dosimeter in addition to their personal DIS dosimeter. Any persons not equipped with this additional dosimeter must contact the SC/RP Group, which will make this type of dosimeter available for temporary loan. A notice giving the phone numbers of the SC/RP Group members to contact will be displayed at the former distribution points for the pen dosimeters. Thank you for your cooperation. The SC/RP Group

  14. Broad-Band-Emissive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconducting Nanowires Based on an ABX3-Type Chain Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyue; Li, Lina; Ji, Chengmin; Lin, Guoming; Wang, Sasa; Shen, Yaoguo; Sun, Zhihua; Zhao, Sangen; Luo, Junhua

    2017-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide (e.g., CH3NH3PbX3, where X = CI, Br, and I) nanowires (NWs) with remarkable electric and optical properties have recently garnered increasing attention, owing to their structural flexibility and tunability compared to inorganic semiconducting NWs. While most recently reported NWs are limited to methylammonium/formamidinium three-dimensional lead halide perovskites, it is urgent to develop new organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs. Here, broad-band-emissive single-crystal semiconductive NWs based on a new ABX3-type organic-inorganic chain hybrid, (2-methylpiperidine)lead tribromide, are reported. It is believed that this work will enrich the organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs and may provide potential applications for LED displaying.

  15. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  16. Importance of double-pole CFS-PML for broad-band seismic wave simulation and optimal parameters selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haike; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiaofei

    2017-05-01

    The perfectly matched layer (PML) is an efficient absorbing technique for numerical wave simulation. The complex frequency-shifted PML (CFS-PML) introduces two additional parameters in the stretching function to make the absorption frequency dependent. This can help to suppress converted evanescent waves from near grazing incident waves, but does not efficiently absorb low-frequency waves below the cut-off frequency. To absorb both the evanescent wave and the low-frequency wave, the double-pole CFS-PML having two poles in the coordinate stretching function was developed in computational electromagnetism. Several studies have investigated the performance of the double-pole CFS-PML for seismic wave simulations in the case of a narrowband seismic wavelet and did not find significant difference comparing to the CFS-PML. Another difficulty to apply the double-pole CFS-PML for real problems is that a practical strategy to set optimal parameter values has not been established. In this work, we study the performance of the double-pole CFS-PML for broad-band seismic wave simulation. We find that when the maximum to minimum frequency ratio is larger than 16, the CFS-PML will either fail to suppress the converted evanescent waves for grazing incident waves, or produce visible low-frequency reflection, depending on the value of α. In contrast, the double-pole CFS-PML can simultaneously suppress the converted evanescent waves and avoid low-frequency reflections with proper parameter values. We analyse the different roles of the double-pole CFS-PML parameters and propose optimal selections of these parameters. Numerical tests show that the double-pole CFS-PML with the optimal parameters can generate satisfactory results for broad-band seismic wave simulations.

  17. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  18. Broad Band Light Absorption and High Photocurrent of (In,Ga)N Nanowire Photoanodes Resulting from a Radial Stark Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Jumpei; Bogdanoff, Peter; Corfdir, Pierre; Brandt, Oliver; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2016-12-21

    The photoelectrochemical properties of (In,Ga)N nanowire photoanodes are investigated using H2O2 as a hole scavenger to prevent photocorrosion. Under simulated solar illumination, In0.16Ga0.84N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy show a high photocurrent of 2.7 mA/cm2 at 1.2 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode. This value is almost the theoretical maximum expected from the corresponding band gap (2.8 eV) for homogeneous bulk material without taking into account surface effects. These nanowires exhibit a higher incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency over a broader wavelength range and a higher photocurrent than a compact layer with higher In content of 28%. These results are explained by the combination of built-in electric fields at the nanowire sidewall surfaces and compositional fluctuations in (In,Ga)N, which gives rise to a radial Stark effect. This effect enables spatially indirect transitions at energies much lower than the band gap. The resulting broad band light absorption leads to high photocurrents. This benefit of the radial Stark effect in (In,Ga)N nanowires for solar harvesting applications opens up the perspective to break the theoretical limit for photocurrents.

  19. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy applied to inductively-coupled plasmas in Cl/O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Carbone, Emile; Booth, Jean-Paul; Chabert, Pascal; LPP-Plasmas froids Team

    2014-10-01

    Broad-band absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic for reactive plasmas, allowing measurement of the absolute densities of numerous atoms, molecules and free radicals in ground and various excited states. Previously Xe arc lamps have been used as the continuum light source, but these suffer from spatiotemporal fluctuations which limit the sensitivity to about 10-3 in absorption. More recently UV light-emitting diodes have been used, but these only emit over a very limited spectral range. Our new absorption spectroscopy setup uses a laser-driven plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration free spectrograph. This light source has ideal characteristics for absorption spectroscopy (high intensity, stability and a wide spectral range (200--1000 nm)), overcoming previous limitations. Noise levels as low as 10-5 can be achieved in single-pass absorption, covering up to 250 nm in a single spectrum. Measurements were made in a 13.56 MHz inductively-coupled plasma reactor in O, Cl and Cl/O mixtures. We observed absorption by Cl, O and ClxOy molecules, and excited state atoms. Whereas the Clvibrational distribution is close to equilibrium with the gas translational temperature, Omolecules show high vibrational excitation (up to v = 18, Tvib12,000 K). However, high resolution spectra of O indicated rotational temperatures up to only 500 K. Many oxychloride molecules were detected in Cl/O mixtures.

  20. Performance of the NIST goniocolorimeter with a broad-band source and multichannel charged coupled device based spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobedov, V B; Miller, C C; Nadal, M E

    2012-09-01

    The authors describe the NIST high-efficiency instrument for measurements of bidirectional reflectance distribution function of colored materials, including gonioapparent materials such as metallic and pearlescent coatings. The five-axis goniospectrometer measures the spectral reflectance of samples over a wide range of illumination and viewing angles. The implementation of a broad-band source and a multichannel CCD spectrometer corrected for stray light significantly increased the efficiency of the goniometer. In the extended range of 380 nm to 1050 nm, a reduction of measurement time from a few hours to a few minutes was obtained. Shorter measurement time reduces the load on the precise mechanical assembly ensuring high angular accuracy over time. We describe the application of matrix-based correction of stray light and the extension of effective dynamic range of measured fluxes to the values of 10(6) to 10(7) needed for the absolute characterization of samples. The measurement uncertainty was determined to be 0.7% (k = 2), which is comparable with similar instruments operating in a single channel configuration. Several examples of reflectance data obtained with the improved instrument indicate a 0.3% agreement compared to data collected with the single channel configuration.

  1. Efficient full-spectrum utilization, reception and conversion of solar energy by broad-band nanospiral antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaqiao; Gao, Huotao; Cao, Ting; Li, Boya

    2018-01-22

    In this work, the collection of solar energy by a broad-band nanospiral antenna is investigated in order to solve the low efficiency of the solar rectenna based on conventional nanoantennas. The antenna impedance, radiation, polarization and effective area are all considered in the efficiency calculation using the finite integral technique. The wavelength range investigated is 300-3000 nm, which corresponds to more than 98% of the solar radiation energy. It's found that the nanospiral has stronger field enhancement in the gap than a nanodipole counterpart. And a maximum harvesting efficiency about 80% is possible in principle for the nanospiral coupled to a rectifier resistance of 200 Ω, while about 10% for the nanodipole under the same conditions. Moreover, the nanospiral could be coupled to a rectifier diode of high resistance more easily than the nanodipole. These results indicate that the efficient full-spectrum utilization, reception and conversion of solar energy can be achieved by the nanospiral antenna, which is expected to promote the solar rectenna to be a promising technology in the clean, renewable energy application.

  2. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  3. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  4. Anisotropy of S wave velocity in the lowermost mantle using broad-band data recorded at Syowa in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Kanao, M.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the velocity structure of the lowermost mantle (D") beneath the Antarctic Ocean. We analyze seismograms from 16 deep earthquakes in south Pacific subduction zones from 1990 to 2001 recorded by STS-1 broad-band seismographs at Syowa station in Antarctica. The source-receiver combinations span distances range 85\\deg-95\\deg with associated S waves passing through D" beneath the Antarctic ocean. Differential travel times of split S waves are estimated to be up to 2s, showing that longitudinal components (SV) energy arrives earlier than transverse components (SH) energy. The absence of significant splitting for S waves with turning points more than four hundred kilometers above the core-mantle boundary (CMB) indicates that anisotropy is localized within the D" region. Differential travel times among S, ScS and SKS phases and waveform modeling are used to construct the velocity structure in D". We calculate synthetic waveforms by the Direct Solution Method (DSM: Geller and Ohminato, 1994; Geller and Takeuchi, 1995). SH shows a double arrival at the epicentral distance near 89\\deg. However SV in this range remains a single arrival. Isotropic model_@can not explain these observation. We find that synthetics for transverse isotropic models with SH velocity discontinuity (SYYM model) explain well the observed differential travel times and waveforms. The thickness of the anisotropic zone, where SH wave is faster up to 2.0% than SV wave, estimated to be about 350 km. This study region corresponds to the high velocity region at the lowermost mantle by tomographic studies (Kuo et al., 2000; Masters et al., 2000). This kind of transverse anisotropy correlates with high velocity regions where paleo-slabs may descend into the lower mantle (Kendall and Silver, 1996; Garnero and Lay, 1997). We conclude that these observations may be explained by an anisotropic D" layer and D" layer anisotropy is attributed to the paleo-slab material subducted during 120Myr-180Myr.

  5. Synchronous Chaos and Broad Band Gamma Rhythm in a Minimal Multi-Layer Model of Primary Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Demian; Hansel, David

    2011-01-01

    Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs) across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by local delayed

  6. Synchronous chaos and broad band gamma rhythm in a minimal multi-layer model of primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by

  7. Evolution of broad-band SED during outburst rise in NS X-ray Nova Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakov, Alexander V.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Khamitov, Irek M.; Shakura, Nikolay I.; Bikmaev, Ilfan F.; Eselevich, Maxim V.; Vlasyuk, Valeriy V.; Pavlinsky, Mikhail N.

    2018-01-01

    The observed evolution of the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) in NS X-ray Nova Aql X-1 during the rise phase of a bright Fast-Rise-Exponential-Decay-type outburst in 2013 can be understood in the framework of thermal emission from non-stationary accretion disc with radial temperature distribution transforming from a single-temperature blackbody emitting ring into the multicolour irradiated accretion disc. SED evolution during the hard to soft X-ray state transition looks unusual, as it cannot be reproduced by the standard disc irradiation model with a single irradiation parameter for NUV, Optical and NIR spectral bands. NIR (NUV) band is correlated with soft (hard) X-ray flux changes during the state transition interval, respectively. In our interpretation, at the moment of X-ray state transition UV-emitting parts of the accretion disc are screened from direct X-ray illumination from the central source and are heated primarily by hard X-rays (E > 10 keV), scattered in the hot corona or wind possibly formed above the optically thick outer accretion flow; the outer edge of multicolour disc, which emits in Optical-NIR, can be heated primarily by direct X-ray illumination. We point out that future simultaneous multiwavelength observations of X-ray Nova systems during the fast X-ray state transition interval are of great importance, as it can serve as 'X-ray tomograph' to study physical conditions in outer regions of accretion flow. This can provide an effective tool to directly test the energy-dependent X-ray heating efficiency, vertical structure and accretion flow geometry in transient low-mass X-ray binaries.

  8. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostorero, L.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Moderski, R.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Diaferio, A.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Kowalska, I.; /Warsaw U. Observ.; Cheung, C.C.; /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Begelman, M.C.; /JILA, Boulder; Wagner, S.J.; /Heidelberg Observ.

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  9. Broad-band green phosphor screens as a light source for head up displays in moving platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Jack; Withnall, Robert; Rose, John; Wilstead, Nicola; Fern, George; Bishton, Stephen; Klein, David; Rhodes, Bob; Barclay, Charles; Whitmarsh, John

    2005-06-01

    A broad-band green light source for a head-up display is presented. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a green phosphor screen being excited by a blue LED as a backlight for monochrome HUDs. The phosphor screen not only generates the green light but it acts as a diffuser to give a homogeneous illumination. A microlens array focuses the emissions from LED sources on to the diffusing screen eliminating halo effects from the individual LEDs. The purpose of using a green phosphor is to exploit the fact that the eye is sensitive to more shades of green than any other colour. In uses where there are elements of danger such as automobiles (in busy areas), vehicles on construction sites and military vehicles in war zones, green displays have obvious attractions. This paper presents a discussion of the green phosphors that can be used in green screen fabrication, the deposition of the phosphor powders on the screens, the influence of the thickness of the phosphor powder on the screen brightness. In addition, the factors that influence the CIE coordinates of the light emitted from the screen are considered. The importance of choosing the optimum LED emission wavelength along with the general construction of the HUD is discussed. The merits of using a green screen are compared to those when using full colour displays based on white phosphor screens in which yellow emitting phosphors are excited by blue LEDs. Heat management in these HUD devices is achieved by pulsing the LEDs and rastering rows within the LED array.

  10. Narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy versus broad-band ultraviolet B or psoralen-ultraviolet A photochemotherapy for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Guan J; Zhang, Min

    2013-10-23

    The most commonly used types of phototherapy for treating psoriasis are narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB); broad-band ultraviolet B (BB-UVB), which includes selective (delivering radiation with a wavelength range of 305 to 325 nm) and conventional BB-UVB (280 to 320 nm); and psoralen ultraviolet A photochemotherapy (oral or bath PUVA). There is substantial controversy regarding their efficacy when compared with each other. To assess the effects of narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy versus broad-band ultraviolet B or psoralen ultraviolet A photochemotherapy for psoriasis. We searched the following databases up to August 2013: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (from 1946), and EMBASE (from 1974). We searched the following databases up to November 2012: CNKI (from 1974) and CBM (from 1978). We also searched trials registers and the OpenGrey database. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared NB-UVB phototherapy with BB-UVB or PUVA for treating psoriasis, which included chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP), guttate psoriasis (GP), and palmoplantar psoriasis (PPP). Two review authors independently conducted the study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and data extraction. We included 13 RCTs, with a total of 662 participants. We report the results of intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) here. Our primary outcomes of interest were as follows: Participant-rated global improvement, Percentage of participants reaching Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 (which meant equal to or more than 75% reduction in PASI score), Withdrawal due to side-effects, and Clearance rate.In one RCT of NB-UVB compared with oral PUVA in participants with CPP, the difference in PASI 75 was not statistically significant (risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.32; N = 51; low quality). In three other RCTs of CPP, the clearance rates were inconsistent because in one, there was no

  11. Monolithically integrated broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers for highly sensitive label-free detection of biomolecules through dual polarization optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarouli, A.; Salapatas, A.; Botsialas, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Raptis, I.; Makarona, E.; Jobst, G.; Tukkiniemi, K.; Sopanen, M.; Stoffer, R.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.

    2015-01-01

    Protein detection and characterization based on Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry is analytically outlined and demonstrated through a monolithic silicon microphotonic transducer. Arrays of silicon light emitting diodes and monomodal silicon nitride waveguides forming Mach-Zehnder interferometers were integrated on a silicon chip. Broad-band light enters the interferometers and exits sinusoidally modulated with two distinct spectral frequencies characteristic of the two polarizations. Deconvolution in the Fourier transform domain makes possible the separation of the two polarizations and the simultaneous monitoring of the TE and the TM signals. The dual polarization analysis over a broad spectral band makes possible the refractive index calculation of the binding adlayers as well as the distinction of effective medium changes into cover medium or adlayer ones. At the same time, multi-analyte detection at concentrations in the pM range is demonstrated. PMID:26825114

  12. Biological and biochemical characterization of venom from the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus): isolation of two new dimeric disintegrins

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lucena, Sara; Alfonso, Andrea; Goins, Amber; Walls, Robert; Guerrero, Belsy; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Elda E.

    2016-01-01

    Disintegrins represent a family of effective cell-cell and cell-matrix inhibitors by binding to integrin receptors. Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are the bridges for these cell interactions. Disintegrins have been shown to have many therapeutic implications for the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, and cancer. Two novel heterodimeric disintegrins were isolated from the venom of the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus). Crude venom separat...

  13. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  14. Biological and biochemical characterization of venom from the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus): isolation of two new dimeric disintegrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lucena, Sara; Alfonso, Andrea; Goins, Amber; Walls, Robert; Guerrero, Belsy; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Elda E

    2016-01-01

    Disintegrins represent a family of effective cell-cell and cell-matrix inhibitors by binding to integrin receptors. Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are the bridges for these cell interactions. Disintegrins have been shown to have many therapeutic implications for the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, and cancer. Two novel heterodimeric disintegrins were isolated from the venom of the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus). Crude venom separated by cation-exchange chromatography resulted in several fractions possessing hemorrhagic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase, and platelet activities. Venom fractions 2-3 and 17-19 showed fibrinolytic activity. Fractions 2-6, 8-11, and 16-21 had hemorrhagic activity. Gelatinase activity was found in fractions 3, 11, and 19. The isolation of laticinstatins 1 and 2 was accomplished by fractionating crude venom using reverse phase chromatography. Data from both SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing determined that laticinstatins 1 and 2 were heterodimeric disintegrins, and both were assayed for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Future functional evaluation of snake venom disintegrins shows considerable promise for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of integrin-ligand interactions that will allow the development of adequate medications for hemostatic pathologies such as thrombosis, stroke, and cerebral and cardiac accidents. In this study, we are presenting the first report of the purification, and partial characterization of two new dimeric disintegrins isolated from the venom of broad-banded copperhead snakes.

  15. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Vinas, A. F. [Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  16. Extrapolation of earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, John A.; Pilewskie, Peter A.; Scott-Fleming, Ian C.; Herman, Benjamin M.; Ben-David, Avishai

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  17. Enhancement of broad-band light absorption in monolayer MoS2 using Ag grating hybrid with distributed Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jintao; Wang, Jin; Yang, Guofeng; Lu, Yann; Sun, Rui; Yan, Pengfei; Gao, Shumei

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid novel structure of monolayer MoS2 with Ag nanograting and DBR on Si substrate has been proposed to obtain broad-band absorption response for two-dimensional (2D) materials. It is effective to reduce light loss and reflect the incident light efficiently for monolayer MoS2 absorption with DBR dielectric layers. Moreover, by combining Ag nanograting with DBR structure, the average absorption achieves as high as 59% within broad wavelength ranging from 420 to 700 nm, which is attributed to the plasmonic resonant effect of metal nanostripes. The absorption would be affected by the duty ratio and period of the Ag nanograting, and shows incident angle dependent characteristics, while an average absorption higher than 60% has been obtained at the incident angle around 40°. These results indicate that 2D MoS2 in combination with DBR and metal nanograting have a promising potential applications for optical nano-devices.

  18. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  19. The broad-band X-ray spectra of Mrk 926, 4U 1344-60 and ESO 141-G055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Anne; Fabian, Andrew C.; Buisson, Douglas; Kara, Erin; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-08-01

    Mrk 926, 4U 1344-60 and ESO 141-G055 are bright Seyfert 1 galaxies that contrary to many of the Seyfert 1s studied in-depth with NuSTAR do not show signs of relativistic reflection. We present results from the spectroscopic analyses of simultaneous Swift-NuSTAR or in case of Mrk 926 XMM-NuSTAR observations of these three AGN. The broad-band spectral coverage and the simplicity of the spectra allows us to measure the primary emission with great accuracy. We use the results from our spectral studies and others in the literature to explore whether the differences in reflection-strength in bright Seyfert 1s coincide with any differences in the Comptonization parameters. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the detection of a relativistic reflection component is geometry-driven.

  20. Significance of data-quality control in passive seismic experiments exemplified on CZ broad-band seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Ludek; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Jedlicka, Petr; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    We focus on major issues related to data reliability and the MOBNET network performance in the AlpArray seismic experiment. Twenty temporary broad-band stations of the Czech MOBNET pool of mobile stations are currently involved in the AlpArray Seismological Network and previously were deployed in the AlpArray EASI complementary experiment. Currently-used high-resolution seismological methods require high-quality data (1) during a long-time period from observatories as well as (2) during full-time operation of temporary stations. We present both hardware and software tools we have developed to reach the high standard of quality of broad-band seismic data. Special attention is paid to issues like a detection of sensor mis-orientation, timing problems, exchange of components and/or their polarity reversal, as well as sensor mass centring, or anomalous channel amplitudes due to, e.g., imperfectly set gain. Thorough data-quality control should represent an integral constituent of seismic data recordings, pre-processing and archiving, especially for the data from temporary stations in passive seismic experiments. Large international experiments require enormous efforts of scientists from different countries and institutions to gather hundreds of stations to be deployed in the field simultaneously for a limited time period. Each participating group is required to contribute to the experiment with high-quality and reliable seismic data. We demonstrate beneficial effects of the suggested procedures for having a large set of high-quality and reliable data to be shared among researchers.

  1. Disentangling the complex broad-band X-ray spectrum of IRAS 13197-1627 with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Risaliti, G.; Fabian, A. C.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Parker, M. L.; Stern, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present results from a coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR observation of the type 1.8 Seyfert galaxy IRAS 13197-1627. This is a highly complex source, with strong contributions from relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disc, neutral absorption and further reprocessing by more distant material, and ionized absorption from an outflow. We undertake a detailed spectral analysis combining the broad-band coverage provided by XMM-Newton+NuSTAR with a multi-epoch approach incorporating archival observations performed by XMM-Newton and Suzaku. Our focus is on characterizing the reflection from the inner accretion disc, which previous works have suggested may dominate the AGN emission, and constraining the black hole spin. Using lamppost disc reflection models, we find that the results for the inner disc are largely insensitive to assumptions regarding the geometry of the distant reprocessor and the precise form of the illuminating X-ray continuum. However, these results do depend on the treatment of the iron abundance of the distant absorber/reprocessor. The multi-epoch data favour a scenario in which the AGN is chemically homogeneous, and we find that a rapidly rotating black hole is preferred, with a* ≥ 0.7, but a slowly rotating black hole is not strongly excluded. In addition to the results for the inner disc, we also find that both the neutral and ionized absorbers vary from epoch to epoch, implying that both have some degree of inhomogeneity in their structure.

  2. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  3. Fast label-free detection of C-reactive protein using broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers integrated on silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarouli, Aimilia; Botsialas, Athanasios; Salapatas, Alexandros; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Nikita, Dimitra; Jobst, Gerhard; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Makarona, Eleni; Petrou, Panagiota S; Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Kakabakos, Sotirios E

    2017-04-01

    An immunosensor for fast and accurate determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum samples based on an array of all-silicon broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers (BB-MZIs) is demonstrated. The detection was based on monitoring the spectral shifts during the binding of CRP on the antibody molecules that have been immobilized on the sensing arms of the BB-MZIs. By employing the reaction rate as the analytical signal the assay time was compressed to few minutes. The detection limit was 2.1ng/mL, the quantification limit was 4.2ng/mL and the linear dynamic range extended up to 100ng/mL. The measurements performed in human serum samples with the developed immunosensor were characterized by high repeatability and accuracy as it was demonstrated by dilution linearity and recovery experiments. In addition, the concentration values determined were in excellent agreement with those determined for the same samples by a standard clinical laboratory method. The compact size of the chip makes the proposed immunosensor attractive for incorporation into miniaturized devices for the determination of clinical analytes at the point-of-need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: implications for the ionized outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, I. E.; Nicastro, F.; Panagiotou, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. Aims: We study its broad-band optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distribution and its variations, with the use of physically motivated models. Methods: We constructed broad-band, optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals, and we fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission. We also added a spectral model component to account for the presence of the warm absorber which has been well established from past observations of the source. Results: We detected no optical/UV variations over the two-month period of the monitoring campaign. On the other hand, the X-rays are highly variable in a correlated way in the soft and hard X-ray bands with an amplitude larger than has been commonly observed in nearby Seyferts, even on longer time scales. The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable in slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3 × 104 km s-1 (3σ upper limit), and has a column density of log NH ~ 23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source, and its relative thickness, ΔR/R, is less than 0.1. The absorber's ionization parameter variations can explain the larger than average amplitude of the X-ray variations. Conclusions: The absence of optical/UV variations are consistent with the high black hole mass estimate of ~108M⊙ for this object, which implies variability time scales longer than the period of the Swift observations. It argues against the presence of inward propagating fluctuations in the disc as the reason for the flux variability in this

  5. Optical broad-band photometry and reference image for APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 / ASASSN-15lh from the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Peter; Drlica-Wagner, Alexander; Bechtol, Keith; Rykoff, Eli; Hartley, William; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We report optical broad-band photometry of the host galaxy APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 of SLSN ASASSN-15lh (ATel #7642; Dong et al., arXiv:1507.03010). The images were obtained using the DECam imager on the Blanco 4-m telescope at NOAO's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory during Year-2 observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). A preliminary reduction of the images was performed by the DES Data Management pipeline (Mohr et al. 2012, SPIE Conference Series, 84510D; Desai et al. 2012, ApJ, 757, 83). The photometry was measured using SExtractor with additional calibration via stellar locus regression to provide magnitude zero points with 2-3% calibration uncertainty for point sources (relative to 2MASS) and mildly increased uncertainties for extended sources. We fit the DES g-r, r-i, and i-z colors to a red-sequence model from redMaPPer (Rykoff et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 104) and obtain a redshift 0.25±0.02, consistent with the spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.2326 (ATel #7774). Fixed to that redshift, the host photometry is fully consistent with a red-sequence galaxy. We combine photometry from DES grizY with VHS NIR (ATel #7776) and WISE IR and fit a linear combination of single stellar populations with a variety of ages. We find that the fit is dominated by an old (5 Gyr) component, consistent with those of elliptical galaxies. We further compare with dusty SEDs taken from the latest set of templates in EAZY (Brammer, van Dokkum & Coppi, 2008, ApJ, 686, 1503). The combined host photometry is not well described by any of the dusty templates.

  6. Surface wave tomography of North America and the Caribbean using global and regional broad-band networks: Phase velocity maps and limitations of ray theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godey, S.; Snieder, R.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present phase velocity maps of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves across the North American and Caribbean plates. Our data set consists of 1846 waveforms from 172 events recorded at 91 broad-band stations operating in North America. We compute phase velocity maps in four narrow period bands between 50 and 150 s using a non-linear waveform inversion method that solves for phase velocity perturbations relative to a reference Earth model (PREM). Our results show a strong velocity contrast between high velocities beneath the stable North American craton, and lower velocities in the tectonically active western margin, in agreement with other regional and global surface wave tomography studies. We perform detailed comparisons with global model results, which display good agreement between phase velocity maps in the location and amplitude of the anomalies. However, forward modelling shows that regional maps are more accurate for predicting waveforms. In addition, at long periods, the amplitude of the velocity anomalies imaged in our regional phase velocity maps is three time larger than in global phase velocity models. This amplitude factor is necessary to explain the data accurately, showing that regional models provide a better image of velocity structures. Synthetic tests show that the raypath coverage used in this study enables one to resolve velocity features of the order of 800-1000 km. However, only larger length-scale features are observed in the phase velocity maps. The limitation in resolution of our maps can be attributed to the wave propagation theory used in the inversion. Ray theory does not account for off-great-circle ray propagation effects, such as ray bending or scattering. For wavelengths less than 1000 km, scattering effects are significant and may need to be considered.

  7. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Rachel E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average, costly (columns and mobile phase reagents, and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes. Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  8. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  9. Simulation of broad-band strong ground motion for a hypothetical Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Enriquillo Fault in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Mavroeidis, George P.; Calais, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The devastating 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake demonstrated the need to improve mitigation and preparedness for future seismic events in the region. Previous studies have shown that the earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown transpressional Léogâne Fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the segment of Enriquillo Fault to the east of Léogâne, which terminates in the ˜3-million-inhabitant capital city of Port-au-Prince. In this study, we investigate ground shaking in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, if a hypothetical rupture similar to the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on that segment of the Enriquillo Fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional tectonic stress to simulate the low-frequency ground motion components using dynamic rupture propagation for a 52-km-long segment. We consider eight scenarios by varying parameters such as hypocentre location, initial shear stress and fault dip. The high-frequency ground motion components are simulated using the specific barrier model in the context of the stochastic modeling approach. The broad-band ground motion synthetics are subsequently obtained by combining the low-frequency components from the dynamic rupture simulation with the high-frequency components from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. Results show that rupture on a vertical Enriquillo Fault generates larger horizontal permanent displacements in Léogâne and Port-au-Prince than rupture on a south-dipping Enriquillo Fault. The mean horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA), computed at several sites of interest throughout Port-au-Prince, has a value of ˜0.45 g, whereas the maximum horizontal PGA in Port-au-Prince is ˜0.60 g. Even though we only consider a limited number of rupture scenarios, our results suggest more intense ground

  10. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  11. Free electron broad-band THz radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, A; Giovenale, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison between the conventional Tera-Hertz (THz) sources and a THz radiator based on free electron devices is proposed. The basic idea of the exploitation of some of the features of the RF FELs will be presented together with some examples that could represent an appealing source to start with. A discussion about the link between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and the electron bunch length is presented. The necessity of generating very short bunch of electrons to be injected in the radiator is demonstrated.

  12. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  13. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Batabyal

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a 'white-opsin' that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation.

  14. Broad Band/MILS Listening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-02

    environmental sensors provide a means oZ long term correlation studies of temperature and current variations with acoustic propagacion phenomena. r...change in their natural resonant frequency oihen the termperature of the element itself changes. The output signal is a constant amplitude varying

  15. FT-ICR-MS studies on the reactivity of coinage metal clusters and on the electronic stability of fullerene anions; FT-ICR-MS Studien zur Reaktivitaet kationischer Muenzmetallcluster und zur elektronischen Stabilitaet von Fullerenanionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, M.

    2008-01-15

    In the context of this work the chemical reactivity of cationic coinage metal clusters towards carbon monoxide (CO) as well as the electronic stability of fullerene anions have been studied. In order to generate metal clusters a home-built laser vaporization source was adapted to the existing Fourier transform mass spectrometer and has been optimized. Further the reactivity of cationic gold clusters Au{sup +}{sub n} (n = 1 - 65) and of mixed silver-gold clusters Ag{sub m}Au{sup +}{sub n} (m + n = 1 - 6) towards CO has been examined. Rate constants of CO adsorption has been determined which were found to depend strongly on the cluster size (gold clusters) and on the composition (silver-gold clusters). By applying the kinetic model of radiative association to the measured rate constants binding energies of CO to the clusters could be derived. In order to determine ground state structures and CO binding energies DFT calculations were accomplished. A good agreement between the computed binding energies and the data from the kinetic modelling has been found. In principle a strong decrease of the CO-binding energy (approx. 1,03 eV for Au{sub 5}(CO){sup +} to 0,65 eV for Au{sub 41}(CO){sup +}) with increasing cluster size could be observed. This behavior can be attributed to an increasing delocalization of the positive charge and shows that electrostatic forces constitute a majority of the CO binding energy especially for smaller gold cluster carbonyl cations. For the mixed silver-gold clusters a reduction of the CO binding energy with increasing number of silver atoms for a given cluster size was observed. This could be explained with an increase of the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in the Ag{sub m}Au{sup +}{sub n} clusters. As fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70} - C{sub 86},..) form a homologous row they are (besides metal clusters) suitable to study size-dependent characteristics. Furthermore the fullerene cage possesses a high stability. Within this work the electronic stability of fullerene mono- and dianions (of C{sub 76}, C{sub 84}) was studied. At present especially molecular dianions represent an intensively worked field of research as dianions which are metastable towards electron loss are stabilized by the so-called repulsive Coulomb barrier. Thus photodetachment experiments with C{sup -}{sub 73}, C{sup 2-}{sub 76} and with C{sup -}{sub 84} and C{sup 2-}{sub 84} were accomplished. In all cases studied after irradiation with light (532 nm or 355 nm) an electron loss was observed. Photoabsorption cross sections and the number of required absorbed photons in order to induce electron loss where determined. By way of the Klots model for thermionic electron emission it could be shown that electron detachment does not occur via a direct process but predominantly via a delayed process. In case of the dianions also activation barriers for electron loss could be determined from the experimental data by means of the Klots model which are a direct manifestation of the repulsive Coulomb barrier. (orig.)

  16. High-field FT-ICR mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy to characterize DOM removal through a nanofiltration pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Ribera, Gemma; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philipe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Caixach, Josep

    2014-12-15

    Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were combined to evaluate the molecular changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through an ultrafiltration-nanofiltration (UF-NF) pilot plant, using two dissimilar NF membranes tested in parallel. The sampling was performed on seven key locations within the pilot plant: pretreated water, UF effluent, UF effluent after addition of reagents, permeate NF 1, permeate NF 2, brine NF 1 and brine NF 2, during two sampling campaigns. The study showed that there is no significant change in the nature of DOM at molecular level, when the water was treated with UF and/or with the addition of sodium metabisulfite and antiscaling agents. However, enormous decrease of DOM concentration was observed when the water was treated on the NF membranes. The NF process preferentially removed compounds with higher oxygen and nitrogen content (more hydrophilic compounds), whereas molecules with longer pure aliphatic chains and less content of oxygen were the ones capable of passing through the membranes. Moreover, slight molecular selectivity between the two NF membranes was also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Approach for Studying Slow Fragmentation Kinetics in FT-ICR: Surface-Induced Dissociation Combined with Resonant Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a new approach for studying the kinetics of large ion fragmentation in the gas phase by coupling surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer with resonant ejection of selected fragment ions using a relatively short (5 ms) ejection pulse. The approach is demonstrated for singly protonated angiotensin III ions excited by collisions with a self-assembled monolayer of alkylthiol on gold (HSAM). The overall decomposition rate and rate constants of individual reaction channels are controlled by varying the kinetic energy of the precursor ion in a range of 65–95 eV. The kinetics of peptide fragmentation are probed by varying the delay time between resonant ejection and fragment ion detection at a constant total reaction time. RRKM modeling indicates that the shape of the kinetics plots is strongly affected by the shape and position of the energy deposition function (EDF) describing the internal energy distribution of the ion following ion-surface collision. Modeling of the kinetics data provides detailed information on the shape of the EDF and energy and entropy effects of individual reaction channels.

  18. Outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors: past their prime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F E; Gu, X; Simons, K J

    2000-05-01

    EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors are often recommended for prehospital treatment of anaphylaxis. When these units become outdated, there may be a delay in replacing them. Our purpose was to evaluate unused, outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors, obtained from patients at risk for anaphylaxis, for epinephrine bioavailability and epinephrine content. We conducted a prospective, randomized, cross-over study of epinephrine bioavailability after injection from outdated autoinjectors in rabbits; controls included EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors that had not expired ("in-date" autoinjectors) and intramuscular injection of 0.9% saline solution. In addition, the epinephrine content of the outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors was measured by a spectrophotometric method and an HPLC-UV method. Twenty-eight EpiPen and 6EpiPen Jr autoinjectors were studied 1 to 90 months after the stated expiration date. Most were not discolored and did not contain precipitates. Epinephrine bioavailability from the outdated EpiPen autoinjectors was significantly reduced (P EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors that are not outdated. If, however, the only autoinjector available is an outdated one, it could be used as long as no discoloration or precipitates are apparent because the potential benefit of using it is greater than the potential risk of a suboptimal epinephrine dose or of no epinephrine treatment at all.

  19. Drawing organic photovoltaics using paint marker pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaori; Izawa, Seiichiro; Chen, Yujiao; Nakano, Kyohei; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    Active layers for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) were prepared by hand drawing with paint marker pens containing solutions of the materials. Although the pen-coated organic films were visually non-uniform with quite high surface roughness, OPV devices using these films exhibited similar or slightly better performances than those using spin-coated films. As such, the pen-coating technique represents an easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly material-efficient method for fabricating OPVs.

  20. Enhanced 2 μm broad-band emission and NIR to visible frequency up-conversion from Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped Bi2O3-GeO2-ZnO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D; Sen, R; Annapurna, K

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a new and non-conventional oxide glass composition based on Bi2O3-GeO2-ZnO system has been formulated with an aim to realize low phonon oxide glass and elucidate its performance when co-doped with Ho(3+)/Yb(3+) for the energy transfer based NIR emission at 2 μm from Ho(3+) ions under Yb(3+) excitation. The glass with 1.0 mol% Ho2O3 and 0.5 mol% Yb2O3 has exhibited maximum energy transfer rate (3602 s(-1)) and energy transfer efficiency (65.92%). Important radiative properties have been predicted for emission transitions of Ho(3+) ions using intensity parameters derived from measured absorption spectra using standard Judd-Ofelt theory. At lower acceptor ion concentration (0.1 mol%), an efficient NIR to visible up-conversion emission has been observed based on two photon absorption process which has found to be reduced significantly at higher Ho(3+) concentrations with simultaneous enhancement in 2 μm emission. Hence, this newly developed glass codoped with Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) is promising glass for sensitized 2 μm emission applications as broad band tunable lasers because of the combination of low phonon energy (707 cm(-1)), high energy transfer efficiency, moderately high emission cross-section (5.33×10(-21) cm(2)) and larger effective half-width of the emission band value of 169 nm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  2. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  3. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  4. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  5. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  6. Electrospray deposition from fountain pen AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time electrospraying from fountain pen probes. By using electrospray contactless deposition in an AFM setup becomes possible. Experiments on a dedicated setup were carried out as first step towards this goal. Spraying from 8 and 2 µm apertures was observed. For

  7. Planning and Teaching Report-Writing. PEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Julie

    Although an Australian educator had taught isolated aspects of functional grammar for a number of years, she felt that she had not put enough energy into building field (topic) knowledge. With the unit featured in this PEN Digest she aims to focus on building a quite extensive knowledge of the topic--snakes. According to the Digest, the educator…

  8. Nonlinear PIC simulation in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, G.; Delzanno, G. L.; Finn, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  9. TV Pen-Drive in Government Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Antonio Claudemir de; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Bertoncello, Ludhiana; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Bertoncello, Valdecir; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR

    2010-01-01

    TV Pen-drive technology by Geography teachers in government schools of the state of Paraná, Brazil, is analyzed so that its importance as didactic material which actually broadened the range of pedagogical intentions may be understood. In fact, the latter verified the degree of teachers’ digital inclusion, identified access and technological support they have in their day-to-day work and the manner information and communication technology contributed for the development of pedagogical activit...

  10. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  11. Usability of the Stylus Pen in Mobile Electronic Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stylus pens are often used with mobile information devices. However, few studies have examined the stylus’ simple movements because the technical expertise to support documentation with stylus pens has not been developed. This study examined the usability of stylus pens in authentic documentation tasks, including three main tasks (sentence, table, and paragraph making with two types of styluses (touchsmart stylus and mobile stylus and a traditional pen. The statistical results showed that participants preferred the traditional pen in all criteria. Because of inconvenient hand movements, the mobile stylus was the least preferred on every task. Mobility does not provide any advantage in using the stylus. In addition, the study also found inconvenient hand support using a stylus and different feedback between a stylus and a traditional pen.

  12. Calibrating pen dosimeters with and without a phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Cescon, Claudinei T.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: ctcescon@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thirty one direct reading dosimeters (pen dosimeters) were calibrated and tested in standard beams of gamma radiation, with and without the use of a phantom. The calibration was performed with a Co-60 source and tested with a Cs-137 source. The dose-response curves of the pen dosimeters and their calibration factors for a Co-60 source, with and without the use of a phantom were obtained. The results show the need to calibrate the pen dosimeters with a phantom. (author)

  13. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every...

  14. Pen Culture of the Black-Chinned Tilapia, Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second treatment, bamboo was stacked at a density of 6 per metre square in pens to serve as substrate for periphyton growth and development. In the third ... From the results, the least yield was obtained from the unfed control pen (0.045 kg/m2), whilst the highest was from the bamboo equipped pens (0.183 kg/m2).

  15. Instrumentation Upgrades to TITAN's Cooler Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Daniel; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The use of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) is critical to improving the precision of Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides with half-lives substantially less than 100 ms, but the process of charge breeding imparts an unacceptably high energy spread to the ion bunch sent to TITAN's precision Penning trap for mass measurement. TITAN's Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada was designed to cool HCIs with a plasma of simultaneously trapped electrons. CPET is currently undergoing commissioning offline at TRIUMF. In order to prepare CPET for full operation, several technical challenges associated with the use of electrons in a strong magnetic field had to be overcome. First among these was the detection of electrons outside of CPET. A novel, thin charge-collecting detector was successfully developed. Known as the mesh detector, it is charge-agnostic and can be made effectively transparent to allow for the passage of any charged particle at the user's request. The second challenge, moving CPET's electron source off the central beam axis was overcome by the creation of an electron source which would allow for electron injection into CPET and the passage of cooled ions out of CPET. CPET's 7 T solenoid generates a stray field far outside of the magnet's central bore that forced the design of a set of electron injection optics that bend, steer and focus the beam in three dimensions. Results from the successful installation of these upgrades as well as a report on future work will be discussed. This work was partially supported by NSERC, the CFI and the DFG.

  16. French Pen Pals Made Easy KS3

    CERN Document Server

    Leleu, Sinéad

    2010-01-01

    French Pen Pals Made Easy provides an easy way for pupils to communicate in French with other French speakers. It contains fill-in-the-gap letters, so even pupils just beginning to learn French can have the satisfaction of being able to communicate effectively in French. The format is ideal for non-specialist teachers as it does not require fluency and little or no preparation is required. English translations of the letters are included, as are lists of vocabulary, key grammar points and exten

  17. Apertureless cantilever-free pen arrays for scanning photochemical printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xie, Zhuang; Brown, Keith A; Park, Daniel J; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Hirtz, Michael; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Zheng, Zijian; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-02-25

    A novel, apertureless, cantilever-free pen array can be used for dual scanning photochemical and molecular printing. Serial writing with light is enabled by combining self-focusing pyramidal pens with an opaque backing between pens. The elastomeric pens also afford force-tuned illumination and simultaneous delivery of materials and optical energy. These attributes make the technique a promising candidate for maskless high-resolution photopatterning and combinatorial chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spatial Segmentation of MALDI FT-ICR MSI Data: A Powerful Tool to Explore the Head and Neck Tumor in Situ Lipodome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Hoffmann, F.; Ernst, G.; Trede, D.; Alexandrov, T.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Gruntinas-Lichius, O.; Eggeling, F.; Cerecelius, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2015), s. 36-43 ISSN 1044-0305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ECOST-STSM-BM1104-200513-028870; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13038 Grant - others:European Union 7th Framework Programme(CZ) 305259 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spatial segmentation * head tumor * neck tumor * cancer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  19. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  20. Comparing soil and pond ash feedlot pen surfaces for environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removing manure and replacing soil to maintain pen surfaces is expensive. Pond ash (PA), a coal-fired electrical generation by-product, has good support qualities. A study was conducted comparing the performance of pond ash (PA) surfaced pens with soil surface (SS) pens. Four pens of an eight pen se...

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilan G. Destreza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have reached the classroom. It is one of the means of teaching strategies nowadays. Multimedia projectors have become one of the teaching tools the teacher cannot bear without it. The concept of making this tool to be interactive and easier to use was far conceived by the researcher. The researcher’s objective was to develop such tool and evaluate it according to its portability, simplicity, robustness, user-friendliness, effectiveness and efficiency. The respondents of the project were both the students and teachers of Batangas State University ARASOF-Nasugbu. The researcher has developed different prototypes for the interactive pen and tested in different environment and demonstrated the “know-how” of the project. The project was built using a simple infrared light emitting diode (IR LED, infrared tracker, and software which computes, detects and interact with the application program. Evaluation of the project followed the demonstration. The project got a high acceptance according to its portability, simplicity, robustness, user-friendliness, effectiveness and efficiency. The researcher is recommending the full implementation of the project in the Batangas State University ARASOF- Nasugbu and for better enhancement of the project by eliminating the pen.

  2. Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-processing algorithm and a hardware architecture to implement the algorithm have been devised for timeslot synchronization in the reception of pulse-position-modulated (PPM) optical or radio signals. As in the cases of some prior algorithms and architectures for parallel, discrete-time, digital processing of signals other than PPM, an incoming broadband signal is divided into multiple parallel narrower-band signals by means of sub-sampling and filtering. The number of parallel streams is chosen so that the frequency content of the narrower-band signals is low enough to enable processing by relatively-low speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuitry. The algorithm and architecture are intended to satisfy requirements for time-varying time-slot synchronization and post-detection filtering, with correction of timing errors independent of estimation of timing errors. They are also intended to afford flexibility for dynamic reconfiguration and upgrading. The architecture is implemented in a reconfigurable CMOS processor in the form of a field-programmable gate array. The algorithm and its hardware implementation incorporate three separate time-varying filter banks for three distinct functions: correction of sub-sample timing errors, post-detection filtering, and post-detection estimation of timing errors. The design of the filter bank for correction of timing errors, the method of estimating timing errors, and the design of a feedback-loop filter are governed by a host of parameters, the most critical one, with regard to processing very broadband signals with CMOS hardware, being the number of parallel streams (equivalently, the rate-reduction parameter).

  3. Computer-aided design of broad band reflection type amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershaimb, Edgar; Jeppesen, Palle; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    . At the same time the impedance of unpackaged devices are obtained by on-line correction for the package parasitics. The microwave circuit chosen is a multiple slug coaxial cavity, that is modelled by sections of lossy transmission lines including step susceptances. The measured small signal impedance......Microwave negative resistance reflection type amplifiers using stable transferred electron devices (TED's) are optimized by numerical optimization techniques programmed for an interactive graphic datascreen. The small signal impedance of packaged TED's is measured on an automatic network analyzer...... of the packaged TED's and the cavity model are used in a direct optimization procedure, in which the calculated minimum gain in the prescribed frequency range is progressively maximized by adjusting the lengths, characteristic impedances and positions of the slugs. The computed results are displayed...

  4. Broad-Band EUV Multilayer Coatings For Solar Physics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of aperiodic multilayer coating that is designed to provide high normal-incidence reflectance over a wide...

  5. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V

    2011-01-01

    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  6. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik

    2017-01-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and expe...

  7. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silver coatings for optics greater than 2-meters in diameter are sought by NASA for future space telescope systems. In the Phase I research, Surface Optics...

  8. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, C., E-mail: claudia.monte@ba.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Perri, M. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Richards, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  9. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  10. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space telescopes such as the Super Nova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) require exceptionally reflective coatings applied to mirrors several meters in diameter. In...

  11. Broad-band transmission spectra of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.

    2017-07-01

    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b, and WASP-46b using multi-band photometry collected at the Observatório do Pico Dos Dias in Brazil. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides for these systems. The new orbital parameters and physical properties are consistent with previous estimates. We also studied the transit times including our new ephemerides. We did not find variations of a linear trend due to extra companions. Finally, we studied the fractional radius variation as a function of wavelength for these systems.

  12. Rayleigh Wave Velocity Measurements Using Broad Band Frequency Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Heukelom 4I and Foster 1960, Chang and Ballard 1973, Ballard and McLean 1975). The procedure for measuring the Rayleigh wave velocity has consisted... Heukelom , W., and Foster, C. R. 1960. "Dynamic Testing of Pavements," Journal, Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, American Society of Civil Engineers

  13. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Y. M.; DeVries, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on

  14. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every gene in a complex organism such as a mouse or human. We tested carryover during array printing with dye solution, labeled DNA, and hybridized DNA, and we found it to be indistinguishable from background. Hybridization also showed good sequence specificity to printed oligonucleotides. In addition to improved slide capacity, the microfabrication process offers the possibility of low-cost mass-produced pens and the flexibility to include novel pen features that cannot be machined with conventional techniques. PMID:12975313

  15. NovoPen Echo® insulin delivery device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyllested-Winge J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Hyllested-Winge,1 Thomas Sparre,2 Line Kynemund Pedersen2 1Novo Nordisk Pharma Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark Abstract: The introduction of insulin pen devices has provided easier, well-tolerated, and more convenient treatment regimens for patients with diabetes mellitus. When compared with vial and syringe regimens, insulin pens offer a greater clinical efficacy, improved quality of life, and increased dosing accuracy, particularly at low doses. The portable and discreet nature of pen devices reduces the burden on the patient, facilitates adherence, and subsequently contributes to the improvement in glycemic control. NovoPen Echo® is one of the latest members of the NovoPen® family that has been specifically designed for the pediatric population and is the first to combine half-unit increment (=0.5 U of insulin dosing with a simple memory function. The half-unit increment dosing amendments and accurate injection of 0.5 U of insulin are particularly beneficial for children (and insulin-sensitive adults/elders, who often require small insulin doses. The memory function can be used to record the time and amount of the last dose, reducing the fear of double dosing or missing a dose. The memory function also provides parents with extra confidence and security that their child is taking insulin at the correct doses and times. NovoPen Echo is a lightweight, durable insulin delivery pen; it is available in two different colors, which may help to distinguish between different types of insulin, providing more confidence for both users and caregivers. Studies have demonstrated a high level of patient satisfaction, with 80% of users preferring NovoPen Echo to other pediatric insulin pens. Keywords: NovoPen Echo®, memory function, half-unit increment dosing, adherence, children, adolescents 

  16. The Canadian Penning Trap spectrometer at Argonne

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Caggiano, J; Clark, J; Crawford, J E; Fukutani, H; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Schwartz, J; Seweryniak, D; Sprouse, G D; Vaz, J

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT spectrometer and its injection system will be described in detail and its unique capabilities with respect to its initial physics program, concentrating on isotopes around the N=Z line with particular emphasis on isotopes of interest to low-energy tests of the electroweak interaction and the rp-process, will be highlighted. (6 refs).

  17. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  18. EpiPen Jr versus EpiPen in young children weighing 15 to 30 kg at risk for anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R; Gu, Xiaochen; Silver, Norman A; Simons, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    The EpiPen Jr (0.15 mg) and EpiPen (0.3 mg) auto-injectors, widely prescribed for the out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis, have not been compared prospectively in young children. The purpose of this investigation was to study the rate and extent of epinephrine absorption after use of the EpiPen Jr and the EpiPen in children weighing 15 to 30 kg. In a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group pilot study, children at risk for anaphylaxis self-injected epinephrine using either an EpiPen Jr or an EpiPen with the aid of a physician. Plasma epinephrine concentrations, blood glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, and adverse effects were monitored before and for 180 minutes after the injection. Children (age [mean +/- SEM], 5.4 +/- 0.4 years; weight [mean +/- SEM], 18.0 +/- 0.6 kg) who injected epinephrine with an EpiPen Jr achieved a maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SEM) of 2037 +/- 541 pg/mL at 16 +/- 3 minutes. Children (6.6 +/- 0.5 years; 25.4 +/- 1.5 kg) who injected epinephrine with an EpiPen achieved a maximum plasma concentration of 2289 +/- 405 pg/mL at 15 +/- 3 minutes. Mean systolic blood pressure 30 minutes after epinephrine injection was significantly higher with the EpiPen than with the EpiPen Jr. After injection with the EpiPen Jr, every child experienced transient pallor; some also experienced tremor and anxiety. After injection with the EpiPen, every child developed transient pallor, tremor, anxiety, and palpitations or other cardiovascular effects; some also developed headache and nausea. Epinephrine injection with the EpiPen rather than the EpiPen Jr raised the systolic blood pressure significantly but also caused more adverse effects. The beneficial pharmacologic effects and the adverse pharmacologic effects of epinephrine cannot be dissociated. For the out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis, additional premeasured, fixed doses of epinephrine would facilitate more precise dosing in young children.

  19. [STR genotyping from trace epithelial cells on fountain pen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Mei, Shan-Zong; Li, Yong-Hong; Feng, Yan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yue

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of STR genotyping from trace epithelial cells on fountain pen and to discuss the impact of conservation time on DNA typing. Seven fountain pens were separately used by each of the 17 volunteers 20 minutes per day for a month and then were preserved on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28. DNA was extracted from the epithelial cells on fountain pen by silicon bead and was genotyped by Identifier kit. The corresponding control samples were buccal swabs of the above volunteers. The detectable numbers of loci were counted for assessment. There were statistically significant differences in the DNA genotyping by detectable numbers of gene loci between buccal swabs and epithelial cells on fountain pen of different conservation times (P fountain pen preserved on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and the corresponding oral swabs were also statistically significant (P fountain pen if the tests were performed within 24 hours. The trace epithelial cells on fountain pen can be used as biological samples for personal identification, but the conservation time would have influence on the results of DNA genotyping.

  20. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M L V; Bertelsen, M; Pedersen, L J

    2018-02-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs' resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate and pigs' earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area.

  1. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the fa......This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work...... for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs’ resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate...... indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve...

  2. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  3. GKJ: Group KJ Method Support System Utilizing Digital Pens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIURA, Motoki; SUGIHARA, Taro; KUNIFUJI, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners of the Jiro Kawakita (KJ) method, a method for organizing ideas, typically use paper labels and four-colored ball-point pens to record their ideas during the creative thinking process...

  4. Doctor--how do I use my EpiPen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Sam; Robinson, Marnie; Tang, Mimi

    2007-08-01

    Parents and children who have been prescribed an Epipen are often unable to demonstrate its correct administration. One contributory factor may be that doctors are unfamiliar with the EpiPen and are unable to demonstrate the correct administration of the pen to the family. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of correct EpiPen demonstration by junior and Senior Medical Staff at a major tertiary paediatric Hospital. Junior and Senior medical staff were scored on their ability to correctly use the EpiPen trainer. A 6 step scoring system was used. One-hundred doctors were recruited (Residents n = 31, Senior Residents n = 39, Fellow/Consultants n = 30). Junior and Senior Medical staff had similar scores for EpiPen demonstration, the number that needed to read the EpiPen instructions prior to use and the frequancy of accidental self-injection into the thumb. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. The most frequent errors made were not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds (57%), failure to apply pressure to activate (21%), and self-injection into the thumb (16%). Ninety five doctors needed to read the instructions, and of these, only 39 (41%) then proceeded to correctly demonstrate the remaining 5 steps. Forty-five doctors had previously dispensed an EpiPen, but only three demonstrated its use to parents/children with a trainer. The majority of doctors do not know how to use an Epipen and are unable to provide appropriate education to parents/children. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient.

  5. Lessons learned during the development of HumaPen memoir, an insulin pen with a memory feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Stuart D; Ignaut, Debra A; Boyd, Douglas E

    2010-05-01

    Insulin pens are developed to address specific needs of diabetes patients for their pens, such as ease of use, portability, and discreetness. Like many consumer-based products, the development of insulin pens can pose significant challenges to the development team in that they must balance substantial accuracy requirements with aesthetic desires. The HumaPen Memoir team learned valuable lessons throughout the development process that may be worth highlighting. A keen understanding of the unmet needs of the patient population and a skillfully planned product generation map are critical to successful device development. A development team must decide whether to use a Quality Functional Deployment or system engineering-based development plan and, additionally, recognize where proof of concept ends and product development begins to maintain a strict timeline for the project. A proficiency in understanding and managing technical risk is critical to ensure a timely and high-quality product launch to the marketplace. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. The effects of zonation of the pen and grouping in intact litters on use of pen, immune competence and health of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Studnitz, M.; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The effects of pen design and group composition were examined with respect to activity, use of pen, floor conditions, health condition and immune competence for groups of 60 pigs. The experiment was designed with the two factors with zones/without zones and divided litters/intact litters....... The experiment included a total of 1440 pigs from weaning at the age of 4 weeks to the age of 18 weeks after weaning. In pens with zones, the selection of different areas for different activities was improved. Pens with zones were more dirty in the elimination and open areas than pens without zones. In pens...... to divided litters. The health condition of the pigs was unaffected by pen design, but noninfectious health condition was improved in pens with zones....

  7. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  8. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N

    2010-01-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  9. Dynamic-compliance and viscosity of PET and PEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weick, Brian L. [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, 95211 (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Complex dynamic-compliance and in-phase dynamic-viscosity data are presented and analyzed for PET and PEN advanced polyester substrates used for magnetic tapes. Frequency-temperature superposition is used to predict long-term behavior. Temperature and frequency ranges for the primary glass transition and secondary transitions are discussed and compared for PET and PEN. Shift factors from frequency-temperature superposition are used to determine activation energies for the transitions, and WLF parameters are determined for the polyester substrates.

  10. Penning-trap mass spectrometry and neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, Sergey; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yuri N. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Rapidly developing neutrino physics has found in Penning-trap mass spectrometry a staunch ally in investigating a variety of fundamental problems. The most familiar are the absolute neutrino mass, possible existence of resonant neutrinoless double-electron capture and of keV-sterile neutrinos, and investigation of neutrino oscillations. This article is a brief review of the latest achievements and future perspectives of Penning-trap mass spectrometry in the exploration of these problems with a focus on electron capture and double electron capture processes. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Early warning of diarrhea and pen fouling in growing pigs using sensor-based monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D. B.; Toft, N.; Kristensen, A. R.

    as the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results: We achieved an AUC of 0.83 when all variables were included. Omitting live weight and humidity had no effect. Omitting drinking behavior, temperature, and feed usage reduced the AUC to 0.70, 0.81, and 0.82 respectively. Conclusion...... then identify specific pens in need of extra attention. Here we evaluate the value of monitoring live weight, feed usage, humidity, drinking behavior and pen temperature in relation to early warnings of diarrhea and pen fouling in slaughter pigs. Materials and methods: We used data collected in 16 pens (8...... double-pens) between November 2013 and December 2014 at a commercial Danish farm. During this time, three new batches were inserted. We monitored the mean live weight of the pigs per pen (weekly, only in 4 pens), feed usage per double-pen (daily), humidity per section (daily), temperature at two...

  12. Novel dip-pen nanolithography strategies for nanopatterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based lithography technique offering the possibility of fabricating patterns with feature sizes ranging from micrometers to tens of nanometers, utilizing either top-down or bottom-up strategies. Although during its early development

  13. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protruding objects which may, in the opinion of the inspector, cause injury or pain to the animals. Loose... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Ramsey technique applied in a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H.

    1992-08-01

    The Ramsey method has been applied in an experiment aiming for accurate mass determination of unstable isotopes. The ion motion in a Penning trap has been excited with time-separated oscillatory fields and Ramsey fringes were observed in the case of dipole and quadrupole excitation. The experimental resonances are in good agreement with theory. Further applications of the technique are discussed.

  15. Towards a "perfect" Penning trap mass spectrometer for unstable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Hartmann, H.; Kluge, H.-J.; König, M.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H.; ISOLDE Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    A Penning trap mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN for the mass determination of unstable heavy isotopes. The spectrometer should fulfil the following requirements: capture of external ions in high efficiency, high resolving power and accuracy, general applicability to all elements and isotopes available at the on-line facility.

  16. Ramsey technique applied in a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.J.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)

    1992-08-01

    The Ramsey method has been applied in an experiment aiming for accurate mass determination of unstable isotopes. The ion motion in a Penning trap has been excited with time-separated oscillatory fields and Ramsey fringes were observed in the case of dipole and quadrupole excitation. The experimental resonances are in good agreement with theory. Further applications of the technique are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Evaluation of the implementation and performance of the Digital Pen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Digital Pen Technology (DPT) project was implemented in Sesheke, Kazungula, Monze and Namwala districts of Zambia that were considered to be at high risk of Trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs). The purpose was to create efficient reporting system that quickly transmits data of livestock disease from the field.

  18. 42 CFR 414.104 - PEN Items and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PEN Items and Services. 414.104 Section 414.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Fee Schedules for...

  19. Le Pen õigustas natside tegevust Prantsusmaal / Margo Pajuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajuste, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Prantsuse paremäärmusliku partei juht Jean-Marie Le Pen väitis, et Saksa okupatsioon II maailmasõja ajal Prantsusmaal ei olnud eriti ebainimlik ja et kui väited massimõrvade kohta Prantsusmaal vastaksid tõele, poleks olnud vaja luua koonduslaagreid poliitvangidele. Reageeringutest Le Peni väidete kohta Prantsusmaal

  20. Solution of the two identical ion Penning trap final state

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, W.; Brown, T L; Cozzo, E.; Moyers, B.; Crescimanno, M.

    2001-01-01

    We have derived a closed form analytic expression for the asymptotic motion of a pair of identical ions in a high precision Penning trap. The analytic solution includes the effects of special relativity and the Coulomb interaction between the ions. The existence and physical relevance of such a final state is supported by a confluence of theoretical, experimental and numerical evidence.

  1. Johannes Vermeer and Tom Gouws: textual discourse through pen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vermeer's paintings the composition of the work of art is important regarding perspective, projection and fusion (merger) of an entire cosmos. In the same way the painter captures landscapes and beings in stylistic positions with brush and canvas, the poet makes a poetic painting using a pen as instrument to capture ...

  2. Pen-based Interfaces for Engineering and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahovich, Thomas F.

    Sketches are an important problem-solving tool in many fields. This is particularly true of engineering design, where sketches facilitate creativity by providing an efficient medium for expressing ideas. However, despite the importance of sketches in engineering practice, current engineering software still relies on traditional mouse and keyboard interfaces, with little or no capabilities to handle free-form sketch input. With recent advances in machine-interpretation techniques, it is now becoming possible to create practical interpretation-based interfaces for such software. In this chapter, we report on our efforts to create interpretation techniques to enable pen-based engineering applications. We describe work on two fundamental sketch understanding problems. The first is sketch parsing, the task of clustering pen strokes or geometric primitives into individual symbols. The second is symbol recognition, the task of classifying symbols once they have been located by a parser. We have used the techniques that we have developed to construct several pen-based engineering analysis tools. These are used here as examples to illustrate our methods. We have also begun to use our techniques to create pen-based tutoring systems that scaffold students in solving problems in the same way they would ordinarily solve them with paper and pencil. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of these systems.

  3. Effects of interaction of breed by pen and cage position on hen day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This were subjected to a two way Analysis of variance to determine the effect of breed by pen and cage interaction on hen-day performance.Mean hen day lay of Haco black by pen interaction was not significantly (P>0.01) different in pen L1 and L3, while that in pen L2 was low and significantly (P<.05) different from that in ...

  4. Pen Pal Writing: A Holistic and Socio-Cultural Approach to Adult English Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…

  5. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  6. Phosphorylation is required for the pathogen defense function of the Arabidopsis PEN3 ABC transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis PEN3 ABC transporter accumulates at sites of pathogen detection, where it is involved in defense against multiple pathogens. Perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors initiates recruitment of PEN3 and also leads to PEN3 phosphorylation at multiple amino acid residues. Whet...

  7. Jean-Marie Le Pen vs. Marine Le Pen : un ‘ethos émotif’ différent ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Baider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the Front National’s electoral victories could be explained, partially, in terms of a new discursive rhetoric adopted by Marine Le Pen. In order to compare rhetorical strategies used by both Marine and Jean-Marie Le Pen and their impact on their followers, we use comparable data, which consist of press articles published during the presidential campaigns of each politician and postings by online discussants related to interviews. Using corpus linguistics tools and lexical semantics, we assess how differently both leaders position themselves emotionally and how this emotional positioning is reconstructed within the postings of the viewers. Although no important quantitative difference can be observed in the number of emotion key-words they used respectively, a shift in both politicians’ rhetoric positioning can be observed when analyzing the context in which these keywords are embedded. If Jean-Marie Le Pen focuses on negative feelings towards the Other (anger, resentment, Marine Le Pen promotes a positive ethos (empathy in order to detoxify the image of her party and broaden her electoral base.

  8. [Standard ballpoint pens disappear from the coats with a half-life of nine days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Brynskov, Troels

    2014-12-08

    Ballpoint pens are important tools for the daily work of the physicians. However, a practical challenge seems to be that they disappear just when one needs them most. We call this the ballpoint pen paradox. We have studied the fate of 60 ballpoint pens in an outpatient clinical setting. Five physicians, five nurses and five medical secretaries were equipped with four barcode-tagged ballpoint pens. During follow-ups, we systematically searched the participants' coat and the department for the barcode-tagged ballpoint pens. We illustrated the migration of the ballpoint pens using a diagram and tested fit of linear and exponential trend line. The ballpoint pens displayed a tremendous migration in the department. Disappearance from the coat was exponentially with a half-life of 9 days - only 23% were left after 18 days. Disappearance from the department was linear with a 3% loss per day - only 42% were left after 18 days. Ballpoint pens have a high migration and turnover rate. The fate is unknown for a great amount of ballpoint pens. They are treated carelessly, which finally results in waste of time and resources. It may be that the ballpoint pen paradox can be diminished by phasing out ballpoint pens of low quality. not relevant. not relevant.

  9. The high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas; Bekker, Hendrik; Blaum, Klaus; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hoekel-Schmoeger, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Christine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, Darmstadt (Germany); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Eliseev, Sergey; Repp, Julia; Roux, Christian; Sturm, Sven [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yuri [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Ulmer, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, the high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP is being built up at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany. It aims at mass-ratio measurements of medium- to high-Z elements with uncertainties of a few parts in 10{sup 12}. Mass-ratios will be determined by the measurement of cyclotron frequency-ratios in the strong magnetic field of the trap. The experiment will host five identical cylindrical Penning traps and will allow for simultaneous cyclotron frequency determinations in all measurement traps. It will feature access to highly charged ions provided by EBITs. Measurements at PENTATRAP will contribute to various fields of physics. For example, input parameters for neutrino mass determinations will be provided with measurements of Q-values of relevant β-transitions. The current status of the experiment will be outlined in the talk.

  10. Drogue et pensée : entre-deux

    OpenAIRE

    Antenat, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Si je n’affirme pas d’avantage, c’est que je crois l’insinuation plus efficace. Gide Si les discours sur la toxicomanie et les sinistres certains de la drogue sont fréquents, au point d’absorber ou d’empêcher tout propos qui ne soit pas thérapeutique ou politiquement aseptisé, les rapports entre drogue et pensée, disons plutôt entre l’expérience des drogues dites psychédéliques et certaines modalités du pensé, sont, en revanche, plus rare. Parler de la drogue ou sur la drogue soulève instanta...

  11. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G. L. (Gian L.); Lapenta, G. M. (Giovanni M.); Finn, J. M. (John M.)

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  12. Electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication of vertically grown platinum nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Abhijit P.; Yu, Min-Feng

    2007-03-01

    Local electrochemical deposition of freestanding platinum nanowires was demonstrated with a new approach—electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication (ec-FPN). The ec-FPN exploits the meniscus formed between an electrolyte-filled nanopipette ('the fountain pen') and a conductive substrate to serve as a confined electrochemical cell for reducing and depositing metal ions. Freestanding Pt nanowires were continuously grown off the substrate by moving the nanopipette away from the substrate while maintaining a stable meniscus between the nanopipette and the nanowire growth front. High quality and high aspect-ratio polycrystalline Pt nanowires with diameter of ~150 nm and length over 30 µm were locally grown with ec-FPN. The ec-FPN technique is shown to be an efficient and clean technique for localized fabrication of a variety of vertically grown metal nanowires and can potentially be used for fabricating freeform 3D nanostructures.

  13. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Dieterich

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  14. Performance and well-being of sows housed in pens retrofitted from gestation stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L J; Li, Y Z

    2013-12-01

    Pressures from consumers concerned with sow well-being in gestation stalls have encouraged producers to consider how to transition from individual gestation stalls to pens in existing buildings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and well-being of sows in pens that were retrofitted from stalls (2.1 by 0.55 m). Large pens (5.5 by 7.3 m) housed 26 sows and small pens (5.5 by 1.7 m) housed 6 sows, with equal floor space allowance (1.5 m(2)/sow) in both pens. Floor space allowance in pens was set to ensure that pens and stalls occupied the same building space per sow. Data were collected from 815 sows (parity 1 to 8) in 13 large pens, 26 small pens, and 326 stalls that served as control. All sows were mated in stalls and moved to pens or stalls after pregnancy confirmation at 5 wk after mating. Daily feed allowance for sows was dropped on a solid floor in pens and was equal in all 3 housing systems. Sows stayed in their assigned gestation housing treatment for 1 pregnancy. Data were analyzed using the Proc FREQ and the Proc Mixed procedures of SAS. Sows in large pens gained less weight during gestation than sows in small pens and stalls (33.4 vs. 39.5 and 41.5 kg, SE = 1.64; P = 0.01). In addition, the proportion of sows assigned to the study that farrowed was the lowest in large pens (92%, χ(2) = 9.52; P period. Causes for sow removal were different among the housing treatments. Poor reproductive performance was the top reason for culling sows in large pens and in stalls. In small pens, mortality was the top reason for sow removal. Housing treatment did not affect live litter size at birth (12.5, 12.2 and 12.3 piglets, SE = 0.21) or weaning (10.2, 10.1 and 10.3 piglets, SE = 0.20) for large pens, small pens, or stalls, respectively. Results suggest that the performance and well-being of sows were compromised in pens, as indicated by decreased farrowing rates and increased sow removal rates. The limited floor space allowance and the competitive

  15. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biella, Serena, E-mail: serena.biella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  16. The EpiPen and the ischaemic finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Talvinder; Randhawa, Susheelwant; Khanna, Rakesh

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old with a history of accidental injection of adrenaline from an EpiPen into the proximal aspect of her left index finger. Various methods were advocated to treat digital ischaemia but were of no benefit. Topical infiltration of phentolamine in 1 ml of lignocaine 2% was given at the puncture site with immediate results of resolution of digital ischaemia.

  17. Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy after EpiPen administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrinich, C M; Farouque, H M Omar; Rochford, S E; Sutherland, M F

    2008-11-01

    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and increased cardiac enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary vessel disease. We describe the development of tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman after the use of an EpiPen for generalized urticaria and angioedema. As adrenaline may participate in the pathogenesis of this condition, the need for careful patient selection and education in the use of adrenaline self-injectors remains imperative.

  18. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  19. Pen rearing and imprinting of fall Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Novotny, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  20. Penning trap-assisted decay spectroscopy at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droese, C.; Marx, G. [Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Schweikhard, L. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Andersson, L.L. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Eibach, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D. [Lund University (Sweden); Haettner, E.; Plass, W.R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Mazzocco, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Minaya Ramirez, E. [Helmholtz-Institut, Mainz (Germany); Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Yu. [PNPI, RAS, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Rahaman, S.; Stolze, S. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rodriguez, D. [Universidad de Granada (Spain); Thirolf, P.G.; Weber, C. [Ludwig Maximilians-Universitaet, Garching (Germany); Vorobjev, G.K. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); PNPI, RAS, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Penning trap-assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy utilizes the high mass selectivity of a Penning trap to prepare an isotopically pure sample of a particular radionuclide for decay measurements. With the mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt a first experiment was performed to investigate {sup 205}Rn and {sup 213}Ra combining mass spectrometry and {alpha}-{gamma} spectroscopy by adding the new detector setup TRAPSPEC. The Penning trap served as a high-resolution mass separator to prepare a pure sample of {sup 213}Ra or {sup 205}Rn for implantation into the silicon detector array of TASISpec that was surrounded by three Ge detectors. For {sup 213}Ra the well-known {gamma} lines, X-rays of Rn and {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence es were observed. In addition, in the same experiment high-precision mass measurements of {sup 213}Ra and the radon isotopes {sup 203-207}Rn were performed. Since the characteristic {alpha} lines of neighboring radon isotopes produced simultaneously in the same irradiation are very similar trap-assisted spectroscopy is crucial to select a particular isotope for an unambiguous interpretation of the observed decay spectrum. Here, the preparation of {sup 205}Rn allowed the search for a so far unobserved isomeric state that is expected from the systematics in neighboring odd-A Rn isotopes.

  1. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  2. Handwriting: hand-pen contact force synergies in circle drawing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Kun; Hooke, Alexander W; Kim, You-Sin; Park, Jaebum; Karol, Sohit; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2010-08-26

    This study investigated synergistic actions of hand-pen contact forces during circle drawing tasks in three-dimensional (3D) space. Twenty-four right-handed participants drew thirty concentric circles in the counterclockwise (CCW) and clockwise (CW) directions. Three-dimensional forces acting on an instrumented pen as well as 3D linear and angular positions of the pen were recorded. These contact forces were then transformed into the 3D radial, tangential, and normal force components specific to circle drawing. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis was employed to calculate the magnitude of the hand-pen contact force synergy. Three hypotheses were tested. First, hand-pen contact force synergies during circle drawing are dependent on the angular position of the pen tip. Second, hand-pen contact force synergies are dependent on force components in circle drawing. Third, hand-pen contact force synergies are greater in CCW direction than CW direction. The results showed that the strength of the hand-pen contact force synergy increased during the initial phase of circle drawing and decreased during the final phase. The synergy strength was greater for the radial and tangential components as compared to the normal component. Also, the circle drawing in CW direction was associated with greater hand-pen contact force synergy than the CCW direction. The results of this study suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritizes hand-pen contact force synergies for the force components (i.e., radial and tangential) that are critical for circle drawing. The CNS modulates hand-pen contact force synergies for preparation and conclusion of circle drawing, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Demonstration of the double Penning Trap technique with a single proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooser, A.; Bräuninger, S.; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.

    2013-06-01

    Spin flips of a single proton were driven in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. For the spin-state analysis the proton was transported into a second Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic bottle, and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect was applied. This first demonstration of the double Penning trap technique with a single proton suggests that the antiproton magnetic moment measurement can potentially be improved by three orders of magnitude or more.

  4. Demonstration of the double Penning Trap technique with a single proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooser, A. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bräuninger, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, D-69047 Heidelberg (Germany); Franke, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kracke, H. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Leiteritz, C. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Rodegheri, C.C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, D-69047 Heidelberg (Germany); Nagahama, H. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Schneider, G. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität D-55099 Mainz (Germany); RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Smorra, C. [RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); and others

    2013-06-10

    Spin flips of a single proton were driven in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. For the spin-state analysis the proton was transported into a second Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic bottle, and the continuous Stern–Gerlach effect was applied. This first demonstration of the double Penning trap technique with a single proton suggests that the antiproton magnetic moment measurement can potentially be improved by three orders of magnitude or more.

  5. Demonstration of the Double Penning Trap Technique with a Single Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mooser, A; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Rodegheri, C.C.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2013-01-01

    Spin flips of a single proton were driven in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. For the spin-state analysis the proton was transported into a second Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic bottle, and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect was applied. This first demonstration of the double Penning trap technique with a single proton suggests that the antiproton magnetic moment measurement can potentially be improved by three orders of magnitude or more.

  6. Development of the Pirani and penning vacuum gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Yoon, B. J.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-02-01

    The Pirani and penning gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new efforts will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year. (author)

  7. In-flight capture of ions into a penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, H.; Bollen, G.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Egelhof, P.; Kern, F.; Kalinowsky, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Kluge, H.-J.

    1986-10-01

    A bunched beam of alkali ions with a pulse length of about 10 μs and an energy of 1 KeV has been retarded electrostatically and captured in flight into a Penning trap. A trapping efficiency of up to 70% has been determined. Subsequently the cyclotron resonance was induced. In the case of K a line width of the resonance of 4 Hz was measured at a resonance frequency of 2.3 MHz. This enables mass determinations of unstable nuclei produced at on-line mass separators with an accuracy in the sub-ppm region.

  8. In-flight capture of ions into a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnatz, H.; Bollen, G.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Egelhof, P.; Kern, F.; Kalinowsky, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Kluge, H.J.

    1986-10-01

    A bunched beam of alkali ions with a pulse length of about 10 ..mu..s and an energy of 1 keV has been retarded electrostatically and captured in flight into a Penning trap. A trapping efficiency of up to 70% has been determined. Subsequently the cyclotron resonance was induced. In the case of K a line width of the resonance of 4 Hz was measured at a resonance frequency of 2.3 MHz. This enables mass determinations of unstable nuclei produced at on-line mass separators with an accuracy in the sub-ppm region.

  9. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF 3D PRINTING PEN

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Nayan Jyoti Gogoi *, Prof. T. Jeyapoovan

    2016-01-01

    In present time 3d models and prototypes helping lot of engineers and in many technical areas mainly in design field to design a real model as quickly as possible with the help of 3d printing technology. The demand for 3d printing applications are increasing day by day and it is reaching to a height of end no of applications. In this project I am going to discuss how we can make an affordable and user friendly 3d printing device which can be used as a 3d printing pen as well as a device which...

  10. Margaret Storm Jameson and the London PEN Centre: Mobilising Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer BIRKETT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Founded in London in October 1921 by Mrs. C. A. Dawson Scott, PEN (“Poets, Essayists and Novelists” started life as a literary dining club, on the American model. Its beginnings were explicitly apolitical – refusal to take any particular political stand was one of the founding principles – and politeness was its watchword. John Galsworthy was invited to be first President, in preference to H. G. Wells, partly because he was “big enough to act as a magnet to draw in all the rest,” but mostly ...

  11. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Interfacial Water Division and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huabin, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Centre for Tetrahertz Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  12. First direct Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael; Block, Michael; Ackermann, Dieter; Herfurth, Frank; Hessberger, Fritz-Peter; Hofmann, Sigurd; Kluge, H.J.; Vorobyev, Gleb [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, Klaus; Eliseev, Sergey [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, Christian; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Fleckenstein, Timo; Haettner, Emma [Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Mazzocco, Marco [INFN Sezione, Padova (Italy); Nesterenko, Dmitriy [PNPI RAS, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Novikov, Yuri [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); PNPI RAS, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Popeko, Andrey [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rahaman, Saidur; Weber, Christine [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidad de Granada (Spain); Thirolf, Peter [LMU, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP/GSI have been evaluated. These were the first direct mass measurements of transfermium elements ever performed. The results mark the first step in the exploration of masses of even heavier nuclides which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to measure the endpoints of {alpha}-decay chains starting from superheavy nuclei in the region of the predicted island of stability. The SHIPTRAP results were compared with previous measurements based on {alpha}-decay chains and new literature values were obtained.

  13. An evaluation of exercise pen use by circus tigers (Pathera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Christian H; Friend, Ted H; Windom, Amy G

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the behavior of 11 tigers during periodic access to an exercise pen throughout the day and night. The study determined the amount of time spent in the pen and the percentage of time spent performing stereotypic pacing, normal locomotor behavior, and lying down while in the pen. Average access to the exercise pen was 10 hr 49 min overnight and 5 hr 30 min during the day. At night, the tigers spent 29.1% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 19.6% and performed normal locomotor behavior for 23.1% of that time. By day, they spent 40.4% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 10.0% and performed normal locomotor behavior 35.7% of that time. The tigers spent the rest of the time in the pen lying down. Overall, tigers will utilize an exercise pen, spending a greater percentage of time in the pen during the day than at night and also performing less stereotyped pacing than at night.

  14. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  15. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  16. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  17. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  18. Direct mass measurements of the heaviest elements with Penning traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M., E-mail: m.block@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtzinstitut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institut für Kernchemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) is a mature technique to provide atomic masses with highest precision. Applied to radionuclides it enables us to investigate their nuclear structure via binding energies and derived quantities such as nucleon separation energies. Recent progress in slowing down radioactive ion beams in buffer gas cells in combination with advanced ion-manipulation techniques has opened the door to access even the elements above fermium by PTMS. Such elements are produced in complete fusion–evaporation reactions of heavy ions with lead, bismuth, and actinide targets at very low rates. Pioneering high-precision mass measurements of nobelium and lawrencium isotopes have been performed with SHIPTRAP at the GSI Darmstadt, Germany. These have illustrated that direct mass measurements provide reliable anchor points to pin down decay chains and that they allow mapping nuclear shell effects, the reason for the very existence of the heaviest elements. Thus, accurate masses contribute to our understanding of these exotic nuclei with extreme proton numbers. In this article experimental challenges in mass measurements of the heaviest elements with Penning traps are discussed. Some illustrative examples of the nuclear structure features displayed based on the presently known masses are given.

  19. Parental use of EpiPen for children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sinacore, James M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2005-07-01

    EpiPen is often underused in children with food allergy experiencing anaphylaxis. We explored whether underuse of EpiPen might be attributed to parental discomfort with administration, as measured by a lack of parental empowerment and knowledge of proper administration. A written survey was mailed to parents of children with food allergy. Those children with physician-diagnosed food allergy who had been prescribed EpiPen were included in the analysis. Parents were recruited from a local food-allergy support group and private allergy practice. Perceived comfort with administering EpiPen was measured by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. Knowledge of EpiPen use and anaphylaxis was tested by using a series of multiple-choice questions. Empowerment was measured with a 16-item instrument that included statements from the Family Empowerment Scale. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine how much of the variance in the comfort ratings could be explained by knowledge, empowerment, and other factors assessed in the survey. Of 360 mailed surveys, 165 (46%) completed surveys met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Anaphylaxis was reported in 42% of children (n = 70); 8% of parents (n = 14) had administered EpiPen to their child. Factors correlating with comfort included prior administration of EpiPen ( P = .009), EpiPen training ( P = .005), and empowerment ( P EpiPen use, but knowledge did not. Physicians should continue to instruct all parents on EpiPen administration because this correlated significantly with comfort. Other psychological factors beyond empowerment might contribute to underuse of EpiPen.

  20. Assessing usability, label comprehension, pen robustness and pharmacokinetics of a self-administered prefilled autoinjector pen of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Pachon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess usability, bioavailability, and safety of subcutaneous self-administration of 0.3 mL of methotrexate 50 mg/mL solution via a prefilled autoinjector pen (methotrexate pen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: The study enrolled methotrexate-naïve and methotrexate-experienced patients aged ≥16 years. Visit 1 (Day 1 included methotrexate pen usage training with documentation, patient self-injection, and a patient-training questionnaire completed by the healthcare professional. Visit 2 (Days 8–10 included evaluation of patient self-injection through four scenarios: holding needle in place for 5 s, confirming methotrexate delivery, skin pinch, and pen disposal. At Visit 2, patient opinion and training retention (since Visit 1 were also assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in 25 patients, who were stratified by body weight and randomized to receive injections in the abdomen or the upper thigh. Results: At Visit 1, 12 of 106 patients had questions about the pen, and 4 required self-injection assistance. At Visit 2, the mean performance rating for all scenarios was ≥9.8 (scale: 1 (very difficult−10 (very easy. Successful completion rates were 96.2%–100%; 91.3%–100% of patients required no assistance. Impressions of the pen were favorable; 98.1% of patients passed the written examination. All methotrexate pens effectively delivered 0.3 mL methotrexate and were intact after use. Body weight >100 kg significantly decreased total and peak methotrexate exposure when administered abdominally. No adverse effects resulted in drug discontinuation. Conclusion: The methotrexate pen was used with a high degree of effectiveness, satisfaction, and safety, indicating that this delivery system may be a viable option for patients requiring subcutaneous methotrexate.

  1. Assessing usability, label comprehension, pen robustness and pharmacokinetics of a self-administered prefilled autoinjector pen of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Jaime A; Kivitz, Alan J; Heuer, Kay-Uwe; Pichlmeier, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    To assess usability, bioavailability, and safety of subcutaneous self-administration of 0.3 mL of methotrexate 50 mg/mL solution via a prefilled autoinjector pen (methotrexate pen) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study enrolled methotrexate-naïve and methotrexate-experienced patients aged ≥16 years. Visit 1 (Day 1) included methotrexate pen usage training with documentation, patient self-injection, and a patient-training questionnaire completed by the healthcare professional. Visit 2 (Days 8-10) included evaluation of patient self-injection through four scenarios: holding needle in place for 5 s, confirming methotrexate delivery, skin pinch, and pen disposal. At Visit 2, patient opinion and training retention (since Visit 1) were also assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in 25 patients, who were stratified by body weight and randomized to receive injections in the abdomen or the upper thigh. At Visit 1, 12 of 106 patients had questions about the pen, and 4 required self-injection assistance. At Visit 2, the mean performance rating for all scenarios was ≥9.8 (scale: 1 (very difficult)-10 (very easy)). Successful completion rates were 96.2%-100%; 91.3%-100% of patients required no assistance. Impressions of the pen were favorable; 98.1% of patients passed the written examination. All methotrexate pens effectively delivered 0.3 mL methotrexate and were intact after use. Body weight >100 kg significantly decreased total and peak methotrexate exposure when administered abdominally. No adverse effects resulted in drug discontinuation. The methotrexate pen was used with a high degree of effectiveness, satisfaction, and safety, indicating that this delivery system may be a viable option for patients requiring subcutaneous methotrexate.

  2. Using a Digital Pen to Support Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Min Wook; Rao, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Secondary students with learning disabilities (LD) can benefit from using assistive and instructional technologies to support content and skill acquisition. Digital pens have features that can be beneficial for students who struggle with comprehension, note taking, and organization. Livescribe pens, in particular, provide a variety features that…

  3. Tail posture predicts tail biting outbreaks at pen level in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Helle Pelant; Hansen, Christian Fink; D'Eath, Rick

    2018-01-01

    :00 h-14:00 h from weaning until a tail biting outbreak. An outbreak (day 0) occurred when at least four pigs had a tail damage, regardless of wound freshness. On average 7.6 (SD 4.3) pigs had a damaged tail (scratches + wound) in T-pens on day 0. Tail posture and behaviour (activity, eating......, explorative, pen mate and tail directed behaviour) were recorded in T-pens and in matched C-pens using scan sampling every half hour between 0800-1100 h 1700-2000 h on day -3, -2 and -1 prior to the tail biting outbreak in T-pens. Further, to investigate if changes in tail posture could be a measure for use...... under commercial conditions, tail posture was recorded by direct observation from outside the pen. The live observations were carried out just before tail scoring on each observation day until the outbreak. The video results showed more hanging/tucked tails in T-pens than in C-pens on each recording day...

  4. "Aloha", Hoosier! A Pen-Pal Activity in the Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Raymond; Chan, Kam Chi

    2007-01-01

    Ray, a preservice teacher in Indiana, and Maxine, a 35-year teaching veteran in Hawai'i, set up a pen-pal program for the third grade students in their respective classrooms, 4,000 miles apart. This pen-pal program, used in conjunction with children's literature and community and technology resources, brought about memorable learning experiences.…

  5. 9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments. 309.1 Section 309.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... pens of official establishments. (a) All livestock offered for slaughter in an official establishment...

  6. Update of Research Activities Related to the Pen Branch Restoration Effort on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, R.K.; Trettin, C.C.; Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive description of Pen Branch restoration plans and related research projects documented in the 1996 annual report. The purpose of the annual report is to update progress over the past year and to project 1998 research expectations for studies included in the Pen Branch Restoration Project. A full updated reference list is provided at the end of the report.

  7. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... through the air-liquid interface is suggested from vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of ammonia water. Furthermore, the effects of airflow and temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient are also analyzed under different concentration boundary conditions determined by various Henry’s law constant...... models and vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. The simplified model to determine the ammonia boundary condition on the emission surface has been further used to study the ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen under different ventilation systems and slatted floor opening ratios as well as various...

  8. Precision mass measurements of antiprotons in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhe, W.; Phillips, D.; Gabrielse, G. (Dept. of Physics, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Groeber, J. (Leopold-Franzens-Univ., Innsbruck (Austria)); Kalinowsky, H. (Inst. of Physics, Univ. Mainz (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    Utilizing electron cooling, the TRAP collaboration has lowered the energy at which antiprotons can be stored and studied by more than 10 orders of magnitude, starting with 6 MeV particles from LEAR. We have held cryogenic antiprotons a few degrees above absolute zero for two months and the storage lifetime so established, more than 3.4 months is the longest directly measured limit for antiprotons. Measuring their cyclotron frequencies in a precision cylindrical Penning trap, we have shown that the inertial masses of the antiprotons and protons are the same to a fractional accuracy of 4 parts in 10[sup 8], a 1000-fold improvement over the previous comparisons. This is the most stringent test of CPT invariance with baryons. We have recently demonstrated a linewidth resolution of more than 10 times narrower than our current measurement accuracy, making possible a new series of systematic tests to improve the accuracy by one or even two orders of magnitude.

  9. Mass Measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap at CARIBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Roughly half of the elements heavier than iron are thought to be produced through the astrophysical r process of nucleosynthesis. Despite its large influence in explaining the observed abundance of heavy elements, much of the r process is still poorly understood. A more thorough library of nuclear data of neutron-rich nuclei is needed to improve the accuracy and progression of r-process calculations. In particular, accurate mass measurements are in demand due to the strong coupling between mass and other nuclear properties such as β-decay and neutron-capture rates. For nearly three decades, direct mass measurements conducted by Penning trap mass spectrometers have proven to be an accurate method of determining masses to a precision suitable for r-process calculations (Δm / m Science User Facility.

  10. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  11. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  12. Clickable Antifouling Polymer Brushes for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bog, Uwe; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, Summer L; Havenridge, Shana; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, Michael; Holmes, Andrea E; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Fuchs, Harald; Hirtz, Michael

    2017-04-05

    Protein-repellent reactive surfaces that promote localized specific binding are highly desirable for applications in the biomedical field. Nonspecific adhesion will compromise the function of bioactive surfaces, leading to ambiguous results of binding assays and negating the binding specificity of patterned cell-adhesive motives. Localized specific binding is often achieved by attaching a linker to the surface, and the other side of the linker is used to bind specifically to a desired functional agent, as e.g. proteins, antibodies, and fluorophores, depending on the function required by the application. We present a protein-repellent polymer brush enabling highly specific covalent surface immobilization of biorecognition elements by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition click chemistry for selective protein adhesion. The protein-repellent polymer brush is functionalized by highly localized molecular binding sites in the low micrometer range using polymer pen lithography (PPL). Because of the massive parallelization of writing pens, the tunable PPL printed patterns can span over square centimeter areas. The selective binding of the protein streptavidin to these surface sites is demonstrated while the remaining polymer brush surface is resisting nonspecific adsorption without any prior blocking by bovine serum albumin (BSA). In contrast to the widely used BSA blocking, the reactive polymer brushes are able to significantly reduce nonspecific protein adsorption, which is the cause of biofouling. This was achieved for solutions of single proteins as well as complex biological fluids. The remarkable fouling resistance of the polymer brushes has the potential to improve the multiplexing capabilities of protein probes and therefore impact biomedical research and applications.

  13. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  14. Initial experience and evaluation of reusable insulin pen devices among patients with diabetes in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, Balduino; Almeida, Oscar; Redfearn, Jennifer; Flacke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Many individuals with type 2 diabetes in emerging countries are transitioning from vial-and-syringe insulin delivery to that of insulin pens (disposable or reusable). As with all insulin delivery methods, patient preferences and comfort are of utmost importance to optimize adherence to treatment. Patient-preferred characteristics for reusable insulin pens and barriers to appropriate injection, particularly in these regions, have not been widely reported in the clinical literature, highlighting a key information gap for clinicians considering these methods as part of a comprehensive diabetes management approach. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with type 1/2 diabetes, including insulin-naïve and established insulin users. After moderator demonstration, participants were evaluated on their ability to perform a six-step process to inject a 10-unit dose into a pad with the AllStar(®) (AS; Sanofi, Mumbai, India), HumaPen Ergo II(®) (HE2; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, USA), and NovoPen 4(®) (NP4; Novo Nordisk, Bagsværd, Denmark) pens. Local pens were also tested in India, China and Brazil. A total of 503 people from India, Malaysia, Brazil, Egypt, and China participated. Participants completed the six-step process in an average, 2-3 min per pen. Participants ranked ease of overall use and ease of self-injection and dialing/reading dose as most important features for new insulin pens. When using the pens, the most difficult step was priming/safety testing, with 7-12% failing and 28-40% having difficulty; 6%, 18%, and 22% failed to hold the injection button down for the required period of time using AS, NP4, and HE2, respectively. Participants ranked AS significantly higher for nine of 12 ease-of-use features including three of the top four features considered the most important for reusable pens, while HE2 was ranked higher for two features. Local pens were ranked lowest. Priming the pen and injecting the dose imparted most difficulty for people with

  15. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  16. Pen-type laser fluorescence device versus bitewing radiographs for caries detection on approximal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, M; Wollenweber, N; Singh-Hüsgen, P; Danesh, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-11-04

    The accurate detection of approximal caries is generally difficult. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the pen-type laser fluorescence device (LF pen) to detect approximal carious lesions in comparison to bitewing radiographs (BW). Three hundred forty-one tooth surfaces were diagnosed in 20 patients with an average age of 26.70 (±2.82) years. Each test tooth was sequentially assessed by a single calibrated examiner using visual inspection, BW, and the LF pen. Radiographs were used as the gold standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for cut-off limits of 15, measured by the LF pen were compared using the chi 2 test (McNemar test). For approximal caries at D3 level, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LF pen at a cut-off value of 15 (96.8 and 83.0 %) and for visual inspection (99.3 and 4.3 %). Within the limitations of this study, dentin caries on approximal surfaces could be detected equally well by the LF pen as by the bitewing radiographs. Therefore, the LF pen can be recommended as an alternative to radiographs for the detection of approximal caries in a regular dental practice setting. DRKS00004817 on DRKS on 12 th March 2013.

  17. Psychometric Assessment of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ: measuring ease of use and preference with injection pens for human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleil Andreas M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ including the following: 1 item and scale characteristics (e.g., frequencies, item distributions, and factor structure, 2 reliability, and 3 validity. Methods Focus groups and one-on-one dyad interviews guided the development of the IPAQ. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parent–child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new Genotropin® disposable pen. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study. Psychometric analyses were conducted separately for each injection pen. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Cronbach’s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons. Conclusions The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint.

  18. Cooling of radioactive ions with the Penning trap REXTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Ames, F; Delahaye, P; Forstner, O; Huber, G; Kester, O; Reisinger, K; Schmidt, P

    2005-01-01

    Cooling of radioactive ion beams in a Penning trap is an essential component of the post-accelerator REX-ISOLDE at CERN. Prior to their charge-breeding and acceleration, ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are accumulated, cooled and bunched with REXTRAP. This beam preparation provides short ion pulses with low emittance, key ingredient for a high efficiency of REX-ISOLDE. Two different cooling techniques have been investigated with REXTRAP. Both rely on the use of a buffer gas as the coolant but differ in the way the transversal compression of the stored ion cloud is achieved. Sideband cooling with a light buffer gas as coolant is the standard technique used at REXTRAP so far. With this technique an efficiency of about 45% for the injection, cooling, and extraction process has been obtained for stable and radioactive ions. For about 105 simultaneously stored ions the resulting emittance of the extracted ion pulses is about 10pimm mrad at 30 keV beam energy. For much larger numbers of ions shifts of t...

  19. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS. TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP, ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96% for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazne (Y4. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  20. WITCH, a Penning trap for weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    This work is the completion of the installation of the WITCH set-up and the first tests and commissioning of it. The first goal of the WITCH experiment is to improve the present limit on a scalar interaction in nuclear $\\beta$-decay by determining the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation parameter $a$ via a precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoil ions. The development of the WITCH set-up and its installation at ISOLDE (CERN) were recently completed. The principle of WITCH is based on a combination of a Penning trap to confine the radioactive ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions resulting from $\\beta$-decays in the trap. Extensive computer simulations show that for a reasonable measurement time a precision on the $a$-parameter of 0.5% can be achieved. This corresponds to an upper limit for the scalar interaction constant Cs/Cv < 9% at 95% C.L. Designing and constructing a set-up as large and complex as the WITCH set-up takes time, several y...

  1. A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Z., E-mail: znouri@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Li, R., E-mail: ruohong@triumf.c [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Holt, R.A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Rosner, S.D., E-mail: rosner@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of approx3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed that careful adjustment of the magnetic field and gas pressure is critical to achieving optimum performance. We used a laser-fluorescence method of energy analysis to characterize the properties of the extracted ion beam with a resolving power of 1x10{sup 4}, and to measure the absolute ion beam energy to an accuracy of 4 eV in order to provide some insight into the distribution of plasma potential within the ion source. This characterization method is widely applicable to accelerator beams, though not universal. The low energy spread, coupled with the ability to produce intense ion beams from almost any gas or conducting solid, make this source very useful for high-resolution spectroscopic measurements on fast-ion beams.

  2. Immobilization of motile bacterial cells via dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamjav, Dorjderem; Holz, Richard C [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University-Chicago, 1068 N. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Rozhok, Sergey, E-mail: rholz1@luc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan, Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    A strategy to bind bacterial cells to surfaces in a directed fashion via dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is presented. Cellular attachment to pre-designed DPN generated microarrays was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the surface feature. While this observation is likely due in part to a dense, well formed mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) monolayer generated via DPN, it may also simply be due to the physical shape of the surface structure. Motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells were observed to bind to DPN generated mercaptohexadecanoic acid/poly-L-lysine (MHA/PLL) line patterns, 'blocks' made up of eight lines with 100 nm spacings, with {approx} 80% occupancy. Cellular binding to these 'block' surface structures occurs via an electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups on the bacterial cell surface and positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) assemblies. These data indicate that these DPN generated 'block' surface structures provide a promising footprint for the attachment of motile bacterial cells that may find utility in cell based biosensors or single cell studies.

  3. Beyond the Brillouin limit with the Penning fusion experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, D.C.; Mitchell, T.B.; Schauer, M.M.

    1996-11-09

    Several years ago, it was proposed that a dense nonneutral plasma could be produced in a Penning trap. Nonneutral plasmas have excellent confinement. Thus, such a dense plasma might produce simultaneously high density and good confinement (as needed for fusion). Recently, this theoretical conjecture has been demonstrated in a small (3 mm radius) electron experiment (PFX). Densities up to 35 times the Brillouin density (limiting number density in a static trap) have been inferred from the observed strong (100:1) spherical focussing. Electrons are injected at low energy from a single pole of the sphere. A surprising observation is the self-organization of the system into a spherical state, which occurs precisely when the trap parameters are adjusted to produce a spherical well. This organization is observed by a bootstrapping which produces a hysteresis. Additional observations which confirm the dense spherical focus are energy-scattered electrons and deflections of an electron probe beam by the space charge of the central focus.

  4. Aracnologias - As tecituras de Penélope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stevens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Análise da personagem Penélope, de Homero, e a transformação ousada de Joyce dessa representação clássica da fidelidade feminina em Molly Bloom, a esposa infiel, sexualizada, trivial, lírica. Essas duas personagens são comparadas com sua mais recente recriação em The Penelopiad (2005, da escritora canadense Margaret Atwood. Uma importante categoria analítica dos estudos feministas e de gênero, a questão da voz é enfatizada na presente análise; essa personagem feminina é objeto da narrativa masculina (A Odisseia e Ulisses, mas no romance de Atwood essa personagem é sujeito de sua narrativa, elaborando uma tecitura “penelopeana” transgressora da versão clássica. Focalizaremos também o poder do silêncio na narrativa de autoria feminina, através do monólogo interior de Molly e da voz que fala do mundo dos mortos em The Penelopiad. Os conceitos de “abjeto” e “linguagem semiótica” de Kristeva são base para nosso trabalho, o qual problematiza a aparente imagem de passividade dessas mulheres que buscam o controle sobre suas vidas.

  5. Product Plan of New Generation System Camera "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo

    "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1", which is new generation system camera, is the first product of Olympus which is new standard "Micro Four-thirds System" for high-resolution mirror-less cameras. It continues good sales by the concept of "small and stylish design, easy operation and SLR image quality" since release on July 3, 2009. On the other hand, the half-size film camera "OLYMPUS PEN" was popular by the concept "small and stylish design and original mechanism" since the first product in 1959 and recorded sale number more than 17 million with 17 models. By the 50th anniversary topic and emotional value of the Olympus pen, Olympus pen E-P1 became big sales. I would like to explain the way of thinking of the product plan that included not only the simple functional value but also emotional value on planning the first product of "Micro Four-thirds System".

  6. Ab initio simulations on the behavior of small ion clouds in the WITCH Penning trap system

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, S; Herbane, M; Kozlov, V Yu; Kraev, I S; Tandecki, M; Wauters, F; Beck, M; Delahaye, P; Herlert, A; Sturm, S; Severijns, N

    2007-01-01

    Various ab initio simulations on the behavior of ion clouds consisting of a small number of positively charged ions stored in the WITCH double Penning trap system are described. A general description of the simulation code used is presented and the expected behavior of the particles in the first of the two Penning traps is discussed. Special attention is paid to the influence of this behavior on the operation of the experimental setup. The effect of electric excitations on the ion motions is described in detail. Also the transfer of the ions between the two traps and consequences for their motion in the second Penning trap are addressed. Scaled Coulomb force simulations are used to estimate the size of the ion cloud inside the Penning traps for larger numbers of particles.

  7. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  8. Privacy Act System of Records - Passport Expiration Notification System (PENS) - EPA-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creation of a new system of records for the Passport Expiration Notification System (PENS). The purpose of the system is to assist in requesting and obtaining country clearances for EPA staff traveling to foreign countries to conduct government business.

  9. Growth performance, cleanliness and lameness of finishing Charolais bulls housed in littered pens of different design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fattening of beef cattle in Italy is mainly carried out under intensive rearing conditions. The main features of the Italian beef farms are the high stocking rate and the loose housing of the animals in multiple pens indoors. The pen with fully slatted floor is the most frequent housing solution because it does not require any bedding material and it has a lower labour cost to remove slurry.

  10. First aid anaphylaxis management in children who were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector device (EpiPen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M S; Sainsbury, R

    2000-07-01

    Epinephrine for first aid use by parents and other caregivers and in the form of an autoinjector device (EpiPen, Center Laboratories) is often prescribed for children who have had previous anaphylactic reactions. It is not known whether the EpiPen device is used appropriately during subsequent reactions and whether its use is able to prevent the complications of anaphylaxis. Our purpose was to determine parental knowledge and practice concerning first aid anaphylaxis management, the frequency of recurrent generalized allergic reactions, the first aid measures taken, and the subsequent outcome of these reactions. A retrospective survey was performed with a telephone questionnaire of all children with a history of anaphylaxis who attended a specialist allergy service and were prescribed an EpiPen autoinjector device. Recurrent generalized allergic reactions occurred with a frequency of 0.98 episodes per patient per year and were more common in those with food compared with insect venom anaphylaxis. The EpiPen device was only used in 29% of recurrent anaphylactic reactions. Parental knowledge was deficient in recognition of the symptoms of anaphylaxis and use of the EpiPen device, and adequate first aid measures were not in place for the majority of children attending school. Those children in whom the EpiPen device was used were less likely to be given epinephrine in hospital and to require subsequent hospital admission. The EpiPen autoinjector device is infrequently used in children with recurrent episodes of anaphylaxis; the reasons for this require further research. It is likely that parents and other caregivers will require continuing education and support in first aid anaphylaxis management. When the EpiPen device is used appropriately, it appears to reduce subsequent morbidity from anaphylaxis.

  11. The effect of sex, slaughter weight and weight gains in PEN-AR-LAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, body weight and growth rates on basic fattening and slaughter indexes in PEN-AR-LAN fatteners. The research was conducted on 274 PEN-ARLAN hybrid fatteners coming from sows of the Naïma maternal line and was sired by boars of the P-76 meat line. Recorded ...

  12. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany and Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Duellmann, Ch. E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eibach, M. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Hessberger, F. P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ramirez, E. Minaya [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nesterenko, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-03-19

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  13. Update on insulin treatment for dogs and cats: insulin dosing pens and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ann Thompson,1 Patty Lathan,2 Linda Fleeman3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente

  14. Of Papers and Pens: Polysemes and Homophones in Lexical (mis)Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leon; Slevc, L Robert

    2017-05-01

    Every word signifies multiple senses. Many studies using comprehension-based measures suggest that polysemes' senses (e.g., paper as in printer paper or term paper) share lexical representations, whereas homophones' meanings (e.g., pen as in ballpoint pen or pig pen) correspond to distinct lexical representations. Less is known about the lexical representations of polysemes compared to homophones in language production. In this study, speakers named pictures after reading sentence fragments that primed polysemes and homophones either as direct competitors to pictures (i.e., semantic-competitors), or as indirect-competitors to pictures (e.g., polysemous senses of semantic competitors, or homophonous meanings of semantic competitors). Polysemes (e.g., paper) elicited equal numbers of intrusions to picture names (e.g., cardboard) compared to in control conditions whether primed as direct competitors (printer paper) or as indirect-competitors (term paper). This contrasted with the finding that homophones (e.g., pen) elicited more intrusions to picture names (e.g., crayon) compared to in control conditions when primed as direct competitors (ballpoint pen) than when primed as indirect-competitors (pig pen). These results suggest that polysemes, unlike homophones, are stored and retrieved as unified lexical representations. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. A Rapid and Sensitive Assay for the Detection of Benzylpenicillin (PenG in Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pennacchio

    Full Text Available Antibiotics, such as benzyl-penicillin (PenG and cephalosporin, are the most common compounds used in animal therapy. Their massive and illegal use in animal therapy and prophylaxis inevitably causes the presence of traces in foods of animal origin (milk and meat, which creates several problems for human health. With the aim to prevent the negative impact of β-lactam and, in particular, PenG residues present in the milk on customer health, many countries have established maximum residue limits (MRLs. To cope with this problem here, we propose an effective alternative, compared to the analytical methods actually employed, to quantify the presence of penicillin G using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR method. In particular, the PenG molecule was conjugated to a protein carrier to immunize a rabbit and produce polyclonal antibodies (anti-PenG. The produced antibodies were used as molecular recognition elements for the design of a competitive immune-assay for the detection of PenG by SPR experiments. The detection limit of the developed assay was found to be 8.0 pM, a value much lower than the MRL of the EU regulation limit that is fixed at 12 nM. Thus, our results clearly show that this system could be successfully suitable for the accurate and easy determination of PenG.

  16. Examining Factors That Impact Inpatient Management of Diabetes and the Role of Insulin Pen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Chelsea; Lamarche, Danièle; Chevrier, Annie

    2017-02-01

    Insulin administration in the acute care setting is an integral component of inpatient diabetes management. Although some institutions have moved to insulin pen devices, many acute care settings continue to employ the vial and syringe method of insulin administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of insulin pen implementation in the acute care setting on patients, healthcare workers and health resource utilization. A review of published literature, including guidelines, was conducted to identify how insulin pen devices in the acute care setting may impact inpatient diabetes management. Previously published studies have revealed that insulin pen devices have the potential to improve inpatient management through better glycemic control, increased adherence and improved self-management education. Furthermore, insulin pen devices may result in cost savings and improved safety for healthcare workers. There are benefits to the use of insulin pen devices in acute care and, as such, their implementation should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Becton Dickinson Canada Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Rapid and Sensitive Assay for the Detection of Benzylpenicillin (PenG) in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Anna; Varriale, Antonio; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Scala, Andrea; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics, such as benzyl-penicillin (PenG) and cephalosporin, are the most common compounds used in animal therapy. Their massive and illegal use in animal therapy and prophylaxis inevitably causes the presence of traces in foods of animal origin (milk and meat), which creates several problems for human health. With the aim to prevent the negative impact of β-lactam and, in particular, PenG residues present in the milk on customer health, many countries have established maximum residue limits (MRLs). To cope with this problem here, we propose an effective alternative, compared to the analytical methods actually employed, to quantify the presence of penicillin G using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. In particular, the PenG molecule was conjugated to a protein carrier to immunize a rabbit and produce polyclonal antibodies (anti-PenG). The produced antibodies were used as molecular recognition elements for the design of a competitive immune-assay for the detection of PenG by SPR experiments. The detection limit of the developed assay was found to be 8.0 pM, a value much lower than the MRL of the EU regulation limit that is fixed at 12 nM. Thus, our results clearly show that this system could be successfully suitable for the accurate and easy determination of PenG.

  18. Auvi-Q versus EpiPen: preferences of adults, caregivers, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos A; Guana, Adriana; Wang, Sheldon; Simons, F Estelle R

    2013-01-01

    Auvi-Q is a novel epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) that provides audio and visual cues for patients at risk for life-threatening allergic reactions. We tested the preference for Auvi-Q or EpiPen with regard to method of instruction, preference to carry, device size, and device shape. This large, multicenter, simulated-use study evaluated whether adults (aged 18-65 years), caregivers (parents/guardians aged 18-65 years of children aged 5-17 years), and children (aged 11-17 years), with and without experience in using an EAI, had a preference for the current design of Auvi-Q or the current design of EpiPen. Participants were given a scenario that involved anaphylaxis and were instructed to simulate use of an EAI. They received and tested each device individually according to the randomization assignment. After testing both devices, they completed a survey to indicate their preference for Auvi-Q versus EpiPen. Among all 693 participants combined, Auvi-Q was preferred over EpiPen on all study end points (P EpiPen for method of instruction, preference to carry, and device size (all P EpiPen by experienced and inexperienced adults, caregivers, and children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BioPen: direct writing of functional materials at the point of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu Long; Hu, Jie; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Rapid and precise patterning of functional biomaterials is desirable for point-of-care (POC) tissue engineering and diagnostics. However, existing technologies such as dip-pen nanolithography and inkjet printing are currently unsuitable for POC applications due to issues of cost and portability. Here, we report the development of `BioPen', a portable tool for continuous, defined and scalable deposition of functional materials with micrometer spatial resolution and nanolitre volumetric resolution. BioPen is based upon the ballpoint pen but with multiple ``ink sources'' (functional material solutions) and with an apparatus that can be optimized for writing living cells, proteins, nucleic acids, etc. We demonstrate POC detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acid by writing on paper with BioPen using ``ink'' consisting of nucleic acid probes and nucleic acid-modified gold nanoparticles. We also demonstrate POC tissue engineering by writing a continuous pattern of living, functional, interconnected cells with a defined extracellular environment. Because it is simple, accurate, inexpensive and portable, BioPen has broad potential for POC detection of diagnostic biomarkers, and for POC engineering of tissues for a range of healing applications.

  20. Assessing clarity and erasability of commercially available pens for surgical site marking: a comparative study in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, F C J; Angadi, D; Jarvis, G E; Porteous, M

    2016-01-01

    Marking the surgical site is a well-established part of pre-operative protocol and errors in marking have been implicated in wrong site surgery incidents and are a significant patient safety issue. There are many commercially available marker pens and anecdotally very little consistency in which pen is used or the clarity of marking. Previous studies have shown subjective differences between different pens and the current paper sought to support this evidence with objective data and widen the investigation of commercially available pens. Eight marker pens were used to mark two separate sites on three caucasian volunteers. These marks were photographed and assessed by six observers before and after the application of chlorhexidine skin preparation. The observers were blinded to which pen was used for each mark, and rated the clarity of the marks subjectively. The photographs were assessed using image analysis software to give an objective measure of clarity against the skin. There was a wide variation between the clarity of marks made by the different pens, and also a wide variation in the resistance to skin preparation. The Pentel N50 pen was the outstanding best performing pen across all categories. It is recommended that the Pentel N50 black marker pen be used for surgical site marking to improve patient safety and avoid adverse events.

  1. Analysis of the burden of treatment in patients receiving an EpiPen for yellow jacket anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; van der Heide, S; Guyatt, Gordon H; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2006-09-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is a treatment with established efficacy for the prevention of repeated anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera allergy, which also allows patients to discontinue carrying an EpiPen. Despite their merits, both treatments can have negative aspects potentially important to patients. We examined possible negative aspects of the EpiPen in comparison with VIT as perceived by patients. Positive and negative aspects of both treatments were measured by using a burden of treatment questionnaire together with statements about the EpiPen. One hundred ninety-three patients were included, of whom 94 consented to randomization: 47 received VIT, and 47 received the EpiPen. Of the remaining 99, 75 chose VIT, and 26 chose the EpiPen. Of the patients receiving VIT, 91.5% were (extremely) positive about their treatment, and 85% would choose VIT again. Of the patients receiving the EpiPen, only 48% were positive about their treatment, and even of these patients, 68% preferred to be treated with VIT after 1 year of carrying the EpiPen. Although most patients indicated that it is reassuring to carry an EpiPen and makes them feel safe, many patients also indicated that it is inconvenient and troublesome. Especially patients who were negative about the EpiPen indicated that they would not dare use the EpiPen if necessary and were afraid at possible side effects. In contrast to VIT, the EpiPen is perceived as burdensome by most patients with venom allergy. For most patients, an EpiPen is an unsuitable definitive treatment. As VIT enables patients with venom allergy to get rid of the EpiPen, patients should be offered VIT.

  2. PanoramicData: Data Analysis through Pen & Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgraggen, Emanuel; Zeleznik, Robert; Drucker, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    Interactively exploring multidimensional datasets requires frequent switching among a range of distinct but inter-related tasks (e.g., producing different visuals based on different column sets, calculating new variables, and observing the interactions between sets of data). Existing approaches either target specific different problem domains (e.g., data-transformation or data-presentation) or expose only limited aspects of the general exploratory process; in either case, users are forced to adopt coping strategies (e.g., arranging windows or using undo as a mechanism for comparison instead of using side-by-side displays) to compensate for the lack of an integrated suite of exploratory tools. PanoramicData (PD) addresses these problems by unifying a comprehensive set of tools for visual data exploration into a hybrid pen and touch system designed to exploit the visualization advantages of large interactive displays. PD goes beyond just familiar visualizations by including direct UI support for data transformation and aggregation, filtering and brushing. Leveraging an unbounded whiteboard metaphor, users can combine these tools like building blocks to create detailed interactive visual display networks in which each visualization can act as a filter for others. Further, by operating directly on relational-databases, PD provides an approachable visual language that exposes a broad set of the expressive power of SQL including functionally complete logic filtering, computation of aggregates and natural table joins. To understand the implications of this novel approach, we conducted a formative user study with both data and visualization experts. The results indicated that the system provided a fluid and natural user experience for probing multi-dimensional data and was able to cover the full range of queries that the users wanted to pose.

  3. Role of penA polymorphisms for penicillin susceptibility in Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, André; Vogel, Ulrich; Claus, Heike

    2015-10-01

    In meningococci, reduced penicillin susceptibility is associated with five specific mutations in the transpeptidase region of penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2). We showed that the same set of mutations was present in 64 of 123 Neisseria lactamica strains obtained from a carriage study (MIC range: 0.125-2.0mg/L). The PBP2 encoding penA alleles in these strains were genetically similar to those found in intermediate resistant meningococci suggesting frequent interspecies genetic exchange. Fifty-six N. lactamica isolates with mostly lower penicillin MICs (range: 0.064-0.38mg/L) exhibited only three of the five mutations. The corresponding penA alleles were unique to N. lactamica and formed a distinct genetic clade. PenA alleles with no mutations on the other hand were unique to meningococci. Under penicillin selective pressure, genetic transformation of N. lactamica penA alleles in meningococci was only possible for alleles encoding five mutations, but not for those encoding three mutations; the transfer resulted in MICs comparable to those of meningococci harboring penA alleles that encoded PBP2 with five mutations, but considerably lower than those of the corresponding N. lactamica donor strains. Due to a transformation barrier the complete N. lactamica penA could not be transformed into N. meningitidis. In summary, penicillin MICs in N. lactamica were associated with the number of mutations in the transpeptidase region of PBP2. Evidence for interspecific genetic transfer was only observed for penA alleles associated with higher MICs, suggesting that alleles encoding only three mutations in the transpeptidase region are biologically not effective in N. meningitidis. Factors other than PBP2 seem to be responsible for the high levels of penicillin resistance in N. lactamica. A reduction of penicillin susceptibility in N. meningitidis by horizontal gene transfer from N. lactamica is unlikely to happen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Preference for etanercept pen versus syringe in patients with chronic arthritis. Nurse education workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Roig-Vilaseca, Daniel; Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; González, Marina; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Fíguls, Ramon; Corominas, Hèctor

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate the level of fear of post-injection pain prior to the administration, the difficulty in handling the device, and the level of satisfaction of patients using a pre-filled syringe versus an etanercept pen, as well as to evaluate the usefulness of the training given by nursing staff prior to starting with the pen, and the preferences of patients after using both devices. A prospective study was designed to follow-up a cohort of patients during a 6 months period. The data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS 18.00. Rank and McNemar tests were performed. Statistical significance was pre-set at an α level of 0.05. A total of 29 patients were included, of whom 69% female, and with a mean age 52.5±10.9 years. Of these, 48% had rheumatoid arthritis, 28% psoriatic arthritis, 21% ankylosing spondylitis, and 3% undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. There were no statistically significant differences either with the fear or pain or handling of the device between the syringe and the pen (P=.469; P=.812; P=.169 respectively). At 6 months, 59% of patients referred to being satisfied or very satisfied with the pen. Almost all (93%) found useful or very useful the training given by nursing staff prior to using the pen, and 55% preferred the pen over the pre-filled syringe. The etanercept pen is another subcutaneous device option for patients with chronic arthritis. According to the present study, nursing educational workshops before starting this therapy are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovation & evaluation of tangible direct manipulation digital drawing pens for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Hua; Wu, Fong-Gong; Chen, Huei-Tsz

    2017-04-01

    Focusing on the theme of direct manipulation, in this study, we proposed a new and innovative tangible user interface (TUI) design concept for a manipulative digital drawing pen. Based on interviews with focus groups brainstorming and experts and the results of a field survey, we selected the most suitable tangible user interface for children between 4 and 7 years of age. Using the new tangible user interface, children could choose between the brush tools after touching and feeling the various patterns. The thickness of the brush could be adjusted by changing the tilt angle. In a subsequent experimental process we compared the differences in performance and subjective user satisfaction. A total of sixteen children, aged 4-7 years participated in the experiment. Two operating system experiments (the new designed tangible digital drawing pen and traditional visual interface-icon-clicking digital drawing pens) were performed at random and in turns. We assessed their manipulation performance, accuracy, brush stroke richness and subjective evaluations. During the experimental process we found that operating functions using the direct manipulation method, and adding shapes and semantic models to explain the purpose of each function, enabled the children to perform stroke switches relatively smoothly. By using direct manipulation digital pens, the children could improve their stroke-switching performance for digital drawing. Additionally, by using various patterns to represent different brushes or tools, the children were able to make selections using their sense of touch, thereby reducing the time required to move along the drawing pens and select icons (The significant differences (p = 0.000, p drawing thick lines using the crayon function of the two (new and old) drawing pens (new 5.8750 drawing operations enhanced the drawing results, thereby increasing the children's enjoyment of drawing with tangible digital drawing pens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Broad Band Data and Noise Observed with Surface Station and Borehole Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Behiye Akşahin, Bengi; Hatipoglu, Mustafa; Cagin Yalcintepe, Ragip; Ada, Samim; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Marmara region tectonically is very active and many destructive earthquakes happened in the past. North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses the Marmara region and it has three branches. The northern branch passes through Marmara Sea and expected future large earthquake will happen along this fault zone. There is a gap in seismic network in the Marmara region at offshore and onshore areas. We have started broadband borehole seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the MARsite collaborative Project, namely "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". The target area western Marmara of Turkey. In the beginning of the project, we installed eight Broadband surface station around Marmara Sea in April 2014. Then, we added broadband sensor and broadband surface sensor at the same location in November 2014. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to calculate Power Spectral Density against the New Low Noise Model (NLNM) and New High Noise Model (NHNM) determined for one-hour segments of the data. Also we compared ambient noise of broadband borehole sensor and surface broadband sensor.

  7. Background Noise of the Aldeia da Serra Region (Portugal) from a temporary broad band network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachilala, Piedade; Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we analyse seismic background noise to assess the effect of noise based on the detectability of a temporary network constituted by DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array), who have been deployed in a period between 2011 and 2012 in Portugal mainland, and the Évora permanent seismic station. This network is constituted by 14 digital broadband stations (14 CMG-3ESP and one STS2 sensors) with a flat response between the 60 sec to 50 Hz, 24-bit and 120s to 60Hz respectively. The temporary network was operated in continuous recording mode (three-components) in a region located in the north of the region of Évora, within a radius of about 30 km around the village of Aldeia da Serra, region in which there is an important seismic activity in the context of Portugal mainland. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each station/component and compare them with high-noise model and low-noise model of Peterson (1993). We consider different for day and night local and for different periods of the year. Power spectral density estimates show moderate noise levels with all stations falling within the high and low bounds of Peterson (1993). Considering the results of the noise, we estimate the detection limit of each station and consequently the detectability of the network. From this information and taking in attention the events recorded during the period of DOCTAR operation we analyse the improvement promoted by this temporary network regarding the existent seismic networks to the local seismicity study. This work was partially supported by COMPETE 2020 program (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690 project). We acknowledge GFZ Potsdam for providing part of the data used in this study.

  8. Advanced Multi-Photon Chromophores for Broad-Band Ultra-Fast Optical Limiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    characterized by the fluorescence method. 3. We have explored structure-property relationships in an extensive library of porphyrins and porphyrin dimers...Amplified two-photon absorption in trans-A2B2- porphyrins bearing nitrophenylethynyl substituents [11]. We show that peripheral nitro groups enhance...the maximum two-photon absorption cross section of trans-A2B2- porphyrins bearing two phenylethynyl substituents by more than one order of magnitude

  9. Seismo-volcano source localization with triaxial broad-band seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inza, L. A.; Mars, J. I.; Métaxian, J. P.; O'Brien, G. S.; Macedo, O.

    2011-10-01

    Seismo-volcano source localization is essential to improve our understanding of eruptive dynamics and of magmatic systems. The lack of clear seismic wave phases prohibits the use of classical location methods. Seismic antennas composed of one-component (1C) seismometers provide a good estimate of the backazimuth of the wavefield. The depth estimation, on the other hand, is difficult or impossible to determine. As in classical seismology, the use of three-component (3C) seismometers is now common in volcano studies. To determine the source location parameters (backazimuth and depth), we extend the 1C seismic antenna approach to 3Cs. This paper discusses a high-resolution location method using a 3C array survey (3C-MUSIC algorithm) with data from two seismic antennas installed on an andesitic volcano in Peru (Ubinas volcano). One of the main scientific questions related to the eruptive process of Ubinas volcano is the relationship between the magmatic explosions and long-period (LP) swarms. After introducing the 3C array theory, we evaluate the robustness of the location method on a full wavefield 3-D synthetic data set generated using a digital elevation model of Ubinas volcano and an homogeneous velocity model. Results show that the backazimuth determined using the 3C array has a smaller error than a 1C array. Only the 3C method allows the recovery of the source depths. Finally, we applied the 3C approach to two seismic events recorded in 2009. Crossing the estimated backazimuth and incidence angles, we find sources located 1000 ± 660 m and 3000 ± 730 m below the bottom of the active crater for the explosion and the LP event, respectively. Therefore, extending 1C arrays to 3C arrays in volcano monitoring allows a more accurate determination of the source epicentre and now an estimate for the depth.

  10. Multi-cavity locally resonant structure with the low frequency and broad band-gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulong Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-cavity periodic structure with the characteristic of local resonance was proposed in the paper. The low frequency band-gap structure was comparatively analyzed by the finite element method (FEM and electric circuit analogy (ECA. Low frequency band-gap can be opened through the dual influence of the coupling’s resonance in the cavity and the interaction among the couplings between structures. Finally, the influence of the structural factors on the band-gap was analyzed. The results show that the structure, which is divided into three parts equally, has a broader effective band-gap below the frequency of 200 Hz. It is also proved that reducing the interval between unit structures can increase the intensity of the couplings among the structures. And in this way, the width of band-gap would be expanded significantly. Through the parameters adjustment, the structure enjoys a satisfied sound insulation effect below the frequency of 500Hz. In the area of low frequency noise reduction, the structure has a lot of potential applications.

  11. Broad-band Gausssian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eTrenado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR. SR is a phenomenon in nonlinear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0-15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0-15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250-300 Hz for Pacini corpuscules and 0-300 Hz for all. We document that only the 0-300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz than for 0-15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0-15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0-300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations. These new findings provide worthy information for neurorehabilitation.

  12. On the design of novel compact broad-band planar filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, W.; Zhu, Lei; Wu, Ke; Bogelsack, F.

    2003-02-01

    On the basis of impedance steps and coupled-line sections as inverter circuits, novel wide-band and very compact filters are presented. The application of alternately high- and low-impedance lines presented to the connected transmission-line resonators partly reduces their lengths to a quarter-wavelength only. In addition, effective techniques are demonstrated to reduce spurious stopband resonance resulting from a remaining half-wavelength resonator. Both suspended stripline (SSL) and microstrip filters were designed, fabricated, and tested, proving this concept in an excellent way. For the prototype filters, center frequencies around 6 GHz were selected. Bandwidths are between 2.5-3.25 GHz, and insertion-loss amounts to around 0.25 dB for the microstrip filters and 0.5 dB (including the transitions to coaxial line) for the SSL filters, respectively. For the selected center frequency and on a substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.8, the smallest microstrip filter is only 15 mm×5 mm in size.

  13. Compact High-Resolution Broad-Band Terahertz Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to develop a compact scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer, for satellite far-infrared astronomy and Earth remote sensing, that operates at wavelengths...

  14. Broad-band second-harmonic generation in holey optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Monro, T.M.; Pruneri, V.; Broderick, N.G.R.; Faccio, D.; Kazansky, P. G.; Richardson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Holey fibers are shown to have an ideal geometry for efficient parametric processes due to their tailorable modal properties. These fibers can have the additional advantage of single-mode operation at all the interacting wavelengths. We demonstrate theoretically that by appropriate choice of holey fiber geometry, these fibers can be up to four orders of magnitude more efficient for second harmonic generation than conventional poled fibers

  15. Teleseismic SKS splitting beneath East Antarctica using broad-band stations around Soya Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.

    2006-12-01

    We observed shear wave splitting of SKS waves from digital seismographs that are recorded at 5 stations around Soya Coast in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Their recording systems are composed of a three-component broadband seismometer (CMG-40T), a digital recording unit and a solar power battery supply. The events used were selected from 1999 to 2004 and phase arrival times were calculated using the IASPEI91 earth model (Kennet, 1995). In general, we chose the data from earthquakes with m>6.0 and a distance range 85° < Δ < 130° for the most prominent SKS waves We used the methods of Silver and Chan (1991) for the inversion of anisotropy parameters and estimated the splitting parameters φ (fast polarization direction) and δt (delay time between split waves) assuming a single layer of hexagonal symmetry with a horizontal symmetry axis. The weighted averages of all splitting parameters (φ, δt) for each station are AKR (30±4, 1.30±0.2), LNG (58±6, 1.27±0.2), SKL (67±10, 0.94±0.2), SKV (40±6, 1.28±0.3) and TOT (52±8, 1.26±0.3), where the weights are inversely proportional to the standard deviations for each solution. As compared to typical delay times of SKS waves which show 1.2s (Silver and Chan 1991; Vinnik et al., 1992), the result shows generally the same value. In previous study, Kubo and Hiramatsu (1998) estimate the splitting parameter for Syowa station (SYO), where is located near our using stations in East Antarctica, and the results are (49±3, 0.70±0.1). Although it is consistent with our results for fast polarization direction, δt for our results are large relatively to those of SYO. The difference may be due to either different incident angle or more complex anisotropic structure. We found that fast polarization direction is systematically parallel to coast line in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, which is consistent with NE-SW paleo compressional stress. The absolute plate motion based on the HS2-NUVEL1 (Gripp and Gordon, 1990), that may reflect the present horizontal mantle flow, shows the direction of N120°E and velocity of 1cm/yr in this study region. Since it doesn't coincide with fast polarization direction (the difference is about 50°~90°), we conclude that the mechanism of observed anisotropy is lattice preferred orientation of olivine along the mantle flow which caused NE-SW paleo compressional stress. In future works, we will accomplish the analysis assumed more complex anisotropy systems, such as a two layer model of azimuthal anisotropy, because we could find there is the possibility of azimuthal variations of the splitting parameters in a few station.

  16. Particle acceleration model for the broad-band baseline spectrum of the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Pohl, M.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a simple one-zone model of the steady-state Crab nebula spectrum encompassing both the radio/soft X-ray and the GeV/multi-TeV observations. By solving the transport equation for GeV-TeV electrons injected at the wind termination shock as a log-parabola momentum distribution and evolved via energy losses, we determine analytically the resulting differential energy spectrum of photons. We find an impressive agreement with the observed spectrum of synchrotron emission, and the synchrotron self-Compton component reproduces the previously unexplained broad 200-GeV peak that matches the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) data beyond 1 GeV with the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) data. We determine the parameters of the single log-parabola electron injection distribution, in contrast with multiple broken power-law electron spectra proposed in the literature. The resulting photon differential spectrum provides a natural interpretation of the deviation from power law customarily fitted with empirical multiple broken power laws. Our model can be applied to the radio-to-multi-TeV spectrum of a variety of astrophysical outflows, including pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants, as well as to interplanetary shocks.

  17. Coaxial Sensors For Broad-Band Complex Permittivity Measurements of Petroleum Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgeroe, K.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis verifies that dielectric spectroscopy and microwave permittivity measurements can be used to characterize petroleum liquids. It concentrates on developing sensors for three potential industrial applications: quality characterization of crude oil and petroleum fractions, monitoring of gas-hydrate formation in water-in-oil emulsions, and determination of water-content in thin liquid layers. The development of a permittivity measurement system for crude oil and petroleum fractions is described. As black oils have low dielectric constant and loss, the system must be very sensitive in order to measure the dielectric spectra and to distinguish oils of different permittivity. Such a system was achieved by combining impedance and scattering parameter measurements with appropriate permittivity calculation methods. The frequency range from 10 kHz to 6 GHz was found convenient for observing the main dispersion of the oils. All the oils had dielectric constants between 2.1 and 2.9 and dielectric loss below 0.01. The oils studied were samples of the feedstock for the cracker and coke processes at a petroleum refinery. This verifies that dielectric spectroscopy is a potential technique for on-line quality monitoring of the feedstock at petroleum refineries. Gas hydrates may cause major problems like clogging of pipelines. Dielectric spectroscopy is proposed as a means of monitoring the formation of gas hydrates in emulsions. It is found that open-ended coaxial probes fulfill the sensitivity requirements for such sensors. 312 refs., 87 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  19. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  20. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor Smaluk; Ian Martin; Richard Fielder; Riccardo Bartolini

    2015-01-01

    .... At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening...

  1. Multiwavelength observations of the energetic GRB 080810: detailed mapping of the broad-band spectral evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, K.L.; Willingale, R.; Bissaldi, E.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Holland, S.T.; McBreen, S.; O'Brien, P.T.; Osborne, J.P.; Prochaska, J.X.; Rol, E.; Rykoff, E.S.; Starling, R.L.C.; Tanvir, N.R.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.; Aceituno, F.J.; Akerlof, C.; Beardmore, A.P.; Briggs, M.S.; Burrows, D.N.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Connaughton, V.; Evans, P.A.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gehrels, N.; Guidorzi, C.; Howard, A.W.; Kennea, J.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pagani, C.; Preece, R.; Perley, D.; Steele, I.A.; Yuan, F.

    2009-01-01

    GRB 080810 was one of the first bursts to trigger both Swift and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It was subsequently monitored over the X-ray and UV/optical bands by Swift, in the optical by Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and a host of other telescopes, and was detected in

  2. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  3. Broad-band characteristics of seven new hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Russell, D. M.; Falanga, M.; Masetti, N.; Ferrigno, C.; Israel, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of a sample of seven hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variable candidates based on simultaneous X-ray and optical observations collected with XMM-Newton, complemented with Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL /IBIS hard X-ray data and ground-based optical photometry. For six sources, X-ray pulsations are detected for the first time in the range of ˜296-6098 s, identifying them as members of the magnetic class. Swift J0927.7-6945, Swift J0958.0-4208, Swift J1701.3-4304, Swift J2113.5+5422 and possibly PBC J0801.2-4625 are intermediate polars (IPs), while Swift J0706.8+0325 is a short (1.7 h) orbital period polar, the 11th hard X-ray-selected identified so far. X-ray orbital modulation is also observed in Swift J0927.7-6945 (5.2 h) and Swift J2113.5+5422 (4.1 h). Swift J1701.3-4304 is discovered as the longest orbital period (12.8 h) deep eclipsing IP. The spectra of the magnetic systems reveal optically thin multitemperature emission between 0.2 and 60 keV. Energy-dependent spin pulses and the orbital modulation in Swift J0927.7-6945 and Swift J2113.5+5422 are due to intervening local high-density absorbing material (NH ˜ 1022 - 23 cm-2). In Swift J0958.0-4208 and Swift J1701.3-4304, a soft X-ray blackbody (kT ˜ 50 and ˜80 eV) is detected, adding them to the growing group of `soft' IPs. White dwarf masses are determined in the range of ˜ 0.58-1.18 M⊙, indicating massive accreting primaries in five of them. Most sources accrete at rates lower than the expected secular value for their orbital period. Formerly proposed as a long-period (9.4 h) nova-like CV, Swift J0746.3-1608 shows peculiar spectrum and light curves suggesting either an atypical low-luminosity CV or a low-mass X-ray binary.

  4. Broad-band dielectric spectroscopy of Ba 2NaNb 5O 15 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buixaderas, E.; Porokhonskyy, V.; Paskhin, A.; Savinov, M.; Petzelt, J.

    2002-12-01

    Barium sodium niobate (BNN) single crystals are studied by IR spectroscopy, time-domain THz transmission spectroscopy, HF coaxial wave-guide technique and LF dielectric spectroscopy to cover the frequency range 10^2 10^{14} Hz in a wide temperature interval. The dielectric response parallel and perpendicular to the polar c-axis is discussed. The ferroelectric transition at T_c=830 K is driven by a relaxational soft mode coupled with another central-mode type relaxation which both gradually disappear on cooling in the ferroelectric phase. Below T_i the parameters of the expected IR active amplitudon were estimated. The low-temperature permittivity increase on cooling for the {ěc E}bot {ěc c} field direction has been explained by an incipient proper ferroelectric-ferroelastic transition driven by an IR and Raman active B2-symmetry soft mode.

  5. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and we seek to find the same kind of flux states (low/average/high), and we define the minimum flux in ... According to the definition of composite spectral indices (Ledden & O'Dell 1985) and the data compiled by ... (U1231202, 11063004), the innovation team of gravitation theory research in Yun- nan Normal University ...

  6. Broad-band chopper for a CW proton linac at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Lebedev, V.A.; Solyak, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sun, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The future Fermilab program in the high energy physics is based on a new facility called the Project X [1] to be built in the following decade. It is based on a 3 MW CW linear accelerator delivering the 3 GeV 1 mA H{sup -} beam to a few experiments simultaneously. Small fraction of this beam will be redirected for further acceleration to 8 GeV to be injected to the Recycler/Main Injector for a usage in a neutrino program and other synchrotron based high energy experiments. Requirements and technical limitations to the bunch-by-bunch chopper for the Fermilab Project X are discussed.

  7. YIG based broad band microwave absorber: A perspective on synthesis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of a thin layer of microwave absorber that operates over a wide band of frequencies is still a challenging task. With recent advances in nanostructure synthesis techniques, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin nanocomposite layer designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation covering S to K band frequencies. The primary objective of this investigation is to achieve best possible EM absorption with a wide bandwidth and attenuation >10 dB for a thin absorbing layer (few hundred of microns). Magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12; in short YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel (SG) as well as solid-state (SS) reaction methods to elucidate the effects of nanoscale finite size on the magnetic behavior of the particles and hence their microwave absorption capabilities. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. Magnetic properties investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exhibit that the coercivity (Hc) of solid-state NPs is much larger (72 Oe) than the sol-gel NPs (31 Oe). Microwave absorption properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique in field sweep mode at different fixed frequencies. A thin layer (∼300 μm) of YIG film was deposited using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique over a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line made on copper coated RT/duroid® 5880 substrates. Temperature dependent magnetic properties were also investigated using VSM and FMR techniques. Microwave absorption properties were investigated at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) both for sol-gel and solid-state synthesized NPs and are related to skin depth of YIG films. It is observed that microwave absorption almost vanishes when the temperature reached the Néel temperature of YIG.

  8. A wide-angle and polarization insensitive infrared broad band metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ma, Rongyi; Zhong, Min

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and experimental demonstration of a broad single-band metamaterial absorber composed of a simple two-dimensional periodic silver-SiO2-silver sandwich array. The experimental results show that a near-perfect absorption band with a bandwidth of approximately 0.4 μm in the THz region is obtained, which is in reasonable agreement with the simulated results. The calculated electric field intensity distributions indicate that the broad absorption band is achieved by plasmonic hybridization of two plasmon resonances: one originates from outward coupling between adjacent unit cells and the other arises from inward coupling between the two sub-structures. The effects of the structural parameters and the SiO2 layer thickness on the broad absorption band are investigated experimentally. The effect of the angle of incidence on the broad absorption band is also investigated experimentally and the absorption band remains high at large angles of incidence (60°), which thus provides more efficient absorption of obliquely incident beams.

  9. The Leaky Lens: A Broad-Band Fixed-Beam Leaky-Wave Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Bruni, S.; Gerini, G.; Sabbadini, M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel type of leaky-wave antenna is presented. Differently from previously reported leaky-wave antennas, it is characterized by a constant beam direction over a very wide range of frequencies. The radiation originates at a slot etched at the interface between air and a dense dielectric, which is

  10. Combined front and back diffraction gratings for broad band light trapping in thin film solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianqin; Drouard, Emmanuel; Gomard, Guillaume; Peretti, Romain; Fave, Alain; Seassal, Christian

    2012-09-10

    In this paper, we present the integration of combined front and back 1D and 2D diffraction gratings with different periods, within thin film photovoltaic solar cells based on crystalline silicon layers. The grating structures have been designed considering both the need for incident light absorption enhancement and the technological feasibility. Long wavelength absorption is increased thanks to the long period (750 nm) back grating, while the incident light reflection is reduced by using a short period (250 nm) front grating. The simulated short circuit current in a solar cell combining a front and a back grating structures with a 1.2 µm thick c-Si layer, together with the back electrode and TCO layers, is increased up to 30.3 mA/cm2, compared to 18.4 mA/cm2 for a reference stack, as simulated using the AM1.5G solar spectrum intensity distribution from 300 nm to 1100 nm, and under normal incidence.

  11. First record of the broad-banded cardinal fish Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790 from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. TURAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of the alien cardinal fish Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790 are recorded for the first time from Turkey and second time from the Mediterranean Sea. This is the fourth Indo-Pacific apogonid species documented in the Mediterranean Sea, and the introduction of this species to the eastern Mediterranean is due to migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.

  12. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Smaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  13. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor; Martin, Ian; Fielder, Richard; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  14. Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert galaxies. III - Ultraviolet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.; Pike, G. F.; Krolik, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 657 archived IUE spectra are used to study the UV variability properties of six members of the CfA Seyfert I galaxy sample. All show strong evidence for continuum and line variations and a tendency for less luminous objects to be more strongly variable. Most objects show a clear correlation at zero lag between UV spectral index and luminosity, evidence that the variable component is an accretion disk around a black hole which is systematically smaller in less luminous sources. No correlation is seen between the continuum luminosity and equivalent width of the C IV, Mg II, and semiforbidden C III emission lines when the entire sample is examined, but a clear anticorrelation is present when only repeated observations of individual objects are considered. This is due to a combination of light-travel time effects in the broad-line region and the nonlinear responses of lines to continuum fluctuations.

  15. Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies. II - Infrared to millimeter properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.; Malkan, M. A.; Rieke, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    IR and mm observations of the 48 Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies (SG1s and SG2s) of the CfA sample (Huchra and Berg, 1987) are reported. Data obtained (1) in the NIR using the 1.55-m reflector at Stewart Observatory and the 3-m IRTF during 1984-1986, (2) in the FIR with IRAS, and (3) at 1.3 mm using the 12-m NRAO telescope at KPNO in June 1984 are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. None of the objects was detected at 1.3 mm, and the IR spectra of the SG2s are found to be significantly steeper (indicating thermal emission) than those of SG1s and QSOs (nonthermal emission). Turnover in the IR emission below 100 microns (in half of the objects detected at three or more IRAS wavelengths) is shown to be consistent with an accretion disk in dust-free SG1s and with unusually warm (35-65 K) dust in SG2s. It is inferred that a 60-100-micron cool excess is masking turnover in the other SGs, so that a general association of SG nuclei with strong star formation can be confirmed.

  16. Towards doubling solar harvests using wide-angle, broad-band microfluidic beam steering arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Leo D

    2015-11-30

    This paper introduces Microfluidic Beam Steering (MBS), which is a new technique for electronically steering light having multiple octaves of bandwidth, any polarization state and incidence from any direction of the sky without significant restrictions due to physical area, optical loss and power handling capacity. It is based on optical elements comprising both transparent solids and electronically controllable fluids to control Total Internal Reflection (TIR), refraction and/or diffraction from micro-structured surfaces within a transparent solid. A TIR-based MBS is discussed in the context of solar energy and its potential to significantly increase annual energy harvests from solar arrays situated on fixed areas like roofs. The advantages and challenges associated with analog and digital MBS systems are discussed and early-stage MBS hardware is demonstrated. Finally, an analytic model of sun-tracking is provided to formally establish the potential for MBS to increase annual solar energy harvests by approximately 45% more than conventional 0-Degree Of Freedom (0-DOF) solar arrays, 62% more than 1-DOF arrays and 233% more than 2-DOF arrays, all at 20% atmospheric aerosol scattering.

  17. A novel pen-based Bluetooth-enabled insulin delivery system with insulin dose tracking and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy S; Stone, Jenine Y

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is growing in prevalence internationally. As more individuals require insulin as part of their treatment, technology evolves to optimize delivery, improve adherence, and reduce dosing errors. Insulin pens outperform vial and syringe in simplicity, dosing accuracy, and user preference. Bolus advisors improve dosing confidence and treatment adherence. The InPen System offers a novel approach to treatment via a wireless pen that syncs to a mobile application featuring a bolus advisor, enabling convenient insulin dose tracking and more accurate bolus advice among other features. Areas covered: Existing technology for insulin delivery and bolus advice are reviewed. The mechanics and functionality of the InPen device are delineated. Findings from formative testing and usability studies of the InPen system are reported. Future directions for the InPen system in the treatment of diabetes are discussed. Expert opinion: Diabetes management is complex and largely data-driven. The InPen System offers a promising new opportunity to avail insulin pen-users of features known to improve treatment efficacy, which have otherwise primarily been available to those using pumps. Given that the majority of insulin users do not use insulin pumps, the InPen System is poised to improve glucose control in a significant portion of the diabetes population.

  18. Microstructural control over soluble pentacene deposited by capillary pen printing for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Lee, Junghwi; Seo, Eunsuk; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2013-08-28

    Research into printing techniques has received special attention for the commercialization of cost-efficient organic electronics. Here, we have developed a capillary pen printing technique to realize a large-area pattern array of organic transistors and systematically investigated self-organization behavior of printed soluble organic semiconductor ink. The capillary pen-printed deposits of organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), was well-optimized in terms of morphological and microstructural properties by using ink with mixed solvents of chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Especially, a 1:1 solvent ratio results in the best transistor performances. This result is attributed to the unique evaporation characteristics of the TIPS_PEN deposits where fast evaporation of CB induces a morphological evolution at the initial printed position, and the remaining DCB with slow evaporation rate offers a favorable crystal evolution at the pinned position. Finally, a large-area transistor array was facilely fabricated by drawing organic electrodes and active layers with a versatile capillary pen. Our approach provides an efficient printing technique for fabricating large-area arrays of organic electronics and further suggests a methodology to enhance their performances by microstructural control of the printed organic semiconducting deposits.

  19. The digital pen and paper technology: implementation and use in an existing clinical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despont-Gros, Christelle; Bœuf, Christophe; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Lovis, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of the technical feasibility of tight integration of the digital pen and paper technology in an existing computerized patient record.Technology: The digital pen is a normal pen able to record all actions of the user and to analyze a micro pattern printed on the paper. The digital paper is a normal paper printed with an almost invisible micro pattern of small dots encoding information such as position and identifiers. We report our experience in the implementation and the use of this technology in an existing large clinical information system for acquiring clinical information. It is possible to print uniquely identified forms using the digital paper technology. These forms can be pre-filled with clinical readable information about the patient. When care providers complete these forms using the digital pen, it is possible to acquire the data in a structured computerized patient record. The technology is easy to integrate in a component-based architecture based on Web Services. The digital pen and paper is a cost-effective technology that can be integrated in an existing clinical information system and allows fast and easy bedside clinical information acquisition without the need for an expensive infrastructure based on traditional portable devices or wireless devices.

  20. Calibration of the TonoVet and Tono-Pen Vet tonometers in the porcine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Andrew C; Miller, Paul E

    2017-11-01

    The pig has an increasingly important role in ocular drug delivery models, but the most accurate tonometer in this species is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of TonoVet and Tono-Pen Vet tonometers in the ex vivo porcine eye. Four freshly enucleated normal porcine eyes were cannulated with two 25-gauge needles; one connected via tubing to a mercury manometer calibrated continuous physiologic recorder and the other connected to a reservoir of lactated Ringer's solution on an adjustable stand. Triplicate IOP readings were taken with the TonoVet and then the Tono-Pen Vet at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 mmHg. Linear regression showed strong linear trends for both the TonoVet (r 2 = 0.969) and Tono-Pen Vet (r 2 = 0.983). The TonoVet slightly underestimated IOP at lower pressures and slightly overestimated IOP at higher pressures (y = 1.092x - 4.0, where y = tonometer reading, x = manometer reading, and 4.0 = intercept). The Tono-Pen Vet consistently underestimated IOP (y = 0.773x - 2.1). These differences were statistically significant (P = Vet tonometers do not measure true IOP in the porcine eye; however, the TonoVet more closely approximated true IOP in the normal porcine eye than the Tono-Pen Vet and may be the tonometer of choice for this species. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Behavioral, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of shallow pool pens used in gilts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Michael Biazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to assess behaviors, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of gilt breeding (Body weight, 25–110 kg whilst the animals were housed in 2-cm deep shallow pool pens (SPP, without the addition of water, compared to the use of fully compact floor pens (TSF during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial female strains for high lean tissue accretion were used, housed in grower/finisher pens for 108 days (11 animals/pen, 1.2 m2/animal. Instantaneous observations of behavior were carried out every 12 min between 7:00 and 19:00 hours throughout the six days of the raising period. At the end of the raising period, the operational aspects of cleaning the facilities were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial scheme design was used, with two types of floors and two seasons, with three replicates. The average temperatures in winter and summer were 19.9 ± 2.2°C and 24.5 ± 2.3°C, respectively. The use of SPP reduced aggressive behavior and increased exploratory behavior, increased the time for the daily cleaning, and reduced the time for the final cleaning of the pens.

  2. Trends in adrenaline (EpiPen) dispensing in Israel in 1997-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yael; Segal, Nirit; Danon, Yehuda L

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last 20 years in the Western world. Reports on the growing use of adrenaline auto-injectors (EpiPen and EpiPen Jr) in several countries may point to increased rates of anaphylactic reactions, increased awareness of the risk of anaphylaxis or both. To evaluate the dispensing rate of EpiPen units in Israel from 1997 to 2004. The database of the General Health Services (Clalit) was searched to determine the number of EpiPen units dispensed each year from 1997 to 2004. Data on mortality from anaphylaxis were derived from the Central Bureau of Statistics using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes. The dispensing rate of EpiPen units rose gradually from 1689 in 1997 to 2981 in 2004; an overall increase of 76%. No case of death from anaphylaxis was reported from 1998 to 2000. The dispensing rate of adrenaline auto-injectors has increased considerably over the last 8 years in Israel, although to a lesser degree than in other countries. This is probably a reflection of updated medical policies, in accordance with the clinical guidelines for the management of anaphylaxis and improved public education. Further studies are needed to determine the prevalence of anaphylactic reactions in Israel.

  3. Using a Computer Module to Teach Use of the EpiPen®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh Rai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The medical literature suggests that patients and physicians are deficient in their ability to use a self-injectable epinephrine device (EpiPen® for management of anaphylaxis. This study aims to determine whether a computer module is an effective tool for the instruction of a technical skill to medical trainees. Methods: We conducted a two group comparison study of 35 Post-Graduate Year 1 and 2 Family Medicine residents. Participants were instructed on use of the EpiPen® using either a written module or a computer module. Participants were evaluated on use of the EpiPen® using standardized objective outcome measures by a blinded assessor. Assessments took place prior to and following instruction, using the assigned learning modality. Results: There were 34 participants who completed the study. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in demonstrating use of the EpiPen® following training (p <0.001 for both. A significant post-training difference favouring the computer module learners over the written module learners was observed (p = 0.035. However, only 53% and 18% of candidates (computer module and written module, respectively were able to correctly perform all of the checklist steps. Conclusion: While our findings suggest computer modules represent an effective modality for teaching use of the EpiPen® to medical trainees, the low number of candidates who were able to perform all the checklist items regardless of modality needs to be addressed.

  4. The Possible Role of Penning Ionization Processes in Planetary Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falcinelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest Penning ionization as an important route of formation for ionic species in upper planetary atmospheres. Our goal is to provide relevant tools to researchers working on kinetic models of atmospheric interest, in order to include Penning ionizations in their calculations as fast processes promoting reactions that cannot be neglected. Ions are extremely important for the transmission of radio and satellite signals, and they govern the chemistry of planetary ionospheres. Molecular ions have also been detected in comet tails. In this paper recent experimental results concerning production of simple ionic species of atmospheric interest are presented and discussed. Such results concern the formation of free ions in collisional ionization of H2O, H2S, and NH3 induced by highly excited species (Penning ionization as metastable noble gas atoms. The effect of Penning ionization still has not been considered in the modeling of terrestrial and extraterrestrial objects so far, even, though metastable helium is formed by radiative recombination of He+ ions with electrons. Because helium is the second most abundant element of the universe, Penning ionization of atomic or molecular species by He*(23S1 is plausibly an active route of ionization in relatively dense environments exposed to cosmic rays.

  5. Comparison between wild and hatchery populations of Korean pen shell (Atrina pectinata) using microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hye Suck; Kim, Byeong Hak; Lee, Jang Wook; Dong, Chun Mae; Kim, Shin Kwon; Kim, Yi Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of pen shell populations. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic pen shell DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery pen shell populations in Korea. A total of 438 alleles were detected at the 20 MS loci in the two populations. All loci were easily amplified and demonstrated allelic variability, with the number of alleles ranging from 5 to 35 in the wild population and from 5 to 22 in the farmed population. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.69 and 0.82, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.69 and 0.83, respectively, in the wild samples. Statistical analysis of fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed minor, but significant, genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.0106, CI(95%) = 0.003-0.017). These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies for developing conservation and management plans. Further studies with additional pen shell samples are needed to conclusively determine the genetic diversity between the wild and hatchery populations.

  6. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  7. Distribución de Arum cylindraceum Gasp. (Araceae en la Península Iberica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draper, David

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the revisión of herbarium material, a map (CUTM is presented of the distribution on the Iberian Península of Arum cylindraceum Gasp. (Araceae, which is new to Portugal. It is concluded that A. maculatum L. is reponed infrequently on the Península an that detailed studies are necessary to establish its correct distribution.Como resultado de la revisión de materiales de herbario, se presenta un mapa (CUTM con la distribución peninsular de Arum cylindraceum Gasp. (Araceae, el cual es novedad para Portugal. Se concluye que Arum maculatum L. se encuentra muy poco representado en la Península Ibérica y que precisa de estudios más detallados, para poder determinar su correcta distribución.

  8. A Prototype of Mathematical Treatment of Pen Pressure Data for Signature Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Keung; Wong, Siu-Kay; Chim, Lai-Chu Joyce

    2018-01-01

    A prototype using simple mathematical treatment of the pen pressure data recorded by a digital pen movement recording device was derived. In this study, a total of 48 sets of signature and initial specimens were collected. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the data of the pen pressure patterns. From the 820 pair comparisons of the 48 sets of genuine signatures, a high degree of matching was found in which 95.4% (782 pairs) and 80% (656 pairs) had rPA > 0.7 and rPA > 0.8, respectively. In the comparison of the 23 forged signatures with their corresponding control signatures, 20 of them (89.2% of pairs) had rPA values prototype could be used as a complementary technique to improve the objectivity of signature examination and also has a good potential to be developed as a tool for automated signature identification. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Ex vivo evaluation of Tono-Pen and pneumotonometry in cat eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Josef; Fernandez, Viviana; Lamar, Peggy D; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the validity and intraobserver reliability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements with both pneumotonometry and the Tono-Pen in a closed ex vivo system in cat eyes. IOP was increased step by step in 5 enucleated cat eyes, while taking IOP measurements with the Tono-Pen and pneumotonometry. The outcomes were compared to readings of a digital manometer simultaneously measuring the actual pressure in the anterior chamber. Pneumotonometry overestimated IOP below 15 mm Hg and underestimated pressures above 20 mm Hg. Tono-Pen tonometry considerably underestimated IOP over the whole spectrum in all of the eyes tested. The pneumotonometer was identified as the more valid and reliable instrument for cat eyes. Both tonometers are clinically useful tools to assess IOP for glaucoma studies using a cat animal model. However, one has to consider underestimation of IOP in the upper ranges. A correction formula can be used to calculate the actual IOP.

  10. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36......) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again...... 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36....

  11. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S

    2003-07-01

    There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children and a consequent increase in the provision of the self or carer injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) (CSL Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia)). The Australian use of EpiPens in children under 10 years has increased by 300% over 5 years with a crude rate of EpiPen provision of 1 per 544 Australian children aged under 10 years. However, the risk of a fatal reaction to food, particularly in preschool children, is remote (in Australia, an estimated one fatality in 30 years in the under 5-year-old population and two deaths in 10 years in the entire child population). It is therefore important to provide a perspective on the risk of death from food induced anaphylactic to parents and carers in view of the anxiety generated on this issue. The indications for provision of an EpiPen to children are not well defined. Six risk factors, which can be considered in evaluating the risk of a life-threatening reaction (age over 5 years; a history of respiratory tract involvement with the initial or subsequent reactions; a history of asthma requiring preventer medication; peanut or tree nut sensitivity; reactions induced by traces or small amounts of allergen; a strongly positive skin prick test) are proposed. It is suggested that the greater the number that are positive, the lower the threshold for provision of an EpiPen. In addition, instruction in EpiPen administration and the provision of both a clear and simple anaphylaxis action plan and a rational perspective on the remote risk of death is just as important as the provision of the device itself.

  12. Cost minimization analysis of different growth hormone pen devices based on time-and-motion simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaewhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous pen devices are available to administer recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH, and both patients and health plans have varying issues to consider when selecting a particular product and device for daily use. Therefore, the present study utilized multi-dimensional product analysis to assess potential time involvement, required weekly administration steps, and utilization costs relative to daily rhGH administration. Methods Study objectives were to conduct 1 Time-and-Motion (TM simulations in a randomized block design that allowed time and steps comparisons related to rhGH preparation, administration and storage, and 2 a Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA relative to opportunity and supply costs. Nurses naïve to rhGH administration and devices were recruited to evaluate four rhGH pen devices (2 in liquid form, 2 requiring reconstitution via TM simulations. Five videotaped and timed trials for each product were evaluated based on: 1 Learning (initial use instructions, 2 Preparation (arrange device for use, 3 Administration (actual simulation manikin injection, and 4 Storage (maintain product viability between doses, in addition to assessment of steps required for weekly use. The CMA applied micro-costing techniques related to opportunity costs for caregivers (categorized as wages, non-drug medical supplies, and drug product costs. Results Norditropin® NordiFlex and Norditropin® NordiPen (NNF and NNP, Novo Nordisk, Inc., Bagsværd, Denmark took less weekly Total Time (p ® Pen (GTP, Pfizer, Inc, New York, New York or HumatroPen® (HTP, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. Time savings were directly related to differences in new package Preparation times (NNF (1.35 minutes, NNP (2.48 minutes GTP (4.11 minutes, HTP (8.64 minutes, p Conclusions Time-and-motion simulation data used to support a micro-cost analysis demonstrated that the pen device with the greater time demand has highest net costs.

  13. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  14. PEN experiment: a measurement of π+ -->e+νe (γ) branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frlez, Emil; PEN Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The experimental π+ -->e+νe (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of ΔB / B = 3 . 3 .10-3 to ~ 5 .10-4 using a stopped pion beam. During runs in 2008-2010, PEN has acquired over 2 .107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with a plastic scintillator hodoscope, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. We will present a progress report on the PEN analysis. In addition to πe 2 and the normalizing π --> μ --> e process, we will discuss radiative pion and muon decays, decays in flight, as well as accidental and hadronic backgrounds. The experimental π+ -->e+νe (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of ΔB / B = 3 . 3 .10-3 to ~ 5 .10-4 using a stopped pion beam. During runs in 2008-2010, PEN has acquired over 2 .107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with a plastic scintillator hodoscope, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. We will present a progress report on the PEN analysis. In addition to πe 2 and the normalizing π --> μ --> e process, we will discuss radiative pion and muon decays, decays in flight, as well as accidental and hadronic backgrounds. Work supported by NSF Grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  15. A comparison of Icare PRO and Tono-Pen XL tonometers in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Elliot C; Ely, Amanda L; Duncan, Jared E; Dosunmu, Eniolami O; Freedman, Sharon F

    2015-08-01

    Tonometry in the anesthetized child, vital for evaluating known or suspected glaucoma, remains limited to tonometers capable of supine recording. The Icare PRO measures intraocular pressure (IOP) in the sitting or supine patient. The purpose of this study was to compare Icare PRO and Tono-Pen tonometry during examination under anesthesia in eyes of supine children with normal eyes and glaucoma and/or corneal pathology. In this prospective study of children undergoing examination under anesthesia, IOP was recorded in both eyes with Icare PRO and Tono-Pen immediately after mask anesthesia induction, with instrument order randomized. A total of 100 eyes of 50 children (median age, 58 months) were included. IOP range was 6-50 mm Hg by Icare PRO and 6-53 mm Hg by Tono-Pen. Mean IOP measured by Tono-Pen (18.9 ± 7.5) was higher than that measured by Icare PRO (16.7 ± 7.1 mm Hg) by 2.2 mm Hg (P IOP measurements higher by Tono-Pen than by Icare PRO (mean difference, 8.4 mm Hg). When eyes with corneal edema were excluded from analysis, there was no correlation between central corneal thickness and the difference in IOP between the two instruments. IOP in eyes of supine children under anesthesia measured approximately 2 mm Hg higher by Tono-Pen than Icare PRO and this difference was greater in eyes with frank corneal edema. Icare PRO may become a valuable tool for tonometry in supine infants and children, but a confirmatory test should be considered in eyes with corneal edema. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The finer points of lying online: e-mail versus pen and paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naquin, Charles E; Kurtzberg, Terri R; Belkin, Liuba Y

    2010-03-01

    The authors present 3 experimental studies that build on moral disengagement theory by exploring lying in online environments. Findings indicate that, when e-mail is compared with pen and paper communication media (both of which are equal in terms of media richness, as both are text only), people are more willing to lie when communicating via e-mail than via pen and paper and feel more justified in doing so. The findings were consistent whether the task assured participants that their lie either would or would not be discovered by their counterparts. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  17. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  18. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a

  19. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  20. Nest building and posture changes and activity budget of gilts housed in pens and crates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Vasdal, Guro; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study nest building, posture changes and the overall activity budget of gilts in pens vs. crates. Twenty-three HB gilts (high piglet survival day 5) and 21 LB gilts (low piglet survival day 5) were video recorded from day 110 in pregnancy to four days after...... farrowing in either a farrowing pen or farrowing crate. The gilts were provided with 2 kg of chopped straw daily from day 113 of pregnancy until farrowing in both environments. Nest building and other activity measures of the sows were analysed using continuous sampling the last 12 h before the first piglet...

  1. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro, E-mail: yamakita@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(2{sup 3}S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  2. Gestão e desempenho dos fundos de pensão

    OpenAIRE

    Rabelo, Flávio Marcílio

    2001-01-01

    O trabalho discute o custeio administrativo das entidades fechadas de previdência privada (EFPP) no Brasil. Esta análise é o primeiro passo para um estudo da gestão e desempenho destas entidades, uma vez que a meta de um fundo de pensão é obter retornos competitivos, respeitando limites toleráveis de risco, e mantendo o custeio administrativo dentro de um patamar adequado. O texto apresenta também uma análise do custeio dos fundos de pensão nos Estados Unidos e no Reino Unido, identificando o...

  3. The effects of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators on airflow in a livestock test room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B.; Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.

    2000-01-01

    partitions which divided the room into four equal-sized pens. The guiding plates beneath the ceiling were efficient in creating two-dimensional how in the occupied zone, but they increased the differences between measured and simulated air velocity close to the ceiling and close to the floor. Both...... measurements and CFD simulations showed that the introduction of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators reduced the air velocities in the occupied zone of the test room. Detailed geometric modelling of the animals might often be unnecessary for simulation of airflow in livestock rooms. This will especially...

  4. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  5. Conceptual Assessment Framework for Forested Wetland Restoration: The Pen Branch Experience. Restoration of a Severely Impacted Riparian Wetland System - The Pen Branch Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, R.; Nelson, E.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    2000-10-01

    Development of an assessment framework and indicators can be used to evaluate effectiveness of wetland restoration. Example of these include index of biotic integrity and the hydrogeomorphic method. Both approaches provide qualitative ranks. We propose a new method based on the EPA wetland research program. Similar to other methods, indexes are compared to reference communities; however, the comparisons are quantitative. In this paper we discuss the results of our framework using the Pen Branch riparian wetland system as an example.

  6. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  7. Comparison of preference for NovoPen(®) 4 with previous insulin pen treatments after 12 weeks in adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël-Bultman, Harma; Hyllested-Winge, Jacob; Kolaczynski, Marcin; Steindorf, Jörg; Garon, Jean

    2011-03-01

    In separate randomized, crossover trials, patients with diabetes reported a preference for durable insulin pen NovoPen(®) 4 compared with NovoPen 3 and OptiClik(®). This large post-marketing observational study evaluated treatment satisfaction with NovoPen 4 versus previous treatments, which included NovoPen 3 and other devices, in insulin-treated and insulin-naive patients. During regular clinical practice in Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands, health care professionals assigned adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes to treatment with insulin administered via NovoPen 4 after training according to the device's instruction manual. The primary end point was change in treatment satisfaction as determined by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire given to patients at the beginning and after 12 weeks of treatment. Two additional questionnaires were used at study end to identify why patients preferred either NovoPen 4 or their previously used insulin devices, which included NovoPen 3 and other devices (eg, HumaPen(®) Ergo and OptiPen(®) Pro). Adverse events were also recorded. Two thousand eighteen participants (mean age, 55 years; males, 53%; type 1/type 2 diabetes, 28%/71%; mean duration of disease, 13 years; previously on insulin, 89.8%; insulin-naïve, 2.9%) participated. NovoPen 3 was previously used by 1059, HumaPen Ergo by 256, OptiPen Pro by 217, and other devices by 385 patients. Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scores increased from a mean (SD) baseline of 26.5 (7.2) to 30.5 (5.0) at study end for a median difference of 4.0 (95% CI, 3.5-4.5; Wilcoxon test score: 22.7; P < 0.0001). Over 70% of patients found NovoPen 4 easier to set, read, correct, inject the dose, and change the insulin cartridge than with their previously used device (P < 0.0001). A total of 83.8% rated NovoPen 4 easier to use overall (P < 0.0001). Health care professionals (97.2%) would recommend NovoPen 4 to other patients. No adverse events associated

  8. Digital assist: A comparison of two note-taking methods (traditional vs. digital pen) for students with emotional behavioral disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rody, Carlotta A.

    High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often incorrectly, that students come to class prepared to listen and take notes. In a standard diploma, high school biology class in a separate school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, five students participated in a single-subject, alternating treatment design study that compared the use of regular pens and digital pens to take notes during 21 lecture sessions. Behavior measures were threefold between the two interventions: (a) quantity of notes taken per minute during lectures, (b) quantity of notes or notations taken during review pauses, and (c) percent of correct responses on the daily comprehension quizzes. The study's data indicated that two students were inclined to take more lecture notes when using the digital pen. Two students took more notes with the regular pen. One student demonstrated no difference in her performance with either pen type. Both female students took more notes per minute, on average, than the three males regardless of pen type. During the review pause, three of the five students only added notes or notations to their notes when using the regular pen. The remaining two students did not add to their notes. Quiz scores differed in favor of the regular pen. All five participants earned higher scores on quizzes given during regular pen sessions. However, the differences were minor, and recommendations are made for specific training in note-taking, the pause strategy, and digital pen fluency which may produce different results for both note-taking and quiz scores.

  9. Micromachined fountain pen as a tool for atomic force microscope-based nanoelectrochemical metal deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; de Boer, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a device that enables nanoelectrochemical deposition using atomic force microscope. The micromachined fountain pen is a probe that consists of a fluidic reservoir, fluidic channels encapsulated in cantilevers and a pyramidal probe tip by which the fluid transfer to the sample surface

  10. Gender, Grade Level, PEN Scores and Risk-taking Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk-taking behaviour leading to critical accidents and deaths is widespread and a social problem world-wide among adolescents. The interplay of gender, school grade levels and PEN scores on risk-taking behaviour are mixed, without a research pattern and inconclusive hence this study anchored on the hypotheses that ...

  11. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: Sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheridan, R.; Rooijen, M. van; Giles, O.; Mushtaq, F.; Steenbergen, B.; Mon-Williams, M.; Waterman, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated

  12. Instructional Applications of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN): Thomas Jefferson On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett-Smith, Stephanie

    The motivational value of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN), specifically the Thomas Jefferson On-line discussion group, is examined in this study. The instructional value of the network with respect to student motivation in fourth grade students of varied ability was gauged through observation of actual hands-on network experience,…

  13. Highly-charged ions in a penning trap: mass measurements, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jertz, R.; Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Bergström, I.; Carlberg, C.; Schuch, R.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a Penning trap will start a new generation of precision experiments on highly charged ions. The long storage time of the ions in combination with a controlled confinement in a very small volume will enable accuracies in mass determination better than δ m/ m=10-8.

  14. Engaging Students with Pre-Recorded "Live" Reflections on Problem-Solving with "Livescribe" Pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study, involving PGCE primary student teachers, applies "Livescribe" pen technology to facilitate individual and group reflection on collaborative mathematical problem solving (Hickman 2011). The research question was: How does thinking aloud, supported by digital audio recording, support student teachers' understanding of…

  15. Housing of sows during farrowing: a review on pen design, welfare and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Malmkvist, Jens; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis

    2013-01-01

    . Pens for loose housed sows are good alternatives for the sake of sow welfare. Reveiew of the existing literature does not suggest that loose housing is associated with higher general piglet mortality than housing in farrowing crates. Knowledge from studies on behavioural needs for sow and piglet during...

  16. Porous multilayer-coated AFM tips for dip-pen nanolithography of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching; Xu, Huaping; Otto, Cees; Reinhoudt, David N; Lammertink, Rob G H; Huskens, Jurriaan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Velders, Aldrik H

    2009-01-01

    A simple and novel method for fabricating nanoporous-structure-coated silicon nitride tips for dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) by using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique has been developed. The pore sizes can be adjusted by treating the LbL films coated onto the amino-terminated self-assembled

  17. Strategies To Expand a Pen Pal Program from Simple Letters into a Full Intergenerational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Holly Way; Mosher-Ashley, Pearl M.

    2002-01-01

    The Senior Pen Pal Program began as an exchange of letters between first graders and older adults. Structured group visits between the classroom and the senior center, a holiday concert, and assigned readings about aging expanded the reach of the intergenerational program. (SK)

  18. Students’ Attention when Using Touchscreens and Pen Tablets in a Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hui Chiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The present study investigated and compared students’ attention in terms of time-on-task and number of distractors between using a touchscreen and a pen tablet in mathematical problem-solving activities with virtual manipulatives. Background: Although there is an increasing use of these input devices in educational practice, little research has focused on assessing student attention while using touchscreens or pen tablets in a mathematics classroom. Methodology: A qualitative exploration was conducted in a public elementary school in New Taipei, Taiwan. Six fifth-grade students participated in the activities. Video recordings of the activities and the students’ actions were analyzed. Findings: The results showed that students in the activity using touchscreens maintained greater attention and, thus, had more time-on-task and fewer distractors than those in the activity using pen tablets. Recommendations for Practitioners: School teachers could employ touchscreens in mathematics classrooms to support activities that focus on students’ manipulations in relation to the attention paid to the learning content. Recommendation for Researchers: The findings enhance our understanding of the input devices used in educational practice and provide a basis for further research. Impact on Society: The findings may also shed light on the human-technology interaction process involved in using pen and touch technology conditions. Future Research: Activities similar to those reported here should be conducted using more participants. In addition, it is important to understand how students with different levels of mathematics achievement use the devices in the activities.

  19. Human factors engineering and design validation for the redesigned follitropin alfa pen injection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Mary C; Patterson, Patricia; Hayward, Brooke; North, Robert; Green, Dawne

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate, using human factors engineering (HFE), that a redesigned, pre-filled, ready-to-use, pre-asembled follitropin alfa pen can be used to administer prescribed follitropin alfa doses safely and accurately. A failure modes and effects analysis identified hazards and harms potentially caused by use errors; risk-control measures were implemented to ensure acceptable device use risk management. Participants were women with infertility, their significant others, and fertility nurse (FN) professionals. Preliminary testing included 'Instructions for Use' (IFU) and pre-validation studies. Validation studies used simulated injections in a representative use environment; participants received prior training on pen use. User performance in preliminary testing led to IFU revisions and a change to outer needle cap design to mitigate needle stick potential. In the first validation study (49 users, 343 simulated injections), in the FN group, one observed critical use error resulted in a device design modification and another in an IFU change. A second validation study tested the mitigation strategies; previously reported use errors were not repeated. Through an iterative process involving a series of studies, modifications were made to the pen design and IFU. Simulated-use testing demonstrated that the redesigned pen can be used to administer follitropin alfa effectively and safely.

  20. Characterisation of penA and tetM resistance genes of Neisseria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate penA and tetM resistance gene variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in order to define gene types for epidemiological monitoring and resistance development. Design. Isolates of N. gonorrhoeae which were susceptible and resistant to penicillin and/or tetracycline were selected. Strains comprised ...

  1. Fabrication and visualization of metal-ion patterns on glass by dip-pen nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; Wu, Chien-Ching; van der Werf, Kees O; Peter, Maria; Bennink, Martin L; Otto, Cees; Velders, Aldrik H; Reinhoudt, David N; Subramaniam, Vinod; Crego-Calama, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) substrates for the fabrication of patterns of Ca(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. The driving force for the transfer of these ions from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip to the surface is their complexation to organic

  2. Effect of strain and inoculation dose of classical swine fever virus on within-pen transmission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Backer, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the dynamics and options for control of classical swine fever (CSF), more quantitative knowledge is needed on virus transmission. In this study, virus excretion and within-pen transmission of a strain of low, moderate and high virulence were quantified. Furthermore,

  3. Applicability of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for the direct discrimination of ballpoint pen inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifar, R.M.; Verheul, J.M.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2001-01-01

    In situ surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) with excitation at 685 nm is suitable for the direct discrimination of blue and black ballpoint pen inks on paper. For black inks, shorter excitation wavelengths can also be used. For blue inks, SERRS at 514.5 and 457.9 nm does not

  4. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  5. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  6. Reaction of calves to two flooring materials offered simultaneously in one pen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanowska, J.; Swierstra, D.; Smits, A.C.; Berg, van den J.V.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Now that group housing is replacing individual crates, so that calves can lie, stand and walk on the pen floor, the quality of the floor for group-housed calves has become the focus of attention. The reaction of two groups of four calves to a double area of floor made from two materials (wooden

  7. Viscum album L. y sus hospedantes en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Sanz de Bremond, C.

    1992-01-01

    En el presente trabajo ofrecemos la distribución del muérdago (Viscum album L.) en aquellas regiones y provincias de la Península Ibéria donde se ha detectado y, la relacion de hospedantes parasitados. Asimismo, anotamos algunas de las condiciones naturales que ayudan o impiden que dicha especie prospere.

  8. Comparing emissions from a cattle pen as measured by two micrometeorological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Denmead, Owen T; Chen, Deli

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from livestock pens is challenging. Two micrometeorological techniques, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion techniques were used to measure NH 3 emissions from an isolated cattle pen (20 × 20 m) in Victoria, Australia. The bLS technique is simple and insensitive to the presence of animals, but typically gives discontinuous measurements due to the need for target wind directions and wind conditions above accepted thresholds. In contrast, the IHF technique as implemented here gives near-continuous measurements with no restriction on wind directions. However, IHF needs more complex field measurements, and there are ambiguities when applied to an animal pen due to the presence of animals. Over the 29 days of our experiment, we collected 124 coincidental bLS and IHF emission measurements from the pen (30-min each). We found no statistical difference in the bLS and IHF calculations when the IHF turbulent flux correction factor (TF cor ) was set to 15%. Our results confirm that the IHF and bLS techniques, using independent sensors and having very different equipment layouts, gives nearly equivalent results. This suggests the choice of the two methods in future experiments can focus on their different strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' Attention When Using Touchscreens and Pen Tablets in a Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Huan; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chou, Ying-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The present study investigated and compared students' attention in terms of time-on-task and number of distractors between using a touchscreen and a pen tablet in mathematical problem solving activities with virtual manipulatives. Background: Although there is an increasing use of these input devices in educational practice, little…

  10. Restoration of a Severely Impacted Riparian Wetland System-The Pen Branch Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Kolka, R.F.; McLeod, K.W.; Conner, W.H.; Lakly, M.; Wigginton, J.; Trettin, C.C.; Wisiniewski, j.

    2000-10-01

    The Pen Banch riparian wetland system was impacted by hot water releases from the reactor operations at the SRS. Several hundred acres of swamp and bottomland forest were destroyed and degraded as a result of thermal effects and sedimentation. The SRS developed a plan to restore the system based upon planting both early and last successional tree species. The goal was to develop a

  11. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Berg, Peer; Jørgensen, Grete

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) w...

  12. Fabrication and Visualization of Metal-Ion Patterns on Glass by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basabe Desmonts, M.L.; Wu, C.C.; van der Werf, Kees; Péter, M.; Bennink, Martin L.; Otto, Cornelis; Velders, Aldrik; Reinhoudt, David; Subramaniam, Vinod; Crego Calama, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) substrates for the fabrication of patterns of Ca2+ and Cu2+ ions. The driving force for the transfer of these ions from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip to the surface is their complexation to organic ligands

  13. Personality and psychopathology: a theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, D.

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck’s original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck’s personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism.

  14. Comparison of Eysenck's PEN and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory in a Group of American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eysenck's PEN Inventory and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory were given to groups of male and female American undergraduates from a state university. A factorial analysis of the intercorrelations showed that three major factors could account for the bulk of correlations among the nine differently labeled characteristics covered by the…

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy with Chemometric Techniques for the Classification of Ballpoint Pen Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeim Mohamad Asri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopic techniques have been shown to possess good abilities to analyse ballpoint pen inks. These in-situ techniques involve directing light onto ballpoint ink samples to generate an FTIR spectrum, providing “molecular fingerprints” of the ink samples thus allowing comparison by direct visual comparison. In this study, ink from blue (n=15 and red (n=15 ballpoint pens of five different brands: Kilometrico®, G-Soft®, Stabilo®, Pilot® and Faber Castell® was analysed using the FTIR technique with the objective of establishing a distinctive differentiation according to the brand. The resulting spectra were first compared and grouped manually. Due to the similarities in terms of colour and shade of the inks, distinctive differentiation could not be achieved by means of direct visual comparison. However, when the same spectral data was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA software, distinctive grouping of the ballpoint pen inks was achieved. Our results demonstrate that PCA can be used objectively to investigate ballpoint pen inks of similar colour and more importantly of different brands.

  16. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  17. Preparation and characterisation of irradiated crab chitosan and New Zealand Arrow squid pen chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Adnan A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Ali, M. Azam [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-11-01

    The properties of chitosan from Arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii) pen (CHS) and commercial crab shell (CHC) were investigated using FTIR, DSC, SEM and XRD before and after irradiation at the dose of 28 kGy in the presence or absence of 5% water. Also, the viscosity, deacetylation degree, water and oil holding capacities, colour and antimicrobial activities of the chitosan samples were determined. Irradiation decreased (P < 0.05) the viscosity of CHC from 0.21 to 0.03 Pa s and of CHS from 1.71 to 0.23 Pa s. The inclusion of water had no effect on the viscosity of irradiated chitosan. Irradiation did not affect the degree of deacetylation of CHC, but increased the deacetylation degree of CHS from 72.78 to 82.29% in samples with 5% water. Water and oil holding capacities of CHS (1197.30% and 873.3%, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than those found in CHC (340.70% and 264.40%, respectively). The water and oil holding capacities were decreased for both types of chitosan irradiation, but were not affected by the addition of water. Squid pen chitosan was whiter in colour (White Index = 90.06%) compared to CHC (White Index = 83.70%). Generally, the CHC samples (control and irradiated) exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to CHS, but the opposite was observed with antifungal activity. - Highlights: • Chitosan prepared from Arrow squid pens (Nototodarus sloanii). • Chitosan samples were gamma irradiated at 28 kGy. • Squid pen chitosan showed high fat and water uptake capacities compared to crab shell chitosan. • Gamma irradiation enhanced the DDA of squid pen chitosan but not crab shell chitosan.

  18. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits in pens with and without different multilevel platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of the presence of wire or plastic mesh elevated platforms on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics, with particular attention to the oxidative status of growing rabbits. A total of 174 five-week old rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups with 2 replications (6 pens; 29 rabbits/pen: pens without platforms (NoP with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 and pens with wire-mesh platforms (WP or plastic-mesh platforms (PP that were placed on 2 levels, with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 on the floor or 9.14 rabbits/m2 when the platform were included. At 84 d rabbits were slaughtered. The slaughter traits and Longissimus lumborum (LL physical and chemical compositition were not affected by treatments. Rabbits from the PP group showed the highest retinol and γ-tocotrienol content on LL muscle, whereas the NoP ones showed a higher α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol level. The absence of platforms led to decreased (P<0.001 thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values and induced an improvement in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of linoleic, linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids were equal to those of the WP group (23.45, 3.75, 0.64% in NoP and 22.6, 4.14, 0.53% in WP, respectively but higher than in PP rabbits (20.86, 3.05, 0.45%, respectively. It can be concluded that the pens with elevated platforms provide greater possibilities for movement, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of animal welfare. However, this greater activity influences the oxidative status of the meat, decreasing the antioxidant content and worsening the lipid oxidation of rabbit meat.

  1. Chemically stable Au nanorods as probes for sensitive surface enhanced scattering (SERS) analysis of blue BIC ballpoint pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Abeer; Saviello, Daniela; McAuliffe, Micheal A. P.; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Mirabile, Antonio; Proto, Antonio; Lewis, Liam; Iacopino, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Au nanorods were used as an alternative to commonly used Ag nanoparticles as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) probes for identification of dye composition of blue BIC ballpoint pens. When used in combination with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Au nanorod colloids allowed identification of the major dye components of the BIC pen ink, otherwise not identifiable by normal Raman spectroscopy. Thanks to their enhanced chemical stability compared to Ag colloids, Au nanorods provided stable and reproducible SERS signals and allowed easy identification of phthalocyanine and triarylene dyes in the pen ink mixture. These findings were supported by FTIR and MALDI analyses, also performed on the pen ink. Furthermore, the self-assembly of Au nanorods into large area ordered superstructures allowed identification of BIC pen traces. SERS spectra of good intensity and high reproducibility were obtained using Au nanorod vertical arrays, due to the high density of hot spots and morphological reproducibility of these superstructures. These results open the way to the employment of SERS for fast screening analysis and for quantitative analysis of pens and faded pens which are relevant for the fields of forensic and art conservation sciences.

  2. Genotype variation and genetic relationship among Escherichia coli from nursery pigs located in different pens in the same farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Ahmed, Shahana; Hansen, Monica Hegstad; Denwood, Matthew; Zachariasen, Camilla; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-05

    So far, little is known about the genetic diversity and relatedness among Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in the gut of swine. Information on this is required to improve modeling studies on antimicrobial resistance aiming to fight its occurrence and development. This work evaluated the genotype variation of E. coli isolated from swine fecal samples at the single pig and pen level, as well as between pens using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genetic diversity of strains collected from media supplemented with ampicillin or tetracycline was also investigated. Besides, the genetic relationship of strains within each pen, between pens, as well as among strains within each group isolated from media with or without antibiotic, was assessed. REP-PCR patterns (N = 75) were generated for all the isolates (N = 720). Two profiles (REP_2 and REP_5) dominated, accounting for 23.7 and 23.3% of all isolates, respectively. At the pig and at the pen level, the number of different strains ranged from two to eight, and from 27 to 31, respectively, and multiple isolates from a single pen were found to be identical; however, in some of the pens, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. E. coli isolates yielding different REP profiles were subjected to PFGE and led to 41 different genotypes which were also compared. Despite the presence of dominant strains, our results suggest a high genetic diversity of E. coli strains exist at the pen level and between pens. Selection with antibiotic seems to not affect the genetic diversity. The dominant REP profiles were the same found in a previous study in Denmark, which highlights that the same predominant strains are circulating in pigs of this country and might represent the archetypal E.coli commensal in pigs.

  3. Regional differences in EpiPen prescriptions in the United States: the potential role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos A; Clark, Sunday; Kaplan, Michael S; Lieberman, Philip; Wood, Robert A

    2007-07-01

    The epidemiology of anaphylaxis is uncertain, especially its geographic distribution. To address this deficit, we examined regional rates of EpiPen prescriptions in the United States. EpiPen prescriptions in 2004 were obtained for all 50 states and Washington, DC, from NDCHealth, Pharmaceutical Audit Suite (Alpharetta, Ga). Data included the number of total filled prescriptions, including refills, and the actual number of EpiPens prescribed. Several data sets were used to obtain state-specific populations, as well as multiple demographic, health, and weather characteristics. State population was used to calculate the average number of prescriptions written per person. Overall, there were 1,511,534 EpiPen prescriptions filled during 2004. These prescriptions accounted for 2,495,188 EpiPens. On average, there were 5.71 EpiPens prescribed per 1000 persons. Massachusetts had the highest number of prescriptions per 1000 persons (11.8), whereas Hawaii had the lowest (2.7). In addition to state-to-state variation, there was an obvious regional difference: New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) had the highest values, with 8 to 12 EpiPen prescriptions per 1000 persons, whereas the southern states (between and including California and Mississippi) had only 3 prescriptions per 1000 persons. The New England finding persisted even when controlling for all available factors (eg, population demographic characteristics, number of health care providers, prescriptions for other medications). A strong north-south gradient was observed for the prescription of EpiPens in the United States, with the highest rates found in New England. The regional differences in EpiPen prescribing may provide important etiologic clues (vitamin D status) and merit further investigation.

  4. Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2018-01-05

    Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation "cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (≥5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history, that is, across ENDS naїve, lifetime or current users. Inclusion of past ENDS or cigarette use as covariates did not significantly alter the results. These findings demonstrate that observation of vape pen ENDS use generalizes as a conditioned cue to produce smoking urge, desire, and behavior in young adult smokers. As the popularity of these devices may eventually overtake those of first generation ENDS cigalikes, exposure effects will be of increasing importance. This study shows that passive exposure to a second generation ENDS vape pen cue evoked smoking urge, desire, and behavior across a range of daily and non-daily young adult smokers. Smoking urge and desire increases after vape pen exposure were similar to those produced by exposure to a first generation ENDS cigalike and a combustible cigarette, a known potent cue. Given the increasing

  5. Bioavailability of epinephrine from Auvi-Q compared with EpiPen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Eric S; Gunn, Ronald; Simons, Estelle R; Carr, Kathy; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Painter, Gwendolyn; Goldwater, Ronald

    2013-08-01

    Epinephrine autoinjectors are underused for the treatment of anaphylaxis in community settings. Auvi-Q, a novel epinephrine autoinjector, was designed to be intuitive to use and reduce the potential for use-related errors. To compare the bioavailability of 0.3 mg of epinephrine (adrenaline) injected with Auvi-Q and EpiPen in healthy adults. In this randomized, single-blind, 2-treatment, 3-period, 3-sequence crossover study, healthy adults (18-45 years old) received a single injection of 0.3 mg of epinephrine with Auvi-Q in one period and with EpiPen in the other 2 periods. Blood samples were obtained before and 14 times during 6 hours after the dose. Outcomes included peak plasma concentration (Cmax), total epinephrine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC] from baseline to the last measurable concentration [AUC0-t] and extrapolated to infinity [AUCinf]), and adverse events. Seventy-one volunteers (53 male, 74.6%), with a mean age of 33.2 years and a mean body mass index of 25.4, were randomized. Epinephrine peak concentration and total exposure were similar between Auvi-Q (Cmax = 0.486 ng/mL; AUC0-t = 0.536 ng·h/mL; AUCinf = 0.724 ng·h/mL) and EpiPen (Cmax = 0.520 ng/mL; AUC0-t = 0.466 ng·h/mL; AUCinf = 0.583 ng·h/mL). Cmax and AUC analyses demonstrated bioequivalence between Auvi-Q and EpiPen. Most treatment-emergent adverse events were mild (98%), and all resolved spontaneously. Rates of injection-site pain and bleeding were 13% and 5%, respectively, for Auvi-Q vs 24% and 10%, respectively, for EpiPen. After a single injection of 0.3 mg of epinephrine, Auvi-Q and EpiPen had similar peak and total epinephrine exposure, were bioequivalent, and had similar safety profiles. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Electron Energy Distribution Function in a Penning Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoutnev, Valentin; Dourbal, Paul; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2017-10-01

    Slow and fast sweeping Langmuir probe diagnostics were implemented to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a cross-field Penning discharge undergoing rotating spoke phenomenon. The EEDF was measured using the Druyvesteyn method. Rotating spoke occurs in a variety of ExB devices and is characterized primarily by azimuthal light, density, and potential fluctuations on the order of a few kHz, but is theoretically still not well understood. Characterization of a time-resolved EEDF of the spoke would be important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for the spoke and its effects on Penning discharges, Hall thrusters, sputtering magnetrons, and other ExB devices. In this work, preliminary results of measurements of the EEDF using slow and fast Langmuir probes that sweep below and above the fundamental spoke frequency will be discussed. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  7. La pensée de Victor Frankl et notre temps

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    « La pensée de Victor Frankl et notre temps ». La pensée philosophique et logothérapeutique de V. E. Frankl est basée sur une phénoménologie de la liberté et du sentiment d’existence qui mettent en question les réductionnismes actuels du psychologisme, positivisme et nihi­lisme. L’individu réel répond à la vie à la fois axiologique et absolue pour donner un sens responsable à sa situation chaque fois unique. “Victor Frankl’s thought and our time”. Victor E. Frankl’s philosophical and logot...

  8. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-deficient Rb and Sr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, T. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Bollen, G. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Savard, G. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Schweikhard, L. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Stolzenberg, H. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Audi, G. (CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. Rene Bernas, 91 Orsay (France)); Moore, R.B. (Foster Radiation Lab., McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)); Rouleau, G. (Foster Radiation Lab., McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)); Szerypo, J. (Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw Univ. (Poland)); Patyk, Z. (Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)); ISOLDE Collaboration

    1994-01-17

    The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE 2 at CERN has been used for mass determination of [sup 75-87]Rb and [sup 78-83,87]Sr. Ions are captured in a Penning trap and their cyclotron frequency [omega][sub c] =(q/m)B in the trapping field B is measured. Ratios of these frequencies lead to the determination of the atomic mass of these isotopes. A resolving power of typically m/[Delta]m=10[sup 6] and an accuracy y of [delta]m[approx]10 keV is obtained. The mass of [sup 78]Sr is measured for the first time, in most cases, the mass values of the other isotopes are significantly improved. The experimental masses are compared with theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  9. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-deficient Rb and Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, T.; Bollen, G.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Audi, G.; Moore, R. B.; Rouleau, G.; Szerypo, J.; Patyk, Z.; Isolde Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE 2 at CERN has been used for mass determination of 75-87Rb and 78-83,87Sr. Ions are captured in a Penning trap and their cyclotron frequency ω c = ( {q}/{m})B in the trapping field B is measured. Ratios of these frequencies lead to the determination of the atomic mass of these isotopes. A resolving power of typically {m}/{Δm} = 10 6 and an accuracy of δm ≈10 keV is obtained. The mass of 78Sr is measured for the first time and, in most cases, the mass values of the other isotopes are significantly improved. The experimental masses are compared with theoretical predictions.

  10. Non-photolithographic pattern transfer for fabricating pen-shaped microneedle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ando, Masaki; Ishihara, Yuji; Ando, Taeko; Sato, Kazuo; Asaumi, Kazuo

    2004-11-01

    We developed a new fabrication process for pen-shaped microneedle structures by using non-photolithographic pattern transfer. The process is a combination of anisotropic wet etching and a dicing technology that uses a saw. The process has an advantage, in which the needle diameter is easily changed by altering the groove profile formed in the dicing-saw process. We fabricated pen-shaped needle structures in a dense array for medical applications. The needle height was larger than 200 µm, and the pitch distance was about 200 µm in the experiments. The width of the needle ranged from 10 to 30 µm. The radius at the needle tip was less than 100 nm.

  11. The Effects of Multimodal Feedback and Gender on Task Performance of Stylus Pen Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As various interactive input devices for computers have become available, the role of multimodal feedbacks generated by the devices has gained an increasing emphasis in recent years, with debates surrounding the relative efficiency of different feedback types of input devices. To address this and related issues, the present study conducted a 4 (types of feedback: visual vs. tactile vs. auditory vs. combined feedback x 2 (gender: male vs. female within-subject experiment to examine the effects of the type of feedbacks and gender on the efficiency and accuracy of a multimodal stylus pen. Results from the experiment showed that, regardless of the feedback type, males clicked the stylus faster than females while making more errors. A similar pattern was discovered when used the pen for dragging; males completed the dragging task faster than females while producing more errors. Interactions between the feedback type and gender as well as implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  12. Improvements in the injection system of the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Savard, G; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is designed to make precise mass measurements on a variety of stable and short-lived isotopes. Modifications to the injection system of the CPT have been implemented in recent months, the purpose being to more efficiently collect and transfer weakly-produced reaction products from the target to the Penning trap. These include a magnetic triplet situated after the target chamber to increase the acceptance of the Enge spectrograph, a velocity filter to more effectively separate the beam from the reaction products and the replacement of the Paul trap with a linear trap resulting in more efficient capture and accumulation of ions from the ion cooler. This paper will discuss these recent modifications and how they have increased our ability in making mass measurements on isotopes of low abundance, including those from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission source.

  13. Quantification of Tissue Trauma following Insulin Pen Needle Insertions in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Larsen, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop a computa......Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop....... The affected tissue was removed and fixated in formalin following tissue preparation for histology. Standard immunohistochemical staining procedure was applied with CD-45 and anti-hemoglobin primary antibodies to stain immune cells and red blood cells, respectively. The stained tissue slides were subsequently...

  14. Prevalence of digital dermatitis in young stock in Alberta, Canada, using pen walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W

    2017-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious bacterial foot lesion prevalent in dairy cattle worldwide, reduces both animal welfare and production. This disease was recently identified in replacement dairy heifers, with implications including increased risk of DD and decreased milk production in first lactation, poor reproductive performance, and altered hoof conformation. Therefore, a simple and effective method is needed to identify DD in young stock and to determine risk factors for DD in this group so that effective control strategies can be implemented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of DD in young stock (based on pen walks); and (2) identify potential risk factors for DD in young stock. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 dairy farms in Alberta, Canada; pen walks were used to identify DD (present/absent) on the hind feet of group-housed, young dairy stock. A subset of 583 young stock on 5 farms were selected for chute inspection of feet to determine the accuracy of pen walks for DD detection. Pen walks as a means of identifying DD lesions on the hind feet in young stock had sensitivity and specificity at the animal level of 65 and 98%, with positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 83%, respectively, at a prevalence of 37%. At the foot level, pen walks had sensitivity and specificity of 62 and 98%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 92 and 88%, respectively, at a prevalence of 26%. Pen walks identified DD in 79 [2.9%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.3-3.6%] of 2,815 young stock on 11 (39%; 95% CI: 22-59%) of 28 farms, with all 79 DD-positive young stock ≥309 d of age. Apparent within-herd prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 9.3%, with a mean of 1.4%. True within-herd prevalence of DD in young stock, calculated using the sensitivity and specificity of the pen walks, ranged from 0 to 12.6%, with a mean of 1.4%. On the 11 DD-positive farms, the proportion of young stock >12 mo of age

  15. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn24.5 droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  16. Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.

  17. Pen needle preference in a population of Canadians with diabetes: results from a recent patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Lori; Cameron, Brett; Woo, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of insulin injections in patients using 8 mm 31 gauge vs. 5 mm 31 gauge pen needles, as determined by A1C results and to measure individual patient satisfaction and compare overall satisfaction regarding the use of the 2 needles. The study was completed as a substudy of a single-site, open-label, randomized, 6-month comparative study consisting of 66 obese patients. Prior to the study, all individuals had treated their diabetes with either long-acting insulin glargine or insulin detemir. At the onset of the study, patients were randomized 1:1 to either insulin glargine or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. All patients used an 8 mm pen needle for the first 3 months and a 5 mm pen needle for the remaining 3 months. At the conclusion of the trial, patients completed a questionnaire regarding pen needle satisfaction. The 5 mm needle was preferred by 41.8% of study subjects, while the 8 mm needle was preferred by 27.9% of subjects. For other attributes (i.e. overall injection comfort, pain when inserting the needle into the skin and length of needle), the 5 mm needle scored higher than the 8 mm needle and higher also than the percentage of individuals who indicated no preference. In patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with a mean single-injection volume dose of basal insulin of 50.2 units, the 5 mm needle was generally preferred over the 8 mm needle. The shorter needle was more comfortable and easier to use while being equally effective in delivering insulin. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resolution of nuclear ground and isomeric states by a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.; Koenig, M.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H. (Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-6500 Mainz (Germany)); Moore, R.B.; Rouleau, G. (Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal, Province du Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)); Audi, G. (ISOLDE Collaboration CERN, PPE-Division, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland))

    1992-12-01

    Ground and isomeric states of a nucleus have been resolved for the first time by mass spectrometry. Measurements on [sup 78]Rb[sup [ital m],][ital g] and [sup 84]Rb[sup [ital m],][ital g] were performed using a tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer on-line with the isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN. The effects of ion-ion interaction were investigated for two ion species differing in mass and stored simultaneously in the trap.

  19. A new cooling technique for heavy ions in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, G.; Becker, St.; Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, Th.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Wiess, U.

    1991-09-01

    A new cooling technique for heavy ions stored in a Penning trap has been developed. The axial and cyclotron motions are cooled by buffer gas collisions. The outward radial diffusion caused by the buffer gas is counteracted by an azimuthal quadrupole rf field at the sum frequency of the magnetron and cyclotron motions. A mass selectivity of 500 in the cooling is achieved while the axial energy distribution is observed to be in equilibrium with the buffer gas temperature ( T = 300 K).

  20. Resolution of nuclear ground and isomeric states by a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; König, M.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Rouleau, G.; Audi, G.; ISOLDE Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    Ground and isomeric states of a nucleus have been resolved for the first time by mass spectrometry. Measurements on 78Rbm,g and 84Rbm,g were performed using a tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer on-line with the isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN. The effects of ion-ion interaction were investigated for two ion species differing in mass and stored simultaneously in the trap.

  1. Pen rearing and imprinting of fall Chinook salmon. Annual report 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Novotny, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhvnchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if "thinning" releases were used.

  2. Critical loss radius in a Penning trap subject to multipole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fajans, J; Robicheaux, F

    2008-01-01

    When particles in a Penning trap are subject to a magnetic multipole field, those beyond a critical radius will be lost. The critical radius depends on the history by which the field is applied, and can be much smaller if the particles are injected into a preexisting multipole than if the particles are subject to a ramped multipole. Both cases are relevant to ongoing experiments designed to trap antihydrogen.

  3. Optical pen-size reflectometer for monitoring of early dental erosion in native and polished enamels

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Bachofner, Kai K.; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Application of the specular reflection intensity was previously reported for the quantification of early dental erosion. Further development of the technique and assembly of the miniaturized pen-size instrument are described. The optical system was adjusted to fit into a handy device which could potentially access different positions in the oral cavity. The assembled instrument could successfully detect early erosion progression in both polished (n=70) and native (n=20) human enamels. Differe...

  4. Demonstration of UXO-PenDepth for the Estimation of Projectile Penetration Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    inner filler material shape and distribution, weights of the projectile and fill, case material type, and nose shape. From this information, the...munitions using a physics-based algorithm within the software UXO-PenDepth. The physical dimensions and weight of the munitions, and type of filler ...in Montana. Site # Recovered Depth to CG (cm) Limestone Hills 105mm 1 12 155mm Illumination M118 2 18, 24 Chevallier Ranch 105mm HE 1

  5. Influence of pen area and trough space on feedlot performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two exoeriments were conducted to measure the influence of trough space (170 mm, 350 mm and 700 mm/animal) and pen area (5,5 m2, 11 m2 and 22 mzlanimal) on feedlot performance. There was no advantage in allowing more than 170 mm trough space or more than 5,5 m2 floor area per animal with the conditions ...

  6. Genotype variation and genetic relationship among Escherichia coli from nursery pigs located in different pens in the same farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Ahmed, Shahana; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2017-01-01

    evaluated the genotype variation of E. coli isolated from swine fecal samples at the single pig and pen level, as well as between pens using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genetic diversity of strains collected from media......BACKGROUND: So far, little is known about the genetic diversity and relatedness among Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in the gut of swine. Information on this is required to improve modeling studies on antimicrobial resistance aiming to fight its occurrence and development. This work...... supplemented with ampicillin or tetracycline was also investigated. Besides, the genetic relationship of strains within each pen, between pens, as well as among strains within each group isolated from media with or without antibiotic, was assessed. RESULTS: REP-PCR patterns (N = 75) were generated for all...

  7. Evaluation of preference for a novel durable insulin pen with memory function among patients with diabetes and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klausmann G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerhard Klausmann,1 Irene Hramiak,2 Marianne Qvist,3 Kristian Handberg Mikkelsen,3 Xiaohui Guo4 1Internal Medicine Diabetology Practice, Aschaffenburg, Germany; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Joseph's Healthcare, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Novo Nordisk A/S, Soeborg, Denmark; 4Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Improving adherence to insulin treatment for better glycemic control remains a challenge in the management of diabetes. New technological aids are required to help support adherence. This study evaluated preference for the NovoPen® 5 (NP5, a durable insulin pen with memory function, compared with the HumaPen Luxura® (HPL among patients with diabetes and health care professionals. Methods: This crossover, multicenter usability study included insulin pen-experienced patients with diabetes and health care professionals treating patients with diabetes in Canada, China, and Germany. Participants evaluated NP5 and HPL in a randomized order by performing handling tasks in a usability test related to everyday use during a face-to-face interview. Tasks, pens, and preferences were assessed by completing a questionnaire comprised of rating and open-ended questions relating to confidence in everyday diabetes management. Results: Overall, 300 patients with diabetes and 150 health care professionals participated in the study. Significantly more participants preferred NP5 (81% to HPL (18% (P < 0.001. Also, 82% of patients with diabetes had more confidence in NP5 for managing their daily injections versus 11% with HPL (P < 0.001, and 7% had no preference. Memory function was most helpful in giving patients with diabetes confidence about when they last injected (63%, how much insulin they last injected (62% and improving diabetes management (55%. Participants gave higher ratings to NP5 than to HPL on all parameters relating to performing an injection (ease of

  8. Freehand liver volumetry by using an electromagnetic pen tablet: accuracy, precision, and rapidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perandini, Simone; Faccioli, Niccolò; Inama, Marco; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy, precision, and rapidity of liver volumes calculated by using a freehand electromagnetic pen tablet contourtracing method as compared with the volumes calculated by using the standard optical mouse contourtracing method. The imaging data used as input for accuracy and precision testing were computed by software developed in our institution. This computer software can generate models of solid organs and allows both standard mouse-based and electromagnetic pen-driven segmentation (number of data sets, n = 70). The images used as input for rapidity testing was partly computed by modeling software (n = 70) and partly selected from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations (n = 12). Mean volumes and time required to perform the segmentation, along with standard deviation and range values with both techniques, were calculated. Student's t test was used to assess significance regarding mean volumes and time calculated by using both segmentation techniques on phantom and CT data sets. P value was also calculated. The mean volume difference was significantly lower with the use of the freehand electromagnetic pen as compared with the optical mouse (0.2% vs. 1.8%; P introduction in clinical application.

  9. Dose measurement in periapical radiographic exams using dosemeter pen: a look at the radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato; Ferreira, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessamachado@ufmg.br [Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Veloso, M.A.F., E-mail: gbarros@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: Dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The use of radiology has been a large increase with the crescent accessibility to dental care, orthodontics and aesthetic. Besides the increase in the number of exams, there was an increase in radiation dose during dental exams such as computed tomography. The objective of this work is to evaluate the radiation dose to which the patient is subjected in a peri apical dental radiography. The dose values were measured with a dosimeter pen during radiographs in real exams peri apical with the X-ray equipment Timex 70 C Gnatus. During the exams realization, was maintained, in the holder, the dosimeter pen near to the region of interest. The values collected were recorded in dosimeter pen. These values were compared with the reference doses of the Portaria 453 of ANVISA, this procedure allows to verify if the recommended dose limits for this exam are being respected. These data indicates if the used equipment is calibrated and in good condition of use. It was performed a comparison between the obtained experimental dose values and the values found from computer simulation with the code MCNPX 2.6.0. (author)

  10. A preparation Penning trap for the TRAPSENSOR project with prospects for MATS at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, J.M., E-mail: jmcg@ugr.es; Rodríguez, D., E-mail: danielrodriguez@ugr.es

    2016-06-01

    Most of the Penning trap spectrometers for precision measurements at radioactive ion beam facilities make use of another Penning trap, located upstream in the experimental set up, to perform isobaric separation and deliver cooled and pure ion samples to be measured. The preparation trap for the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada has been built to prepare ions, produced off-line with a laser-desorption ion source, using firstly the buffer-gas cooling technique. The system has been built following the geometrical specifications given in the Technical Design Report for the MATS Penning-trap system to be built at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. So far, cooling resonances have been obtained for stable nuclides, with mass-to-charge ratios ranging from 40 to about 200, with a performance similar to those systems already in operation at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this contribution, the preparation trap, built and commissioned at the University of Granada, will be briefly described. First results on buffer-gas cooling will be presented.

  11. Assembling, cleaning, and testing a unique prototype open-ended cylindrical penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Kassie; Shidling, Praveen; Melconian, Dan

    2016-09-01

    A new experimental beamline containing a prototype cylindrical penning trap has recently been constructed at the Cyclotron Laboratory at Texas A&M University. The new beamline will enable precision experiments that enhance our understanding of the limits on non-SM processes in the weak interaction through the measurement of the β- ν correlation parameter for T = 2 ,0+ ->0+ supper allowed β-delayed proton emitters. The prototype TAMU TRAP consists of an open-ended cylindrical penning trap of diameter of 90 mm with gold-plated electrodes of oxygen free high conductivity copper to prevent oxidation. The trap's electric quadrupole field is provided by a SHIP TRAPS RF electronic circuit to the four segmented electrodes at the center of the trap while the trap's 7 Tesla radial magnetic field is provided by an Agilent 210 ASR magnet. A discussion of the assembly of the prototype TAMU TRAP, construction of the RF electronic circuit, the experimental set up and alignment of the beamline will be presented. The method used to test the prototype penning trap using an ion source, Faraday cups, and Micro Chanel Plate (MCP) detectors will also be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-11ER41747 and the National Science Foundation.

  12. Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

    2007-05-01

    Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 μs pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110μs pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

  13. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Samuel M; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, and storage of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap designed to provide easy radial access for atomic or laser beams in charge exchange or spectroscopic experiments, such as those of interest for proposed studies of one-electron ions in Rydberg states or optical transitions of metastable states in multiply-charged ions. Under near-optimal conditions, ions captured and isolated in such rare-earth Penning traps can be characterized by an initial energy distribution that is $\\approx$ 60 times narrower than typically...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Prickly Pen Shell in Seribu Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Riani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta Bay waters contaminated with heavy metals, so that the waters of the Thousand Islands are also potentially contaminated with heavy metals. The purpose of this study were to determine the condition of the water quality on the Panggang Island and Karya Island, analyze contamination of heavy metals (Cadmium and Lead in water, sediments and Prickly Pen Shell and then the correlation. Based on Ministry of Environment decree No. 51/2004, water quality in the Panggang Island and Karya Island tend toward to low category. Cadmium and lead concentration in the water on October exceed the quality standards. In the sediment on July and October at Karya Island, concentration of cadmium were exceed the quality standar by RNO. On the other hand, cadmium and lead concentration on Prickly Pen Shell still below standard quality from decree of Director General of POM RI No. 03725. We found highest positive correlation were found between cadmium and lead accumulation in the water and on the Prickly Pen Shell, then positive correlation between cadmium and lead in the water and in the sediment. For the heavy metal contamination, we found contamination of cadmium correlation were higher than lead contamination.

  15. Utilization of squid pen for the efficient production of chitosanase and antioxidants through prolonged autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Wu, Pei-Chen; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2009-05-26

    We have developed a culture system for efficient production of chitosanase by Bacillus sp. TKU004. TKU004 was cultivated by using squid pen powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The effects of autoclave treatments of the medium on the production of chitosanase were investigated. Autoclave treatment of squid pen powder for 45 min remarkably promoted enzyme productivity. When the culture medium containing an initial squid pen powder concentration of 3% was autoclaved for 45 min, the chitosanase activity was optimal and reached 0.14-0.16 U/mL. In addition, extracellular surfactant-stable chitosanase was purified from the TKU004 culture supernatant. The antioxidant activity of TKU004 culture supernatant was determined through the scavenging ability of DPPH, with 70% per mL. With this method, we have shown that marine wastes can be utilized efficiently through prolonged autoclave treatments to generate a high value-added product, and have revealed its hidden potential in the production of functional foods.

  16. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  17. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again in the alternative version. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. The between-version test-retest reliability for the eight subscales were between 0.63 and 0.92. Cronbach's alpha for the two versions were all between 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36.

  18. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441 and high yield of activity recovery (51% by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5% for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazine (Y4. The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  19. Hybrid SVM-HMM based recognition algorithm for pen-based tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenming; Pan, Hong

    2007-11-01

    Pen-based computing takes advantage of human skill with the pen, which is more than a substitute for the mouse. A hybrid SVM-HMM based recognition algorithm is presented for pen-based single stroke diagram. The algorithm includes five steps: sampling and pre-processing, segmentation, formal feature computing, SVM based feature classification, and HMM based symbol recognition. The formal feature of a stroke is composed of five static features and one dynamic feature. A group of one-to-one combinations of binary SVMs are used as feature classifiers to produce fixed length feature vectors, each of which is produced by the probability output with Sigmoid function and act as the posterior probability of observation of HMM. Finally HMMs are employed as final recognizer to recognize the unknown stroke. Based on this algorithm, a tutoring system is designed to identify the sketches of the flowchart diagrams. Experiment results show the hybrid algorithm has a good learning and recognition ability, which is benefited from combining the SVM's classification ability of static properties with the HMM's recognition ability of dynamic properties.

  20. Intraocular pressure in children: the effect of body position as assessed by Icare and Tono-Pen tonometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosunmu, Eniolami O; Marcus, Inna; Tung, Irene; Thiamthat, Warakorn; Freedman, Sharon F

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effect of body position (sitting vs supine) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in children, as assessed by the Icare PRO and the Tono-Pen. Prospective clinical study. Children with known or suspected glaucoma and those without glaucoma were recruited from the Duke Eye Center pediatric clinic. Subjects underwent tonometry in both eyes while upright (sitting), after instillation of topical anesthetic, with either the Icare PRO or the Tono-Pen first, and then the second instrument (order randomized). Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) was then performed by a clinician masked to the previous measurements. The subjects were then placed in the supine position for 5 minutes, and tonometry using the Icare PRO and the Tono-Pen was obtained, in the same order used when they were the sitting position. Enrolled were 47 children (94 eyes). Mean seated IOP for GAT, Icare PRO and Tono-Pen were 16.4 ± 4.2, 17.5 ± 3.5, and 18.0 ± 3.9 mm Hg, respectively. The mean supine IOP for the Icare PRO and Tono-Pen were 18.4 ± 4.5 and 18.8 ± 4.2 mm Hg, respectively. This rise was +0.9 ± 2.3 mm Hg for Icare PRO (P = 0.01) and +0.7 ± 1.8 mm Hg for Tono-Pen (P = 0.009), respectively. In children, Icare PRO tonometry correlates well with GAT in the sitting position, and with the Tono-Pen in both the sitting and supine positions. IOP rises when a child changes position from sitting to supine when measured by the Icare PRO or the Tono-Pen. However, the increase, which is less than 1 mm Hg, seems clinically insignificant and is unlikely to alter glaucoma management in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in California: surveillance and molecular detection of mosaic penA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Severin; Nguyen, Duylinh; Lowenberg, Daniella; Samuel, Michael; Bauer, Heidi; Pandori, Mark

    2013-12-04

    The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is a major public health problem. While much work has been performed internationally, little is known about the genetics or molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in the United States. The majority of N. gonorrhoeae infections are diagnosed without a live culture. Molecular tools capable of detecting markers of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance are needed. Urethral N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected from 684 men at public health clinics in California in 2011. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ceftriaxone, cefixime, cefpodoxime and azithromycin were determined by Etest and categorized according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control 2010 alert value breakpoints. 684 isolates were screened for mosaic penA alleles using real-time PCR (RTPCR) and 59 reactive isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of their penA alleles and Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). To increase the specificity of the screening RTPCR in detecting isolates with alert value extended-spectrum cephalosporin MICs, the primers were modified to selectively amplify the mosaic XXXIV penA allele. Three mosaic penA alleles were detected including two previously described alleles (XXXIV, XXXVIII) and one novel allele (LA-A). Of the 29 isolates with an alert value extended-spectrum cephalosporin MIC, all possessed the mosaic XXXIV penA allele and 18 were sequence type 1407, an internationally successful strain associated with multi-drug resistance. The modified RTPCR detected the mosaic XXXIV penA allele in urethral isolates and urine specimens and displayed no amplification of the other penA alleles detected in this study. N. gonorrhoeae isolates with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins are currently

  2. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU, beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from rectal and floor samples in pens with diarrhoeic nursery pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2017-01-01

    , sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Conclusions. We found that ETEC isolates were more resistant than Non-ETEC isolates. Furthermore, this study indicates that resistance testing of ETEC isolates from pen floor samples can be used as a convenient sampling method for resistance testing...... and in samples from the pen floor where the pigs were housed. The first objective of this study was to compare resistance profiles from ETEC isolates and Non-ETEC isolates. The second objective was to evaluate the agreement between resistance profiles of ETEC isolated from pen floor samples and from individual...... rectal samples from pigs. Across three Danish pig herds, faecal samples were collected from the floors of 31 pens that had a within-pen diarrhoea prevalence of >25%, and from rectal samples of 93 diarrhoeic nursery pigs from the same pens. A total of 380 E. coli isolates were analysed by PCR...

  4. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, N. R.; Nielsen, J. P.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    : bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order....... The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement...... and qPCR. This study showed that both bacterial culture and qPCR testing of pen floor samples can be used as a diagnostic approach for detecting groups of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs....

  5. [Measurement of intraocular pressure using the Tono-Pen in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry - a clinical study in 100 eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuter, Christoph M E; Schlote, Torsten; Hahn, Gesa A; Bende, Thomas; Derse, Matthias

    2002-03-01

    In clinical practice ophthalmologists often need a tonometer which is independent of a slit lamp. Such a hand-held device is the Tono-Pen. We compared the precision of two equal Tono-Pens with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) was done in 100 eyes of 51 patients (mean age 63 +/- 15 years) suffering from ocular hypertension or glaucoma. According to a random table either the right or left eye was measured using Goldmann tonometer first and the Tono-Pen second. For the other eye the measurement was reversed. One of the two equal Tono-Pens (Solan/USA) was used according to a second random table. Three measurements were obtained with each instrument on both eyes within 15 minutes subsequently. Patients were placed in an upright position for all measurements. Even for well-trained ophthalmologists a learning curve of approximately 10 measurements was observed using the Tono-Pen. The Tono-Pen measured an average IOP of 16.9 mm Hg in all 100 eyes. The Goldmann tonometer measured an average IOP of 17.7 mm Hg. The difference was not statistically significant. The standard deviation for all measurements was better for the Tono-Pen (4.7 mm Hg vs 5.8 mm Hg for Goldmann tonometer). No reduction of the IOP after Tono-Pen measurement was observed (in contrast to the Goldmann tonometer). The reproducibility of the Tono-Pen on the same eye was inferior to the Goldmann tonometer by a factor of 2. There was an almost significant difference in reproducibility between two equal Tono-Pens. Measurement of IOP with the Tono-Pen is comparable to Goldmann applanation tonometry if an average of 3 measurements is used. The difference between two equal Tono-Pens indicates the need for improvement of the quality check during production.

  6. Influence of Reduced Nitrogen Diets on Ammonia Emissions from Cattle Feedlot Pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Westover

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing crude protein (CP in livestock diets may lower ammonia emissions. A feeding trial was conducted with crossbred steers at the Southeast Colorado Research Center in Lamar, Colorado from December 2009 to March 2010. Three diet treatments were investigated: Reduced (11.6% CP, Oscillating (13.5% crude protein 4 days/week and 11.6% CP 3 days/week and Control (13.5% CP. Intact soil core samples (n = 36 per sampling date were collected from the pen surfaces on three dates corresponding to 45, 92, and 148 days into the feeding cycle. Four pens from each diet treatment were sampled. Cores were placed into flow-through laboratory chambers for seven days and ammonia fluxes were trapped in acid bubblers that were refreshed every 24 h. Average daily ammonia emissions for the Control diet ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 g NH3 m−2·day−1; average daily emission for the Oscillating diet ranged from 6.3 to 8.8 g NH3 m−2·day−1; and average daily flux for the Reduced diet ranged from 4.1 to 5.8 g NH3 m−2·day−1. Ammonia fluxes from the reduced N treatment were significantly lower (21% to 40% than from the control diet on the first two sample dates. There was no significant difference between the Oscillating and Control treatments. Reducing CP in cattle feedlot diets may be an effective method for reducing ammonia emissions from pen surfaces. More research is needed to validate these results at commercial scales in different environments to determine if reductions in ammonia can be sustained with lower CP diets without affecting rate of gain, feed efficiency and health.

  7. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  9. Retroperitoneal migration of a self-inflicted ballpoint pen via the urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous accounts documenting the introduction of foreign bodies into the urinary bladder have been reported. These foreign bodies are typically self-inserted via urethral but migration from adjacent organs by an ulcerative process and penetrating injuries are also reported. However, "contrary" migration of a self-inflicted vesical foreign body to the retroperitoneum was not previously reported in literature. We report here a case of a ballpoint pen self-inserted via urethral by a female patient, which was identified in retroperitoneal position years later.

  10. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11....... Cows gradually reduced the time spent sniffing and licking their calves from 59 to 49 min over the days studied (P days 3 and 7 to 1 min on day 11 (P ... increased the time spent sniffing and licking their dams’ head from 2 to 8 min over the days studied (P days...

  11. The Islamic connotation in the Gematric pen-names of Franqois Rabelais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available François Rabelais signed his books on Gargantua et Pantagruel with pen­ names. The gematric value of his pseudonyms, NASIER, M. ALCOFRIBAS, and ALCOFRIBAS NASIER, are 66, 99 and 152, respectively. With numbers 66 and 99, Rabelais identified himself as the Apocalyptic beast, according to the report by St, John the Divine: And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had horns like a lamb. The ram's and buck's horns are indeed similar to the Indian figures 66 and 99.

  12. Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.J.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R.B.; Audi, G.

    1987-09-30

    A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN, Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in a case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient Rb and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars /sup 88/Sr and /sup 88/Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in /sup 122/Cs. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, St.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Otto, Th.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Audi, G.; Moore, R. B.

    1990-12-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for 118-137Cs. A resolving power of over 106 and an accuracy of 1.4×10-7 have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  14. Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.h.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R.B.; Audi, G.; and others

    1987-12-10

    A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient RB and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars /sup 88/Sr and /sup 88/Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in /sup 122/Cs.

  15. Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Audi, G.; Bollen, G.

    1987-12-01

    A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient RB and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars 88Sr and 88Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in 122Cs.

  16. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. (Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-6500 Mainz (Federal Republic of Germany)); Audi, G. (Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Laboratoire Rene Bernas, Batiment 108, F-91405 Orsay (France)); Moore, R.B. (Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  17. Computational prediction of the effective temperature in the lying area of pig pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Rong, Li; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Using solid floor instead of drained or slatted floor in the lying areas of pig pens has distinct advantages in relation to animal welfare, odour abatement and ammonia emission, energy consumption and reduced building costs. However, pig producers often opt out of providing a solid floor due......, individually contribute to the combined effect of the thermal condition raising pigs are exposed to. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to estimate the relevant parameters and, finally, the ET. Furthermore, the developed ET equation was implemented in the CFD model as a Custom Field...

  18. Studies on induced breeding of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in hapa pens

    OpenAIRE

    Orji, R.C.A.; Inyang, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Induced breeding of Clarias gariepinus was conducted monthly in hapa pens, set up in Otamiri river for nineteen months (June 1993 - December 1994). Results of natural fertilization were unsatisfactory as few eggs were fertilized. Mean relative fecundity, percentage fertilization, percentage hatching and percentage fry survival were: 15.86 ± 1.95 x 10', 18.92 ± 5.28%, 13.50 ± 3.8% and 6.42 ± 0.72%. Results from artificial fertilization were as follows: Mean relative fecundity, 13.80 ± 2.85 ...

  19. First simultaneous measurements of Reynolds stress with ball-pen and Langmuir probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grover, Ondřej; Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Devitre, A.; Šos, Miroslav; Vondráček, Petr; Bílková, Petra; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 063501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS tokamak * Electric field effects * Electric fields * Langmuir probes * Magnetoplasma * Ball-pen probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4984240

  20. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector – patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bühler K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Bühler Centre for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract: Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease were recognized after the use of human pituitary-derived hormone injections, urinary gonadotropins were increasingly purified and then produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant gonadotropins were characterized by the extreme high specificity and the nearly 100% purity. This allows for follitropin alfa, the first recombinant-human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH approved, to be quantified and filled by mass, with a small variance of only ±2% and no more with a bioassay with a variance of 45%. With recombinant preparations, it is also possible to cover the tremendous growing demand for gonadotropins. Ovarian stimulation has become a self-injecting procedure for the patients. Accurate and easy-to-use injection devices which minimize pain, difficulty, and stress are essential for patient compliance. So, two pen injectors adapted from the well-known insulin pen were introduced in fertility treatment, one as a multiple-use device rechargeable with premixed, prefilled cartridges with r-hFSH (follitropin β and the other a disposable, prefilled drug delivery system with a liquid formulation of follitropin alfa filled by mass. The efficacy in comparison to the quite more cumbersome handling with ampoules and syringes has been proven very quickly. In several studies, it has been shown that patients had a preference to the prefilled follitropin alfa pen due to the faster preparation and were more confident of accurate dosing. The follitropin alfa

  1. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Samuel M.; Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, ...

  2. Experimental measurement of neoclassical mobility in an annular malmberg-penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo; Quraishi; Robertson

    2000-06-12

    An annular Malmberg-Penning trap confining a non-neutral plasma of electrons has been operated with an azimuthal magnetic field to create drifts orthogonal to the magnetic flux surfaces. An applied electric field and collisions with added helium drive transport by electric mobility. The measured confinement times have the expected neoclassical magnetic-field dependence, are approximately 0.8 of the value based upon the neoclassical mobility, and differ from the classical value by more than a factor of 3 at the highest value of azimuthal field.

  3. Pronunciamiento de UNASUR sobre los hechos ocurridos en la Península Coreana

    OpenAIRE

    Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (UNASUR)

    2013-01-01

    Ante la escalada de graves declaraciones, ensayos y despliegues militares que aumentan la tensión en la Península Coreana, la Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR, expresa su más seria preocupación y formula un urgente llamado a todas las partes involucradas para asegurar, ante todo, la preservación de la paz y la seguridad en la región, invocando al diálogo como el medio adecuado para poner fin a las diferencias. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  4. Low-cost data transfer from a questionnaire to standard software using a barcode pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrusik, P; Schulze, H; Claussen, C D; Golka, K

    2005-02-01

    Computer-aided transfer of questionnaire data simplifies the analysis of questionnaires. We present a solution based on an inexpensive barcode pen and its decoder, the software tool Barcode Wizard included in CorelDRAW, and a self-developed application written using Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications. The barcode may be provided on the questionnaire or on a transparency. Error correction is done by means of two different procedures. The present solution can be applied while looking over the completed questionnaire and thus allows time-saving, economic, and precise data transfer from the completed questionnaire directly into computer software.

  5. Insulin pen needles: effects of extra-thin wall needle technology on preference, confidence, and other patient ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ronnie; Gibney, Michael A; Oza, Kunjal; Bérubé, Julie; Kassler-Taub, Kenneth; Hirsch, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Pen needles (PNs) are essential for insulin injections using pen devices. PN characteristics affect patients' injection experience. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of a new extra-thin wall (XTW) PN versus usual PNs on overall patient preference, ease of injection, perceived time to complete the full dose, thumb button force to deliver the injection, and dose delivery confidence in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Subjects injected insulin with the KwikPen(TM) (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana), SoloSTAR(®) (sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey), and FlexPen(®) (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) insulin pens, and included some with impaired hand dexterity. We first performed quantitative testing of XTW and comparable PNs with the 3 insulin pens for thumb force, flow rate, and time to deliver medication. A prospective, randomized, 2-period, open-label, crossover trial was then conducted in patients aged 35 to 80 years with type 1 or type 2 DM who injected insulin by pen for ≥2 months, with at least 1 daily dose ≥10 U. Patients who used 4- to 8-mm length PNs with 31- to 32-G diameter were randomly assigned to use their current PN or the same/similar size XTW PN at home for ~1 week and the other PN the second week. They completed several comparative 150-mm visual analog scales and direct questions at the end of period 2. XTW PNs had statistically significant better performance for each studied PN characteristic (thumb force, flow, and time to deliver medication) for all pens combined and each individual pen brand (all, P ≤ 0.05). Of 216 patients randomized to study groups (80, SoloSTAR; 77, FlexPen; 59, KwikPen), 209 completed both periods; 198 were evaluable. Baseline characteristics revealed a mean (SD) age of 60.8 (9.3) years, insulin pen use duration of 4.3 (4.1) years, and mean total daily dose of 75.1 (52.3) U (range, 10-420 U). Approximately 50% of patients were female; 81.5% were white and 14.8% were

  6. A new pen device for injection of recombinant human growth hormone: a convenience, functionality and usability evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available   Maritta Sauer,1 Carole Abbotts2 1Global Strategic Insights, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Pharmaceutical Market Research Consultant, London, UK Purpose: Adherence to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH is critical to growth and other outcomes in patients with growth disorders, but the requirement for daily injections means that ease of use is an important factor. This study assessed the perceived ease of use and functionality of the prototype of a reusable pen injector (pen device for r-hGH that incorporates several advanced features. Participants and methods: Semi-structured 60-minute qualitative interviews were conducted in 5 countries with 57 health care professionals (HCPs and 30 patients with GH deficiency/caregivers administering r-hGH to patients, including children. HCPs had to be responsible for training in the use of r-hGH pen devices and to see ≥4 r-hGH patients/caregivers per month. Patients/caregivers had to have experience with r-hGH administration for at least 6 months.Results: Thirty-seven (65% of HCPs described the pen device as “simple” or “easy” to use. The aluminum body was generally perceived as attractive, high quality and comfortable to hold and operate. The ease of preparation and use made it suitable for both children and adults. The ability to dial back the r-hGH dose, if entered incorrectly, was mentioned as a major benefit, because other devices need several user steps to reset. Patients/caregivers felt the pen device was easy to use and the injection-feedback features reassured them that the full dose had been given. Overall, 40 (70% HCPs and 16 (52% patients/caregivers were likely to recommend or request the pen device. Moreover, patients/caregivers rated the pen device higher than their current reusable pens and almost equal to the leading disposable device for ease of learning, preparation, administration and ease of use.Conclusion: The prototype pen device successfully met its design

  7. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, N. R.; Nielsen, J. P.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    : bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order....... The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement...... was observed between the detection of ETEC by bacterial culture and qPCR in the same pen floor sample in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.679) pens. Conclusion: We observed an acceptable agreement for the detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs in pen samples for both bacterial culture of pen floor samples...

  8. Photophysical and photochemical effects of UV and VUV photo-oxidation and photolysis on PET and PEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a widely used polymer in the bottling, packaging, and clothing industry. In recent years an increasing global demand for PET has taken place due to the Solar Disinfection (SODIS) process. SODIS is a method of sterilizing fresh water into drinkable water. The PET bottles are used in the process to contain the water during solar irradiation due to its highly transparent optical property. Alongside PET, polyethylene 2,6-napthalate (PEN) is used in bottling and flexible electronic applications. The surface of PEN would need to be modified to control the hydrophilicity and the interaction it exudes as a substrate. The UV light absorption properties of PET and PEN are of great importance for many applications, and thus needs to be studied along with its photochemical resistance. The optical and chemical nature of PET was studied as it was treated by UV photo-oxidation, photo-ozonation, and photolysis under atmospheric pressure. Another investigation was also used to study PEN and PET as they are treated by vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation, VUV photolysis, and remote oxygen reactions. The extent of the photoreactions' effect into the depth of the polymers is examined as treatment conditions are changed. The different experimental methods established the rate of several competing photoreactions on PET and PEN during irradiance, and their effect on the optical quality of the polymers.

  9. Pen-on-paper strategy for point-of-care testing: Rapid prototyping of fully written microfluidic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zedong; Li, Fei; Xing, Yue; Liu, Zhi; You, Minli; Li, Yingchun; Wen, Ting; Qu, Zhiguo; Ling Li, Xiao; Xu, Feng

    2017-12-15

    Paper-based microfluidic biosensors have recently attracted increasing attentions in point-of-care testing (POCT) territories benefiting from their affordable, accessible and eco-friendly features, where technologies for fabricating such biosensors are preferred to be equipment free, easy-to-operate and capable of rapid prototyping. In this work, we developed a pen-on-paper (PoP) strategy based on two custom-made pens, i.e., a wax pen and a conductive-ink pen, to fully write paper-based microfluidic biosensors through directly writing both microfluidic channels and electrodes. Particularly, the proposed wax pen is competent to realize one-step fabrication of wax channels on paper, as the melted wax penetrates into paper during writing process without any post-treatments. The practical applications of the fabricated paper-based microfluidic biosensors are demonstrated by both colorimetric detection of Salmonella typhimurium DNA with detection limit of 1nM and electrochemical measurement of glucose with detection limit of 1mM. The developed PoP strategy for making microfluidic biosensors on paper characterized by true simplicity, prominent portability and excellent capability for rapid prototyping shows promising prospect in POCT applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  11. Marker Pen Lithography for Flexible and Curvilinear On-Chip Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu

    2015-07-14

    On-chip energy storage using microsupercapacitors can serve the dual role of supplementing batteries for pulse power delivery, and replacement of bulky electrolytic capacitors in ac-line filtering applications. Despite complexity and processing costs, microfabrication techniques are being employed in fabricating a great variety of microsupercapacitor devices. Here, a simple, cost-effective, and versatile strategy is proposed to fabricate flexible and curvilinear microsupercapacitors (MSCs). The protocol involves writing sacrificial ink patterns using commercial marker pens on rigid, flexible, and curvilinear substrates. It is shown that this process can be used in both lift-off and etching modes, and the possibility of multistack design of active materials using simple pen lithography is demonstrated. As a prototype, this method is used to produce conducting polymer MSCs involving both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyaniline, and metal oxide (MnO2) electrode materials. Typical values of energy density in the range of 5-11 mWh cm-3 at power densities of 1-6 W cm-3 are achieved, which is comparable to thin film batteries and superior to the carbon and metal oxide based microsupercapacitors reported in the literature. The simplicity and broad scope of this innovative strategy can open up new avenues for easy and scalable fabrication of a wide variety of on-chip energy storage devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from squid pen chitosan extraction effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Amin; Hu, Zhihao; Teh, SueSiang; Zhao, Jenny; Carne, Alan; Bekhit, Adnan; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2017-07-15

    Squid pens were subjected to alkali hydrolysis to extract chitin and chitosan. Proteins present in the alkaline extraction wastewater were recovered at pH 3, 4, 5 and 6, and were subjected to hydrolysis by trypsin, pepsin and a bacterial protease called HT for 1, 2, 4 and 24h. Hydrolysis of the extracted proteins with either trypsin or HT generated more antioxidant activity than hydrolysis with pepsin. Higher ACE-inhibitory activity was generated in the trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates than in the HT hydrolysate. Squid pen protein recovered from chitosan processing waste alkaline solution can be a potential source of bioactive peptides for addition to foods. The antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of the extracted proteins were initially low and increased upon incubation with the proteases. Pepsin generated significantly lower (Pantioxidant activities compared to trypsin and HT, while trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates exhibited higher ACE-inhibitory activity than HT (P<0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An analysis of equine round pen training videos posted online: Differences between amateur and professional trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, Erin; Padalino, Barbara; Henshall, Cathrynne; McGreevy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH) trainers is that of round pen training (RPT). RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, NH training styles are heterogeneous. This study investigated online videos of RPT to explore the characteristics of RPT sessions and test for differences in techniques and outcomes between amateurs and professionals (the latter being defined as those with accompanying online materials that promote clinics, merchandise or a service to the public). From more than 300 candidate videos, we selected sample files for individual amateur (n = 24) and professional (n = 21) trainers. Inclusion criteria were: training at liberty in a Round Pen; more than one bout and good quality video. Sessions or portions of sessions were excluded if the trainer attached equipment, such as a lunge line, directly to the horse or the horse was saddled, mounted or ridden. The number of bouts and duration of each chasing and non-chasing phase were recorded, and the duration of each RPT session was calculated. General weighted regression analysis revealed that, when compared with amateurs, professionals showed fewer arm movements per bout (pamateurs did (pamateurs Overall, these findings highlight the need for selectivity when using the internet as an educational source and the importance of trainer skill and excellent timing when using negative reinforcement in horse training.

  14. Behavior of many ions in a Penning trap and results of the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Porobic, Tomica

    Precision measurements of the beta−neutrino angular correlation in nuclear beta-decay provide a unique window into the physics beyond the Standard model. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) experiment aims to measure this correlation, a(beta-nu), in order to impose a more stringent constraint on the exotic scalar current admixture in the beta-decay Hamiltonian. The apparatus is situated at CERN/ISOLDE laboratory and consists of a unique combination of a retardation spectrometer and two Penning traps, with one of them serving as a scattering-free source. This configuration is suited for a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of 35Ar recoiled daughter ions. The shape of the spectrum then allows a determination of a(beta-nu) and consequently of the presence or absence of a scalar current. Radioactive 35Ar ions are created at ISOLDE by impinging 1.2 GeV protons on the target material. After being separated by a magnetic separator and bunched by REXTRAP, a high-capacity Penning trap, th...

  15. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizaga, E. A.; Rodríguez, L.; Ocampo, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation.

  16. Energy & mass-charge distribution peculiarities of ion emitted from penning source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, N. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Sorokin, I. A.; Kanshin, I. A.; Sinelnikov, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The optimization of hydrogen Penning sources used, in particular, in plasma chemical processing of materials and DLC deposition, is still very important. Investigations of mass-charge composition of these ion source emitted beams are particular relevant for miniature linear accelerators (neutron flux generators) nowadays. The Penning ion source energy and mass-charge ion distributions are presented. The relation between the discharge current abrupt jumps with increasing plasma density in the discharge center and increasing potential whipping (up to 50% of the anode voltage) is shown. Also the energy spectra in the discharge different modes as the pressure and anode potential functions are presented. It has been revealed that the atomic hydrogen ion concentration is about 5-10%, and it weakly depends on the pressure and the discharge current (in the investigated range from 1 to 10 mTorr and from 50 to 1000 μA) and increases with the anode voltage (up 1 to 3,5 kV).

  17. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  18. Heritability of dimensions of Eysenck's pen model and the alternative five-factor model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to estimate the heritability of AFFM and PEN dimensions, including 67 pairs of twins (34 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic of both genders, aged 18 - 44. The heritability has been estimated by the biometric method, two full (ACE and ADE and three reduced (AE, DE and CE models tested for each personality trait. Taking into consideration the AFFM dimensions, additive genetic factors and a non-shared environment contribute the most significantly to the phenotypic variation of activity, sociability and the impulsive sensation seeking; anxiety and aggressiveness are best accounted for by the dominant genetic effects. In the PEN domain, fit indicators suggest that ACE and the reduced AE models provide the best explanation for the phenotypic manifestations of neuroticism, while ACE and CE models account for the variation of L scale. Although the fit indicators calculated for extraversion and psychotic behavior are somewhat problematic, the parameter estimates show that extraversion is best accounted for by the additive genetic variance, shared environmental effects, and the non-shared environment, whereas psychotic behavior is the most adequately explained by both shared and non-shared environmental effects.

  19. Comparative evaluation of TonoPen AVIA, Goldmann applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Sharma, Reetika; Chaturvedi, Neha; Dada, Tanuj

    2011-08-01

    To compare the tonometric recordings of the Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA) with intraocular pressure (IOP) recordings made with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and non-contact tonometry (NCT). This prospective, observational, comparative case series consisted of 180 eyes of 180 subjects (50 patients with glaucoma and 130 healthy controls). NCT was performed first, followed by GAT and TPA measurement after a 5-min break. The mean age of the patients enrolled in the study was 43.99±16.67 years. The limits of agreement (confidence interval 95%) as calculated from the Bland-Altman plots for TPA-GAT and TPA-NCT were +8.7 to -7.7 and +8.6 to -9.6 mmHg in glaucoma patients. In healthy subjects these values were +4.8 to -5.1 and +6.2 to -5.2 mmHg, respectively. TPA tends to overestimate IOP compared to GAT at central corneal thickness (CCT) greater than 520 μm and underestimate IOP at CCT less than 510 μm. TPA overestimates IOP in comparison to NCT in subjects with CCT greater than 456 μm. Due to wide limits of agreement, TPA cannot be used interchangeably with GAT and NCT in the serial monitoring of glaucoma patients. Central corneal thickness has a significant influence on the IOP readings measured by Tono-Pen AVIA.

  20. Progress towards a direct measurement of the proton g factor in a double Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreim, Susanne; Kracke, Holger; Walz, Jochen [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, Wolfgang [GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stahl, Stefan [Stahl-Electronics, Mettenheim (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht- Karls-Universitaet, 69047 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Determining the g-factor of a single, isolated proton in a double Penning trap setup results from an accurate measurement of its cyclotron and spin precession frequency. The latter can be determined by inducing radio frequency transitions between the two spin states in the homogeneous magnetic field region of the first, precision Penning trap. The resulting spin state is detected in another region, namely the magnetic bottle field of the analysis trap. There, the spin direction is monitored by measuring the respective axial frequency via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. This experiment is performed in a 4 K cryogenic environment providing an ultra-high vacuum as well as long storage times of the particle. These surroundings bear great challen ges for the electronics needed to non-destructively detect the trapped proton. However, it leads to a low Johnson noise of the detection electronics. Together w ith the use of superconducting alloys, which lead to a high Q-value of the reson ant coil, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved by some orders of magnitude enabling measurements with a very low uncertainty. The sealed system also calls for an in-trap creation of protons with a newly developed cryogenic electron gun.

  1. Pen Branch fault program: Interim report on the High Resolution, Shallow Seismic Reflection surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieve, A.L. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-31

    The Pen Branch fault was identified in the subsurface at the Savannah River Site in 1989 based upon the interpretation of earlier seismic reflection surveys and other geologic investigations. A program was initiated at that time to further define the fault in terms of its capability to release seismic energy. The High-Resolution, Shallow Seismic Reflection survey recently completed at SRS was initiated to determine the shallowest extent of the fault and to demonstrate the presence of flat-lying sediments in the top 300 feet of sediments. Conclusions at this time are based upon this shallow seismic survey and the Conoco deep seismic survey (1988--1989). Deformation related to the Pen Branch fault is at least 200 milliseconds beneath the surface in the Conoco data and at least 150 milliseconds in the shallow seismic reflection data. This corresponds to approximately 300 feet below the surface. Sediments at that depth are lower Tertiary (Danian stage) or over 60 million years old. This indicates that the fault is not capable.

  2. Estructuras de fondo rehundido altomedievales en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEJERIZO GARCÍA, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de estructuras de fondo rehundido en contextos arqueológicos altomedievales está ampliamente documentada en toda Europa y cuenta con una dilatada historiografía. En la Península Ibérica, asociado a la expansión urbanística, se ha podido detectar un conjunto muy significativo de estas estructuras. Sin embargo, la falta de sistematización y análisis ha llevado a algunos problemas en su detección y documentación, así como a excesos conceptuales y de interpretación. En este trabajo se realiza una recopilación analítica de las evidencias de estructuras de fondo rehundido de época altomedieval presentes en la Península Ibérica mostrando su alta complejidad y diversidad. Basado en un análisis de la evidencia disponible, y frente a las tesis etnicistas que las vinculan a la llegada de grupos alóctonos, se propone una interpretación relacionada con el desarrollo de un modo de producción campesino tras la desarticulación de la economía imperial romana.

  3. Comparison of filters: Inkjet printed on PEN substrate versus a laser-etched on LCP substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, microstrip-based bandpass filters on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are presented to investigate the performance of filters on ultra-thin substrates. PEN (with a thickness of 120 μm) has been characterized and used for a filter for the first time. In addition to being low cost and transparent, it demonstrates comparable RF performance to LCP. The conductor losses are compared by fabricating filters with inkjet printed lines as well as laser etched copper clad LCP sheets. With 5 layers of inkjet printing, and a curing temperature below 200°C, a final silver thickness of 2 μm and conductivity of 9.6 × 106 S/m are achieved. The designs are investigated at two frequencies, 24 GHz as well as 5 GHz to assess their performance at high and low frequencies respectively. The 24 GHz inkjet printed filter shows an insertion loss of 2 dB, while the 5 GHz design gives an insertion loss of 8 dB. We find that thin substrates have a strong effect on the insertion loss of filters especially as the frequency is reduced. The same design, realized on LCP (thickness of 100 μm) through laser etching, demonstrates a very similar performance, thus verifying this finding. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  4. Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Victoria Silva; Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the use of paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) for the direct analysis of black ink writings made with ballpoint pens. The novel approach was developed in a forensic context by first performing the classification of commercially available ballpoint pens according to their brands. Six of the most commonly worldwide utilized brands (Bic, Paper Mate, Faber Castell, Pentel, Compactor, and Pilot) were differentiated according to their characteristic chemical patterns obtained by PS-MS. MS on the negative ion mode at a mass range of m/ z 100-1000 allowed prompt discrimination just by visual inspection. On the other hand, the concept of relative ion intensity (RII) and the analysis at other mass ranges were necessary for the differentiation using the positive ion mode. PS-MS combined with partial least squares (PLS) was utilized to monitor changes on the ink chemical composition after light exposure (artificial aging studies). The PLS model was optimized by variable selection, which allowed the identification of the most influencing ions on the degradation process. The feasibility of the method on forensic investigations was also demonstrated in three different applications: (1) analysis of overlapped fresh ink lines, (2) analysis of old inks from archived documents, and (3) detection of alterations (simulated forgeries) performed on archived documents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Individual Oral Therapy with Immediate Release and Effervescent Formulations Delivered by the Solid Dosage Pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wening, Klaus; Laukamp, Eva Julia; Thommes, Markus; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    New devices enabling freely selectable dosing of solid oral medications are urgently needed for personalized medicine. One approach is the use of the recently published Solid Dosage Pen, allowing flexible dosing of tablet-like sustained release slices from drug loaded extruded strands. Slices were suitable for oral single dosed application. The aim of the present study was the development of immediate release dosage forms for applications of the device, especially for young children. Using two model drugs, two different concepts were investigated and evaluated. Effervescent formulations were manufactured by an organic wet-extrusion process and immediate release formulations by a melt-extrusion process. Dissolution experiments were performed for both formulations to ensure the immediate release behavior. Extruded strands were individually dosed by the Solid Dosage Pen. Various doses of the two formulations were analyzed regarding uniformity of mass and content according to pharmacopoeial specifications. Proof of concept was demonstrated in both approaches as results comply with the regulatory requirements. Furthermore, storing stress tests were performed and drug formulations were characterized after storing. The results show that suitable packaging material has been selected and storage stability is probable. PMID:25562361

  6. Preferences of lame cows for type of surface and level of social contact in hospital pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S; Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    ) with either deep-bedded sand or a rubber surface. On both surfaces, cows could choose between 2 equally sized areas either near or away from heifers in a neighboring group pen. Cows spent more time lying on the deep-bedded sand than on the rubber surface (870 vs. 71min/d), whereas they spent less time upright...... (standing or walking) on the sand than on the rubber surface (180 vs. 319min/d). In addition, cows spent less time self-grooming on the sand than on the rubber surface (2.2 vs. 4.7% of time spent upright). With regard to level of social contact, cows spent more time near the neighboring heifers than away...... from them; this was true both while lying (565 vs. 374min/d) and upright (276 vs. 223min/d). Self-grooming was seen significantly more near neighboring heifers than away from them (4.8 vs. 3.3% of time spent upright). When lying, cows more often positioned themselves in areas of the pen where...

  7. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam; Gould, Maree

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Orobanche flava Mart. ex F.W. Schultz (Orobanchaceae: en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvá, Antonio J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is reported in the N of the Iberian Península. Its diversity and distribution is analyzed for the península: var. flava in the Pyrenees and var. albicans Rhiner in the Cantabrian Mountain chain. Lectotypification of O. flava var. albicans Rhiner [ZT] is proposed. To facilítate the identification of O. flava we emphasize its differential morphological characters and an original icon is contributed.Se indica la presencia de Orobanche flava en el N de la Península Ibérica. Se analiza su diversidad y su distribución en el territorio: var. flava en el Pirineo y var. albicans Rhiner en la Cordillera Cantábrica. Se propone el lectótipo de O. flava var. albicans Rhiner [ZT]. Para facilitar la identificación de O. flava destacamos sus caracteres morfológicos diferenciales y aportamos un icono original.

  9. The topology of pen-2, a γ-secretase subunit, revisited: evidence for a reentrant loop and a single pass transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xulun; Yu, Chunjiang J; Sisodia, Sangram S

    2015-08-22

    The γ-secretase complex, composed of transmembrane proteins termed presenilin (PS), anterior pharynx defective (APH), nicastrin (NCT), and presenilin enhancer-2 (Pen-2) catalyzes intramembranous hydrolysis of a variety of Type I membrane protein substrates. In order to understand aspects of subunit assembly, interactions, dynamics and catalysis, it is essential to clarify the membrane topology of each polypeptide. Hydophathicity plots predict that the 101 amino acid Pen-2 molecule has two hydrophobic domains (HP1 and HP2) that may serve as transmembrane spanning domains. Earlier reports indicated that transiently overexpressed Pen-2 uses these two hydrophobic domains as transmembrane helices that generates a "U-shaped" hairpin topology with both amino- (N-) and carboxyl-(C-) termini facing the lumen. In this report, we have reexamined the topology of endogenous Pen-2 and Pen-2 chimeras that are stably expressed in mammalian cells, and have assessed the function of these molecules in rescuing γ-secretase activity in Pen-2-deficient fibroblasts. We confirm that the Pen-2 C-terminus is lumenal, but the N-terminus of Pen-2 is exposed to the cytoplasm, thus indicating that HP1 does not traverse the lipid bilayer as a transmembrane domain. Domain swapping studies reveal the importance of specific regions within the first hydrophobic domain of Pen-2 that are critical for generating the topology that is a prerequisite for mediating PS1 endoproteolysis and γ-secretase activity. Finally, we report that the first fourteen amino acids of the Pen-2 HP1 are required for γ-secretase activity. We propose that the first hydrophobic domain of Pen-2 forms a structure similar to a reentrant loop while the second hydrophobic domain spans the lipid bilayer.

  10. Intelliject’s novel epinephrine autoinjector: sharps injury prevention validation and comparable analysis with EpiPen and Twinject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerlain, Stephanie; Wang, Lu; Hugine, Akilah

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently marketed epinephrine autoinjectors (EAs) are prone to misuse that may lead to injury or a missed dose. A novel EA (NEA) (Intelliject Inc) was created to reduce such injuries by including features such as a unidirectional perceived injection end and a retractable needle. Objectives To validate the sharps injury prevention features of the NEA and to obtain feedback on, and preference for, features of the NEA compared with Twinject and EpiPen. Methods Twenty-eight health care professionals experienced with using the EpiPen or Twinject each injected 18 NEAs into an orange and provided confirmation of needle injection and retraction. Half of the injections were conducted using wet hands to replicate diaphoretic hands or wet environmental conditions. Participants provided feedback via a post-test questionnaire and gave ordinal preference rankings for the NEA, EpiPen, and Twinject based on shape, size, ease of use, ease of training, and overall preference. Participants also described known cases in which the Twinject or EpiPen was not correctly administered. Results For all 505 tested NEAs, the needle injected and retracted as intended. For overall preference, 100% of the experienced health care practitioners ranked the NEA first. Half of the participants recalled incidents in which the EpiPen or Twinject did not work as intended or caused an injury. Conclusions The sharps injury prevention feature was verified for the NEA, and health care professionals experienced in the use of EpiPen and Twinject for allergic emergencies perceived the NEA to be a safer and preferred alternative. PMID:21130387

  11. Intelliject's novel epinephrine autoinjector: sharps injury prevention validation and comparable analysis with EpiPen and Twinject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerlain, Stephanie; Wang, Lu; Hugine, Akilah

    2010-12-01

    Currently marketed epinephrine autoinjectors (EAs) are prone to misuse that may lead to injury or a missed dose. A novel EA (NEA) (Intelliject Inc) was created to reduce such injuries by including features such as a unidirectional perceived injection end and a retractable needle. To validate the sharps injury prevention features of the NEA and to obtain feedback on, and preference for, features of the NEA compared with Twinject and EpiPen. Twenty-eight health care professionals experienced with using the EpiPen or Twinject each injected 18 NEAs into an orange and provided confirmation of needle injection and retraction. Half of the injections were conducted using wet hands to replicate diaphoretic hands or wet environmental conditions. Participants provided feedback via a post-test questionnaire and gave ordinal preference rankings for the NEA, EpiPen, and Twinject based on shape, size, ease of use, ease of training, and overall preference. Participants also described known cases in which the Twinject or EpiPen was not correctly administered. For all 505 tested NEAs, the needle injected and retracted as intended. For overall preference, 100% of the experienced health care practitioners ranked the NEA first. Half of the participants recalled incidents in which the EpiPen or Twinject did not work as intended or caused an injury. The sharps injury prevention feature was verified for the NEA, and health care professionals experienced in the use of EpiPen and Twinject for allergic emergencies perceived the NEA to be a safer and preferred alternative. Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling: A welfare-friendly sampling method for group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Françoise; Dorenlor, Virginie; Eono, Florent; Eudier, Solveig; Eveno, Eric; Liégard-Vanhecke, Dorine; Rose, Nicolas; Fablet, Christelle

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling (OFS) in 35 pig herds with group-housed sows, compare these methods to blood sampling, and assess the factors influencing the success of sampling. Individual samples were collected from at least 30 sows per herd. Pen-based OFS was performed using devices placed in at least three pens for 45min. Information related to the farm, the sows, and their living conditions were collected. Factors significantly associated with the duration of sampling and the chewing behaviour of sows were identified by logistic regression. Individual OFS took 2min 42s on average; the type of floor, swab size, and operator were associated with a sampling time >2min. Pen-based OFS was obtained from 112 devices (62.2%). The type of floor, parity, pen-level activity, and type of feeding were associated with chewing behaviour. Pen activity was associated with the latency to interact with the device. The type of floor, gestation stage, parity, group size, and latency to interact with the device were associated with a chewing time >10min. After 15, 30 and 45min of pen-based OFS, 48%, 60% and 65% of the sows were lying down, respectively. The time spent after the beginning of sampling, genetic type, and time elapsed since the last meal were associated with 50% of the sows lying down at one time point. The mean time to blood sample the sows was 1min 16s and 2min 52s if the number of operators required was considered in the sampling time estimation. The genetic type, parity, and type of floor were significantly associated with a sampling time higher than 1min 30s. This study shows that individual OFS is easy to perform in group-housed sows by a single operator, even though straw-bedded animals take longer to sample than animals housed on slatted floors, and suggests some guidelines to optimise pen-based OFS success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First detection and energy measurement of recoil ions following beta decay in a Penning trap with the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M; Kozlov, V Yu; Breitenfeld, M; Delahaye, P; Friedag, P; Herbane, M; Herlert, A; Kraev, I S; Mader, J; Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Wauters, F; Weinheimer, Ch; Wenander, F; Severijns, N

    2011-01-01

    The WITCH experiment (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) will search for exotic interactions by investigating the beta-neutrino angular correlation via the measurement of the recoil energy spectrum after beta decay. As a first step the recoil ions from the beta-minus decay of 124In stored in a Penning trap have been detected. The evidence for the detection of recoil ions is shown and the properties of the ion cloud that forms the radioactive source for the experiment in the Penning trap are presented.

  14. Molecular Architectures of Pen and Pal: Key Enzymes Required for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Biosynthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Nathan A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2017-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil-dwelling Gram positive bacterium that has been utilized as a biopesticide for well over 60 years. It is known to contain flagella that are important for motility. One of the proteins found in flagella is flagellin, which is post-translationally modified by O-glycosylation with derivatives of pseudaminic acid. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of CMP-pseudaminic acid in B. thuringiensis, starting with UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), requires seven enzymes. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of Pen and Pal, which catalyze the first and second steps, respectively. Pen contains a tightly bound NADP(H) cofactor whereas Pal is isolated with bound NAD(H). For the X-ray analysis of Pen, the site-directed D128N/K129A mutant variant was prepared in order to trap its substrate, UDP-GlcNAc, into the active site. Pen adopts a hexameric quaternary structure with each subunit showing the bilobal architecture observed for members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The hexameric quaternary structure is atypical for most members of the superfamily. The structure of Pal was determined in the presence of UDP. Pen adopts the more typical dimeric quaternary structure. Taken together, Pen and Pal catalyze the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-N-acetylaltrosamine. Strikingly, in Gram negative bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, only a single enzyme (FlaA1) is required for the production of UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-N-acetylaltrosamine. A comparison of Pen and Pal with FlaA1 reveals differences that may explain why FlaA1 is a bifunctional enzyme whereas Pen and Pal catalyze the individual steps leading to the formation of the UDP-sugar product. This investigation represents the first structural analysis of the enzymes in B. thuringiensis that are required for CMP-pseudaminic acid formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The

  15. The effect of feed trough position on choice of defecation area in farrowing pens by loose sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate how the feed trough position affects the sow’s choice of defecation area in a loose house farrowing pen. The eliminative behaviour of 24 1st parity sows was studied in a cross-over design. The feed trough and the water were positioned either...... in the activity area towards the neighbouring pen or in the activity area towards the aisle. On day 15 after farrowing, the feed trough and the water were moved to the opposite position. Videotapes were observed continuously on real time and the time of urination or defecation were recorded along with head...

  16. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  17. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  18. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from rectal and floor samples in pens with diarrhoeic nursery pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine necessitates the selection of antibiotic compounds with narrow-spectrums targeted against the specific pathogens involved. The same pathotype of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was recently found both in diarrhoeic pigs...... rectal samples from pigs. Across three Danish pig herds, faecal samples were collected from the floors of 31 pens that had a within-pen diarrhoea prevalence of >25%, and from rectal samples of 93 diarrhoeic nursery pigs from the same pens. A total of 380 E. coli isolates were analysed by PCR...... and in samples from the pen floor where the pigs were housed. The first objective of this study was to compare resistance profiles from ETEC isolates and Non-ETEC isolates. The second objective was to evaluate the agreement between resistance profiles of ETEC isolated from pen floor samples and from individual...

  20. WITCH a Penning trap retardation spectrometer combination for precision studies of the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Delauré, B J; Golovko, V V; Kozlov, V Yu; Phalet, T; Schuurmans, P; Severijns, N; Vereecke, B; Versyck, S; Beck, D; Quint, W; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Forstner, O; Deutsch, J; Bollen, G; Schwarz, S

    2003-01-01

    The weak interaction trap for charged particles (WITCH) setup is being installed at the ISOLDE facility (CERN) to test the Standard Model of the electroweak interaction. This will be done by searching for scalar and tensor admixtures in nuclear $\\beta$-decay. The $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation is an excellent probe to determine the possible strength of those non-Standard Model contributions. The WITCH setup combines the unique storage features of a Penning trap to produce a scattering free radioactive source with a retardation spectrometer to measure the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter nuclei after $\\beta$-decay with high precision. Physics beyond the Standard Model would lead to deviations from the expected spectral shape. (7 refs).

  1. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  2. Rasch family models in e-learning: analyzing architectural sketching with a digital pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Kathleen; Cheng, Nancy Yen-Wen; Oskui, Nargas

    2009-01-01

    Since architecture students studying design drawing are usually assessed qualitatively on the basis of their final products, the challenges and stages of their learning have remained masked. To clarify the challenges in design drawing, we have been using the BEAR Assessment System and Rasch family models to measure levels of understanding for individuals and groups, in order to correct pedagogical assumptions and tune teaching materials. This chapter discusses the analysis of 81 drawings created by architectural students to solve a space layout problem, collected and analyzed with digital pen-and-paper technology. The approach allows us to map developmental performance criteria and perceive achievement overlaps in learning domains assumed separate, and then re-conceptualize a three-part framework to represent learning in architectural drawing. Results and measurement evidence from the assessment and Rasch modeling are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of a planar micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, M; Bautista-Salvador, A; Singer, K; Schmidt-Kaler, F [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Werth, G, E-mail: ferdinand.schmidt-kaler@uni-ulm.d [Physikalisches Institut, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    We describe a versatile planar Penning trap structure, which allows one to dynamically modify the trapping configuration almost arbitrarily. The trap consists of 37 hexagonal electrodes, each with a circumcircle diameter of 300 {mu}m, fabricated in a gold-on-sapphire lithographic technique. Every hexagon can be addressed individually, thus shaping the electric potential. The fabrication of such a device with clean room methods is demonstrated. We illustrate the variability of the device by a detailed numerical simulation of a lateral and a vertical transport and simulate trapping in racetrack and artificial crystal configurations. The trap may be used for ions or electrons, as a versatile container for quantum optics and quantum information experiments.

  4. Phylogeny and systematics of deep-sea sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Emily; Tyler, Paul A; Yesson, Chris; Rogers, Alex D

    2013-12-01

    Molecular methods have been used for the first time to determine the phylogeny of families, genera and species within the Pennatulacea (sea pens). Variation in ND2 and mtMutS mitochondrial protein-coding genes proved adequate to resolve phylogenetic relationships among pennatulacean families. The gene mtMutS is more variable than ND2 and differentiates all genera, and many pennatulacean species. A molecular phylogeny based on a Bayesian analysis reveals that suborder Sessiliflorae is paraphyletic and Subselliflorae is polyphyletic. Many families of pennatulaceans do not represent monophyletic groups including Umbellulidae, Pteroeididae, and Kophobelemnidae. The high frequency of morphological homoplasy in pennatulaceans has led to many misinterpretations in the systematics of the group. The traditional classification scheme for pennatulaceans requires revision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paper-pen peer-correction versus wiki-based peer-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froldova Vladimira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the comparison of the students’ achievement and their attitudes towards the use of paper-pen peer-correction and wiki-based peer-correction within English language lessons and CLIL Social Science lessons at the higher secondary school in Prague. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were utilized to gather information. The data suggests that students made considerable use of wikis and showed higher degrees of motivation in wiki-based peer-correction during English language lessons than in CLIL Social Science lessons. In both cases wikis not only contributed to developing students’ writing skills, but also helped students recognize the importance of collaboration.

  6. Communication: Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem by performing a merged-beam study of the He(3S1)+CHF3 Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies E/kB = 0.5-120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of CHF3 makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  7. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  8. Development of educational software for beam loading analysis using pen-based user interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong S. Suh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most engineering software tools use typical menu-based user interfaces, and they may not be suitable for learning tools because the solution processes are hidden and students can only see the results. An educational tool for simple beam analyses is developed using a pen-based user interface with a computer so students can write and sketch by hand. The geometry of beam sections is sketched, and a shape matching technique is used to recognize the sketch. Various beam loads are added by sketching gestures or writing singularity functions. Students sketch the distributions of the loadings by sketching the graphs, and they are automatically checked and the system provides aids in grading the graphs. Students receive interactive graphical feedback for better learning experiences while they are working on solving the problems.

  9. Pensée rationnelle et création scientifique chez Poincaré

    OpenAIRE

    Paty, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Ce texte existe sur le CD-ROM développé par la Fondation Sophia Antipolis; On éclaire le « style » d'Henri Poincaré en physique théorique et mathématique, en prenant le cas de sa formulation théorique de l'électrodynamique relativiste, et de la place qu'y tient le principe de relativité ; dans ce travail créateur, le rapprochement et le contraste avec celui parallèle d'Einstein s'impose. On évoque ensuite ce que l'œuvre et la pensée de Poincaré apportent de nouveau, dans le champ philosophiqu...

  10. Magnetic field design for a Penning ion source for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, A., E-mail: Atefeh.Fathi115@gmail.com [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H.; Sadati, S.M. [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimibasabi, E. [Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 3619995161, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the structure of magnetic field for a Penning ion source has been designed and constructed with the use of permanent magnets. The ion source has been designed and constructed for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator. With using CST Studio Suite, the magnetic field profile inside the ion source was simulated and an appropriate magnetic system was designed to improve particle confinement. Designed system consists of two ring magnets with 9 mm distance from each other around the anode. The ion source was constructed and the cylindrical magnet and designed magnetic system were tested on the ion source. The results showed that the ignition voltage for ion source with the designed magnetic system is almost 300 V lower than the ion source with the cylindrical magnet. Better particle confinement causes lower voltage discharge to occur.

  11. Eye and pen: A new device for studying reading during writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Chesnet, David; Dansac, Christophe; Ros, Christine

    2006-05-01

    We present a new method for studying reading during writing and the relationships between these two activities. The Eye and Pen device makes a synchronous recording of handwriting and eye movements during written composition. It complements existing online methods by providing a fine-grained description of the visual information fixated during pauses as well as during the actual writing act. This device can contribute to the exploration of several research issues, since it can be used to investigate the role of the text produced so far and the documentary sources displayed in the task environment. The study of the engagement of reading during writing should provide important information about the dynamics of writing processes based on visual information.

  12. University Mentoring with the Support of a Digital Pen and Hypermedia Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Aguilar Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematizes face-to-face tutoring experience and the use of technologies to make audio and written recordings of tutorial sessions with undergraduate, master’s and doctoral students available online. One hundred and three tutorial sessions with 26 students and a single tutor are analyzed; the sessions were recorded by means of a digital pen that recorded sound and writing synchronously. By means of this analysis students’ issues and problems were identified and a model for connecting teaching strategy and the production of hypermedia resources is presented. We contend that it is important to create learning resources to accompany the educational process of tutees. In conclusion the study presents a model for organizing and supporting university level tutoring.

  13. Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Jankunas, Justin; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem performing a merged-beam study of the He*+CHF$_3$ Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies $E/k_B$=0.5--120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of the quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of \\chfs makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Digital Pens and Tabletop User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Kazue; Satou, Kenji; Kawana, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomohiro

    Most traditional disaster information systems are necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster occurs. However, in the current disaster response system of local governments, it is not easy for local governments to post such expert staff because they are struggling with staff cuts due to administrative and fiscal reform. In this research, we propose a disaster information management system that can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by municipal personnel in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.

  15. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36......) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again...... in the alternative version. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. The between-version test-retest reliability for the eight subscales were between 0.63 and 0.92. Cronbach's alpha for the two versions were all between...

  16. Simbuca, using a graphics card to simulate Coulomb interactions in a penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gorp, S; Friedag, P; De Leebeeck, V; Tandecki, M; Weinheimer, C; Breitenfeldt, M; Traykov, E; Severijn, N; Mader, J; Soti, G; Iitaka, T; Herlert, A; Wauters, F; Zakoucky, D; Kozlov, V; Roccia, S

    2011-01-01

    In almost all cases, N-body simulations are limited by the computation time available. Coulomb interaction calculations scale with O(N(2)) with N the number of particles. Approximation methods exist already to reduce the computation time to O(NlogN) although calculating the interaction still dominates the total simulation time. We present Simbuca, a simulation package for thousands of ions moving in a Penning trap which will be applied for the WITCH experiment. Simbuca uses the output of the Cunbody-1 library, which calculates the gravitational interaction between entities on a graphics card, and adapts it for Coulomb calculations. Furthermore the program incorporates three realistic buffer gas models, the possibility of importing realistic electric and magnetic fieldmaps and different order integrators with adaptive step size and error control. The software is released under the GNU General Public License and free for use. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper

    2014-01-01

    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... the insertions. Seven pigs were included in the study and a total of 118 randomized needle insertions were conducted. Histology was made of tissue samples inserted with 18G, 28G, and 32G needles, and stained to quantify red and white blood cell response. Based on area under curve, calculated for each individual...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P

  18. Patterning phase separation in polymer films with dip-pen nanolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, David C; Ginger, David S

    2005-04-06

    We report a rapid-prototyping method for controlling nanoscale phase separation and pattern formation in conjugated polymer blend films using Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN). We use DPN to generate patterned alkylthiol monolayers with feature sizes down to 50 nm on gold surfaces and show how such patterns can nucleate the formation of lateral domains in blends of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and polystyrene (PS) cast from solution. We show that this process can be used to probe phase nucleation at heterogeneous surface sites ranging in size from 50 to 750 nm, and that polymer features smaller than 150 nm in diameter can be achieved. We anticipate this method will be useful for studying polymer film responses to nanoscale surface fluctuations as well as for correlating nanoscale phase separation with optoelectronic processes in organic films used in light-emitting diode and photovoltaic devices.

  19. Development of miniaturized, spectroscopically assisted Penning gauges for fractional helium and hydrogen neutral pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, K; Kremeyer, T; Schmitz, O; Soukhanovskii, V; Wenzel, U

    2016-11-01

    Direct measurements of the helium (He) fractional neutral pressure in the neutral gas around fusion devices is challenging because of the small mass difference between the abundant D2 molecules and the He ash which will be produced by deuterium-tritium fusion. To study He exhaust, an in situ Penning gauge system is being developed at UW-Madison that is optimized for good pressure and high spectroscopic sensitivity. Three different anode geometries have been studied regarding their vacuum electrostatic fields, light output, and ion current. The light output of the two new anode configurations are at least one order of magnitude above the currently available designs, hence improving the spectroscopic sensitivity at similar total neutral pressure resolution.

  20. Accuracy studies with carbon clusters at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Smorra, C.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive cross-reference measurements of well-known frequency ratios using various sizes of carbon cluster ions 12Cn + (10≤n≤23) were performed to determine the effects limiting the accuracy of mass measurements at the Penning-trap facility TRIGA-TRAP. Two major contributions to the uncertainty of a mass measurement have been identified. Fluctuations of the magnetic field cause an uncertainty in the frequency ratio due to the required calibration by a reference ion of uf(νref)/νref = 6(2) × 10-11/min × Δt. A mass-dependent systematic shift of the frequency ratio of epsilonm(r)/r = -2.2(2) × 10-9 × (m-mref)/u has been found as well. Finally, the nuclide 197Au was used as a cross-check since its mass is already known with an uncertainty of 0.6 keV.

  1. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  2. Synthesis of poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) polyester using monomers derived from renewable resources: thermal behavior comparison with PET and PEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2014-05-07

    Poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is a new alipharomatic polyester that can be prepared from monomers derived from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. For this reason it has gained high interest recently. In the present work it was synthesized from the dimethylester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol by applying the two-stage melt polycondensation method. The thermal behavior of PEF was studied in comparison to its terephthalate and naphthalate homologues poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which were also synthesized following the same procedure. The equilibrium melting point of PEF was found to be 265 °C while the heat of fusion for the pure crystalline PEF was estimated to be about 137 J g(-1). The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using various models. PET showed faster crystallization rates than PEN and this in turn showed faster crystallization than PEF, under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The spherulitic morphology of PEF during isothermal crystallization was investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A large nucleation density and a small spherulite size were observed for PEF even at low supercoolings, in contrast to PET or PEN. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that PEF is thermally stable up to 325 °C and the temperature for the maximum degradation rate was 438 °C. These values were a little lower than those for PET or PEN.

  3. Performance equivalency between computer-based and traditional pen-and-paper assessment: A case study in clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno; Ribeiro, José; Cruz, Bernardo; Ferreira, André; Alves, Hélio; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Madeira, Maria Dulce; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-08-17

    The time, material, and staff-consuming nature of anatomy's traditional pen-and-paper assessment system, the increase in the number of students enrolling in medical schools and the ever-escalating workload of academic staff have made the use of computer-based assessment (CBA) an attractive proposition. To understand the impact of such shift in the assessment method, an experimental study evaluating its effect on students' performance was designed. Additionally, students' opinions toward CBA were gathered. Second-year medical students attending a Clinical Anatomy course were randomized by clusters in two groups. The pen-and-paper group attended two sessions, each consisting of a traditional sectional anatomy steeplechase followed by a theoretical examination, while the computer group was involved in two similar sessions conducted in a computerized environment. At the end of each of the computer sessions, students in this group filled an anonymous questionnaire. In the first session, pen-and-paper group students scored significantly better than computer-group students in both the steeplechase (mean ± standard deviation: 66.00 ± 14.15% vs. 43.50 ± 19.10%; P performance equivalent and student accepted alternative to clinical anatomy pen-and-paper theoretical and practical examinations. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Entre recital y charla: El acto creador y unos apuntes sobre “Penélope”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rojas Porras

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto expone algunas de mis ideas y experiencias como escritora y las ejemplifica con poemas de mi producción. Enmarcada en ese contexto; se plantea una lectura personal de mi poema Penélope, el cual se lee en décimo año de la Educación General Básica

  5. The effects of acoustic alarms on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Rippe, H.T.; Vaughan, N.; Schooneman, N.M.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to test the effectiveness of sounds in deterring harbor porpoises from nets and reducing porpoise bycatch in gill net fisheries, two harbor porpoises, kept in a large floating pen at Neeltje Jans, The Netherlands, were subjected to 3 different underwater sounds. The effect of each

  6. 9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. 313.50... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. When an inspector observes...

  7. Analysis of the burden of treatment in patients receiving an EpiPen for yellow jacket anaphylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; van der Heide, S.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    Background: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is a treatment with established efficacy for the prevention of repeated anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera allergy, which also allows patients to discontinue carrying an EpiPen. Despite their merits, both treatments can have negative aspects

  8. Assistive Technology for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Glimpse of the Livescribe Pen and Its Impact on Homework Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kelly A.; Kurtzworth-Keen, Kristin; Marable, Michele A.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the effectiveness of an assistive technology tool, the Livescribe Pen (LSP), with an elementary student identified with dyslexia. Using interview and focus group methodologies over the span of one academic year, the study probed the perceptions of teachers, parent, and child. While the LSP was primarily utilized for…

  9. Low temperature deposition of ZnO semiconductor thin films on a PEN substrate by a solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Wu, Pei-Wen

    2013-07-01

    Low-temperature processed ZnO semiconductor films were deposited onto polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates by a spin coating technique using ZnO nanoparticle (NP) dispersion. The ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, and solution processable dispersion was used to disperse the ZnO NPs in a mixed aqueous solution with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dispersant agent. The effects of annealing temperature (from 150°C to 250°C) on the electrical properties of glass/ZnO film samples are reported. The optimized annealing condition (200°C) was applied for ZnO film deposited on a PEN substrate. Comparative electrical properties of the PEN/ZnO film samples before and after bending tests are also presented. Experimental results show that the electrical resistivity of the PEN/ZnO film sample was 1.91 × 104 Ω cm with a Hall mobility of 45.9 cm2/Vs. After bending tests, the electrical resistivity was raised to 1.26 × 105 Ω cm and the Hall mobility was reduced to 31.0 cm2/Vs.

  10. Aportaciones a la flora vascular del norte de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidalgo, E., Llorente, A., Cadiñanos, J.A., Tarruella, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se citan varios taxones nuevos o interesantes de la flora vascular del norte de la Península Ibérica, concretamente de las provincias vascas de Álava, Vizcaya y Guipúzcoa y de las comunidades de Cantabria, Asturias, Castilla-León y Navarra.

  11. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Gould, Maree [Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Biocomposite scaffolds were made from mussel shells HA and β-TCP, and squid pin chitosan. • The porosity of the composites decreased with an increase in HA/β-TCP ratio. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. • Composite containing 50% HA and β-TCP had the best mechanical properties.

  12. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizaga, E A; Rodríguez, L; Ocampo, C J

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DATINK pilot study: an effective methodology for ballpoint pen ink dating in questioned documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, I; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, M L; Alonso, R M; Ezcurra, M

    2015-09-10

    Establishing the approximate age of an ink entry from a questioned document is often a complicated task and a controversial issue in forensic sciences. Among the existing approaches, the analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In recent years, several ink dating methods have been proposed. These methods have been based on the analysis of common ink solvents using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the analytical platform. Despite these recent methods, several questions remain. The aim of this work was to develop an ink dating methodology (DATINK) for documents written by ballpoint pens based on the disappearance of volatile solvents from the ink entry. Multiple solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS was used to measure the solvents from ink entries made with four BIC(®) ballpoint pens. The β parameter, the remaining fraction of the analyte in the system after one equilibration, corresponding to the successive extractions was considered for modelling a mathematical equation for later ink age dating. Preliminary tests of DATINK method showed that it was possible to detect the presence of ink solvents on documents up to the studied five years. The analyses of different real samples of known age were analyzed in terms of β values, which provided a mean relative error of 21%. The proposed use of β parameter for estimating the absolute age of ballpoint ink entries has shown promising results with a standard deviation of β ranging from 0.002 to 0.004. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bemfola(®) fixed dose pens potentially reduce drug wastage and associated costs of infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxon, Graham; Mitchell, Paul; Turner, Nikki; McConnell, Anne; Kendrew, Helen; Jenkins, Julian

    2017-05-26

    Bemfola(®) is a recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) used during infertility treatment. One main differentiator between FSH products is their delivery device; consisting of multi-dose pens (Gonal-f(®)), vials or multi-dose preparations (Menopur(®)), or adjustable daily disposable dose pens (Bemfola(®)). To determine the potential impact of delivery device on drug wastage during infertility treatment this study retrospectively analysed Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) prescription and usage data from five UK clinics. Incurred drug wastage was then compared to potential Bemfola(®) drug wastage. Data collected included: (i) number of treatment cycles; (ii) daily FSH dose; (iii) length of treatment; (iv) dose adjustment following ultrasound scan; (v) FSH formulation(s) prescribed and (vi) agonist/antagonist protocol used. Treatment with Gonal-f(®) (4078 cycles) and Menopur(®) (646 cycles) resulted in an average drug wastage of 160 and 294 IU per treatment cycle. Use of Bemfola(®) instead of Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) may reduce the wastage to 104 and 61 IU per cycle, respectively. The use of Bemfola(®), across all 4724 cycles, could result in a drug wastage reduction of up to 376,800 IUs with an associated cost saving of £100,011. Bemfola(®) is a viable alternative to Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) with its drug delivery system potentially reducing drug wastage and associated costs during infertility treatment.

  15. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  16. Detection and imaging of thermochromic ink compounds in erasable pens using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Amin; Prova, Shamina S; Bagga, Aafreen K; Yan Chi Ting, Michelle; Brar, Gurnoor; Ifa, Demian R

    2017-06-30

    Thermochromic ink pens are widely accessible worldwide and have gained popularity among the general public. These pens are very useful to undo mistakes while writing important documents or exams. They are also, however, misused in committing crimes such as counterfeiting checks or wills. Thus, the forensics community is in need of techniques that will allow these forgeries to be detected rapidly, reliably and conveniently. Thermochromic ink compounds were investigated using Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) coupled with an LTQ mass spectrometer and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis was conducted using Electrospray Ionization (ESI) coupled with an Orbitrap LTQ mass spectrometer performing Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) for identification of ink traces. Chemical marker ions characteristic of the state of ink (visible or invisible) were identified and mapped in ink traces by the use of DESI-MS imaging. These ions can be employed by forensic experts as fingerprint markers in forged documents. The marker ions were also characterised by conducting tandem mass spectrometry using paper spray in an Orbitrap LTQ mass spectrometer. Specific chemical components yielding ions of m/z 400, 405, 615 and 786 were distinguished as only being apparent in the invisible and reappeared state of the ink. The absence of these compounds in the original state of the ink enabled their recognition as useful chemical determinants in detecting forgery. DESI-MSI was thus shown to be a very useful, convenient and reliable technique for detecting forgery in paper documents due to its fast and reproducible mode of analysis, with no sample preparation and minimal damage to the document under investigation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Use of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish blue ballpoint pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; de Juan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is assessing whether the combination of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools is appropriate to differentiate blue ballpoint pen inks. Fourteen commercial blue ballpoint pen inks from different brands and models were studied and Raman spectra were obtained on ink lines written on A4 sulfite paper. First, a study of the best Raman configurations, in terms of laser intensity used and acquisition mode, was carried out to ensure sufficient spectroscopic quality without damaging the sample. Chemometric methods were applied first to improve the definition of spectral bands and to suppress fluorescence contributions from the signal. Once the spectra were suitably preprocessed, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to explore whether the different inks could be distinguished from their Raman spectra. Almost all inks could be gradually differentiated, through successive PCA analyses or looking at the different levels of the dendrogram structure provided by HCA. From these exploratory results, a tree structure was constructed based on PCA and HCA results in order to reflect the degree of similarity among ink classes. This tree structure was used as the basis to develop hierarchical classification models based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Correct classification of inks was achieved by these PLS-DA models built and the most important regions to identify the ink classes were detected using the variable importance in projection plots (VIPs). The combination of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics has been proven to be a promising fast non-destructive tool to differentiate among very similar ink types in documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  19. Ultra-broad-band electrical spectroscopy of soils and sediments—a combined permittivity and conductivity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewer, M.; Günther, T.; Igel, J.; Kruschwitz, S.; Martin, T.; Wagner, N.

    2017-09-01

    We combined two completely different methods measuring the frequency-dependent electrical properties of moist porous materials in order to receive an extraordinary large frequency spectrum. In the low-frequency (LF) range, complex electrical resistivity between 1 mHz and 45 kHz was measured for three different soils and sandstone, using the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method with a four electrode cell. In the high-frequency (HF) radio to microwave range, complex dielectric permittivity was measured between 1 MHz and 10 GHz for the same samples using dielectric spectroscopy by means of the coaxial transmission line technique. The combined data sets cover 13 orders of magnitude and were transferred into their equivalent expressions: the complex effective dielectric permittivity and the complex effective electrical conductivity. We applied the Kramers-Kronig relation in order to justify the validity of the data combination. A new phenomenological model that consists of both dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity terms in a Debye- and Cole-Cole-type manner was fitted to the spectra. The combined permittivity and conductivity model accounts for the most common representations of the physical quantities with respect to the individual measuring method. A maximum number of four relaxation processes was identified in the analysed frequency range. Among these are the free water and different interfacial relaxation processes, the Maxwell-Wagner effect, the counterion relaxation in the electrical double layer and the direct-current electrical conductivity. There is evidence that free water relaxation does not affect the electrical response in the SIP range. Moreover, direct current conductivity contribution (bulk and interface) dominates the losses in the HF range. Interfacial relaxation processes with relaxations in the HF range are broadly distributed down to the LF range. The slowest observed process in the LF range has a minor contribution to the HF response.

  20. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.

    2014-01-01

    also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than justNuSTAR alone: Ecut = 186±14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate......We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku andNuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found...... this parameter from the plasma’s optical depth and to update our results for these parameters as well. We derive kT = 50−3+6 keV with τ = 2.34−0.11+0.16 using a spherical geometry, kT = 61±1 keV with τ = 0.68±0.02 for a slab geometry, with both having an equivalent goodness-of-fit....