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Sample records for broad-band ft-icr penning

  1. Broad-band FT-ICR detection at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Konstantin; Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Sturm, Sven [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements on exotic neutron-rich nuclides, which are produced via neutron-induced fission of actinide targets at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. In order to determine which ion species are present in the ion bunch delivered to the Penning trap system, a non-destructive ion detection technique will be implemented in the cylindrical purification trap. This so called broad-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique is based on the detection of image currents, induced by the ions in the trap electrodes. To this end, a new cryogenic low-noise broad-band amplifier is being designed and tested. With this system the identification of contaminations will be possible without the need to eject ions from the trap as usually done at other facilities. The setup as well as its present status are presented.

  2. A broad-Band FT-ICR Penning TRap System for KATRIN

    CERN Document Server

    Ubieto-Diaz, M; Lukic, S; Nagy, Sz; Stahl, S; Blaum, K

    2009-01-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment KATRIN aims at improving the upper limit of the mass of the electron antineutrino to about 0.2 eV (90% c.l.) by investigating the beta-decay of tritium gas molecules. The experiment is currently under construction to start first data taking in 2012. One source of systematic uncertainties in the KATRIN experiment is the formation of ion clusters when tritium decays and decay products interact with residual tritium molecules. It is essential to monitor the abundances of these clusters since they have different final state energies than tritium ions. For this purpose, a prototype of a cylindrical Penning trap has been constructed and tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, which will be installed in the KATRIN beam line. This system employs the technique of Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance in order to measure the abundances of the different stored ion species.

  3. Simultaneous monitoring of the radial modes of the ion motion and their manipulation in Penning traps by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Herlert, A; Marxa, G; Schweikhard, L

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated how FT-ICR MS can be used to monitor both the coherent magnetron motion and the cyclotron motion of ions stored in a Penning trap. By use of the ICR signal intensity at the magnetron frequency, ν−, and the reduced cyclotron frequency, ν+, the manipulation of the ion motion by dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar excitation has been followed. In particular, the conversion between the magnetron and the cyclotron motion by quadrupolar and octupolar excitation at the corresponding resonance frequencies νc = ν+ + ν− and 2νc, respectively, has been observed by detection of the magnetron and the cyclotron signal. While the ion motion under the influence of a quadrupolar excitation has already been studied extensively, the octupolar excitation has been introduced only recently. As compared to other techniques, such as the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance detection method, FT-ICR MS allows to simultaneously investigate the influence of an excitation on the cyclotron und the magnetron ...

  4. Structural Characterization of Anhydroicaritin Glycosides Using ESI-FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to determine the structures of anhydroicaritin glycosides by the MS/MS experiments of anhydroicaritin glycosides and their methylated derivatives. With high accuracy FT-ICR-MS provides much information about the structures of compounds, FT-ICR-MS shows the great potential application in the structural characterization of unknown compounds.

  5. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometry: Theory and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Eugene N; Kostyukevich, Yury I; Vladimirov, Gleb N

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometer offers highest resolving power and mass accuracy among all types of mass spectrometers. Its unique analytical characteristics made FT ICR important tool for proteomics, metabolomics, petroleomics, and investigation of complex mixtures. Signal acquisition in FT ICR MS takes long time (up to minutes). During this time ion-ion interaction considerably affects ion motion and result in decreasing of the resolving power. Understanding of those effects required complicated theory and supercomputer simulations but culminated in the invention of the ion trap with dynamic harmonization which demonstrated the highest resolving power ever achieved. In this review we summarize latest achievements in theory and simulation of FT ICR mass spectrometers.

  6. Developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Islam, Annana; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of heavy and unconventional crude oil as an energy source, there is a growing need for petroleomics: the pursuit of more complete and detailed knowledge of the chemical compositions of crude oil. Crude oil has an extremely complex nature; hence, techniques with ultra-high resolving capabilities, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), are necessary. FT-ICR MS has been successfully applied to the study of heavy and unconventional crude oils such as bitumen and shale oil. However, the analysis of crude oil with FT-ICR MS is not trivial, and it has pushed analysis to the limits of instrumental and methodological capabilities. For example, high-resolution mass spectra of crude oils may contain over 100,000 peaks that require interpretation. To visualize large data sets more effectively, data processing methods such as Kendrick mass defect analysis and statistical analyses have been developed. The successful application of FT-ICR MS to the study of crude oil has been critically dependent on key developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation and data processing methods. This review offers an introduction to the basic principles, FT-ICR MS instrumentation development, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics and is intended for readers having no prior experience in this field of study.

  7. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Fourier Transform–Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) Mass Spectrometry: Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-02-16

    We revisited the implementation of UVPD within the ICR cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer. UVPD performance characteristics were examined in the context of recent developments in the understanding of UVPD and in-cell tandem mass spectrometry. Efficient UVPD and photo-ECD of a model peptide and small protein within the ICR cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer are accomplished through appropriate modulation of laser pulse timing relative to ion magnetron motion and the potential applied to an ion optical element that photons impinge on. It is shown that UVPD yields efficient and extensive fragmentation resulting in excellent sequence coverage for model peptide and protein cations.

  8. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) Mass Spectrometry: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jared B; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-15

    We revisited the implementation of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) within the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. UVPD performance characteristics were examined in the context of recent developments in the understanding of UVPD and in-cell tandem mass spectrometry. Efficient UVPD and photo-ECD of a model peptide and proteins within the ICR cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer are accomplished through appropriate modulation of laser pulse timing, relative to ion magnetron motion and the potential applied to an ion optical element upon which photons impinge. It is shown that UVPD yields efficient and extensive fragmentation, resulting in excellent sequence coverage for model peptide and protein cations.

  9. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  10. Chemical characterization of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kill, Jade B; Oliveira, Izabela F; Tose, Lilian V; Costa, Helber B; Kuster, Ricardo M; Machado, Leandro F; Correia, Radigya M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Vasconcellos, Géssica A; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-09-01

    The synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) represent the most recent advent of the new psychotropic substances (NPS) and has become popularly known to mitigate the effects of the Δ(9)-THC. The SCs are dissolved in organic solvents and sprayed in a dry herbal blend. However, little information is reported on active ingredients of SCs as well as the excipients or diluents added to the herbal blend. In this work, the direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry technique (ESI-FT-ICR MS) was applied to explore the chemical composition of nine samples of herbal extract blends, where a total of 11 SCs (UR-144, JWH-073, XLR-11, JWH-250, JWH-122, AM-2201, AKB48, JWH-210, JWH-081, MAM-2201 and 5F-AKB48) were identified in the positive ionization mode, ESI(+), and other 44 chemical species (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sugars, flavonoids, etc.) were detected in the negative ionization mode, ESI(-). Additionally, CID experiments were performed, and fragmentation pathways were proposed to identify the connectivity of SCs. Thus, the direct infusion ESI-FT-ICR MS technique is a powerful tool in forensic chemistry that enables the rapid and unequivocal way for the determination of molecular formula, the degree of unsaturation (DBE-double bond equivalent) and exact mass (<1ppm) of a total of 55 chemical species without the prior separation step.

  11. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

  12. Tracking Catalytic Esterification of Naphthenic Acids in Crude Oil by ESI FT-ICR MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaohui; Wu Bencheng; Zhu Jianhua; Tao Xiujuan

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic esterification reaction was used to decrease total acid number (TAN) of crude oil by converting naphthenic acids to naphthenic acid esters in the presence of Zn-Al hydrotalcite used as the catalyst and glycol used as the reactant. The crude oil and its corresponding esterified oil were characterized by the negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Six acidic class species, O2, O1, N1, N2, N1O1 and N1O2 were assigned in the negative-ion spectrum both in the crude oil and its esterified oil. Among the identified acidic compounds, the O2 class was dominant. The relative abundance of O2 class species was much higher than other acidic class species in crude oil, while it was significantly decreased after esterification. The most abundant O2 class species had a car-bon number of 30-34 and a double-bond equivalence (DBE) value of 5 before and after esterification. It could be concluded that the naphthenic acids in crude oil can be esterified to lower its TAN value, and each of them seems to exhibit identical esterification efficiency approximately due to the similar DBE versus the -carbon number distribution before and after es-terification.

  13. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  14. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  15. Studies on Triterpenoids and Flavones in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. By HPLC-ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangyu; LI Huilin; SONG Fengrui; LIU Chunming; LIU Zhiqiang; LIU Shuying

    2009-01-01

    Seven compounds, four flavones and three triterpenoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Extract are identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn). The fragmentation pathways of these compounds are investigated by ESI-MSn and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MSn). Comparing the reten-tion times (tR) and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, seven components are identified in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. And their MSn data proposed plausible schemes for their fragmentation. All the experimental results show that ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn are powerful tools for the structural characterization of triterpenoids and fla-vones.

  16. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Suha Jabaji

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The develop...

  17. Distributed computing strategies for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets for continuous mode data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F; Schulz, Carl; Konijnenburg, Marco; Kilic, Mehmet; Heeren, Ron M A

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry imaging enables the spatial mapping and identification of biomolecules from complex surfaces. The need for long time-domain transients, and thus large raw file sizes, results in a large amount of raw data ("big data") that must be processed efficiently and rapidly. This can be compounded by large-area imaging and/or high spatial resolution imaging. For FT-ICR, data processing and data reduction must not compromise the high mass resolution afforded by the mass spectrometer. The continuous mode "Mosaic Datacube" approach allows high mass resolution visualization (0.001 Da) of mass spectrometry imaging data, but requires additional processing as compared to feature-based processing. We describe the use of distributed computing for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets with generation of continuous mode Mosaic Datacubes for high mass resolution visualization. An eight-fold improvement in processing time is demonstrated using a Dutch nationally available cloud service.

  18. Distributed computing strategies for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets for continuous mode data visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Schulz, Carl; Konijnenburg, Marco; Kilic, Mehmet; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry imaging enables the spatial mapping and identification of biomolecules from complex surfaces. The need for long time-domain transients, and thus large raw file sizes, results in a large amount of raw data (“big data”) that must be processed efficiently and rapidly. This can be compounded by largearea imaging and/or high spatial resolution imaging. For FT-ICR, data processing and data reduction must not compromise the high mass resolution afforded by the mass spectrometer. The continuous mode “Mosaic Datacube” approach allows high mass resolution visualization (0.001 Da) of mass spectrometry imaging data, but requires additional processing as compared to featurebased processing. We describe the use of distributed computing for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets with generation of continuous mode Mosaic Datacubes for high mass resolution visualization. An eight-fold improvement in processing time is demonstrated using a Dutch nationally available cloud service.

  19. High field FT-ICR mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of snow board from Moscow regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Dmitry M; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polyakova, Olga V; Lebedev, Albert T

    2016-07-01

    High field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry analysis of eight snow samples from Moscow city allowed us to identify more than 2000 various elemental compositions corresponding to regional air pollutants. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data showed good concordance of three main groups of samples with the main wind directions. The North-West group (A1) is represented by several homologous CHOS series of aliphatic organic aerosols. They may form as a result of enhanced photochemical reactions including oxidation of hydrocarbons with sulfonations due to higher amount of SO2 emissions in the atmosphere in this region. Group A2, corresponding to the South-East part of Moscow, contains large amount of oxidized hydrocarbons of different sources that may form during oxidation in atmosphere. These hydrocarbons appear correlated to emissions from traffic, neighboring oil refinery, and power plants. Another family of compounds specific for this region involves CHNO substances formed during oxidation processes including NOx and NO3 radical since emissions of NOx are higher in this part of the city. Group A3 is rich in CHO type of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios, which is characteristic of oxidized hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. CHNO types of compounds in A3 group are probably nitro derivatives of condensed hydrocarbons such as PAH. This non-targeted profiling revealed site specific distribution of pollutants and gives a chance to develop new strategies in air quality control and further studies of Moscow environment.

  20. TG/DTG, FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry, and NMR Spectroscopy Study of Heavy Fuel Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in the comprehensive study of heavy fuel oil (HFO) due to its growing use in furnaces, boilers, marines, and recently in gas turbines. In this work, the thermal combustion characteristics and chemical composition of HFO were investigated using a range of techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to study the nonisothermal HFO combustion behavior. Chemical characterization of HFO was accomplished using various standard methods in addition to direct infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APCI-FTICR MS), high resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectroscopy. By analyzing thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) results, three different reaction regions were identified in the combustion of HFO with air, specifically, low temperature oxidation region (LTO), fuel deposition (FD), and high temperature oxidation (HTO) region. At the high end of the LTO region, a mass transfer resistance (skin effect) was evident. Kinetic analysis in LTO and HTO regions was conducted using two different kinetic models to calculate the apparent activation energy. In both models, HTO activation energies are higher than those for LTO. The FT-ICR MS technique resolved thousands of aromatic and sulfur containing compounds in the HFO sample and provided compositional details for individual molecules of three major class species. The major classes of compounds included species with one sulfur atom (S1), with two sulfur atoms (S2), and purely hydrocarbons (HC). The DBE (double bond equivalent) abundance plots established for S1 and HC provided additional information on their distributions in the HFO sample. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results revealed that nearly 59% of the 1H nuclei were distributed as paraffinic CH2 and 5% were in aromatic groups. Nearly 21% of 13C nuclei were

  1. Gas Chromatography Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry for Improvement of Data Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemer, Theo; Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) offers the advantage of molecular ion information with low fragmentation. Hyphenating APCI to gas chromatography (GC) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables an improved characterization of complex mixtures. Data amounts acquired by this system are very huge, and existing peak picking algorithms are usually extremely time-consuming, if both gas chromatographic and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric data are concerned. Therefore, automatic routines are developed that are capable of handling these data sets and further allow the identification and removal of known ionization artifacts (e.g., water- and oxygen-adducts, demethylation, dehydrogenation, and decarboxylation). Furthermore, the data quality is enhanced by the prediction of an estimated retention index, which is calculated simply from exact mass data combined with a double bond equivalent correction. This retention index is used to identify mismatched elemental compositions. The approach was successfully tested for analysis of semivolatile components in heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel as well as primary combustion particles emitted by a ship diesel research engine. As a result, 10-28% of the detected compounds, mainly low abundant species, classically assigned by using only the mass spectrometric information, were identified as not valid and removed. Although GC separation is limited by the slow acquisition rate of the FT-ICR MS (information.

  2. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  3. Size distributions and geometries of alkali halide nanoclusters probed using ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and quantum chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, K.; Sadjadi, S.; Seward, T.

    2010-12-01

    The structures and energetic properties of ionic alkali metal halide clusters play a significant role in our understanding of aqueous geochemical processes such as salt dissolution, precipitation and neutralization reactions. Mass spectrometric and quantum chemical studies of such systems offer new opportunities to study the size-dependent evolution of cluster structures, the occurrence of magic number species as well as their fundamental properties. The work here presents new results for the stability, abundance and structure of pure [Na(NaClm)]+ , [K(KCl)m]+ and mixed [Na(NaCl)p(KCl)q]+ metal halide clusters with mQB3 and G4 methods and comment on the onset of the doubly charged cluster series. FT-ICR mass spectra for [Na(NaCl)n]+ clusters generated from 1mM NaCl in 20%H2O 80% acetonitrile in positive ion mode.

  4. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  5. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS. Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50–500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only, sulfur (S containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter.

  6. Comparison of collision-induced dissociation and electron-induced dissociation of phillyrin using FT-ICR MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenguang; Lin, Zhiwei; Mu, Yingdi; Yan, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry using collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) at high mass resolution was first applied to investigate the characteristic fragment ions of phillyrin. The CID experimental results demonstrated the elemental composition of fragment ions unambiguously, so a reasonable fragmentation pathway of phillyrin was proposed. The ECD fragmentation mechanism was believed to be fundamentally different from the CID method. ECD could be used not only in the biological field but also as a powerful complement to the structural identification of small molecular compounds. The characteristic fragmentation pathways were helpful in analyzing and interpreting the stability and property of the parent ion. The ESI FT-ICR MS using CID and ECD methods was applied to investigate the characteristic fragment ions of Phillyrin for the first time. The fragmentation process of phillyrin which formation of the peroxide bond by CID, was discussed in detail. These characteristic fragmentation pathways were helpful to analyze and interpret the stability and property of the parent ion. It was clearly demonstrated that ECD can be not only used to Biological field but also a powerful complement to the structure identification of small molecules.

  7. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Creissen, Alain V.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-07

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it had many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices one could employ in their studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus Subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  8. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, K. E.; Turpin, B. J.; Seitzinger, S. P.

    2009-04-01

    Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50-500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO) only, sulfur (S) containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N) containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter.

  9. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolić, Nikola; Creissen, Alain; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it has many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices that could be employed in studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied, and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  10. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  11. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  12. High-field FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach for structural identification of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harir, Mourad; Yassine, Mahmoud M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large and often dominant fraction, (20 to 90%) of the submicron atmospheric particulate mass, and its effects are becoming increasingly important in determining climatic and health effects of atmospheric aerosols. Despite the abundance of OA, our understanding of the sources, formation processes and atmospheric properties of OA is limited. Atmospheric OA has both primary (directly emitted) and secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor gases) sources, which can be natural (e.g. vegetation) and/or anthropogenic (e.g. fossil-based vehicle exhaust or biomass burning). A significant fraction of OA contains as much as 20-70% of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC). The WSOC fraction is a very complex mixture of low volatility, polyfunctional aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing carboxyl, alcohol, carbonyl, sulfo, nitro, and other functionalities. This high degree of chemical complexity of atmospheric organics has inspired a number of sophisticated approaches that are capable of identifying and detecting a variety of different analytes in OA. Accordingly, one of the most challenging areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) analysis is to comprehend the molecular complexity of the OA, especially WSOC fraction, a significant component of atmospheric fine PM (PM2.5). The sources of WSOC are not well understood, especially the relative contributions of primary vs. secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, the molecular characterization of WSOC is important because it allows gaining insight into aerosol sources and underlying mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and transformation. In this abstract, molecular characterization of WSOC was achieved using high-field mass spectrometry FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach. Aromaticity equivalent (Xc), defined recently as a new parameter calculated from the assigned molecular formulas (complementary to the aromaticity index [1]), is introduced to improve

  13. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    Full Text Available The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR and hypersensitive reaction (HR such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction oil and hydrotreated product from pine feedstock characterized by heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Cort, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  15. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Laserspray and Matrix-Assisted Ionization Inlet Coupled to High-Field FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry for Peptide and Protein Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyadong, Leonard; Inutan, Ellen D.; Wang, Xu; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Trimpin, Sarah; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first coupling of laser spray ionization inlet (LSII) and matrix assisted ionization inlet (MAII) to high-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for generation of electrospray-like ions to take advantage of increased sensitivity, mass range, and mass resolving power afforded by multiple charging. We apply the technique to top-down protein analysis and characterization of metalloproteins. We also present a novel method for generation of multiply-charged copper-peptide complexes with varying degrees of copper adduction by LSII. We show an application of the generated copper-peptide complexes for protein charge state and molecular weight determination, particularly useful for an instrument such as a linear ion trap mass analyzer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  18. The comparison of naturally weathered oil and artificially photo-degraded oil at the molecular level by a combination of SARA fractionation and FT-ICR MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Ananna; Cho, Yunju [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon [Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 656-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Division of Mass Spectrometry Research and Center for Analytical Research in Disease Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang 863-883 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan, E-mail: sunghwank@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mass Spectrometry Research and Center for Analytical Research in Disease Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang 863-883 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Weathered oils from the Hebei Spirit oil spill and photo degraded oils are compared. • We investigate changes of polar species at the molecular level by 15T FT-ICR MS. • Significant reduction of sulfur class compounds in saturates fraction is observed. • The relative abundance of protonated compounds (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increase after degradation. • Changes of polar compounds occurred by natural and photo degradation are similar. -- Abstract: Two sets of oil samples, one obtained from different weathering stages of the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill site and the other prepared by an in vitro photo-degradation experiment, were analyzed and compared at the molecular level by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). For a more detailed comparison at the molecular level, the oil samples were separated into saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene (SARA) fractions before MS analysis. Gravimetric analysis of the SARA fractions revealed a decreased weight percentage of the aromatic fraction and an increased resin fraction in both sets of samples. Molecular-level investigations of the SARA fractions showed a significant reduction in the S{sub 1} class in the saturate fraction and increase of S{sub 1}O{sub 1} class compounds with high DBE values in resin fraction. Levels of N{sub 1} and N{sub 1}O{sub 1} class compounds resulting in protonated ions (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increased after degradation compared to compounds generating molecular ions (presumably non-basic nitrogen compounds). This study revealed changes occurring in heteroatom polar species of crude oils such as sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds that have not been easily detected with conventional GC based techniques.

  19. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of ...

  20. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  1. 4 Years after the Deepwater Horizon Spill: Molecular Transformation of Macondo Well Oil in Louisiana Salt Marsh Sediments Revealed by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Hou, Aixin; Corilo, Yuri E; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Jie; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Zhang, Rui; Rodgers, Ryan P; McKenna, Amy M

    2016-09-06

    Gulf of Mexico saltmarsh sediments were heavily impacted by Macondo well oil (MWO) released from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Detailed molecular-level characterization of sediment extracts collected over 48 months post-spill highlights the chemical complexity of highly polar, oxygen-containing compounds that remain environmentally persistent. Electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), combined with chromatographic prefractionation, correlates bulk chemical properties to elemental compositions of oil-transformation products as a function of time. Carboxylic acid incorporation into parent MWO hydrocarbons detected in sediment extracts (corrected for mass loss relative to C30 hopane) proceeds with an increase of ∼3-fold in O2 species after 9 months to a maximum of a ∼5.5-fold increase after 36 months, compared to the parent MWO. More importantly, higher-order oxygenated compounds (O4-O6) not detected in the parent MWO increase in relative abundance with time as lower-order oxygenated species are transformed into highly polar, oxygen-containing compounds (Ox, where x > 3). Here, we present the first molecular-level characterization of temporal compositional changes that occur in Deepwater Horizon derived oil contamination deposited in a saltmarsh ecosystem from 9 to 48 months post-spill and identify highly oxidized Macondo well oil compounds that are not detectable by routine gas-chromatography-based techniques.

  2. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  3. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Liu

    Full Text Available Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF, which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF, which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O to carbon ratios (NSO:C than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  4. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  5. Study of double bond equivalents and the numbers of carbon and oxygen atom distribution of dissolved organic matter with negative-mode FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, EunJung; Yeo, In Joon; Jeong, Byungkwan; Shin, Yongsik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2011-06-01

    A strong linear relationship was observed between the average double bond equivalence (DBE) and the ratio of carbon to oxygen atoms in oxygenated compounds of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Data were acquired by a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS), equipped with a negative-mode electrospray ionization source. The slope and y-intercepts extracted from the linear relationship can be used to compare DOM samples originating from different locations. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between inland riverine and offshore coastal DOM samples. Offshore coastal DOM molecules underwent a change of one DBE for each removal or addition of two oxygen atoms. This suggested the existence of multiple carboxyl groups, each of which contains a double bond and two oxygen atoms. Inland riverine samples exhibited a change of ~1.5 DBE following the addition or removal of two oxygen atoms. This extra change in DBE was attributed to cyclic structures or unsaturated chemical bonds. The DBE value with maximum relative abundance and the minimum DBE value for each class of oxygenated compounds showed that approximately two oxygen atoms contributed to a unity change in DBE. The qualitative analyses given here are in a good agreement with results obtained from analyses using orthogonal analytical techniques. This study demonstrates that DBE and the carbon number distribution, observed by high resolution mass spectrometry, can be valuable in elucidating and comparing structural features of oxygenated molecules of DOM.

  6. Broad-Band Molecular Polarization in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Shapiro, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present novel calculations of broad-band polarization due to the molecular Paschen--Back effect in a strong magnetic field. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G 99-37 which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations for the CH bands at 4300 Å, we deduce a magnetic field of 8 MG on this unique magnetic white dwarf.

  7. Changes of Petroleum Acid Distribution Characterized by FT-ICR MS in Heavy Acidic Crude Oil after True Boiling Point Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingrong; Zhang Qundan; Wang Wei; Liu Zelong; Zhu Xinyi; Tian Songbai

    2014-01-01

    The molecular transformations of carboxylic acids in heavy acidic SL crude before and after true boiling point distillation were examined by ultra-high resolution negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclo-tron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The acid class (heteroatom number), type (z numbers) and carbon number distributions were positively characterized. It was found out that the total acid number (TAN) of SL crude decreased after true boiling point distillation, and the abundance of O2 class in mass spectra was also found to be reduced from 67.6%to 34.5%in SL TBP mixed crude as measured by MS spectra, indicating to a potential carboxylic acid decomposition. However, it was interesting that the carboxylic acids type distribution in both oils was almost the same although their relative abundance in SL TBP mixed crude turned to be much lower, suggesting that various petroleum carboxylic acid types have the similar thermal decomposition reaction behavior. Furthermore, for each O2 type of acids in SL TBP mixed crude, the abundance of carboxylic acids with carbon number higher than 35 was reduced greatly, especially for those with carbon number higher than 60, the mass peaks of which were nearly totally removed, indicating that the large carboxylic acid molecules in heavy fractions decomposed more signiifcantly because of longer heating time during the true boiling point distillation process. As a result, the reduction of TAN may be caused by the thermal decomposition of carboxylic acids especially those with high carbon number, suggesting that quick distillation or much lower pressure is required to avoid the thermal decomposition.

  8. Broad-band photometric evolution of star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Leo

    2001-01-01

    I briefly introduce a database of models that describe the evolution of star clusters in several broad-band photometric systems. Models are based on the latest Padova stellar evolutionary tracks - now including the alpha-enhanced case and improved AGB models - and a revised library of synthetic spectra from model atmospheres. As of today, we have revised isochrones in Johnson-Cousins-Glass, HST/WFPC2, HST/NICMOS, Thuan-Gunn, and Washington systems. Several other filter sets are included in a ...

  9. Broad Band Photometric Reverberation Mapping of NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Haim; Chelouche, Doron; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    We present results of broad band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M$_{\\rm BH}$), in the nearby, low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1m telescope equipped with the SDSS g$'$, r$'$ and i$'$ broad band filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for 9 consecutive nights and obtained 3 light curves each with over 250 data points. The g$'$ and r$'$ bands include time variable contributions from H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ (respectively) plus continuum. The i$'$ band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M$_{\\rm BH}$. We measure the time lag for H$\\alpha$ to be $3.6 \\pm 0.8 $ hours, comparable to previous studies using the line resolved spectroscopic RM method. W...

  10. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and experimentally study a wire medium prism as an imaging device at THz frequencies. We characterize the transmission of the image of two sub-wavelength apertures, observing that our device is capable of resolving the apertures and producing a two-fold magnified image at the output. The hyperlens shows strong frequency dependent artefacts, a priori limiting the use of the device for broad-band imaging. We identify the main source of image aberration as the reflections supported by the wire medium and also show that even the weaker reflections severely affect the imaging quality. In order to correct for the reflections, we devise a filtering technique equivalent to spatially variable time gating so that ultra-broad band imaging is achieved.

  11. Broad band invisibility cloak made of normal dielectric multilayer

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiaofei; Xiong, Shuai; Fan, Jinlong; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Jiang, Tian

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and performance test of a quasi three-dimensional carpet cloak made of normal dielectric in the microwave regime. Taking advantage of a simple linear coordinate transformation we design a carpet cloak with homogeneous anisotropic medium and then practically realize the device with multilayer of alternating normal dielectric slabs based on the effective medium theory. As a proof-of-concept example, we fabricate the carpet cloak with multilayer of FR4 dielectric slabs with air spacing. The performance of the fabricated design is verified through full-wave numerical simulation and measurement of the far-field scattering electromagnetic waves in a microwave anechoic chamber. Experimental results have demonstrated pronounced cloaking effect in a very broad band from 8 GHz to 18 GHz (whole X and Ku band) due to the low loss, non-dispersive feature of the multilayer dielectric structure.

  12. Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter

  13. Fe- and Cu-complex formation with artificial ligands investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS: Implications for natural metal-organic complex studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Waska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has been increasingly used to complement the bulk determination of metal-ligand equilibria, for example via competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV. However, ESI-MS speciation analyses may be impacted by instrumental artefacts such as reduction reactions, fragmentation, and adduct formation at the ESI source, changes in the ionization efficiencies of the detected species in relation to sample matrix, and peak overlaps in response to increasing sample complexity. In our study, equilibria of the known artificial ligands citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN, and salicylaldoxime (SA with iron (Fe and copper (Cu were investigated by ultra-high resolution ESI-MS, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, under a variety of sample matrix and ionization settings. The acquired mass spectra were compared with metal-ligand equilibrium data from the literature as well as an adapted speciation model. Overall, the mass spectra produced representative species mentioned in previous reports and predicted by the speciation calculations, such as Fe(Cit, Cu(Cit2, Fe(EDTA, Cu(EDTA, Fe(NN3, and Cu(SA2. The analyses furthermore revealed new species which had been hypothesized but not measured directly using other methods, for example ternary complexes of citrate with Fe and Cu, Cu(SA monomers, and the dimer Fe(SA2. Finally, parallel measurements of a Cu+SA calibration series and a Cu+SA+EDTA competition series indicated that FT-ICR-MS can produce linear responses and low detection limits analogous to those of ACSV. We propose that ultra-high resolution FT-ICR-MS can be used as a representative tool to study interactions of trace metals with artificial as well as natural, unknown ligands at the molecular level.

  14. Broad-band study with Suzaku of the magnetar class

    CERN Document Server

    Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Rea, Nanda; Hurley, Kevein; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band (0.8-70 keV) spectra of the persistent X-ray emission from 9 magnetars were obtained with Suzaku, including 3 objects in apparent outburst. The soft X-ray component was detected from all of them, with a typical blackbody temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV, while the hard-tail component, dominating above ~10 keV, was detected at ~1 mCrab intensity from 7 of them. Therefore, the spectrum composed of a soft emission and a hard-tail component may be considered to be a common property of magnetars, both in their active and quiescent states. Wide-band spectral analyses revealed that the hard-tail component has a 1-60 keV flux, Fh, comparable to or even higher than that carried by the 1-60 keV soft component, Fs. The hardness ratio of these objects, defined as xi=Fh/Fs, was found to be tightly anti-correlated with their characteristic age tau as xi=(3.3+/-0.3)x(tau/1 kyr)^(-0.67+/-0.04) with a correlation coefficient of -0.989, over the range from xi~10 to xi~0.1. Magnetars in outburst states were found to lie o...

  15. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata.

  16. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-03-05

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies.

  17. Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies in Human Serum as a Model for Clinical Monoclonal Gammopathy by Use of 21 Tesla FT-ICR Top-Down and Middle-Down MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lidong; Anderson, Lissa C.; Barnidge, David R.; Murray, David L.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid growth of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), stringent quality control is needed to ensure clinical safety and efficacy. Monoclonal antibody primary sequence and post-translational modifications (PTM) are conventionally analyzed with labor-intensive, bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is limited by incomplete peptide sequence coverage and introduction of artifacts during the lengthy analysis procedure. Here, we describe top-down and middle-down approaches with the advantages of fast sample preparation with minimal artifacts, ultrahigh mass accuracy, and extensive residue cleavages by use of 21 tesla FT-ICR MS/MS. The ultrahigh mass accuracy yields an RMS error of 0.2-0.4 ppm for antibody light chain, heavy chain, heavy chain Fc/2, and Fd subunits. The corresponding sequence coverages are 81%, 38%, 72%, and 65% with MS/MS RMS error 4 ppm. Extension to a monoclonal antibody in human serum as a monoclonal gammopathy model yielded 53% sequence coverage from two nano-LC MS/MS runs. A blind analysis of five therapeutic monoclonal antibodies at clinically relevant concentrations in human serum resulted in correct identification of all five antibodies. Nano-LC 21 T FT-ICR MS/MS provides nonpareil mass resolution, mass accuracy, and sequence coverage for mAbs, and sets a benchmark for MS/MS analysis of multiple mAbs in serum. This is the first time that extensive cleavages for both variable and constant regions have been achieved for mAbs in a human serum background.

  18. The characteristic of power flow in broad band dynamic vibration absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minqing; SHENG Meiping; SUN Jincai; LIU Yi

    2002-01-01

    DVA (dynamic vibration absorber) is good for restrain of the resonance vibration in low frequency, especially under the condition that there are only one mode or two modes in a frequency band. It seems rather difficult to control the resonance vibration of elastic structures in high frequency, since usually there are so many modes in high frequency band. The broad band DVA is brought forward to reduce the resonance vibration of elastic structures. The broad band DVA is designed on the basis of the characteristic of power flow in structure in this paper.The broad band DVA is effective on absorbing the resonance vibration power flow of the mostimportant modes. The ability of absorbing vibration for the broad band DVA is analyzed indetail. The results obtained in this paper provide a basis for the optimization design of thebroad band DVA and the optimization positions on structures.

  19. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  20. Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the simple ratio (SR were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for.

  1. 傅里叶变换离子回旋共振质谱的地球化学意义及其在油气勘探中的应用前景%Geochemical Significance of FT-ICR MS and Its Application in Petroleum Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素梅; 孟祥兵; 张宝收; 张海祖; 潘娜; 史权

    2013-01-01

    Although NSO-compounds occupy only a small portion of crude oil and/or rock extracts, they contain significant geological and geoehemical information. The knowledge of NSO-compounds composition was limited by the compositional complexity and the limitations of separation technique. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) is a recently developed powerful technique for charactering NSO-compounds especially those with high molecular weight in petroleum. ESI FT-ICR MS has been used for petroleum geology application based on its ultra high resolving power and mass accuracy. According to the investigations of the marine and terrestrial oil samples from the Tarim Basin and the Liaohe Western Depression, respectively, as well as other previous works, it has been showed that the FT-ICR MS technique is applicable in multiple geoehemical aspects, such as source rock and relevant hydrocarbons determination, maturity level estimation, hydrocarbons migration tracing, and thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) identification and/or evaluation. FT-ICR MS is significant in both the compositional charactera-zation of the NSO-compounds and the application in petroleum exploration.%NSO杂原子化合物在烃源岩和原油中通常只占很小的一部分,但其包含重要的地质地球化学信息.由于组成复杂且难以分离,对该类化合物的组成研究相对薄弱.电喷雾电离源(ESI)结合傅里叶变换离子回旋共振质谱(FT-ICR MS)是一种新型检测石油组分的手段,具有选择性电离、超高质谱分辨率和质量精度等特征,非常适合检测石油复杂基质中微量NSO极性杂原子化合物分子组成,近年来开始应用于油气勘探领域.结合对塔里木盆地海相油与陆相油、辽河稠油等样品的FT-ICR MS分析,发现原油中NSO化合物受母源岩与油气成因类型、成熟度、油气运移示踪及硫酸盐热化学还原反应(TSR)

  2. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao-Jing Zhang; Jing-Ming Bai; Yu-Ying Bao; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    BL Lacertae is one of the famous AGN that shows convincing evidence to support periodic variability. We compile R-band data and radio 22 GHz database from the available literature to build the light curves and to calculate broad-band spectral indices. This paper employs the wavelet periodic estimation method. The analysis results indicate that the most possible period is 7.02–7.36 yr in the selected wave-bands. The broad-band spectral indices have a possible period of 4.11 yr as a half value in selected wave-bands. The results confirm that the variability period in the radio 22 GHz is in agreement with the optical R band of about 7.01 yr, as also mentioned in other literatures.

  3. Cavity Enhanced Optical Vernier Spectroscopy, Broad Band, High Resolution, High Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Gohle, Christoph; Schliesser, Albert; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digits accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broad band optical resonator and a resolution that is only limited by the frequency comb line width while keeping the required setup simple.

  4. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(convolution in Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Thielen

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute. This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only.

  5. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  6. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible-NIR unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than approx. 30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting t...

  7. The broad-band radio spectrum of LSI+61303 in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, L; Massi, M

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to explore the broad-band radio continuum spectrum of LSI+61303 during its outbursts by employing the available set of secondary focus receivers of the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. Methods: The clear periodicity of the system LSI+61303 allowed observations to be scheduled covering the large radio outburst in March-April 2012. We observed LSI+61303 on 14 consecutive days at 2.6, 4.85, 8.35, 10.45, 14.3, 23, and 32 GHz with a cadence of about 12 hours followed by two additional observations several days later. Based on these observations we obtained a total of 24 quasi-simultaneous broad-band radio spectra. Results: During onset, the main flare shows an almost flat broad-band spectrum, most prominently seen on March 27, 2012, where - for the first time - a flat spectrum (alpha=0.00+/-0.07, S nu^alpha) is observed up to 32 GHz (9 mm wavelength). The flare decay phase shows superimposed 'sub-flares' with the spectral index oscillating between -0.4 and -0.1 in a quasi-regular fashion. Finally, the ...

  8. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    subsequent separation into asphaltenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, neutral nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen (NSO) compounds and carboxylic acids. The asphaltene fractions are analysed using pyrolysis-GC, all other fractions are analysed by GC-MS. Additionally Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is used to study the chemical composition of the samples on the molecular level using different ionisation methods.

  9. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  10. Broad-band X-ray observations of CIR X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Skinner, G.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Aref'ev, V. A.; Efremov, V. V.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1995-08-01

    We present broad-band (2-88 keV) X-ray observations of the X-ray binary Cir X-1 with the TTM and HEXE instruments on board of the Mir space station. The observations were made in January/February 1989. The spectrum is best described by a model with 3 components: a blackbody at low energies, an iron line and a Comptonized hard continuum. The spectrum is variable during our observations; when the Comptonized component becomes harder, the spectrum becomes softer below 15 keV. The high-energy spectrum resembles that of X-ray binary pulsars.

  11. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  12. Suzaku broad band observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk 509 and Mrk 841

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Boisson, C; Costantini, E; Longinotti, A L; Matt, G; Mouchet, M; Petrucci, P O

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis and modelling of new Suzaku observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk509 and Mrk841, taken between April and November 2006, for Mrk509, and January and July 2007, for Mrk841, for a total exposure time of ~100 ks each. Data from XIS and HXD/PIN instruments, going from 0.5 to 60 keV, represent the best resolution simultaneous broad band X-ray spectrum for these objects. We fitted the broad band spectrum of both sources with a double Comptonisation model, adding a neutral reflection from distant material and a two-phase warm absorber. We then studied the two competitive models aimed to explain the soft excess with atomic processes: a blurred ionised disc reflection and an ionised absorption by a high velocity material. When fitting the data in the 3-10 keV range with a power law spectrum, and extrapolating this result to low energies, a soft excess is clearly observed below 2 keV: its strength is however weak compared to past observations of both sources. A moderate hard excess is seen at ...

  13. Unveiling the broad band X-ray continuum and iron line complex in Mkr 841

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O; Matt, G; Longinotti, A L; Malzac, J; Mouchet, M; Boisson, C; Maraschi, L; Nandra, K; Ferrando, P

    2007-01-01

    Mkr 841 is a bright Seyfert 1 galaxy known to harbor a strong soft excess and a variable K$\\alpha$ iron line. It has been observed during 3 different periods by XMM for a total cumulated exposure time of $\\sim$108 ks. We present in this paper a broad band spectral analysis of the complete EPIC-pn data sets. We were able to test two different models for the soft excess, a relativistically blurred photoionized reflection (\\r model) and a relativistically smeared ionized absorption (\\a model). The continuum is modeled by a simple cut-off power law and we also add a neutral reflection. These observations reveal the extreme and puzzling spectral and temporal behaviors of the soft excess and iron line. The 0.5-3 keV soft X-ray flux decreases by a factor 3 between 2001 and 2005 and the line shape appears to be a mixture of broad and narrow components. We succeed in describing this complex broad-band 0.5-10 keV spectral variability using either \\r or \\a to fit the soft excess. Both models give statistically equivalen...

  14. A Successful Broad-band Survey for Giant Lya Nebulae II: Spectroscopic Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Jannuzi, Buell T

    2012-01-01

    Using a systematic broad-band search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Lya nebulae (or Lya "blobs") at 2broad-band imaging to search for the bright e...

  15. Efficient photon extraction from a quantum dot in a broad-band planar cavity antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yong, E-mail: y.ma@hw.ac.uk; Kremer, Peter E.; Gerardot, Brian D., E-mail: B.D.Gerardot@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-14

    We analyse the extraction of photons emitted from single InAs quantum dots embedded in planar microcavities. The structures are designed to achieve broad-band operation and high-collection efficiency from a device requiring straightforward fabrication, even with electrical contacts. The designs consist of a quantum dot in a GaAs membrane with asymmetric top and bottom mirrors and a top-side solid immersion lens (SIL). Four separate cases are considered in our design: a GaAs membrane only (case 1), GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top (case 2), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top and a back mirror consisting of Au (case 3), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top of a distribute Bragg reflector mirror and Au back mirror (case 4). Both finite difference time domain and analytical simulations are used to calculate the electric field, power density, and far-field radiation pattern. For optimized structures (case 4), we obtain significant extraction efficiencies (>50%) with modest Purcell enhancements (∼20%) and a large spectral full-width-half-maximum (>100 nm). The high-extraction efficiency, broad-band operation, and facile fabrication make the proposed structures promising for realistic quantum dot devices.

  16. Mapping the Broad-band Spectrum of a New Candidate Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sean

    2014-10-01

    We request joint XMM-Newton & HST observations of a new intermediate mass black hole candidate in the galaxy LEDA 87326 to map the broad-band spectral energy distribution from X-ray to near-IR. Previous observations with the XMM-Newton EPIC and OM cameras detected an X-ray source with an observed 0.2-10 keV luminosity of 6E41 erg/s, with the X-ray spectrum dominated by a hard power law and the UV/optical data consistent with thermal emission from a cool (~0.08 keV) accretion disc. The high X-ray luminosity and low disc temperature imply a black hole mass > 4000 Msun. By observing this source simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the HST we will confirm that the observed optical emission is from an accretion disc and determine whether any reprocessing in the outer disc is present.

  17. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible-NIR unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than approx. 30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be accurately measured with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using UBVRIJHK photometry.

  18. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  20. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with the broad-band X-ray spectroscopy experiment, HEAO 1 A-2, in the energy range 0.4-18 keV for four intervals of approximately 31 s over the course of 5 days in 1977. The spectra can be adequately represented by single-temperature thermal bremmstrahlung continua with temperatures ranging from 3.7 x 10 to the 7th K to 6.4 x 10 to the 7th K. An examination of the spectra and the spectra-luminosity relationship effectively rules out one degenerate dwarf model for the X-ray emission. The far-UV continuum emission could be dominated by this continuum component during X-ray high states, an effect which would be detected in optical UV line observations. A Comptonized X-ray cloud around a neutron star remains a viable model for the observed X-ray spectra.

  1. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  2. 11th International Conference On Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xhafa, Fatos; Yim, Kangbin

    2017-01-01

    The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other in ubiquitous way whenever necessary. The aim of the volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of broadband and wireless computing. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication And Applications (BWCCA-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea. .

  3. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by sampling the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible/near-infrared unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted U BV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than ≈30 Myr, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be measured accurately with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using U BV RI JHK photometry.

  4. Higher degree moment tensor inversion of Mani earthquake using far-field broad- band recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Breakthrough point source model, extended earthquake source model is used to calculate more seismic source parameters in this paper. We express seismic source using higher degree moment tensors, to reduce a large number terms originally presenting in higher degree moment tensor representation, Haskell rupture model is used. We inverted the source parameters of Mani earthquake in Tibet using broad-band body wave of 32 stations of Global Seismograph Network (GSN), the results show that it is a strike-slip fault, rupture direction is 75° , rupture duration is 19 s, the fault plan is f =77° , d =88° , l =0° , the auxiliary plane is f =347° , d =90° , l =178° , and the fault dimension is 47 km′ 28 km. These results will give new quantitative data for earth dynamics and have practical meaning for seismic source tomography research.

  5. Results on the Performance of a Broad Band Focussing Cherenkov Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester, R.; Fitch, V. L.; Montag, A.; Sherman, S.; Webb, R. C.; Witherell, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of ring imaging (broad band differential) Cherenkov detectors has become a very active area of interest in detector development at several high energy physics laboratories. Our group has previously reported on a method of Cherenkov ring imaging for a counter with large momentum and angular acceptance using standard photo multipliers. Recently, we have applied this technique to the design of a set of Cherenkov counters for use in a particle search experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). This new detector operates over the range 0.998 a delta..beta.. approx. 2 x 10{sup -4}. The acceptance in angle is +- 14 mrad in the horizontal and +- 28 mrad in the vertical. We report here on the performance of this counter.

  6. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  7. Broad band X-ray spectrum of KS 1947+300 with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, S; Dotani, T; Paul, B

    2006-01-01

    We present results obtained from three BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered transient X-ray pulsar KS 1947+300 carried out during the declining phase of its 2000 November -- 2001 June outburst. A detailed spectral study of KS 1947+300 across a wide X-ray band (0.1--100.0 keV) is attempted for the first time here. Timing analysis of the data clearly shows a 18.7 s pulsation in the X-ray light curves in the above energy band. The pulse profile of KS 1947+300 is characterized by a broad peak with sharp rise followed by a narrow dip. The dip in the pulse profile shows a very strong energy dependence. Broad-band pulse-phase-averaged spectroscopy obtained with three of the BeppoSAX instruments shows that the energy spectrum in the 0.1--100 keV energy band has three components, a Comptonized component, a ~0.6 keV blackbody component, and a narrow and weak iron emission line at 6.7 keV with a low column density of material in the line of sight. We place an upper limit on the equivalent width of the iron K_\\...

  8. Broad-band polarization in molecular spectra. [Zeeman effect in magnetic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, R. M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rotational lines of the CN(0,0) red system have been observed to show a strongly asymmetric Zeeman profile. Certain molecules are very susceptible to magnetic perturbation because of the weakness of their spin-rotation coupling; a fairly weak magnetic field can cause a complete Paschen-Back effect. The calculation of transition probabilities incorporating this effect into the Hamiltonian is discussed, and the detailed calculation is then given. The resulting transition probabilities are transformed into synthetic line profiles by using the Unno (1956) model of polarized radiation transfer. The dependence of the net polarized flux on magnetic field and equivalent width is investigated. It is shown that entire band systems may be significantly polarized. Broad-band circular polarization of sunspots may be due, in part, to molecular bands. Analysis of the CH G band indicates a magnetic field of 0.25-0.50 x 10 to the 6th gauss in the white dwarf G99-37, an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.

  9. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  10. The impact of JWST broad-band filter choice on photometric redshift estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Colina, L; Fèvre, O Le; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pérez-González, P G; Pye, J; van der Werf, P; Ilbert, O; Grogin, N; Koekemoer, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 {\\mu}m and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at {\\lambda}>5.0 {\\mu}m. In this work we analyse the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broad-band filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at {\\lambda}=10, but the zphot quality significantly degrades at S/N<=5. Adding MIRI photometry with one magnitude brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83-99%, depending on SED type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W]=29 AB mag at z=7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W]<28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  11. Stray light correction and contrast analysis of Hinode broad band images

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, S K; Solanki, S K

    2009-01-01

    The contrasts of features in the quiet Sun are studied using filtergrams recorded by the Broad-band Filter Imager on the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. In a first step, the scattered light originating in the instrument is modeled using Mercury transit data. Combinations of four two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths and weights were employed to retrieve the point-spread functions (PSF) of the instrument at different wavelengths, which also describe instrumental scattered light. The parameters of PSFs at different wavelengths are tabulated. The observed images were then deconvolved using the PSFs. The corrected images were used to obtain contrasts of features such as bright points and granulation in different wavelength bands. After correction, rms contrasts of the granulation of between 0.11 (at 668 nm) and 0.22 (at 388 nm) are obtained. Similarly, bright point contrasts ranging from 0.07 (at 668 nm) to 0.78 (at 388 nm) are found, which are a factor of 1.8 to 2.8 higher than those obtained before PS...

  12. Broad band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 in two spectral states with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Haardt, F; Perola, G C; Chiappetti, L; Cusumano, G; Dal Fiume, D; Del Sordo, S; Orlandini, M; Parmar, A N; Piro, L; Santangelo, A; Segreto, A; Treves, A; Trifoglio, M

    2000-01-01

    We report on the 0.5--200 keV spectral properties of Cyg X-1 observed at different epochs with the Narrow Field Instruments of the BeppoSAX satellite. The source was in its soft state during the first observation of 1996 June. In the second observation of 1996 September, the source had parameters characteristic to its hard state. A soft X-ray excess, a broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line and Compton reflection are clearly detected in both states. The soft-state broad-band continuum is well modeled by a disk blackbody (accounting for the soft excess) and Compton upscattering of the disk photons by a hybrid, thermal/non-thermal, plasma, probably forming a corona above the disk (also giving rise to the Compton-reflection component). In the hard state, the primary hard X-ray spectrum can be well modeled by Compton upscattering of a weak blackbody emission by a thermal plasma at a temperature of $\\sim 60$ keV. The soft excess is then explained by thermal Comptonization of the same blackbody emission by another hot plasma clou...

  13. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  14. Broad Band X-Ray Observations of the Narrow Line X-Ray Galaxy NGC 5506

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T G; Otani, C; Matsuoka, M; Awaki, H

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of broad band X-ray data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC5506. 2-10 keV band are detected during a 1-day ASCA observation, while no significant change in the 2-10 keV continuum shape is found. The ASCA spectrum consists of an absorbed power-law, a 'soft excess' below 2 keV, and an Fe K$\\alpha$ emission line at 6.4 keV. The 'soft excess' can be well described by either thermal emission from very low abundance material at a temperature kT$\\simeq$0.8 keV, or scattered/leaking flux from the primary power-law plus a small amount of thermal emission. Analysis of ROSAT HRI data reveals that the soft X-ray emission is extended on kpc scales in this object, and the extended component may account for most of the soft X-ray excess observed by the ASCA. The result suggests that in this type 2 AGN, the 'soft excess' at least partly comes from an extended region, imposing serious problem for the model in which the source is partially covered. Fe K$\\alpha$ profile is complex and can not be satisfac...

  15. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollefs, K. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Meckenstock, R.; Spoddig, D.; Römer, F. M.; Hassel, Ch.; Schöppner, Ch.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ney, V.; Ney, A., E-mail: andreas.ney@jku.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Halbleiter-und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-06-14

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L{sub 3}-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect.

  16. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250-450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl- negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  18. [Optimization of broad-band flat-field holographic concave grating without astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Li, Wen-hao; Cui, Jin-jiang

    2012-02-01

    The desirable imaging locations of the flat-field holographic concave gratings should be in a plane. And the object can be imaged perfectly by the grating when the tangential focal curve and sagittal focal curve both superpose the intersection of the image plane and dispersion plane. But actually, the defocus can not be eliminated over the entire wavelength range, while the astigmatism vanishes when the grating parameters satisfy some conditions. An optimization method for broad-band flat-field holographic concave gratings with absolute astigmatism correction was proposed. The ray tracing software ZEMAX was used for investigating the imaging properties of the grating. And we made a comparison between spectral performance of gratings designed by this new method and that by conventional method, respectively. The results indicated that the spectral performance of gratings designed by using the absolute astigmatism correction method can be as good as gratings designed with the conventional method. And the focusing performance in the sagittal direction is much better, so that the S/N ratio can be greatly improved.

  19. Synthetic Stellar Photometry. I-General considerations and new transformations for broad-band systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, Luca

    2014-01-01

    After a pedagogical introduction to the main concepts of synthetic photometry, colours and bolometric corrections in the Johnson-Cousins, 2MASS, and HST-ACS/WFC3 photometric systems are generated from MARCS synthetic fluxes for various [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe] combinations, and virtually any value of reddening E(B-V) < 0.7. The successes and failures of model fluxes in reproducing the observed magnitudes are highlighted. Overall, extant synthetic fluxes predict quite realistic broad-band colours and bolometric corrections, especially at optical and longer wavelengths: further improvements of the predictions for the blue and ultraviolet spectral regions await the use of hydrodynamic models where the microturbulent velocity is not treated as a free parameter. We show how the morphology of the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) changes for different values of [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe]; in particular, how suitable colour combinations can easily discriminate between red giant branch and lower main sequence populations wit...

  20. Probing the gamma-ray variability in 3C 279 using broad-band observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lee, S.-S.; Sokolovsky, K.; Kang, S.; Byun, D.-Y.; Mosunova, D.; Zensus, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a broad-band radio-to-GeV observing campaign organized to get a better understanding of the radiation processes responsible for the γ-ray flares observed in 3C 279. The total intensity and polarization observations of the source were carried out between 2013 December 28 and 2014 January 03 using the Fermi-Large Area Telescope, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, and Korean VLBI Network telescopes. A prominent flare observed in the optical/near-UV passbands was found to be correlated with a concurrent γ-ray flare at a confidence level >95 per cent, which suggests a co-spatial origin of the two. Moreover, the flaring activity in the two regimes was accompanied by no significant spectral variations. A peak in the X-ray light curve coincides with the peaks of the fractional polarization curves at 43 and 86 GHz radio bands. No prominent variation was noticed for the total intensity and the electric vector position angle observations at radio bands during this period. We noticed a possible hint of steepening of the radio spectrum with an increase in percentage polarization, which suggests that the radio polarization variations could be simply due to a spectral change. In a simple scenario, the correlated optical/γ-ray flares could be caused by the same population of emitting particles. The coincidence of the increase in radio polarization with the X-ray flux supports the picture that X-rays are produced via inverse-Compton scattering of radio photons. The observed fractional variability for the γ-ray flare ˜0.23 does not exceed that in the optical regime, which is inconsistent with what we usually observe for 3C 279; it could be due to different dependencies of the magnetic field and the external radiation field energy density profiles along the jet.

  1. Properties of Broad Band Continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a statistical study of the properties of the broadband continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by collecting ratio,infrared, optical and X-ray continuum data from various databases and comparedthe results with control samples of Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLSls). We findthat the fraction (~ 6%) of Radio Loud (RL) NLSls is significantly less than thatof BLS1s (~ 13%), which is caused by the lack of radio-very-loud sources in theformer. The rarity of RL NLS1s, especially radio-very-loud ones, is consistent withthe scenario of small black hole and high accretion rate for NLSls. Six new radio loudNLSls are found and five RL NLS1 candidates are presented. In comparison withthe BLS1s, the NLS1s tend to have stronger far infrared emission, cooler infraredcolors and redder B- K color, which suggests that NLS1s are hosted by dust-richernuclei. The NLS1s also show steeper soft X-ray spectrum and large soft X-rayto optical flux ratio, while a significant fraction show fiat soft X-ray spectra. Atleast two factors can account for this, absorption and spectral variability. We alsoperform a correlation analysis between various broad band data. It is found thatmost correlations identified for NLS1s are also valid for radio quiet BLS1s: (1) theoptical colors are anti-correlated with X-ray spectral index; (2) higher optical, X-ray and NIR luminosity objects show bluer optical colors and red H - K color; (3)higher luminosity objects show warmer IRAS color; (4) the radio loudness correlateswith B - K and X-ray to optical flux ratio. Radio loud objects behave somewhatdifferently in a few correlations.

  2. Broad-band colours and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    the observation (and the interpretation) of high-redshift surveys. In addition to broad-band colours, the modelling of Balmer line emission in disc-dominated systems shows that striking emission lines, like Hα, can very effectively track stellar birth rate in a galaxy. For these features to be useful age tracers as well, however, one should first assess the real change of b versus time on the basis of supplementary (and physically independent) arguments.

  3. Uncooled ultrasensitive broad-band solution-processed photodetectors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Sensing from the ultraviolet (UV)-visible to infrared (IR) is critical to environmental monitoring and remote sensing, fibre-optic communication, day and night-time surveillance, and emerging medical imaging modalities. Today, separate sensors or materials are required for different sub-bands within the UV to IR wavelength range. In general, AlGaN, Si, InGaAs and PbS based photodetectors (PDs) are used for the four important sub-bands: 0.25 μm-0.4 μm (UV), 0.45 μm-0.8 μm (visible), 0.9 μm-1.7 μm (near IR), 1.5 μm-2.6 μm (middle IR), respectively. To obtain the desired sensitivity, these detectors must be operated at low temperatures (for example, at 4.2 K). Thus, a "breakthrough" technology would be enabled by a new class of PDs -- PDs that do not require cooling to obtain high detectivity; PDs which are fabricated by solution-processing to enable low-cost multi-color, high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity and high speed response over this broad spectral range. The availability of such PDs for use at room temperature (RT) would offer new and important applications. In this presentation, we would like to share with you how we approach RT operated ultrasensitive broad-band solution-processed PDs. - By developing novel low bandgap semiconducting polymers, we are able to develop RT operated solution-processed polymers PDs with spectral response from 350 nm to 1450 nm, the detectivity over 1013 Jones and linear dynamic range over 100 dB; spectral response from 350 nm to 2500 nm, the detectivity over 1012 Jones; - By using low bandgap semiconducting polymers mixed with high electrical conductivity PbS quantum dots (QDs), inverted polymer hybrid PDs with spectral response from 300 nm to 25000 nm, the detectivity over 1013 Jones and linear dynamic range over 100 dB are realized; - By using novel perovskite hybrid materials incorporated with carbon nanotubes, novel n-type newly developed semiconducting polymers, we are able to realize RT operated solution

  4. Enlarged broad band photodetection using Indium doped TiO{sub 2} alloy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Mondal, Aniruddha, E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Choudhuri, Bijit; Mahajan, Bikram Kishore; Chakrabartty, Shubhro [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Ngangbam, Chitralekha [National Institute of Technology Manipur, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An easy technique has been used to dope Indium (instantaneous source) into TiO{sub 2} TF. • An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed due to doping. • The lattice constant and optical band gap of TiO{sub 2} has increased after In doping. • Enhanced visible light absorption and detection were recorded for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF. • Almost no delay in photo response for In doped photodetector was observed. - Abstract: An instantaneous source of Indium (In) was used to dope the TiO{sub 2} thin film (TF) on the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction depicted the presence of rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}, which shifted to the lower value 61.7 from 61.9 (2θ). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals that the diffusion of Indium ion yield decreases sharply from the surface, as approached toward the TiO{sub 2} TF–Si substrate interface. The bulk diffusion of In into TiO{sub 2} was observed at a depth of 125–200 nm, up to the edge of TiO{sub 2} TF. An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed during annealing process. An average of two fold enhanced photo absorption was recorded for the In doped TiO{sub 2} TF in the 300–350 nm and 450–800 nm regions respectively. The main band gap of In doped TiO{sub 2} was increased to 3.4 eV, whereas the large absorption edge was observed at 3.1 eV. The leakage current (34 nA at −0.5 V) of In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector was significantly reduced. A maximum 2.5 times (−3.5 V) enlarged photodetection has been observed for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF device under white light illumination. The In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector shows the broad band photodetection, with an infinitesimal delay in its photo response time as compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} TF.

  5. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  6. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b: search for a scattering signature in the planetary spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.; Hoyer, S.; Kirk, J.; Wheatley, P. J.; Seeliger, M.; Mackebrandt, F.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Künstler, A.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaitan, J.

    2016-11-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previously published light curves for a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band transmission spectrum from the Sloan u' band to the Sloan z' band. Our results rule out cloud-free planetary atmosphere models of solar metallicity. Furthermore, a discrepancy at reddest wavelengths to previously published results makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes.

  7. Design of an Ultra Broad Band YIG-Tuned FET Oscillator Operating within -45~+65℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an ultra broad band YIG-Tuned FET oscillator is briefly presented. These performances of the superior linearity, the pure spectrum and the ultra broad band tuned oscillation have been realized by a common source circuit topology and a dual coupling YIG resonator. Using a BeO substrate and a buffering amplification stage made up of monolithic MIC traveling wave amplifier, the RF output power has been obtained above 13 dBm in the range from 4 to 16.5 GHz; By means of YIG heater and the temperature compensation of the magnetic circuit, the broad temperature operation performance of YTO has been realized within -45~+65℃.

  8. Large-area broad band saturable Bragg reflectors using oxidized AlAs in the circular and inverted mesa geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabanja, Sheila P.; Kolodziejski, Leslie A.; Petrich, Gale S.; Sander, Michelle Y.; Morse, Jonathan L.; Shtyrkova, Katia; Ippen, Erich P.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2013-04-01

    A semiconductor Saturable Bragg Reflector (SBR) is a mirror structure comprising alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials with an incorporated saturable absorber. SBRs can be used to initiate and sustain ultra-short pulses in various laser systems. In order to form ultra-short pulses, SBRs with high reflectivity over a broad wavelength range are required. Furthermore, large-area SBRs facilitate easy integration in a laser cavity. One of the key elements for the realization of broad band SBRs is the development of the thermal oxidation process that creates buried low-index AlxOy layers over large areas. The design, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of broad band, high index contrast III-V/AlxOy SBRs in the form of circular mesas, as well as inverted mesa structures, is presented.

  9. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b: Search for a scattering signature in the planetary spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Mallonn, M; Herrero, E; Hoyer, S; Kirk, J; Wheatley, P J; Seeliger, M; Mackebrandt, F; von Essen, C; Strassmeier, K G; Granzer, T; Künstler, A; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gaitan, J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-colour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterise the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previously published light curves for a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band transmission spectrum from the Sloan u' band to the Sloan z' band. Our results rule out cloud-free planetary atmosphere models of solar metallicity. Furthermore, a discrepancy at reddest wavelengths to previously published results makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes.

  10. Broad-band Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps (10-150 s) across the United States from ambient noise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaifeng; Luo, Yinhe; Xie, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging broad-band (10-150 s) Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps on a continental scale using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We obtain broad-band Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise data between all station pairs of USArray and measure the dispersion curves from these cross-correlations at a period band of 10-150 s. The large-scale dense USArray enables us to obtain over 500 000 surface wave paths which cover the contiguous United States densely. Using these paths, we generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps at 10-150 s periods. Our phase velocity maps are similar to other reported phase velocity maps based on ambient noise data at short periods (phase velocity maps from ANT can be used to construct 3-D lithospheric and asthenospheric velocity structures.

  11. Frequency-dispersive method for improving broad-band SBS phase conjugation of Cr:LiSAF laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanwen Ge(葛传文); Weijun Zhang(张为俊)

    2003-01-01

    After passing through four dispersive-prisms, the Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser with broad frequency band is focused into carbon disulfide (CS2) to produce backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Our experimental results and illustrative analysis have shown that this frequency-dispersive method can efficiently reduce the broad-band SBS intensity threshold, compress its pulsewidth, and improve the beam quality.

  12. Broad-band modelling of short gamma-ray bursts with energy injection from magnetar spin-down and its implications for radio detectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Gompertz; A.J. van der Horst; P.T. O'Brien; G.A. Wynn; K. Wiersema

    2015-01-01

    The magnetar model has been proposed to explain the apparent energy injection in the X-ray light curves of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), but its implications across the full broad-band spectrum are not well explored. We investigate the broad-band modelling of four SGRBs with evidence for energy in

  13. 石油芳烃组分中未知化合物——三叔丁基苯基磷酸酯的高分辨质谱分析%Identification of Tris(2, 4-di-tert-butylphenyl) Phosphate in Petroleum Aromatics by FT-ICR MS with Multiple Ionization Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚和; 廖晶; 卢鸿; 任丽敏; 郭绍辉; 徐春明; 史权

    2016-01-01

    将大气压光电离(APPI)、电喷雾(ESI)、实时直接分析(DART)多种电离源和傅立叶变换离子回旋共振质谱(FT-ICR MS)联用对石油芳烃样品中的未知化合物进行研究.通过高分辨质谱的精确质量,结合碰撞诱导解离(CAD)技术,经分析并与文献标准物质谱图比对,推断未知物为三(2,4-二-叔丁基苯基)磷酸酯(TDTBPP),并研究了其在不同大气压电离源中的电离特性.APPI谱图中主要为[M+H]+峰,同时存在M+峰.ESI谱图中主要为[M+Na]+(不加甲酸)或[M+NH4]+峰(加甲酸).DART谱图中主要为[M+NH4]+峰,而EI谱图中基峰为m/z 57(叔丁基),次强峰为[M-CH3]+峰.

  14. Effects of broad band electromagnetic fields on HSP70 expression and ischemia-reperfusion in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Raffaella; Marano, Lidia; Braidotti, Paola; Bianciardi, Paola; Calamia, Mario; Fiorentini, Cesare; Samaja, Michele

    2004-09-03

    Although exposure to broad band (0.2-20 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is part of the treatment of several diseases, little is known as to their effects on myocardial protein expression and resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to either high (H, 10 min/day at 200 V/m, 36.1 microT) or low (L, 2 min/day at 30 V/m, 11.4 microT) intensity broad band EMF for 15 days. At the end of the treatment, myocardial HSP70 was 32 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) higher in L (P = 0.01) than in control (C), whereas in H it remained the same as in C. Electron microscopy revealed sporadic ruptures of mitochondrial cristae in H hearts, with no differences in other parameters. Malondialdehyde was increased in treated hearts (P < 0.05), but especially in H (P = 0.008). To assess the protective role of HSP70 during I/R, hearts were Langendorff-perfused with Krebs-Henseleit. After I/R, C hearts displayed depressed rate. pressure (-13 +/- 7%) and increased end-diastolic (+9.2 +/- 2.8 mmHg) and perfusion pressures (+30 +/- 10 mmHg). In H and L, rate. pressure recovery was similar to C (-2 +/- 21% and -12 +/- 16%, respectively, P = NS). In contrast, both end-diastolic and perfusion pressures were higher in L than in H (30.8 +/- 5.4 vs 18.2 +/- 3.5, P = 0.01, and 54 +/- 8 vs 21 +/- 8 mmHg, P = 0.01, respectively) indicating diastolic derangement in L. In conclusion, the effects of broad band EMF on HSP70 appear to be biphasic, and HSP70 overexpression might not be directly related to improved protection against I/R.

  15. A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler utilizing composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HU Li; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler (BLC) utilizing composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines is presented. Two λ/4 segments consisting of CRLH transmission lines are added to each port to broaden the dual bands of the branch-line coupler. Numerical simulation and optimal design of the novel coupler are presented. The dual bands of the novel coupler are tunable and broad. The 1-dB bandwidth of each passband is more than 16% of the central frequency.

  16. Active Noise Control for Narrow-band and Broad-band Signals Using Q-Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raeisy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic noise pollution is one of the serious disasters in the current industrialized life. Though traditional solutions based on noise absorption have many different applications, but these methods have low performance for low frequency noises. Active Noise Control (ANC has been introduced to resolve this problem. In this paper, a new active method is introduced for suppressing acoustic noises based on the reinforcement learning. To achieve this, an algorithm to control periodic noises is suggested. Then, the method is developed further to deal with multi-tonal signals with a large number of harmonics. At the next step, the broad-band signals are considered. The problem is broken into some sub-problems in frequency domain and each is solved via a reinforcement learning approach. In all of the proposed techniques no model for the environment is needed. Combining the reinforcement learning and the traditional methods in ANC for broad-band signals is a new line research considered here. This combination could increase the speed of the response, but some information of the dynamics of the environment is needed. This will cause the system to become compatible with gradual changes of the environment. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. 0.8-5.2GHz Broad-Band SiGe-MMIC Quadrature Mixer for Software Defined Radio Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keishi; Suematsu, Noriharu; Tsutsumi, Koji; Kanazawa, Gakushi; Sekine, Tomotsugu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Isota, Yoji

    For the next generation wireless terminals used in the software defined radio (SDR), multi-band / multi-mode transceivers and their MMIC are required which cover the wide RF frequency range from several hundreds MHz up to several GHz. In this paper, 0.8-5.2GHz broad-band SiGe-MMIC quadrature mixer (Q-MIX) for multi-band / multi-mode direct conversion receiver has been developed. By using a static type frequency divider as a 90 degrees local (LO) power divider, measured error vector magnitude (EVM) of less than 3.1% can be achieved in the cases of 0.8/2.1GHz W-CDMA and 5.2GHz wireless Local Area Network (LAN) (IEEE 802.11a) reception. This Q-MIX also shows broad-band characteristic for base-band signal and is applicable for 4G cellular. By using fabricated Q-MIX, a multi-band / multi-mode (1.9GHz (3rd generation cellular (W-CDMA)) / 5.2GHz (4th generation cellular (Multi-Carrier (MC)-CDMA))) receiver has been developed and it has firstly demonstrated the successful reception of motion picture via W-CDMA and MC-CDMA.

  18. Broad-Band Spectrum of The Black Hole Candidate IGR J17497-2821 Studied with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A; Takahashi, H; Dotani, T; Kohmura, T; Kokubun, M; Rodríguez, J; Ueda, Y; Walter, R; Yamada, S; Yamaoka, K; Yuasa, T

    2008-01-01

    The broad-band 1-300 keV Suzaku spectrum of IGR J17497-2821, the X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL in September 2006, is presented. Suzaku observed IGR J17497-2821 on September 25, eight days after its discovery, for a net exposure of about 53 ksec. During the Suzaku observation, IGR J17497-2821 is very bright, 2 x 10^37 erg/s at 8 kpc in the 1-300 keV range, and shows a hard spectrum, typical of black hole candidates in the low-hard state. Despite the multi-mission X-ray monitoring of the source, only with Suzaku is it possible to obtain a broad-band spectrum in the 1-300 keV range with a very high signal to noise ratio. A sum of a multi-color disc (DISKBB) and a thermal Comptonization component (COMPPS) with mild reflection is a good representation of our IGR J17497-2821 Suzaku spectrum. The spectral properties of the accretion disc as well as the cut-off energy in the spectrum at about 150 keV are clearly detected and constrained. We discuss the implications on the physical model used to interpret the...

  19. An efficient broad-band mid-wave IR fiber optic light source: Design and performance simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barh, A; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P

    2013-01-01

    Design of a mid-wave IR (MWIR) broad-band fiber-based light source exploiting four-wave mixing (FWM) in a meter long suitably designed highly nonlinear (NL) chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF) is reported. This superior FWM bandwidth (BW) was obtained through precise tailoring of the fibers dispersion profile so as to realize positive quartic dispersion at the pump wavelength. We consider an Erbium (Er3+) doped continuous wave (CW) ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 micron as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. Amplification factor as high as 25 dB is achievable in the 3 to 3.9 microns spectral range with average power conversion efficiency more than 32 percent.

  20. Basic system design of a broad-band real-time phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2005-08-01

    The most common wavefront sensor for real-time use in high-order adaptive optics systems is the Shack-Hartmann, in part because it is sensitive to a broad optical band. An alternative possibility is based on Zernike's phase contrast technique. Though quite sensitive in principle, at least for monochromatic light, there had been no simple way to obtain the broadband performance needed for competitive sensitivity in an actual adaptive optics system. Recently, we proposed a general achromatization scheme that relies upon the innate π/2 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in a beam splitter. Here, a more detailed study of this broad-band phase contrast wavefront sensor is presented, along with some practical issues concerning component tolerances. These results offer encouraging indications that broad-wavelength-band implementations will be feasible in practice.

  1. Which are the youngest protostars? Determining properties of confirmed and candidate Class0 sources by broad-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fröbrich, D

    2004-01-01

    We searched the literature to obtain a complete list of known Class0 sources. A list of 95 confirmed or candidate objects was compiled. To the best of our knowledge, all published broad-band observations from 1mu to 3.5mm have been collected and are assembled in a catalogue. These data were used to determine physical properties (T_bol, L_bol, L_smm/L_bol, M_env) and for a uniform classification. 50 sources possess sufficient observational data and are classified as Class0 or Class0/1 objects. The source properties are compared with different evolutionary models to infer ages and masses, and their correlations are investigated. About 25% of the sources are found to be in a quiet accretion phase or possess a significantly different time evolution of the accretion rate than the average. In Taurus, with its isolated star formation mode, this seems especially to be the case.

  2. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  3. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  4. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  5. Broad-band transmission spectrum and K-band thermal emission of WASP-43b as observed from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; van Boekel, R.; Wang, H.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Seemann, U.; Wang, W.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: WASP-43b is the closest-orbiting hot Jupiter, and it has high bulk density. It causes deep eclipse depths in the system's light curve in both transit and occultation that is attributed to the cool temperature and small radius of its host star. We aim to secure a broad-band transmission spectrum and to detect its near-infrared thermal emission in order to characterize its atmosphere. Methods: We observed one transit and one occultation event simultaneously in the g', r', i', z', J, H, K bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope, where the telescope was heavily defocused in staring mode. After modeling the light curves, we derived wavelength-dependent transit depths and flux ratios and compared them to atmospheric models. Results: From the transit event, we have independently derived WASP-43's system parameters with high precision and improved the period to be 0.81347437(13) days based on all the available timings. No significant variation in transit depths is detected, with the largest deviations coming from the i'-, H-, and K-bands. Given the observational uncertainties, the broad-band transmission spectrum can be explained by either (i) a flat featureless straight line that indicates thick clouds; (ii) synthetic spectra with absorption signatures of atomic Na/K, or molecular TiO/VO that in turn indicate cloud-free atmosphere; or (iii) a Rayleigh scattering profile that indicates high-altitude hazes. From the occultation event, we detected planetary dayside thermal emission in the K-band with a flux ratio of 0.197 ± 0.042%, which confirms previous detections obtained in the 2.09 μm narrow band and KS-band. The K-band brightness temperature 1878+108-116 K favors an atmosphere with poor day- to nightside heat redistribution. We also have a marginal detection in the i'-band (0.037+0.023-0.021%), corresponding to TB = 2225+139-225 K, which is either a false positive, a signature of non-blackbody radiation at this wavelength, or an

  6. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  7. Recovering galaxy stellar population properties from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting II. The case with unknown redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Pforr, Janine; Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) In a recent work we explored the dependence of galaxy stellar population properties derived from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting on the fitting parameters, e.g. SFHs, age grid, metallicity, IMF, dust reddening, reddening law, filter setup and wavelength coverage. In this paper we consider also redshift as a free parameter in the fit and study whether one can obtain reasonable estimates of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties at once. We use mock star-forming as well as passive galaxies placed at various redshifts (0.5 to 3) as test particles. Mock star-forming galaxies are extracted from a semi-analytical galaxy formation model. We show that for high-z star-forming galaxies photometric redshifts, stellar masses and reddening can be determined simultaneously when using a broad wavelength coverage and a wide template setup in the fit. Masses are similarly well recovered (median ~ 0.2 dex) as at fixed redshift. For old galaxies with little recent star formation masse...

  8. Broad-band transmission spectrum and K-band thermal emission of WASP-43b as observed from the ground

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Fortney, Jonathan J; Seemann, Ulf; Wang, Wei; Mancini, Luigi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We observed one transit and one occultation of the hot Jupiter WASP-43b simultaneously in the g'r'i'z'JHK bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope. From the transit event, we have independently derived WASP-43's system parameters with high precision, and improved the period to be 0.81347437(13) days. No significant variation in transit depths is detected, with the largest deviations coming from the i', H, and K bands. Given the observational uncertainties, the broad-band transmission spectrum can be explained by either a flat featureless straight line that indicates thick clouds, synthetic spectra with absorption signatures of atomic Na/K or molecular TiO/VO that indicate cloud-free atmosphere, or a Rayleigh scattering profile that indicates high-altitude hazes. From the occultation event, we have detected planetary dayside thermal emission in the K-band with a flux ratio of 0.197 +/- 0.042%, which confirms previous detections obtained in the 2.09 micron narrow band and K...

  9. Broad-band spectral energy distribution of 3000 Angstroem break quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Meusinger, H; Mirhosseini, A; Pertermann, F

    2016-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) discovered a few unusual quasars with a characteristic break in the continuum around 3000 A that neither shows the typical structure of broad absorption line (BAL) troughs nor is explained by typical intrinsic dust reddening. We used the method of Kohonen self-organising maps for a systematical search for quasars with such properties in the SDSS spectra archive. We constructed a sample of 23 quasars classified as 3000 A break quasars and two comparison samples of quasars with similar properties, to some extent, but also showing typical BAL features. We computed ensemble-averaged broad-band SEDs based on archival data from SDSS, GALEX, 2MASS, UKIDSS, and WISE. The SEDs were corrected for intrinsic dust absorption by the comparison with the average SED of normal quasars. The de-reddened arithmetic median composite SED of the 3000 A break quasars is found to be indistinguishable from that of the unusual BAL quasars. We conclude that 3000 A break quasars are most likely extreme...

  10. Broad Band X-ray Spectra of Atoll Source 4U 1636-536: NuSTAR and Swift Results

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Vivek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate broad band (1-79 keV) spectral nature of the atoll source 4U 1636-536 using the combined Nu-STAR and SWIFT-XRT data. The spectra are complex and have emission components from the disc, boundary-layer and corona. In addition to that a broad iron line is also observed. A relativistic line model assuming Schwarzchild metric fits this feature. The total flux varies from 1.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$ to 4.36 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$ $ergs/s/cm^2$. At the highest flux level the source was found in the soft state. In this state the Comptonized component has temperature $kT_e \\sim 3$ keV and optical depth $\\tau \\sim $ 16. We also detect a non-thermal tail with index $\\sim$ 2.4, contributing $\\sim$ 10 \\% of the total flux in the soft state. We also find that the inner disc radius, electron temperature and optical depth vary with the total 0.1-100 keV unabsorbed flux. We discuss the implication of the results in this paper.

  11. Broad-band spectral changes of the microquasars Cygnus X-1 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M C; Rodríguez, J; Chaty, S; Corbel, S; Goldwurm, A; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Ribo, Marc; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We report high-energy results obtained with INTEGRAL and Rossi-XTE on two microquasars: the persistent high-mass system Cygnus X-1 and the transient low-mass binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127. INTEGRAL observed Cygnus X-1 from 2002 to 2004: the spectral (5-1000 keV) properties of the source, seen at least in three distinct spectral states, show disc and corona changes. In 2003 June, a high-energy tail at several hundred keV in excess of the thermal Comptonization model was observed, suggesting the presence of an additional non-thermal component. At that time, we detected an unusual correlation between radio data and high-energy hardness. We also report and compare the results obtained with simultaneous observations of the transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127 performed with Rossi-XTE, INTEGRAL, VLA, REM and NTT on 2005 August 10-12 near its hard X-ray outburst. Broad-band spectra and fast time-variability properties are derived on this source (probably located in the galactic halo) together with radio, IR and optical d...

  12. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, A; Rix, H -W; Finkelstein, S L; Koekemoer, A M; Weiner, B J; Wuyts, S; Bell, E F; Faber, S M; Trump, J R; Koo, D; Ferguson, H C; Scarlata, C; Hathi, N P; Dunlop, J S; Newman, J A; Dickinson, M; Salmon, B; Kocevski, D F de Mello D D; Lai, K; Grogin, N A; Rodney, S A; Guo, Yicheng; McGrath, E G; Lee, K -S; Calvo, G B; Huang, K -H

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z=1.6-1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines -- with rest-frame equivalent widths ~1000\\AA -- in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with ~10^8 Msol in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/(dM*/dt) of only ~15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3) can produce in ~4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10^8-10^9 Mso...

  13. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  14. Performance of the NIST goniocolorimeter with a broad-band source and multichannel charged coupled device based spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobedov, V. B.; Miller, C. C.; Nadal, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    The authors describe the NIST high-efficiency instrument for measurements of bidirectional reflectance distribution function of colored materials, including gonioapparent materials such as metallic and pearlescent coatings. The five-axis goniospectrometer measures the spectral reflectance of samples over a wide range of illumination and viewing angles. The implementation of a broad-band source and a multichannel CCD spectrometer corrected for stray light significantly increased the efficiency of the goniometer. In the extended range of 380 nm to 1050 nm, a reduction of measurement time from a few hours to a few minutes was obtained. Shorter measurement time reduces the load on the precise mechanical assembly ensuring high angular accuracy over time. We describe the application of matrix-based correction of stray light and the extension of effective dynamic range of measured fluxes to the values of 106 to 107 needed for the absolute characterization of samples. The measurement uncertainty was determined to be 0.7% (k = 2), which is comparable with similar instruments operating in a single channel configuration. Several examples of reflectance data obtained with the improved instrument indicate a 0.3% agreement compared to data collected with the single channel configuration.

  15. Real-time monitoring of reactive species in downstream etch reactor by VUV broad-band absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, R.; Vallier, L.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma etching of nanometric size, high aspect-ratio structures is more challenging at each new technological node. Remote plasmas are beginning to find use when damages on nanostructures by ion bombardment become critical or when etching with high selectivity on different materials present on the wafer is necessary (i . e . tungsten oxide etching with fluorine and hydrogen containing plasmas in remote reactor from AMAT). Furthermore, it is expected that downstream plasma will replace many wet chemical etching processes to alleviate the issue of pattern collapses caused by capillary forces when nanometer size high aspect ratio structures are immersed in liquids. In these downstream plasmas, radicals are the main active species and a control of their density is of prime importance. Most of gases used and radicals produced in etching plasmas (HBr, BrCl, Br2, NF3, CH2F2,...) have strong absorption bands in the vacuum UV spectral region and we have shown that very low concentration of these species can be detected by VUV absorption. We have recently improved the technique by using a VUV CCD camera, instead of the PMT, which render possible the Broad-Band absorption spectroscopy in the 120-200 nm range, with a deuterium lamp, or a laser produced xenon arc lamp as light source. The multi-spectral detection ability of the CCD reduces the acquisition time to less than 1 second and can permit the real time control of the process control.

  16. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  17. A physical parameter method for the design of broad-band X-ray imaging systems to do coronal plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S.; Krieger, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The technique commonly used for the analysis of data from broad-band X-ray imaging systems for plasma diagnostics is the filter ratio method. This requires the use of two or more broad-band filters to derive temperatures and line-of-sight emission integrals or emission measure distributions as a function of temperature. Here an alternative analytical approach is proposed in which the temperature response of the imaging system is matched to the physical parameter being investigated. The temperature response of a system designed to measure the total radiated power along the line of sight of any coronal structure is calculated. Other examples are discussed.

  18. Broad-band Seismology for Understanding Earthquake Physics and Developing a Modern Practice for Seismic Damage Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    In 1987, immediately after the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the Caltech broad-band regional seismic network project, TERRAscope, was launched under the direction of Don Anderson. At the time, UC Berkeley had also embarked on such a project. The objectives included: 1) Collect high-quality seismic data for developing theories of Earth's interior and exterior, 2) Develop a physics-based earthquake damage mitigation method, 3) Provide a test-bed for novel approaches in real-time seismology, 4) Provide an infrastructure for cultivating new directions in seismology. The data from TERRAscope, combined with those from other networks such as GDSN, IDA, IRIS, GeoScope networks were used to study various seismological problems, some of which had not been commonly investigated. We focus on three areas. The interaction between the solid earth and atmosphere had been the subject of considerable interest. The broadband networks detected interesting atmospheric waves from a few Hz (N waves from space shuttles) to 0.001 Hz (Morning-glory waves. At the time it was not recognized as such). Also, it recorded monochromatic (period ˜ 230 sec) Rayleigh waves which were generated by the near source atmospheric oscillations excited by the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. These waves were not immediately recognized as such, because they had not been observed yet. This represents one of few cases in which significant energy transfer occurred from the atmosphere to the solid earth. These observations eventually led to the more ambitious ongoing projects for detecting ionospheric signature of acoustic and internal gravity waves in the atmosphere that couple into the solid earth. Gutenberg, together with Richter, published a series of papers on the energy of earthquakes in the 1940's to 1950's. The intent of these studies was to determine the most important quantity necessary for understanding the fundamental physics of earthquakes. Unfortunately, because of the overwhelming observational

  19. Synchronous chaos and broad band gamma rhythm in a minimal multi-layer model of primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by

  20. Design of broad-band mixer on V-band%V波段宽带混频器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋翔; 年夫顺; 代秀

    2012-01-01

    Because of broad-band mixer's broad working band and low conversion loss,it is often used in communication, radar and microwave measurement systems. In this paper, the design and the performance of a V-band single balance mixer based on fin-line circuit are described. From the theory of the single balance mixer,the design of the single balance mixer-circuit and the structure of waveguide to fin line are expounded. Finally,the conversion loss of this mixer is less than 10 dBm and has a good flatness when the mixer's RF is sweeping from 50~75 GHz.%宽带混频器由于其工作带宽大,变频损耗低,在通信、雷达以及微波毫米波测试仪器等系统得到广泛的应用.介绍了一种V波段鳍线单平衡混频器的设计过程并给出了测试结果.从单平衡混频器的基本原理出发,阐述了鳍线单平衡混频电路和矩形波导到鳍线的过渡结构的设计.最后制作出的宽带混频器在射频频率为50~75 GHz的整个V波段内,变频损耗小于10 dBm,并有良好的变频损耗平坦度.

  1. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostorero, L.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Moderski, R.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Diaferio, A.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Kowalska, I.; /Warsaw U. Observ.; Cheung, C.C.; /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Begelman, M.C.; /JILA, Boulder; Wagner, S.J.; /Heidelberg Observ.

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  2. Imaging P-to-S conversions with broad-band seismic arrays using multichannel time-domain deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Scott L.; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2001-09-01

    reduced and the input model is reliably recovered. Further tests with data from the Lodore broad-band array in Colorado and Wyoming show significant improvement over conventional time domain methods. We image lateral variations in Moho continuity and reflectivity across the array, with significant improvement in resolution in the first 10 seconds of data.

  3. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  4. Improving the Estimation of Star-formation Rates and Stellar Population Ages of High-redshift Galaxies from Broad-band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We explore methods to improve the estimates of star-formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broad-band photometry of high redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star-formation histories to fit broad-band spectral-energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star-formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star-formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star-formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star-formation rate distribution of Lyman-break galaxies. For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star-formation rate increases linearly with ...

  5. COMPARING BROAD-BAND AND RED EDGE-BASED SPECTRAL VEGETATION INDICES TO ESTIMATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF CROPS USING CASI DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn’t show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  6. Penning trap at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerypo, J. E-mail: jerzy.szerypo@phys.jyu.fi; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-22

    The IGISOL facility at the Department of Physics of the University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL) is delivering radioactive beams of short-lived exotic nuclei, in particular the neutron-rich isotopes from the fission reaction. These nuclei are studied with the nuclear spectroscopy methods. In order to substantially increase the quality and sensitivity of such studies, the beam should undergo beam handling: cooling, bunching and isobaric purification. The first two processes are performed with the use of an RFQ cooler/buncher. The isobaric purification will be made by a Penning trap placed after the RF-cooler element. This contribution describes the current status of the Penning trap project and its future prospects. The latter comprise the precise nuclear mass measurements, nuclear spectroscopy in the Penning trap interior as well as the laser spectroscopy on the extracted beams.

  7. My New Pen Pal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This is my new pen pal. Her name is Annie. She is 14 years old. Her birthday is in August. She is from China. What does she look like? She is of medium height and thin. Site has beautiful long black hair. She can speak Chinese and a little English.

  8. 笔%Pen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Small as it is,the pen has changed the course of history,shaped the destiny of nations,facilitated the commerce of peoples,imprisoned the elusive thoughts of man,recorded events,carried news,and done more work for mankind than all other tools or weapons.

  9. The advantage of linear viscoelastic material behavior in passive damper design-with application in broad-banded resonance dampers for industrial high-precision motion stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbaan, Cornelis A. M.; Peters, Gerrit W. M.; Steinbuch, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the advantage of applying viscoelastic materials instead of purely viscous materials as damping medium in mechanical dampers. Although the loss modulus decreases as function of frequency in case of viscoelastic behavior, which can be interpreted as a decrease of damping, the viscoelastic behavior still leads to an increased modal damping for mechanical structures. This advantage holds for inertial-mass-type dampers that are tuned for broad-banded resonance damping. It turns out that an increase of the storage modulus as function of frequency contributes to the effectiveness of mechanical dampers with respect to energy dissipation at different mechanical resonance frequencies. It is shown that this phenomenon is medium specific and is independent of the amount of damper mass.

  10. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  11. Imaging of the reaction zone in a 100 kW oil-burning furnace by use of a broad-band excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, P. P.; Mischler, B.; Gerber, T.; Dreher, H.; Lehmann, B.; Ochs, M.

    1996-01-01

    The reaction zone in the hostile combustion environment of a 100 kW oil-burning furnace has been imaged by laser-induced fluorescence using a broad-band XeCl-excimer laser. Upon excitation, the averaged images obtained by using an interference filter around 320 nm (FWHM of 10 nm) show three distinct areas along the direction of the gas flow. An intense emission spreads around the spray axis and is attributed to the fluorescence of large hydrocarbons in the unburned fuel. Approximately 12 cm downstream of the nozzle, a narrow dark region is displayed suggesting the preheat zone of the combustion process where large hydrocarbons are considerably degraded. The third distinct region is characterized by a strong onset of the fluorescence intensity localized downstream of the dark region. This feature is strongly suppressed by replacing the interference filter by a broad-band transmission filter passing light from 350 to 500 nm. Since OH strongly absorbs at the laser wavelength and its fluorescence is significantly lower above 345 nm, the findings imply that the major contribution to the observed intensity in this region originates from the OH radical. This molecule reaches its maximum concentration immediately downstream of the flame front. However, a contribution from other flame species fluorescing around 320 nm cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the combined spatial and spectral information obtained imply that the reaction zone of the combustion process can be localized accurately. The results are compared with simultaneously performed numerical simulations of the burner and are in reasonable agreement.

  12. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Mallonn, M; Weingrill, J; von Essen, C; Strassmeier, K G; Piotto, G; Pagano, I; Scandariato, G; Csizmadia, Sz; Herrero, E; Sada, P V; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Künstler, A; Bernt, I; Granzer, T

    2015-01-01

    The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit pa...

  13. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: Implications for the ionized outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I E; Panagiotou, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. We constructed broad-band, optical/UV/X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals. We fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission and the warm absorber (well established in this source). The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable both in spectral slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3*10^4 km/s (3sigma upper limit), and has a column density of ~10^23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source and its relative thickness, DR/R is less than 0.1. The absorber' s ionization parameter variations can explain t...

  14. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  15. Evidence for a change in the radiation mechanism in the hard state of GRO J1655-40. Hysteresis in the broad-band noise components

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Sobolewska, M A; Malzac, J

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed RXTE archival data to study the aperiodic variability of the black-hole binary GRO J1655-40 during the hard state of the 2005 outburst. We computed the 0.008-64 Hz power spectral density during the rise and decay of the 2005 outburst, and we found that they were reasonably well modelled by the sum of two, broad Lorenztian functions in most cases (plus a narrow QPO) which correspond to three different variability components. Our aim is to study the evolution of the timing properties of the source during the outburst, by studying the correlation between the characteristics of the broad-band noise components in the power spectra and the source luminosity. Our results suggest that the whole power spectrum shifts to high (low) frequencies as the source luminosity increases (decreases), in agreement with previous studies of other black hole binaries. However, we also detect a strong "hysteresis" pattern in the "frequency-luminosity" plots, and show that the "critical" luminosity limit, above which ...

  16. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  17. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-ray Burst Broad-band Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Wen-fai; Margutti, Raffaella; Zauderer, B Ashley

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broad-band afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from November 2004 to March 2015 with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of E_gamma,iso~2x10^51 erg, and E_K,iso~(1-3)x10^51 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n~(3-15)x10^-3 cm^-3, and that ~80-95% of bursts have densities of less than 1 cm^-3. We inve...

  18. Contamination of Broad-Band Photometry by Nebular Emission in High Redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schenker, Matthew A; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ~ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared those derived assuming broad-band photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 20 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly-commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use this data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EW) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable to estimates derived using the SED fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al (2013). Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consisten...

  19. High-resolution Fourier-transform cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared using an incoherent broad-band light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Johannes; Ruth, Albert A

    2008-11-10

    An incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption (IBB-CEA) set-up was used in combination with a Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer in order to explore the potential of this technique for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy in the near-infrared region. Absorption spectra of overtone bands of CO2, OCS, and HD18O were measured between 5800 and 7000 cm(-1) using a small sampling volume (1100 cm3, based on a 90 cm cavity length). The quality of the spectra in this study is comparable to that obtained with Fourier transform spectrometers employing standard multi-pass reflection cells, which require substantially larger sampling volumes. High-resolution methods such as FT-IBB-CEAS also provide an elegant way to determine effective mirror reflectivities (R(eff), i.e. a measure of the inherent overall cavity loss) by using a calibration gas with well-known line strengths. For narrow absorption features and non-congested spectra this approach does not even require a zero-absorption measurement with the empty cavity. Absolute cross-sections or line strengths of a target species can also be determined in one single measurement, if gas mixtures with known partial pressures are used. This feature of FT-IBB-CEAS reduces systematic errors significantly; it is illustrated based on CO2 as calibration gas.

  20. Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates for 280,000 AGNs from the SDSS Broad-Band Photometry and Single Epoch Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 AGNs, to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100\\AA, 3000\\AA, and 1350\\AA, derived from the broad-band extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching them to their counterparts based on spectra and published in the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find perfect correlations with minute mean offsets ($\\sim$0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, 0.12 dex, respectively, across a 2.5 dex luminosity range. We then estimate the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) black hole masses using the broad line region radius--luminosity relations and the FWHM of the MgII and CIV emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,032 virial black hole mass estimates (132,451 for MgII, 213,068 for CIV, and 62,487 for both) along with the bolometric luminosity and the Eddington ratio estimates for $0.1

  1. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonn, M.; Nascimbeni, V.; Weingrill, J.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Herrero, E.; Sada, P. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Künstler, A.; Bernt, I.; Granzer, T.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. Aims: We want to investigate the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b for an increased absorption at the very blue wavelength regions caused by scattering. Furthermore, we aim for a refinement of the transit parameters and the orbital ephemeris. Methods: We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. Results: We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit parameters, the ephemeris and perform a TTV analysis in which we found no indication for an unseen companion. The host star showed a mild non-periodic variability of up to 1%. However, no stellar rotation period could be detected to high confidence.

  2. Seismic source study of the 1989, October 29, Chenoua (Algeria earthquake from aftershocks, broad-band and strong ground motion records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band teleseismics records of the earthquake of October 29,1989 in Algeria (MW = 6.0 allow a detailed study of the rupture process of this earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by P and SH modeling corresponds to reverse faulting with a small amount of left-lateral movement along a fault striking 246° and dipping 56°. The rupture is found to be complex with two sub-events separated in time but occurring on the same plane. The lowfrequency records of an accelerometer located some 25 km to the west of the main shock are also better fi tted when the rupture is composed of a double pulse. In the two cases, there is strong evidence for the rupture to propagate from south-west towards north-east.The relocalisation of the main shock by using a master-event technique and the data from Italian and Spanish stations led to the same conclusions. Soon after the main event, a temporary seimic network was installed in the epicentral area. The aftershock clouds defi ne a SW-NE fault dipping to the NW compatible with the results of the modelisations of the teleseismic body-waves and the accelerogram. The focal mechanisms correspond mainly to reverse faulting. The maximum principal direction of the stress tensor obtained from the inversion is about N-S and the minimum is vertical, typical of a compressive regime. The Chenoua earthquake took place on a fault which was not recognized as active. Repeated comparable seismic events on this fault and on the fault that borders the massif to the south explain this intriguing topographic feature.

  3. Broad-band strong motion simulations coupling k-square kinematic source models with empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano

    2015-10-01

    The use of simulated accelerograms may improve the evaluation of the seismic hazard when an accurate modelling of both source and propagation is performed. In this paper, we performed broad-band simulations of the 2009, M 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, coupling a k-2 kinematic model for the seismic source with empirical Green's functions (EGFs) as propagators. We extracted 10 EGFs candidates from a database of aftershocks satisfying quality criteria based on signal-to-noise ratio, fault proximity, small magnitude, similar focal mechanism and stress drop. For comparison with real observations, we also derived a low-frequency kinematic model, based on inversion of ground displacement as integrated from strong motion data. Kinematic properties of the inverted model (rupture velocity, position of the rupture nucleation, low-frequency slip and roughness degree of slip heterogeneity) were used as constraints in the k-2 model, to test the use of a single specific EGF against the use of the whole set of EGFs. Comparison to real observations based on spectral and peak ground acceleration shows that the use of all available EGFs improves the fit of simulations to real data. Moreover the epistemic variability related to the selection of a specific EGF is significantly larger (two to three times) than recent observations of between event variability, that is the variability associated with the randomness of the rupture process. We finally performed `blind' simulations releasing all the information on source kinematics and only considering the fault geometry and the magnitude of the target event as known features. We computed peak ground acceleration, acceleration Fourier and response spectra. Simulations follow the same trend with distance as real observations. In most cases these latter fall within one sigma from predictions. Predictions with source parameters constrained at low frequency do not perform better than `blind' simulations, showing that extrapolation of the low

  4. Dynamics of the 2007 Eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and the Related Caldera Collapse from a Single Very Broad-band Seismic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Reymond, Dominique; Peltier, Aline; Staudacher, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Seismic records from the RER very broad-band seismic station (La Réunion Island) belonging to the GEOSCOPE network are investigated to understand the eruptive succession (February to May) of Piton de la Fournaise and the caldera collapse episode of April 2007. Data first indicate that the short-lived, small volume, summit eruption of February 18 occurred during a phase of continuous inflation initiated in January 2007. Inflation decelerated around 2 weeks before a second short-lived small volume eruption on March 30-31 on the SE flank, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large deflation of the edifice. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at a relatively low level, increased anew on April 1 while no magma was emitted, followed on April 2 by a more distant and one of the most voluminous eruptions of the last two centuries at La Réunion Island. The RER station shows that very long period (VLP) and ultra long period (ULP) events developed during this period. Seven ULP events preceded the caldera collapse and 48 ones occurred during the caldera collapse over 9 days, most of which during the first 30 hours. A thorough examination of the seismic signals corrected for tide effects shows that each collapse event was coeval with VLP and ULP signals. Each individual collapse showed similar ULP and VLP signals characterized by periods of ~ 500 s and ~ 7 s, respectively. The back-azimuth of most ULP signals related to the caldera collapse points clearly toward the Dolomieu caldera. The strikingly constant duration of the VLP signals (around 20 s) related to the collapse events and their occurrence before the collapse initiation suggest a physical control of the volcanic edifice. Waveforms and spectrograms of the various caldera collapse events show very homogeneous patterns, suggesting a similar and repeating volcano-tectonic process for the formation of the VLP signals events. Although tilt may be responsible of part of the ULP signals observed during the collapse events, we

  5. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  6. Improvement of penning ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyukov, A A; Kashaba, A Y; Sereda, K N

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the loss of a longitudinal symmetry of magnetic field distribution in respect to the centre of the Penning discharge system causes change of electrostatic potential distribution in the discharge gap leads to appearance of asymmetry of current magnitude to the cathodes of the Penning cell,change of magnitude of current density and energy distribution of the ion beam extracted in a longitudinal direction.The use of an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is longitudinally asymmetrical concerning electrodes of the system allows to increase current efficiency of Penning ion sources from 0,2 to 0,55.

  7. Ion cyclotron resonance detection techniques at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eibach, M.; Smorra, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Nagy, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Penning trap mass spectrometry the mass of stored ions is obtained via a determination of the cyclotron frequency ({nu}{sub c}=qB/(2 {pi} m)), for which two different techniques are available. The destructive time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance (TOF-ICR) technique, based on the measurement of the flight time of excited ions, is the established method for measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It is not ideally suited for rarely produced ion species, since typically some hundred ions are required for a single resonance spectrum. At the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP therefore a non-destructive narrow-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection system is being developed. It is based on the detection of the image currents induced by the stored ions in the trap electrodes and will ultimately reach single ion sensitivity. TRIGA-TRAP also features broad-band FT-ICR detection for the coarse identification of the trap content. Additionally, the TOF-ICR detection system has been recently improved to utilize the Ramsey excitation technique to gain in precision, and the position information of the ion impact to further suppress background events in the final time-of-flight spectrum.

  8. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Rachel E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average, costly (columns and mobile phase reagents, and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes. Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  9. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Canales, Lorena; Neal, Rachel E

    2011-07-07

    Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average), costly (columns and mobile phase reagents), and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate) based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap) with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes). Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  10. Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging were investigated. Sub parts-per-million mass accuracy is demonstrated over an entire tissue section. Ion abundance fluctuations are corrected for by addition of total and relative ion abundances for a root-mean-square error of 0.158 ppm on 16,764 peaks. A new approach for visualization of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging data at high resolution is presented. The Mosaic Data-cube provides a flexible means to visualize the entire mass range at a mass spectral bin width of 0.001 Dalton. The high resolution Mosaic Data-cube resolves spectral features ...

  11. Adventures of a Pen Pal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myrtle"Cookie"Potter; 谢琼

    2000-01-01

    By the time I was in junior high schoolI had 15 pen pals with whom I correspond-ed faithfully. I found that being a pen palwas a nonthreatening way of makingfriends. All my correspondents lived in SanFrancisco, while I was about 15 miles south inBurlingame. They were all too young to drive,so the chances we d meet were slim. Since Iwas extremely bashful, this suited me fine. I found my correspondents in the 1928 San

  12. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  13. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  14. Hard Transparent Arrays for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James L; Brown, Keith A; Kluender, Edward J; Cabezas, Maria D; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-03-22

    Patterning nanoscale features across macroscopic areas is challenging due to the vast range of length scales that must be addressed. With polymer pen lithography, arrays of thousands of elastomeric pyramidal pens can be used to write features across centimeter-scales, but deformation of the soft pens limits resolution and minimum feature pitch, especially with polymeric inks. Here, we show that by coating polymer pen arrays with a ∼175 nm silica layer, the resulting hard transparent arrays exhibit a force-independent contact area that improves their patterning capability by reducing the minimum feature size (∼40 nm), minimum feature pitch (<200 nm for polymers), and pen to pen variation. With these new arrays, patterns with as many as 5.9 billion features in a 14.5 cm(2) area were written using a four hundred thousand pyramid pen array. Furthermore, a new method is demonstrated for patterning macroscopic feature size gradients that vary in feature diameter by a factor of 4. Ultimately, this form of polymer pen lithography allows for patterning with the resolution of dip-pen nanolithography across centimeter scales using simple and inexpensive pen arrays. The high resolution and density afforded by this technique position it as a broad-based discovery tool for the field of nanocombinatorics.

  15. Noise in Broad-Band Hydrophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    accolertion and pressure in water A• / , ILLUS’.RATIONrs (coat 1d ) 22 Aaplifiar and titrisi nOise backgnnumd JMT 1 BUTION’ . ... . .. t. .* .*. . *. . *** o. o...Then, Z (fros equation (49c)) W 2 1 S2 2n,- - 2(69)QU 2ni(69 This appriisate relationship has boon used in the following ezW , even wtare the element is

  16. Broad Band/MILS Listening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-02

    underwater speed sensor, Model 460, shown in Figure 8, is made by Hydro Products. The unit is a precision balanced, high impact *, polystyrene Savonius ...ocean environment. Tiie operation of the unit is as follows: water movement past the underwater sensor rotates the Savonius rotor at an angular rate

  17. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  18. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  19. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  20. The Design of the Broad-Band Microwave Amplifier DC Bias Circuits%一种宽带微波放大器偏置电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚波; 张永慧

    2009-01-01

    本文利用微波平面结构谐振模式情况下场等效的方法,对单扇形微带传输线电路进行了分析,并在此基础上介绍了一种宽带直流偏置电路的分析和设计方法.此种形式的偏置电路应用于一种C波段的微波放大器上,仿真和实验结果证明了这种宽带直流偏置电路是有效的.%In this paper, the analysis of the microstrip radial-line stubs is presented. The method is based on the electromagnetic field expansion in terms of resonant modes of the planar structure. Using this theory, the analysis and design of a kind of broad-band de bias circuit is presented. The bias circuit is used in a C-Band microwave amplifier. Simulation and testing result prove that the bias circuit is good.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of a broad-band red phosphor Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} for warm white light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Fengjiao [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Fu Renli, E-mail: renlifu@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Agathopoulos, Simeon [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Ioannina, GR-451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Gu Xiguang; Song Xiufeng [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Single-phase broad-band red-emitting Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors, with photoluminescence features that qualify them as candidates for white light-emitting diodes applications, were successfully synthesized via a modified solid-state reaction method that employed H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as a flux. The phosphors produced have an intense broad red emission band, with a peak at 603 nm, a full width at half maximum of 110 nm, and color coordinates of (0.550, 0.438). Concentration quenching occurred at 0.01 mol Eu{sup 2+}. The discussion of the results shows that Eu{sup 2+} ions should be accommodated at the Ca-sites of the lattice, dipole-dipole interactions should predominantly govern the energy transfer mechanism among them, and the critical distance between them is {approx}31 A. - Highlights: > Pure Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was successfully synthesized by adding H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} . > Effects of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} on phase formation and emission intensity were presented. > Luminescence properties in conjunction with Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure were studied. > Energy transfer mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} and its critical distance were proposed.

  2. Broad-band spectroscopy of the transient X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during 2013 giant outburst: Detection of pulsating soft X-ray excess component

    CERN Document Server

    Epili, Prahlad; Jaisawal, Gaurava K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results obtained from detailed timing and spectral studies of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during its 2013 giant outburst. We used data from Suzaku observations of the pulsar at two epochs i.e. on 2013 October 22 (close to the peak of the outburst) and 2013 November 22. X-ray pulsations at $\\sim$18.81 s were clearly detected in the light curves obtained from both observations. Pulse periods estimated during the outburst showed that the pulsar was spinning up. The pulse profile was found to be single-peaked up to $\\sim$10 keV beyond which a sharp peak followed by a dip-like feature appeared at hard X-rays. The dip-like feature has been observed up to $\\sim$70 keV. The 1-110 keV broad-band spectroscopy of both observations revealed that the best-fit model comprised of a partially absorbed Negative and Positive power law with EXponential cutoff (NPEX) continuum model along with a blackbody component for the soft X-ray excess and two Gaussian functions at 6.4 and 6.7 keV for emission line...

  3. Tips for Traveling with HomePEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Fullest Coping Strategies Emergency Preparedness Ideas & Products Restaurant/Bathroom Cards Swimming Travel Medical Air Transport Serivces ... experience a difficulties with your homePEN. For your convenience and peace of mind, Oley produces a complication ...

  4. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  5. Tectonic and Kinematic Regime along the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary: New Insights from Broad-band Modeling of the May 25, 1992, Ms = 6.9 Cabo Cruz, Cuba, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Calais, E.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.

    On May 25th, 1992, an Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred off the southwestern tip of Cuba, along the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. This earthquake was the largest to strike southern Cuba since 1917 and the largest ever recorded in that region by global seismic networks. It is therefore a key element for our understanding of the tectonic and kinematic regime along the northern Caribbean plate boundary. In order to test the previously proposed source parameters of the Cabo Cruz earthquake and to better constrain its focal mechanism, we derived a new set of source parameters from unfiltered broad-band teleseismic records. We used a hybrid ray tracing method that allows us to take into account propagation effects of seismic waves in a realistic crustal model around the source. Our solution is consistent with the long-period focal mechanism solution of Virieux et al. (1992). Our solution also models the higher frequency crustal and water layer phases. The primarily strike-slip focal mechanism has a small thrust component. Its shows an east-west trending nodal plane dipping 55° to the north that we interpret as the rupture plane since it corresponds to the geometry of the major active fault in that area. The displacement on this plane is a left-lateral strike-slip combined with a small amount of southward thrust. The result is in good agreement with the active tectonic structures observed along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. The small thrust component demonstrates that, contrary to prior belief, the transpressive regime extends along this whole segment of the Caribbean/North American plate boundary. Together with historical seismicity, it suggests that most of the stress accumulated by the Caribbean/North American plate motion is released seismically along the southern Cuban margin during relatively few but large earthquakes.

  6. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  7. Pen-and-Paper User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Steimle, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Even at the beginning of the 21st century, we are far from becoming paperless. Pen and paper is still the only truly ubiquitous information processing technology. Pen-and-paper user interfaces bridge the gap between paper and the digital world. Rather than replacing paper with electronic media, they seamlessly integrate both worlds in a hybrid user interface. Classical paper documents become interactive. This opens up a huge field of novel computer applications at our workplaces and in our homes. This book provides readers with a broad and extensive overview of the field, so as to provide a fu

  8. Pen of Health Care Worker as Vector of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are the major concern in tertiary hospitals. Health care workers and their belonging are known to act as vector in transmission of infections. In present study, the writing pen of health care workers was worked out for carrying infection. The swab from writing pen of health care workers were cultured for any growth of microorganism and compared with swab from pen of the non health care workers. It was found that the rate of growth of microorganism were more in pen of health care workers. Similarly the organism attributed to the nosocomial infection was grown from the pens of health care workers. These organisms might be transmitted from the hands of health care workers. The writing pen which health care worker are using became the vectors of transmission of infection. So to prevent it, the most important way is to wash the hands and pen properly after examining the patients.

  9. Nonlinear PIC simulation in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, G.; Delzanno, G. L.; Finn, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  10. Damping effects in Penning trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Kowalska, M; Dworschak, M; Neidherr, D; Blaum, K; Schweikhard, L; Ramirez, E M; Breitenfeldt, M; Kretzschmar, M; Herfurth, F; Schwarz, S; Herlert, A

    2011-01-01

    Collisions of ions with residual gas atoms in a Penning trap can have a strong influence on the trajectories of the ions, depending on the atom species and the gas pressure. We report on investigations of damping effects in time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with the Penning trap mass spectrometers ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and SHIPTRAP at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The work focuses on the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes, in particular the modification of the resonance profiles for quadrupolar excitation due to the damping effect of the residual gas. Extensive experiments have been performed with standard and Ramsey excitation schemes. The results are in good agreement with predictions obtained by analytical continuation of the formulae for the undamped case.

  11. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  12. Usability of the Stylus Pen in Mobile Electronic Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stylus pens are often used with mobile information devices. However, few studies have examined the stylus’ simple movements because the technical expertise to support documentation with stylus pens has not been developed. This study examined the usability of stylus pens in authentic documentation tasks, including three main tasks (sentence, table, and paragraph making with two types of styluses (touchsmart stylus and mobile stylus and a traditional pen. The statistical results showed that participants preferred the traditional pen in all criteria. Because of inconvenient hand movements, the mobile stylus was the least preferred on every task. Mobility does not provide any advantage in using the stylus. In addition, the study also found inconvenient hand support using a stylus and different feedback between a stylus and a traditional pen.

  13. Coefficient of variation and Power Pen's parade computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sadefo Kamdem, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Under the the assumption that income y is a power function of its rank among n individuals, we approximate the coefficient of variation and gini index as functions of the power degree of the Pen's parade. Reciprocally, for a given coefficient of variation or gini index, we propose the analytic expression of the degree of the power Pen's parade; we can then compute the Pen's parade.

  14. Instrumentation Upgrades to TITAN's Cooler Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Daniel; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The use of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) is critical to improving the precision of Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides with half-lives substantially less than 100 ms, but the process of charge breeding imparts an unacceptably high energy spread to the ion bunch sent to TITAN's precision Penning trap for mass measurement. TITAN's Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada was designed to cool HCIs with a plasma of simultaneously trapped electrons. CPET is currently undergoing commissioning offline at TRIUMF. In order to prepare CPET for full operation, several technical challenges associated with the use of electrons in a strong magnetic field had to be overcome. First among these was the detection of electrons outside of CPET. A novel, thin charge-collecting detector was successfully developed. Known as the mesh detector, it is charge-agnostic and can be made effectively transparent to allow for the passage of any charged particle at the user's request. The second challenge, moving CPET's electron source off the central beam axis was overcome by the creation of an electron source which would allow for electron injection into CPET and the passage of cooled ions out of CPET. CPET's 7 T solenoid generates a stray field far outside of the magnet's central bore that forced the design of a set of electron injection optics that bend, steer and focus the beam in three dimensions. Results from the successful installation of these upgrades as well as a report on future work will be discussed. This work was partially supported by NSERC, the CFI and the DFG.

  15. French Pen Pals Made Easy KS3

    CERN Document Server

    Leleu, Sinéad

    2010-01-01

    French Pen Pals Made Easy provides an easy way for pupils to communicate in French with other French speakers. It contains fill-in-the-gap letters, so even pupils just beginning to learn French can have the satisfaction of being able to communicate effectively in French. The format is ideal for non-specialist teachers as it does not require fluency and little or no preparation is required. English translations of the letters are included, as are lists of vocabulary, key grammar points and exten

  16. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhinen, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kopecky, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Szerypo, J; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  17. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S. E-mail: veli.kolhinen@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2003-05-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  18. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Luijf; J.H. Devries

    2010-01-01

    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on pati

  19. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  20. Doctor--how do I use my EpiPen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Sam; Robinson, Marnie; Tang, Mimi

    2007-08-01

    Parents and children who have been prescribed an Epipen are often unable to demonstrate its correct administration. One contributory factor may be that doctors are unfamiliar with the EpiPen and are unable to demonstrate the correct administration of the pen to the family. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of correct EpiPen demonstration by junior and Senior Medical Staff at a major tertiary paediatric Hospital. Junior and Senior medical staff were scored on their ability to correctly use the EpiPen trainer. A 6 step scoring system was used. One-hundred doctors were recruited (Residents n = 31, Senior Residents n = 39, Fellow/Consultants n = 30). Junior and Senior Medical staff had similar scores for EpiPen demonstration, the number that needed to read the EpiPen instructions prior to use and the frequancy of accidental self-injection into the thumb. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. The most frequent errors made were not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds (57%), failure to apply pressure to activate (21%), and self-injection into the thumb (16%). Ninety five doctors needed to read the instructions, and of these, only 39 (41%) then proceeded to correctly demonstrate the remaining 5 steps. Forty-five doctors had previously dispensed an EpiPen, but only three demonstrated its use to parents/children with a trainer. The majority of doctors do not know how to use an Epipen and are unable to provide appropriate education to parents/children. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient.

  1. Analysis of roller pen inks by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Pengcheng; WANG Yanji; XU Yuanyuan; YAO Lijuan

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of roller pen inks has become more and more important in fraudulent document examination because of the extensive use of roller pens in financial documents.Capillary electrophoresis with powerful resolution was applied for the analysis of roller pen inks.The experiment focused on the optimization of the separation of the extract from commercially available roller pen entries.A better separation electropherogram was obtained when a 20 mM borate buffer at pH 8.5 and a fused silica capillary with an inner diameter of 100 μm with a total length of 47 (40 cm to the detector window)were used.Five inks from roller pens of different manufacturers and countries were analyzed,and their electropherograms showed that most patterns are distinctly different from each other.Capillary with inner diameter of 100 μm increased the intensity of determination;therefore,color dyes were identified in the visible range and were able to provide more information for comparing types of roller pen inks.

  2. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  3. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space telescopes such as the Super Nova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) require exceptionally reflective coatings applied to mirrors several meters in diameter. In...

  4. Computer-aided design of broad band reflection type amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershaimb, Edgar; Jeppesen, Palle; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    . At the same time the impedance of unpackaged devices are obtained by on-line correction for the package parasitics. The microwave circuit chosen is a multiple slug coaxial cavity, that is modelled by sections of lossy transmission lines including step susceptances. The measured small signal impedance...... of the packaged TED's and the cavity model are used in a direct optimization procedure, in which the calculated minimum gain in the prescribed frequency range is progressively maximized by adjusting the lengths, characteristic impedances and positions of the slugs. The computed results are displayed...... on a datascreen, which allows for interactive programming. Comparisons of predicted amplifier performance for packaged and unpackaged devices form a basis for evaluating the possible degrading effect of package parasitics. The predictions of the computer-aided design are in good agreement with experimental...

  5. A broad-band microseismometer for planetary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Vanzandt, T.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.

    1993-06-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in the development of instrumentation for making measurements on the surface of Mars. This is due to the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Mission, for which approximately 16 small, long-lived (2-10 years), relatively inexpensive surface stations will be deployed in a planet-wide network. This will allow the investigation of processes (such as seismology and meteorology) which require the simultaneous measurement of phenomena at many widely spaced locations on the surface over a considerable length of time. Due to the large number of vehicles involved, the mass, power, and cost of the payload will be severely constrained. A seismometer has been identified as one of the highest priority instruments in the MESUR straw-man payload. The requirements for an effective seismic experiment on Mars place a number of constraints on any viable sensor design. First, a large number of sensors must be deployed in a long-lived global network in order to be able to locate many events reliably, provide good spatial sampling of the interior, and increase the probability of seismic detection in the event of localized seismicity and/or high attenuation. From a practical standpoint, this means that individual surface stations will necessarily be constrained in terms of cost, mass, and power. Landing and thermal control systems will probably be simple, in order to minimize cost, resulting in large impact accelerations and wide daily and seasonal thermal swings. The level of seismic noise will determine the maximum usable sensitivity for seismometer. Unfortunately, the ambient seismic noise level for Mars is not well known. However lunar seismic noise levels are several orders of magnitude below that of the Earth. Sensitivities on the order of 10(exp -11)g over a bandwidth of .04 to 20 Hz are thought to be necessary to fulfill the science objectives for a seimometer placed on the Martian surface. Silicon micromachined sensor technology offers techniques for the fabrication of monolithic, robust, compact, lower power and mass accelerometers. Conventional micro-machined accelerometers have been developed and are commercially available for high frequency and large acceleration measurements. The new seismometer we are developing incorporates certain principles of conventional silicon micromachined accelerometer technology. However, currently available silicon micromachined sensors offer inadequate sensitivity and bandwidth for the Mars seismometer application. Our implementation of an advanced silicon micromachined seismometer is based on principles recently developed at JPL for high-sensitivity position sensor technology.

  6. Broad-Band EUV Multilayer Coatings For Solar Physics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of aperiodic multilayer coating that is designed to provide high normal-incidence reflectance over a wide...

  7. Broad band polarimetric investigation of Type IIP supernova 2013ej

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Brajesh; Eswaraiah, C; Kawabata, K S

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on follow-up observations of the Type II-plateau supernova (SN) 2013ej at 6 epochs spanning a total duration of $\\sim$37 d. The $R_{c}$-band linear polarimetric observations were carried out between the end of the plateau and the beginning of the nebular phases as noticed in the photometric light curve. The contribution due to interstellar polarization (ISP) was constrained by using couple of approaches, i.e. based upon the observations of foreground stars lying within 5\\arcmin\\, and 10$\\degr$ radius of the SN location and also investigating the extinction due to the Milky Way and host galaxy towards the SN direction. Our analysis revealed that in general the intrinsic polarization of the SN is higher than the polarization values for the foreground stars and exhibits an increasing trend during our observations. After correcting the ISP of $\\sim$0.6 per cent, the maximum intrinsic polarization of SN~2013ej is found to be 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.57 per cent. Such a strong polarization has rarely b...

  8. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  9. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silver coatings for optics greater than 2-meters in diameter are sought by NASA for future space telescope systems. In the Phase I research, Surface Optics...

  10. Broad Band Properties of the BAT Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard; Winter, Lisa; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    I will present the x-ray spectral properties of approx.150 BAT selected ACN focusing on the issues of spectral complexity, x-ray absorption and its distribution and that contribution of sources to the x-ray background. If time permits we will also present the nature of the host galaxies of the ACN and their relationship to merger candidates.

  11. Ultra-broad band supercontinuum produced by terawatt femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟力; 王清月; 邢岐荣; 柴路; K.M.Yoo

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of supercontinuum produced by high-intensity femtosecond pulses were investigated under different interaction lengths, various pump intensities, different pump wavelengths at the fundamental 800 nm and its second-harmonic 400 nm. High transfer-efficiency supercontinuum with flat-top in liquid media was produced. As the main nonlinear mechanisms, the effects of self-phase modulation (SPM) and four-photon parametric emission were also investigated.

  12. Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-processing algorithm and a hardware architecture to implement the algorithm have been devised for timeslot synchronization in the reception of pulse-position-modulated (PPM) optical or radio signals. As in the cases of some prior algorithms and architectures for parallel, discrete-time, digital processing of signals other than PPM, an incoming broadband signal is divided into multiple parallel narrower-band signals by means of sub-sampling and filtering. The number of parallel streams is chosen so that the frequency content of the narrower-band signals is low enough to enable processing by relatively-low speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuitry. The algorithm and architecture are intended to satisfy requirements for time-varying time-slot synchronization and post-detection filtering, with correction of timing errors independent of estimation of timing errors. They are also intended to afford flexibility for dynamic reconfiguration and upgrading. The architecture is implemented in a reconfigurable CMOS processor in the form of a field-programmable gate array. The algorithm and its hardware implementation incorporate three separate time-varying filter banks for three distinct functions: correction of sub-sample timing errors, post-detection filtering, and post-detection estimation of timing errors. The design of the filter bank for correction of timing errors, the method of estimating timing errors, and the design of a feedback-loop filter are governed by a host of parameters, the most critical one, with regard to processing very broadband signals with CMOS hardware, being the number of parallel streams (equivalently, the rate-reduction parameter).

  13. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V

    2011-01-01

    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  14. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  15. The clinical observation of 1100~1800 nm broad band infrared intense pulsed light for the treatment of periorbital wrinkle%1100~1800 nm宽波红外强光治疗眶周皱纹的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董依云; 周国瑜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigated the broad band infrared intense pulsed light (IPL) instrument for periorbital wrinkle. Methods 1100~1800 nm broad band infrared IPL (Titan, Cutera, Brisbane, CA) was used for periorbital wrinkle therapy of 31 chinese with modiifed Fitzpatrick wrinkle score (MFWS) 0.5-2.5. Energy range was 26~34 J/cm², the interval was 4 weeks, 3 to 5 times as a course. Two treatment-independent evaluators conifrmed efifcacy at baseline, the last treatment, 1 and 3 months’ follow up. The patients were asked to rate the pain level during the treatment and their satisfactory by questionnaires at 3 months’ follow up. Results An average of 0.85 class and 0.75 class was achieved at 1 and 3 months follow up respectively, which had statistical difference (P<0.05). No dissatisfactory and no adverse effect was observed. 93.54%(29/31) patients rated painless during the session. Conclusion The broad band infrared IPL technology is safe and effective for periorbital wrinkle, painless is a main advantage.%目的:验证宽波红外强光治疗眶周皱纹的有效性和安全性。方法31例治疗前改良的Fitzpatrick皱纹分型(MFWS)眶周皱纹处于0.5~2.5级的患者被纳入研究。采用1100~1800 nm宽波红外强脉冲光进行治疗,能量26~34 J/cm2,4周1次,3~5次为1个疗程。由两位独立的第三方专家同时对患者眶周皱纹治疗前、疗程结束后、疗程结束后1个月和3个月的疗效进行分析。通过问卷形式由患者对术中疼痛度和术后3个月疗效满意度进行评分。结果治疗后1个月、3个月随访中患者Fitzpatrick 皱纹分型平均值分别由治疗前的1.5级下降到0.85级和0.75级,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。93.54%(29/31)的患者认为治疗过程中无疼痛,无明显不良反应。结论宽波红外强脉冲光技术治疗眶周皱纹安全有效,疼痛感少是其优点。

  16. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  17. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... solution temperatures. The results show that the diffusive ceiling ventilation system can provide a relative low velocity in the pig pen and decrease ammonia emissions from the pig pen, but this ventilation system causes high ammonia concentration distribution in the animal occupied zone. Further, our...... reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...

  18. Early warning of diarrhea and pen fouling in growing pigs using sensor-based monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D. B.; Toft, N.; Kristensen, A. R.

    Introduction: Today, pig farmers typically asses the health of their pigs while walking through their herd as part of the daily routine. In modern pig production, however, a herd will consists of thousands of pigs in a few hundred pens. If a farmer were to spend just two minutes observing each pen...... positions per pen (hourly), water flow per double-pen (liters/hour/pig) and drinking frequency per pen (activations/hour/pig). Staff registrations of diarrhea and pen fouling were the events of interest. The data were divided into a learning set (15 events) and a test set (18 events). The data were modeled...

  19. Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and CPT-violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to six, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and CPT-violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.

  20. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanostructures by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A; Miller, A E; Klare, J E; Weeks, B L; Woods, B W; DeYoreo, J J

    2002-06-25

    We used a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and scanning optical confocal microscopy to fabricate and visualize luminescent nanoscale patterns of various materials on glass substrates. We show that this method can be used successfully to push the limits of dip-pen nanolithography down to controlled deposition of single molecules. We also demonstrate that this method is able to create and visualize protein patterns on surfaces. Finally, we show that our method can be used to fabricate polymer nanowires of controlled size using conductive polymers. We also present a kinetic model that accurately describes the deposition process.

  1. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  2. Identification by FT-ICR-MS of Camelus dromedarius α-lactalbumin variants as the result of nonenzymatic deamidation of Asn-16 and Asn-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Ahmed Zennia, Saliha; Mati, Abderrahmane; Saulnier, Franck; Verdier, Yann; Chiappetta, Giovanni; Mulliert, Guillermo; Miclo, Laurent; Vinh, Joëlle; Girardet, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-15

    Nonenzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions principally when a glycyl residue is at the carboxyl side of Asn and leads to formation of aspartyl and isoaspartyl residues. This modification can change the biological activity of proteins or peptides and trigger an auto-immune response. The α-lactalbumins of members of the Camelidae family are the only of described α-lactalbumins that carry two AsnGly sequences. In the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, which enables accurate mass measurement has shown that Asn(16) and Asn(45) underwent a nonenzymatic deamidation, the sequence Asn(45)-Gly(46) being deamidated spontaneously at near-neutral and basic pH and Asn(16)-Gly(17) rather at basic pH. The 16-17 sequence was probably stabilized at near-neutral pH by hydrogen bonds according to the molecular modelisation performed with the camel protein.

  3. Oligomers Formed Through In-cloud Metylglyoxal Reactions: Chemical Composition, Properties, and Mechanisms Investigated by Ultra-high Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photooxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radica...

  4. The investigation of the bitumen from ancient Greek amphora using FT ICR MS, H/D exchange and novel spectrum reduction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Solovyov, Sergey; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Recently Russian archeologists have discovered on Taman peninsula an ancient (V B.C.) Greek amphora full of dense bitumen. This is the oldest amphora in the world that contains bitumen. We report the investigation of this bitumen using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Also we used recently developed in-ESI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange approach for the structural characterization of the individual molecules and estimation of the biodegradation of the bitumen. The increase of number of the labile hydrogens compared to the non-degraded oil can serve as an additional evidence of the degradation of bitumen via oxidation. For the facilitation of the spectrum processing we have developed the special iterative spectrum reduction approach. It was observed that molecules that have only oxygen heteroatoms possess two -OH groups what is unusual for the petroleum. Based on this we suggested that the bitumen degraded during its being in amphora for 2500 years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Identificação Química em Nível Molecular de Amostras de Maconha por ESI-FT-ICR MS

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Iendel Rubio do

    2014-01-01

    mais consumida no país, e proscrita pela Lei n° 11.343 de 23 de agosto de 2006 (chamada de “nova lei de droga”), onde todos os isômeros, sais, éteres e ésteres do ∆9-Tetrahidrocannabinol (THC), princípio ativo, foram proscritos. O método utilizado pela Polícia Civil do Estado do Espírito Santo para a identificação de cannabinóides é o teste colorimétrico, por meio de solução básica de Salt Fast Blue B, o qual apresenta resultados falsos negativos e falsos positivos. A técnica de espe...

  6. Development of a 3-D Pen Input Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    other form of eLearning portal. However with a pen-type input device, the professors are saved the trouble of either rewriting their notes or copying...and scanning the notes then uploading them into a form of eLearning , then broadcasting them for the distance learning students. Instead, the

  7. Where's your pen pal from?教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘淑霞

    2005-01-01

    @@ 教材:新课标七年级(下册) Unit One Where's your pen pal from? Section A 教学目标: 1.学习表示一些国家名称和城市名称的词汇.如:Canada,France,Australia,the United Kingdom,Paris,Toronto,Sydney等.

  8. Le Pen õigustas natside tegevust Prantsusmaal / Margo Pajuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajuste, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Prantsuse paremäärmusliku partei juht Jean-Marie Le Pen väitis, et Saksa okupatsioon II maailmasõja ajal Prantsusmaal ei olnud eriti ebainimlik ja et kui väited massimõrvade kohta Prantsusmaal vastaksid tõele, poleks olnud vaja luua koonduslaagreid poliitvangidele. Reageeringutest Le Peni väidete kohta Prantsusmaal

  9. Notas sobre la Penélope de la Odisea

    OpenAIRE

    López Férez, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    27 p. Penélope aparece mencionada ochenta y tres veces en la Odisea. En este artículo se revisan los pasajes más destacados, subrayando los detalles que puedan contribuir a esclarecer la figura de la heroina desde distintos puntos de vista

  10. Novel dip-pen nanolithography strategies for nanopatterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based lithography technique offering the possibility of fabricating patterns with feature sizes ranging from micrometers to tens of nanometers, utilizing either top-down or bottom-up strategies. Although during its early development s

  11. Testing Lorentz and CPT Symmetries in Penning Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    A modified Dirac equation with general Lorentz- and CPT-violating operators in the electromagnetic field is studied. Constraints on and possible sensitivities to Lorentz-violating coefficients in the nonminimal sector up to mass-dimension six can be obtained by analyzing Penning-trap results involving anomaly frequencies.

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal may be injured shall be repaired. (b) Floors of livestock pens, ramps, and driveways shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide good footing for livestock. Slip resistant or waffled floor... the opinion of the inspector, to protect them from the adverse climatic conditions of the locale...

  13. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  14. Economic evaluation of the administration of follitropin-beta with a pen device.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynesteyn, K.; Bonsel, G.J.; Braat, D.D.M.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Devroey, P.; Genugten, M.L.L van

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that administration of follitropin-beta with a pen device (Puregon Pen(R)) is more convenient, less painful and 16-18% more efficient. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the administration of follitropin-beta by this pen device against follitropin

  15. Modified Penning-Malmberg Trap for Storing Antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.; Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    A modified Penning-Malmberg trap that could store a small cloud of antiprotons for a relatively long time (weeks) has been developed. This trap is intended for use in research on the feasibility of contemplated future matter/antimatter-annihilation systems as propulsion sources for spacecraft on long missions. This trap is also of interest in its own right as a means of storing and manipulating antiprotons for terrestrial scientific experimentation. The use of Penning-Malmberg traps to store antiprotons is not new. What is new here is the modified trap design, which utilizes state-of-the-art radiofrequency (RF) techniques, including ones that, heretofore, have been used in radio-communication applications but not in iontrap applications. A basic Penning-Malmberg trap includes an evacuated round tube that contains or is surrounded by three or more collinear tube electrodes. A steady axial magnetic field that reaches a maximum at the geometric center of the tube is applied by an external source, and DC bias voltages that give rise to an electrostatic potential that reaches a minimum at the center are applied to the electrodes. The combination of electric and magnetic fields confines the charged particles (ions or electrons) for which it was designed to a prolate spheroidal central region. However, geometric misalignments and the diffusive cooling process prevent the steady fields of a basic Penning- Malmberg trap from confining the particles indefinitely. In the modified Penning-Malmberg trap, the loss of antiprotons is reduced or eliminated by use of a "rotating-wall" RF stabilization scheme that also heats the antiproton cloud to minimize loss by matter/antimatter annihilation. The scheme involves the superposition of a quadrupole electric field that rotates about the cylindrical axis at a suitably chosen radio frequency. The modified Penning-Malmberg trap (see Figure 1) includes several collinear sets of electrodes inside a tubular vacuum chamber. Each set

  16. Recent developments in Penning-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M.

    2016-06-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry provides atomic masses with the highest precision. At accelerator-based on-line facilities it is applied to investigate exotic radionuclides in the context of tests of fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure studies, and nuclear astrophysics research. Recent progress in slowing down radioactive ion-beams in buffer-gas cells in combination with advanced ion-manipulation techniques has paved the way to reach nuclides ever-more far from stability. In this endeavor many efforts are underway to increase the sensitivity, the efficiency, and the precision of Penning-trap mass spectrometry. In this article some recent experimental developments are addressed with the focus on the phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique and the Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance technique.

  17. A Brief Presentation of Lanzhou Penning Trap Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉林; 黄文学; 王均英; 孙宇梁; 王玥; 朱志超; 赵建民; 徐瑚珊; 肖国青

    2012-01-01

    LPT (Lanzhou Penning Trap) is an ion-trap facility in Lanzhou, China. As ions can be cooled to an extremely small phase space and can be stored for a very long time, ion traps are a perfect instrument for high precision mass measurements. A system with specialized electronics for LPT is under construction now. This system could be used for voltage and timing control to make ions moving in a special mode, and the data acquisition and analysis online/offline could be achieved in the mean time. The requirements of control system, the distribution of hardware, the overview of software, and the latest progress of LPTCtrlSys (Lanzhou Penning Trap Control System) are presented.

  18. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G. L. (Gian L.); Lapenta, G. M. (Giovanni M.); Finn, J. M. (John M.)

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  19. Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhua; Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2016-09-01

    The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and C P T -violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to 6, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and C P T -violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and C P T violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.

  20. Determining isotopic distributions of fission products with a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Karvonen, P.; Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rubchenya, V. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    A novel method to determine independent yields in particle-induced fission employing the ion guide technique and ion counting after a Penning trap has been developed. The method takes advantage of the fact that a Penning trap can be used as a precision mass filter, which allows an unambiguous identification of the fission fragments. The method was tested with 25MeV and 50MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The data is internally reproducible with an accuracy of a few per cent. A satisfactory agreement was obtained with older ion guide yield measurements in 25MeV proton-induced fission. The results for Rb and Cs yields in 50MeV proton-induced fission agree with previous measurements performed at an isotope separator equipped with a chemically selective ion source. (orig.)

  1. Penning ionization of doped helium nanodroplets following EUV excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Buchta, D; Brauer, N B; Drabbels, M; O'Keeffe, P; Devetta, M; DiFraia, M; Callegari, C; Richter, R; Coreno, M; Prince, K; Stienkemeier, F; Moshammer, R; Mudrich, M

    2013-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets are widely used as a cold, weakly interacting matrix for spectroscopy of embedded species. In this work we excite or ionize doped He droplets using synchrotron radiation and study the effect onto the dopant atoms depending on their location inside the droplets (rare gases) or outside at the droplet surface (alkali metals). Using photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging spectroscopy at variable photon energies (20-25 eV), we compare the rates of charge-transfer to Penning ionization of the dopants in the two cases. The surprising finding is that alkali metals, in contrast to the rare gases, are efficiently Penning ionized upon excitation of the (n=2)-bands of the host droplets. This indicates rapid migration of the excitation to the droplet surface, followed by relaxation, and eventually energy transfer to the alkali dopants.

  2. Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy after EpiPen administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrinich, C M; Farouque, H M Omar; Rochford, S E; Sutherland, M F

    2008-11-01

    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and increased cardiac enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary vessel disease. We describe the development of tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman after the use of an EpiPen for generalized urticaria and angioedema. As adrenaline may participate in the pathogenesis of this condition, the need for careful patient selection and education in the use of adrenaline self-injectors remains imperative.

  3. The EpiPen and the ischaemic finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Talvinder; Randhawa, Susheelwant; Khanna, Rakesh

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old with a history of accidental injection of adrenaline from an EpiPen into the proximal aspect of her left index finger. Various methods were advocated to treat digital ischaemia but were of no benefit. Topical infiltration of phentolamine in 1 ml of lignocaine 2% was given at the puncture site with immediate results of resolution of digital ischaemia.

  4. Mass measurements with a Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Audi, G; Beck, D; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; De Saint-Simon, M; Schark, E; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1998-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on radioactive isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended. The most recent measurements were carried out on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. An accuracy of $\\delta$ m/m approximately=1$\\cdot$10$^{-7}$was achieved. (19 refs).

  5. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biella, Serena, E-mail: serena.biella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  6. Pen harvester for powering a pulse rate sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedekar, Vishwas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UT Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Oliver, Josiah; Priya, Shashank [CEHMS, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)], E-mail: spriya@mse.vt.edu

    2009-05-21

    Rapid developments in the area of micro-sensors for various applications such as structural health monitoring, bio-chemical sensors and pressure sensors have increased the demand for portable, low cost, high efficiency energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we describe the scheme for powering a pulse rate sensor with a vibration energy harvester integrated inside a pen commonly carried by humans in the pocket close to the heart. Electromagnetic energy harvesting was selected in order to achieve high power at lower frequencies. The prototype pen harvester was found to generate 3 mW at 5 Hz and 1 mW at 3.5 Hz operating under displacement amplitude of 16 mm (corresponding to an acceleration of approximately 1.14 g{sub rms} at 5 Hz and 0.56 g{sub rms} at 3.5 Hz, respectively). A comprehensive mathematical modelling and simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the vibration energy harvester. The integrated pen harvester prototype was found to generate continuous power of 0.46-0.66 mW under normal human actions such as jogging and jumping which is enough for a small scale pulse rate sensor.

  7. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  8. Effect of calcium hydroxide application to cattle feedlot pens on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total E. coli in pen surface manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Cattle and beef products are sources of the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lime products have a long history of use in cattle production as disinfectants for sick pens, calving pens, and muddy areas, to control the spread of diseases. Lime may also be useful as a preharvest trea...

  9. Examining Factors That Impact Inpatient Management of Diabetes and the Role of Insulin Pen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Chelsea; Lamarche, Danièle; Chevrier, Annie

    2017-02-01

    Insulin administration in the acute care setting is an integral component of inpatient diabetes management. Although some institutions have moved to insulin pen devices, many acute care settings continue to employ the vial and syringe method of insulin administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of insulin pen implementation in the acute care setting on patients, healthcare workers and health resource utilization. A review of published literature, including guidelines, was conducted to identify how insulin pen devices in the acute care setting may impact inpatient diabetes management. Previously published studies have revealed that insulin pen devices have the potential to improve inpatient management through better glycemic control, increased adherence and improved self-management education. Furthermore, insulin pen devices may result in cost savings and improved safety for healthcare workers. There are benefits to the use of insulin pen devices in acute care and, as such, their implementation should be considered.

  10. Demonstration of the Double Penning Trap Technique with a Single Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mooser, A; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Rodegheri, C.C.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2013-01-01

    Spin flips of a single proton were driven in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. For the spin-state analysis the proton was transported into a second Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic bottle, and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect was applied. This first demonstration of the double Penning trap technique with a single proton suggests that the antiproton magnetic moment measurement can potentially be improved by three orders of magnitude or more.

  11. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Interfacial Water Division and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huabin, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Centre for Tetrahertz Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  12. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, Klaus; Beck, D; Bollen, Georg; Delahaye, P; Guenaut, C; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, Alban G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Rodríguez, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years a number of new scientific highlights have been obtained by ISOLTRAP, the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer for on-line mass measurements of short-lived radionuclides. The precise determination of nuclear binding energies far from stability includes nuclei that are produced at rates of 100 ions/s and with half-lives below 100 ms. The mass resolving power reaches 10$^{7}$ and the uncertainty of the resulting mass values has been pushed down to $1 \\times 10^{-8}$. In this article recent ISOLTRAP mass measurements are summarized and the current status of ISOLTRAP is presented.

  13. Web Mining: Penning an Era of Information Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anshika Goel; Dinesh Sahu; Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Today's age is rightly pronounced as "Information Age" which stands on the edifice of Information Technology and is operated by the Internet through the concept of web mining and is maintained & evolved through the high-speed technology of cloud computing. In short, if we try to summarize the situation, we would find that web mining concept has fuelled the entire process. This paper is an attempt to put light on the aspect of how web mining has penned the information age by co...

  14. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Wen Liang; Chih-Ting Huang; Nguyen Anh Dzung; San-Lang Wang

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS ...

  15. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

  16. An evaluation of exercise pen use by circus tigers (Pathera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Christian H; Friend, Ted H; Windom, Amy G

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the behavior of 11 tigers during periodic access to an exercise pen throughout the day and night. The study determined the amount of time spent in the pen and the percentage of time spent performing stereotypic pacing, normal locomotor behavior, and lying down while in the pen. Average access to the exercise pen was 10 hr 49 min overnight and 5 hr 30 min during the day. At night, the tigers spent 29.1% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 19.6% and performed normal locomotor behavior for 23.1% of that time. By day, they spent 40.4% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 10.0% and performed normal locomotor behavior 35.7% of that time. The tigers spent the rest of the time in the pen lying down. Overall, tigers will utilize an exercise pen, spending a greater percentage of time in the pen during the day than at night and also performing less stereotyped pacing than at night.

  17. An all-at-once factorial method to optimize dip-pen deposition of liquid protein inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A. K.; Rozhok, S.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.; Ouyang, K.

    2013-03-01

    An all-at-once factorial method is presented, which optimizes protein ink deposition using microfabricated pens by identifying the pen design which writes the greatest number of uniform-size spots or droplets without re-inking. Pen features associated with capillary ink transport are varied according to statistical design-of-experiment (SDOE) principles, and evaluated using a special 1D pen array of twelve pens. Variable parameter pens are bracketed by control pens. Each pen array element embodies one component of the SDOE matrix. All parameters are evaluated simultaneously with a single droplet writing pass. Results can also be evaluated simultaneously, leading to rapid choice of those pen parameters which deliver the greatest number of printed features having the smallest coefficient of variation.

  18. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  19. Spontaneous release of bacteriophage particles by Lactobacillus rhamnosus pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Pawelec, Jarosław; Malinowska, Agata; Kowalczyk, Sylwia; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2013-03-01

    The identification of bacteriophage proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the identified proteins, we found a phage-derived major tail protein, two major head proteins, a portal protein, and a host specificity protein. Electron microscopy of a cell surface extract revealed the presence of phage particles in the analyzed samples. The partial sequence of genes encoding the major tail protein for all tested L. rhamnosus strains was determined with specific primers designed in this study. Next, RT-PCR analysis allowed detection of the expression of the major tail protein gene in L. rhamnosus strain Pen at all stages of bacterial growth. The transcription of genes encoding the major tail protein was also proved for other L. rhamnosus strains used in this study. The present work demonstrates the spontanous release of prophage-encoded particles by a commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus strain, which did not significantly affect the bacterial growth of the analyzed strain.

  20. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  1. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations for Likelihood Analysis of the PEN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Charles; PEN Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The PEN collaboration performed a precision measurement of the π+ ->e+νe(γ) branching ratio with the goal of obtaining a relative uncertainty of 5 ×10-4 or better at the Paul Scherrer Institute. A precision measurement of the branching ratio Γ(π -> e ν (γ)) / Γ(π -> μ ν (γ)) can be used to give mass bounds on ``new'', or non V -A, particles and interactions. This ratio also proves to be one of the most sensitive tests for lepton universality. The PEN detector consists of beam counters, an active target, a mini-time projection chamber, multi-wire proportional chamber, a plastic scintillating hodoscope, and a CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation is used to construct ultra-realistic events by digitizing energies and times, creating synthetic target waveforms, and fully accounting for photo-electron statistics. We focus on the detailed detector response to specific decay and background processes in order to sharpen the discrimination between them in the data analysis. Work supported by NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  3. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ions in Penning traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, John R

    2009-01-01

    The ability of Paul and Penning traps to contain ions for time periods ranging from milliseconds to minutes allows the trapped ions to be subjected to laser irradiation for extended lengths of time. In this way, relatively low-powered tunable infrared lasers can be used to induce ion fragmentation when a sufficient number of infrared photons are absorbed, a process known as infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). If ion fragmentation is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, a photodissociation action spectrum can be obtained. The development of widely tunable infrared laser sources, in particular free electron lasers (FELs) and optical parametric oscillators/amplifiers (OPO/As), now allows spectra of trapped ions to be obtained for the entire "chemically relevant" infrared spectral region. This review describes experiments in which tunable infrared lasers have been used to irradiate ions in Penning traps. Early studies which utilized tunable carbon dioxide lasers with a limited output range are first reviewed. More recent studies with either FEL or OPO/A irradiation sources are then covered. The ionic systems examined have ranged from small hydrocarbons to multiply charged proteins, and they are discussed in approximate order of increasing complexity.

  4. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  5. Assessing usability, label comprehension, pen robustness and pharmacokinetics of a self-administered prefilled autoinjector pen of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Pachon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess usability, bioavailability, and safety of subcutaneous self-administration of 0.3 mL of methotrexate 50 mg/mL solution via a prefilled autoinjector pen (methotrexate pen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: The study enrolled methotrexate-naïve and methotrexate-experienced patients aged ≥16 years. Visit 1 (Day 1 included methotrexate pen usage training with documentation, patient self-injection, and a patient-training questionnaire completed by the healthcare professional. Visit 2 (Days 8–10 included evaluation of patient self-injection through four scenarios: holding needle in place for 5 s, confirming methotrexate delivery, skin pinch, and pen disposal. At Visit 2, patient opinion and training retention (since Visit 1 were also assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in 25 patients, who were stratified by body weight and randomized to receive injections in the abdomen or the upper thigh. Results: At Visit 1, 12 of 106 patients had questions about the pen, and 4 required self-injection assistance. At Visit 2, the mean performance rating for all scenarios was ≥9.8 (scale: 1 (very difficult−10 (very easy. Successful completion rates were 96.2%–100%; 91.3%–100% of patients required no assistance. Impressions of the pen were favorable; 98.1% of patients passed the written examination. All methotrexate pens effectively delivered 0.3 mL methotrexate and were intact after use. Body weight >100 kg significantly decreased total and peak methotrexate exposure when administered abdominally. No adverse effects resulted in drug discontinuation. Conclusion: The methotrexate pen was used with a high degree of effectiveness, satisfaction, and safety, indicating that this delivery system may be a viable option for patients requiring subcutaneous methotrexate.

  6. 9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.1 Ante-mortem inspection in...) Such ante-mortem inspection shall be made in pens on the premises of the establishment at which...

  7. Rap van tong, scherp van pen. Literaire discussiecultuur in Nederlandse praatjespamfletten (circa 1600-1750)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the early modern period pamphlets constituted the most important medium to influence public opinion in the Netherlands. The thesis Rap van tong, scherp van pen (Glib tongues, sharp pens) focuses on the literary and rhetorical aspects of a remarkable type of pamphlet called praatje (small-talk), w

  8. Lessons from the operation of the `Penning-Fluorescent' TPC and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Diego; Castel, J; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Gomez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Rodriguez, A; Ruiz-Choliz, E; Ferrer-Ribas, A Tomas E; Giomataris, I

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported the development of a new type of high-pressure Xenon time projection chamber operated with an ultra-low diffusion mixture and that simultaneously displays Penning effect and fluorescence in the near-visible region (300 nm). The concept, dubbed `Penning-Fluorescent' TPC, allows the simultaneous reconstruction of primary charge and scintillation with high topological and calorimetric fidelity.

  9. Gender Representation in an Electronic City Hall: Female Adoption of Santa Monica's PEN System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Jarvis, Lori A.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of electronic networking systems by women focuses on a study of their use of the Public Electronic Network (PEN) in Santa Monica (California). Characteristics of PEN that contributed to female adoption are described; gender, political participation, and motivation are examined; and future research is suggested. (46…

  10. Use of Reading Pen Assistive Technology to Accommodate Post-Secondary Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Hennessey, Jenna; Lovelace, Temple; Hawkins, Renee O.

    2012-01-01

    Reading pens are a form of assistive technology that may be used to bypass weak word decoding and vocabulary skills of students with reading disabilities. Only two known studies have examined the effects of reading pens on the comprehension of school-aged students, and no known studies have been published regarding post-secondary students. The…

  11. A Context-Aware Infrastructure for Supporting Applications with Pen-Based Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang(栗阳); GUAN ZhiWei(关志伟); DAI GuoZhong(戴国忠); REN XiangShi(任向实); HAN Yong(韩勇)

    2003-01-01

    Pen-based user interfaces which leverage the affordances of the pen provide userswith more flexibility and natural interaction. However, it is difficult to construct usable pen-baseduser interfaces because of the lack of support for their development. Toolkit-level support has beenexploited to solve this problem, but this approach makes it hard to gain platform independence,easy maintenance and easy extension. In this paper a context-aware infrastructure is created,called WEAVER, to provide pen interaction services for both novel pen-based applications andlegacy GUI-based applications. WEAVER aims to support the pen as another standard interactivedevice along with the keyboard and mouse and present a high-level access interface to pen input.It employs application context to tailor its service to different applications. By modeling theapplication context and registering the relevant action adapters, WEAVER can offer services,such as gesture recognition, continuous handwriting and other fundamental ink manipulations, toappropriate applications. One of the distinct features of WEAVER is that off-the-shelf GUI-basedsoftware packages can be easily enhanced with pen interaction without modifying the existing code.In this paper, the architecture and components of WEAVER are described. In addition, examplesand feedbacks of its use are presented.

  12. Performance study on touch-pens size in three screen tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Luo, Shuyi

    2006-03-01

    Experiments were aimed at investigating the performance of various sizes of touch-pens. The touch-pens were of three different lengths (80, 110 and 140 mm) and four different diameters (5.5, 8, 11 and 15 mm). Three screen tasks were used for determining a reference of ideal dimensions of a pen-based product. Sixteen subjects used 12 touch-pens to perform pointing-and-clicking, writing and drawing tasks. The subjects were asked to rank their preference after each task in the test. The results showed that the length of touch-pens should be designed to extend beyond the handbreadth when gripped. A touch-pen that facilitates natural pointing-and-clicking, writing and drawing tasks each requires a suitable diameter size. However, these tasks are typically performed together, in particular, the pointing-and-clicking and writing tasks. The recommended diameter for all three combined tasks is 8 mm. This finding indicates that selecting a touch-pen with a diameter of 8 mm and a length of 100 mm or longer is suitable for all pen-based devices.

  13. 多波段相关光子光谱分布与时间相关性测量实验研究%Research on the Distribution of Broad-Band Correlated Photon Spectra and the Measurement of Time-Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬阳; 李健军; 夏茂鹏; 郑小兵

    2016-01-01

    基于相关光子的定标技术能够实现“无标准传递”绝对定标,研究相关光子的光谱辐射特性及时间相关特性对遥感器在宽波段的辐射定标具有重要意义。为满足光电探测器在宽谱段量子效率定标需求,基于相关光子的定标技术有必要从单一波段向更多波段扩展。根据自发参量下转换所满足的相位匹配条件,推导出相关光子在晶体内的非共线角计算公式,通过数值模拟相关光子光谱辐射角度分布规律,优化晶体相位匹配角,使得自发参量下转换产生的相关光子具有宽光谱分布,并且相关光子辐射角度与光谱波长能够一一对应。根据光谱分布数值模拟结果,建立了多波段相关光子的光谱分布和时间相关性测量实验系统,利用该系统测量了四对相关光子的光谱分布、符合计数、相关时间以及偏振特性。其中,测量的光谱分布范围为633~808 nm,最大光谱分布测量偏差为1.51 mm,光谱分布实验测量结果与数值模拟结果符合一致;测量了四对相关光子对的相关时间,最小相关时间为0.32 ns,并在实验中观察到了“符合三峰”现象;相关光子单光子计数及符合计数与泵浦光的偏振方向呈正弦函数关系。实验研究表明,相关光子对具有可见光~近红外宽波段分布、时间相关及偏振特性。论文研究结果在国内外尚属首次报道,该研究结果有望应用于光电探测器在多波段的辐射定标。%The correlated photon technique makes it possible to achieve a radiation calibration processing without chain transfer-ring.The study of the spectral radiation character and time correlation of the photon is of great significance for broad-band radio-metric calibration.To absolutely calibrate quantum efficiency of photoelectric detector,it is necessary to extend calibration band from single band to more bands.According to the phase-matching condition of the spontaneous

  14. Fabrication of anode supported PEN for solid oxide fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢淑红; 崔崑; 夏风; 肖建中

    2004-01-01

    Fabrication process for anode supported planar PEN of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was introduced, in which tape casting and screen printing methods were used. Gd2O3 doped CeO2(GDC) powders were prepared by solid reaction method. Anode tape was produced by tape casting. Electrolyte and cathode were produced by screen printing. The GDC powder's component, thermal expand coefficient, the porosity, density and microstructure of anode and electrolyte were investigated . It was shown that an bi-layer with dense thin electrolyte film and porous anode support and with good coherency of the electrolyte film to the anode could be realized after co-sintering the green tape at 1 350℃ by optimizing the power characteristics of the starting materials in the slurry.

  15. Dip-pen nanolithography-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielasi, Francesco S; Hirtz, Michael; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Laue, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to crystallize proteins on surface-localized functionalized lipid layer arrays. DOPC lipid layers, containing small amounts of biotin-DOPE lipid molecules, were printed on glass substrates and evaluated in vapor diffusion and batch crystallization screening setups, where streptavidin was used as a model protein for crystallization. Independently of the crystallization system used and the geometry of the lipid layers, nucleation of streptavidin crystals occurred specifically on the DPN-printed biotinylated structures. Protein crystallization on lipid array patches is also demonstrated in a microfluidic chip, which opens the way toward high-throughput screening to find suitable nucleation and crystal growth conditions. The results demonstrate the use of DPN in directing and inducing protein crystallization on specific surface locations.

  16. Operation of the CSNS Penning surface H~- ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator complex of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) consists of a H- linear accelerator (linac) and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The linac contains a Penning surface H- ion source. The designed energy and the beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of 0.2π mm mrad. The manufactures and tests of the discharge chamber are in great progress. The construction of H- ion source test stand has been completed, and the operation of the source is also in progress. Stable H- ion beams with energy of 50 keV and current up to 50 mA are attained. Emittance measurement for the H- beam is being prepared.

  17. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  18. Mass Measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap at CARIBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Roughly half of the elements heavier than iron are thought to be produced through the astrophysical r process of nucleosynthesis. Despite its large influence in explaining the observed abundance of heavy elements, much of the r process is still poorly understood. A more thorough library of nuclear data of neutron-rich nuclei is needed to improve the accuracy and progression of r-process calculations. In particular, accurate mass measurements are in demand due to the strong coupling between mass and other nuclear properties such as β-decay and neutron-capture rates. For nearly three decades, direct mass measurements conducted by Penning trap mass spectrometers have proven to be an accurate method of determining masses to a precision suitable for r-process calculations (Δm / m Science User Facility.

  19. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  20. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present.

  1. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  2. Tono-Pen XL tonometry during application of a suction ring in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounis Georgios A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Tono-Pen XL in measuring IOP during the application of a suction ring in rabbit eyes with manometrically controlled IOP. Methods Tono-Pen XL was calibrated against direct manometry in 10 rabbit eyes. A suction ring was then applied in 4 rabbit eyes and the IOP was determined manometrically during suction ring application at 350 mmHg vacuum pressure. Finally, in 6 catheterized rabbit eyes the IOP was measured with Tono-Pen XL during suction ring application at suction vacuum from 350 to 650 mmHg, while keeping actual IOP stable at 30 mmHg and 60 mmHg. Results Linear regression analysis revealed that the Tono-pen XL was reliable for IOPs between 10 and 70 mmHg (R2 = 0.9855. Direct manometry during suction ring application showed no statistically significant variation of Tono-Pen XL readings when the incanulation manometry intraocular pressure changed from 30 mmHg to 60 mmHg and no statistically significant correlation between suction vacuum and IOP measurements. Conclusion Tono-Pen XL measurements are unreliable during the application of a suction ring on living rabbit eyes even when the actual IOP is forced to be within the validated range of Tono-Pen XL measurements. This inaccuracy is probably related to altered corneal and scleral geometry and stress.

  3. Nest building and posture changes and activity budget of gilts housed in pens and crates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Vasdal, Guro; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    was born until 8 h after the birth of the first piglet. There was no significant effect of the sows breeding value on any of the sow behaviours. Sows housed in pens spent significantly more time nest building than crated sows from 4 to 12 h prepartum (P ... for the lack of space in the crate compared to the pens. Sows in pens spent more time nest building from 4 to 12 h post partum compared to crated sows, and crated sows showed more behaviours related to frustration and restlessness....

  4. Update on PEN: A Precise Measurement of the π+ ->e+ ν(γ) Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frlez, Emil; PEN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PEN experiment acquired an ensemble of 2 . 1 .107 π+ and 2 . 8 .108 μ+ decays at rest during 2008-2010 data collection at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The PEN detector comprises a non-magnetic 3 π solid-angle pure 240-module CsI calorimeter, supplemented with mini-TPC beam particle tracking, beam degrader and active target counters, 20-stave segmented plastic hodoscope and two concentric MWPCs for charged particle tracking and discrimination. We present an update of the status of the PEN data analysis, and of the associated systematic effects. Work supported by NSF Grants PHY-1307328, 1614839 and others.

  5. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Wen Liang; Bo-Chang Lo; San-Lang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for...

  6. Interdigitated multicolored bioink micropatterns by multiplexed polymer pen lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Greiner, Alexandra M; Weschenfelder, Markus; Waterkotte, Björn; Bastmeyer, Martin; Fuchs, Harald

    2013-10-11

    Multiplexing, i.e., the application and integration of more than one ink in an interdigitated microscale pattern, is still a challenge for microcontact printing (μCP) and similar techniques. On the other hand there is a strong demand for interdigitated patterns of more than one protein on subcellular to cellular length scales in the lower micrometer range in biological experiments. Here, a new integrative approach is presented for the fabrication of bioactive microarrays and complex multi-ink patterns by polymer pen lithography (PPL). By taking advantage of the strength of microcontact printing (μCP) combined with the spatial control and capability of precise repetition of PPL in an innovative way, a new inking and writing strategy is introduced for PPL that enables true multiplexing within each repetitive subpattern. Furthermore, a specific ink/substrate platform is demonstrated that can be used to immobilize functional proteins and other bioactive compounds over a biotin-streptavidin approach. This patterning strategy aims specifically at application by cell biologists and biochemists addressing a wide range of relevant pattern sizes, easy pattern generation and adjustment, the use of only biofriendly, nontoxic chemicals, and mild processing conditions during the patterning steps. The retained bioactivity of the fabricated cm(2) area filling multiprotein patterns is demonstrated by showing the interaction of fibroblasts and neurons with multiplexed structures of fibronectin and laminin or laminin and ephrin, respectively.

  7. Aracnologias - As tecituras de Penélope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stevens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Análise da personagem Penélope, de Homero, e a transformação ousada de Joyce dessa representação clássica da fidelidade feminina em Molly Bloom, a esposa infiel, sexualizada, trivial, lírica. Essas duas personagens são comparadas com sua mais recente recriação em The Penelopiad (2005, da escritora canadense Margaret Atwood. Uma importante categoria analítica dos estudos feministas e de gênero, a questão da voz é enfatizada na presente análise; essa personagem feminina é objeto da narrativa masculina (A Odisseia e Ulisses, mas no romance de Atwood essa personagem é sujeito de sua narrativa, elaborando uma tecitura “penelopeana” transgressora da versão clássica. Focalizaremos também o poder do silêncio na narrativa de autoria feminina, através do monólogo interior de Molly e da voz que fala do mundo dos mortos em The Penelopiad. Os conceitos de “abjeto” e “linguagem semiótica” de Kristeva são base para nosso trabalho, o qual problematiza a aparente imagem de passividade dessas mulheres que buscam o controle sobre suas vidas.

  8. Possible ctenophoran affinities of the Precambrian "sea-pen" Rangea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Jerzy

    2002-06-01

    The Namibian Kuibis Quartzite fossils of Rangea are preserved three-dimensionally owing to incomplete collapse of the soft tissues under the load of instantaneously deposited sand. The process of fossilization did not reproduce the original external morphology of the organism but rather the inner surface of collapsed organs, presumably a system of sacs connected by a medial canal. The body of Rangea had tetraradial symmetry, a body plan shared also by the White Sea Russian fossil Bomakellia and possibly some other Precambrian frond-like fossils. They all had a complex internal anatomy, smooth surface of the body, and radial membranes, making their alleged colonial nature unlikely. Despite a different style of preservation, the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale frond-like Thaumaptilon shows several anatomical similarities to Rangea. The body plan of the Burgess Shale ctenophore Fasciculus, with its numerous, pinnately arranged comb organs, is in many respects transitional between Thaumaptilon and the Early Cambrian ctenophore Maotianoascus from the Chengjiang fauna of South China. It is proposed that the irregularly distributed dark spots on the fusiform units of the petaloid of Thaumaptilon represent a kind of macrocilia and that the units are homologous with the ctenophoran comb organs. These superficial structures were underlain by the complex serial organs, well represented in the fossils of Rangea. The Precambrian "sea-pens" were thus probably sedentary ancestors of the ctenophores.

  9. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS. TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP, ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96% for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazne (Y4. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  10. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  11. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  12. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy A Shire

    Full Text Available Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  13. The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Williams

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species, on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth.

  14. Squid pen chitin chitooligomers as food colorants absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Huang, Chih-Ting; Dzung, Nguyen Anh; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-20

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP), ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96%) for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  15. Psychometric Assessment of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ: measuring ease of use and preference with injection pens for human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleil Andreas M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ including the following: 1 item and scale characteristics (e.g., frequencies, item distributions, and factor structure, 2 reliability, and 3 validity. Methods Focus groups and one-on-one dyad interviews guided the development of the IPAQ. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parent–child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new Genotropin® disposable pen. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study. Psychometric analyses were conducted separately for each injection pen. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Cronbach’s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons. Conclusions The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint.

  16. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  17. Update on insulin treatment for dogs and cats: insulin dosing pens and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ann Thompson,1 Patty Lathan,2 Linda Fleeman3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente

  18. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pprimiparous ewes (Pprimiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size, interacting with parity, can affect the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.

  19. Processing and Analyzing Assessment Test Logs provided by Digital Pen and Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Barhoumi, Zaara; Tort, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    In an educational context, the use of new technologies can influence and change teaching practices. Digital pen and paper, as man-machine interface, appears familiar and do not require any specific training. Analyzing logs recorded by this technology, especially time, seems interesting in order to provide new indicators for evaluation or observation. As far as we know, time stamped logs recorded by digital pen is barely studied in an educational context by researchers. We explore the use of d...

  20. Verifying the accuracy of the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brodeur, M; Brunner, T; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Simon, V V; Smith, M J; Lapierre, A; Ringle, R; Delheij, P; Good, M; Lunney, D; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) is an online facility designed to carry out high-precision mass measurements on singly and highly charged radioactive ions. The TITAN Penning trap has been built and optimized in order to perform such measurements with an accuracy in the sub ppb-range. A detailed characterization of the TITAN Penning trap is presented and a new compensation method is derived and demonstrated, verifying the performance in the range of sub-ppb.

  1. 中性笔绿色设计研究%Green Design Study of Gel Pen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝广霞; 何盛; 刘世豪

    2015-01-01

    The problems of environmental pollution are increasingly serious with the widely use of Gel Pen,Gel Pen pollution has become a large white pollution as the same as the plastic bag . This paper analyzes the effects of various component and harm on environment of the abandoned Gel Pen, focusing on the structure of Gel pen , the research proposed a green design method . Through the redesign for the structure of Gel Pen , it is convenient to fill ink into the pen and to replace the damaged pen tip ,which can extend the life of Gel Pen , reduce the waste of resources and environmental pollution, and realize the purpose of environmental protection.%随着中性笔的推广,由此带来的环境污染问题也日益严重,“中性笔污染”已经成为继塑料袋之后的又一大白色污染。在分析废弃中性笔各零部件对环境所带来的影响及危害的基础上,从中性笔本身的设计结构出发,提出了中性笔的绿色设计方案。通过对中性笔芯结构的改进,使笔杆和笔头的连接为密封螺纹连接,大大延长了中性笔芯的使用寿命,达到节能减排,保护环境的目的。

  2. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELEA ADA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail wetested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement.The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day werethe proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and thegestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sowswere in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detectionafter weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens(differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rateat 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for thelarge pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. Theoverpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in thosepens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  3. Breakdown Voltage Research of Penning Gas Mixture in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bingang; Liu Chunliang; Song Zhongxiao; Fan Yufeng; Xia Xing; Liu Liu; Fan Duowang

    2005-01-01

    Paschen law and equations, which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on the electron ionization coefficient (α), are always used as the approximation of the breakdown voltage criterion of the Penning gas mixture in current researches of discharge characteristics of the plasma display panel (PDP). It is doubtful that whether their results match the facts. Based on the Townsend gas self-sustaining discharge condition and the chemical kinetics analysis of the Penning gas mixture discharging in PDP, the empirical equation to describe the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture is given. It is used to calculate the breakdown voltage curves of Ne-Xe/MgO and Ne-Ar/MgO in a testing macroscopic discharge cell of AC-PDP. The effective secondary electron emission coefficients (γeff) of the MgO protective layers are derived by comparing the breakdown voltage curves obtained from the empirical equation with the experimental data of breakdown voltages. In comparison with the results calculated by the Paschen law and the equation which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on α , the results calculated by the empirical equation have better conformity with experimental data. The empirical equation characterizes the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture in PDP effectively, and gives a convenient way to study its breakdown characteristics and the secondary electron emission behaviors.

  4. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow.

  5. The Possible Role of Penning Ionization Processes in Planetary Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falcinelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest Penning ionization as an important route of formation for ionic species in upper planetary atmospheres. Our goal is to provide relevant tools to researchers working on kinetic models of atmospheric interest, in order to include Penning ionizations in their calculations as fast processes promoting reactions that cannot be neglected. Ions are extremely important for the transmission of radio and satellite signals, and they govern the chemistry of planetary ionospheres. Molecular ions have also been detected in comet tails. In this paper recent experimental results concerning production of simple ionic species of atmospheric interest are presented and discussed. Such results concern the formation of free ions in collisional ionization of H2O, H2S, and NH3 induced by highly excited species (Penning ionization as metastable noble gas atoms. The effect of Penning ionization still has not been considered in the modeling of terrestrial and extraterrestrial objects so far, even, though metastable helium is formed by radiative recombination of He+ ions with electrons. Because helium is the second most abundant element of the universe, Penning ionization of atomic or molecular species by He*(23S1 is plausibly an active route of ionization in relatively dense environments exposed to cosmic rays.

  6. Behavioral, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of shallow pool pens used in gilts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Michael Biazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to assess behaviors, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of gilt breeding (Body weight, 25–110 kg whilst the animals were housed in 2-cm deep shallow pool pens (SPP, without the addition of water, compared to the use of fully compact floor pens (TSF during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial female strains for high lean tissue accretion were used, housed in grower/finisher pens for 108 days (11 animals/pen, 1.2 m2/animal. Instantaneous observations of behavior were carried out every 12 min between 7:00 and 19:00 hours throughout the six days of the raising period. At the end of the raising period, the operational aspects of cleaning the facilities were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial scheme design was used, with two types of floors and two seasons, with three replicates. The average temperatures in winter and summer were 19.9 ± 2.2°C and 24.5 ± 2.3°C, respectively. The use of SPP reduced aggressive behavior and increased exploratory behavior, increased the time for the daily cleaning, and reduced the time for the final cleaning of the pens.

  7. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  8. Microstructural control over soluble pentacene deposited by capillary pen printing for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Lee, Junghwi; Seo, Eunsuk; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2013-08-28

    Research into printing techniques has received special attention for the commercialization of cost-efficient organic electronics. Here, we have developed a capillary pen printing technique to realize a large-area pattern array of organic transistors and systematically investigated self-organization behavior of printed soluble organic semiconductor ink. The capillary pen-printed deposits of organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), was well-optimized in terms of morphological and microstructural properties by using ink with mixed solvents of chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Especially, a 1:1 solvent ratio results in the best transistor performances. This result is attributed to the unique evaporation characteristics of the TIPS_PEN deposits where fast evaporation of CB induces a morphological evolution at the initial printed position, and the remaining DCB with slow evaporation rate offers a favorable crystal evolution at the pinned position. Finally, a large-area transistor array was facilely fabricated by drawing organic electrodes and active layers with a versatile capillary pen. Our approach provides an efficient printing technique for fabricating large-area arrays of organic electronics and further suggests a methodology to enhance their performances by microstructural control of the printed organic semiconducting deposits.

  9. Efficacy of monensin against turkey coccidiosis in laboratory and floor-pen experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W I; Reid, W M; McDougald, L R

    1976-01-01

    Monensin at 60, 80, or 100 ppm in feed reduced mortality and lesion scores while protecting against weight loss of turkeys infected with the major pathogenic species: Eimeria adenoides, E. meleagrimitis, and E. gallopavonis. With single and mixed infections in battery-cage experiments, the death rate of unmedicated turkey poults was 33-75%. Weight gains were significantly (P is less than or equal to 0.05) better with 100 ppm monensin than 60 ppm, as were also lesion scores. Under floor-pen conditions there were no significant differences among monensin treatments. Moisture content of the litter was significantly lower in all monensin-medicated pens (40%, compared with 52% moisture in pens of unmedicated controls).

  10. A Prototype of Mathematical Treatment of Pen Pressure Data for Signature Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Keung; Wong, Siu-Kay; Chim, Lai-Chu Joyce

    2017-03-26

    A prototype using simple mathematical treatment of the pen pressure data recorded by a digital pen movement recording device was derived. In this study, a total of 48 sets of signature and initial specimens were collected. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the data of the pen pressure patterns. From the 820 pair comparisons of the 48 sets of genuine signatures, a high degree of matching was found in which 95.4% (782 pairs) and 80% (656 pairs) had rPA > 0.7 and rPA > 0.8, respectively. In the comparison of the 23 forged signatures with their corresponding control signatures, 20 of them (89.2% of pairs) had rPA values prototype could be used as a complementary technique to improve the objectivity of signature examination and also has a good potential to be developed as a tool for automated signature identification.

  11. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  12. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36......) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again...... 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36....

  13. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    Today most research on pen needle design revolves around pain perception statements through clinical trials, but these are both costly, timely, and require high sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to test if tissue damage, caused by different types of needles, can be assessed by evaluating...... skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after......, but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  14. Classical calculation of relativistic frequency-shifts in an ideal Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ketter, Jochen; Höcker, Martin; Schuh, Marc; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The ideal Penning trap consists of a uniform magnetic field and an electrostatic quadrupole potential. In the classical low-energy limit, the three characteristic eigenfrequencies of a charged particle trapped in this configuration do not depend on the amplitudes of the three eigenmotions. No matter how accurate the experimental realization of the ideal Penning trap, its harmonicity is ultimately compromised by special relativity. Using a classical formalism of first-order perturbation theory, we calculate the relativistic frequency-shifts associated with the motional degrees of freedom for a spinless particle stored in an ideal Penning trap, and we compare the results with the simple but surprisingly accurate model of relativistic mass-increase.

  15. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S

    2003-07-01

    There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children and a consequent increase in the provision of the self or carer injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) (CSL Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia)). The Australian use of EpiPens in children under 10 years has increased by 300% over 5 years with a crude rate of EpiPen provision of 1 per 544 Australian children aged under 10 years. However, the risk of a fatal reaction to food, particularly in preschool children, is remote (in Australia, an estimated one fatality in 30 years in the under 5-year-old population and two deaths in 10 years in the entire child population). It is therefore important to provide a perspective on the risk of death from food induced anaphylactic to parents and carers in view of the anxiety generated on this issue. The indications for provision of an EpiPen to children are not well defined. Six risk factors, which can be considered in evaluating the risk of a life-threatening reaction (age over 5 years; a history of respiratory tract involvement with the initial or subsequent reactions; a history of asthma requiring preventer medication; peanut or tree nut sensitivity; reactions induced by traces or small amounts of allergen; a strongly positive skin prick test) are proposed. It is suggested that the greater the number that are positive, the lower the threshold for provision of an EpiPen. In addition, instruction in EpiPen administration and the provision of both a clear and simple anaphylaxis action plan and a rational perspective on the remote risk of death is just as important as the provision of the device itself.

  16. Innovation & evaluation of tangible direct manipulation digital drawing pens for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Hua; Wu, Fong-Gong; Chen, Huei-Tsz

    2017-04-01

    Focusing on the theme of direct manipulation, in this study, we proposed a new and innovative tangible user interface (TUI) design concept for a manipulative digital drawing pen. Based on interviews with focus groups brainstorming and experts and the results of a field survey, we selected the most suitable tangible user interface for children between 4 and 7 years of age. Using the new tangible user interface, children could choose between the brush tools after touching and feeling the various patterns. The thickness of the brush could be adjusted by changing the tilt angle. In a subsequent experimental process we compared the differences in performance and subjective user satisfaction. A total of sixteen children, aged 4-7 years participated in the experiment. Two operating system experiments (the new designed tangible digital drawing pen and traditional visual interface-icon-clicking digital drawing pens) were performed at random and in turns. We assessed their manipulation performance, accuracy, brush stroke richness and subjective evaluations. During the experimental process we found that operating functions using the direct manipulation method, and adding shapes and semantic models to explain the purpose of each function, enabled the children to perform stroke switches relatively smoothly. By using direct manipulation digital pens, the children could improve their stroke-switching performance for digital drawing. Additionally, by using various patterns to represent different brushes or tools, the children were able to make selections using their sense of touch, thereby reducing the time required to move along the drawing pens and select icons (The significant differences (p = 0.000, p digital drawing pens.

  17. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  18. Cost minimization analysis of different growth hormone pen devices based on time-and-motion simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaewhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous pen devices are available to administer recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH, and both patients and health plans have varying issues to consider when selecting a particular product and device for daily use. Therefore, the present study utilized multi-dimensional product analysis to assess potential time involvement, required weekly administration steps, and utilization costs relative to daily rhGH administration. Methods Study objectives were to conduct 1 Time-and-Motion (TM simulations in a randomized block design that allowed time and steps comparisons related to rhGH preparation, administration and storage, and 2 a Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA relative to opportunity and supply costs. Nurses naïve to rhGH administration and devices were recruited to evaluate four rhGH pen devices (2 in liquid form, 2 requiring reconstitution via TM simulations. Five videotaped and timed trials for each product were evaluated based on: 1 Learning (initial use instructions, 2 Preparation (arrange device for use, 3 Administration (actual simulation manikin injection, and 4 Storage (maintain product viability between doses, in addition to assessment of steps required for weekly use. The CMA applied micro-costing techniques related to opportunity costs for caregivers (categorized as wages, non-drug medical supplies, and drug product costs. Results Norditropin® NordiFlex and Norditropin® NordiPen (NNF and NNP, Novo Nordisk, Inc., Bagsværd, Denmark took less weekly Total Time (p ® Pen (GTP, Pfizer, Inc, New York, New York or HumatroPen® (HTP, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. Time savings were directly related to differences in new package Preparation times (NNF (1.35 minutes, NNP (2.48 minutes GTP (4.11 minutes, HTP (8.64 minutes, p Conclusions Time-and-motion simulation data used to support a micro-cost analysis demonstrated that the pen device with the greater time demand has highest net costs.

  19. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    OpenAIRE

    TELEA ADA; IVAN ALEXANDRA; PANDUR IOANA; UNTARU RAMONA; N. PĂCALĂ

    2013-01-01

    Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most ...

  20. From Pen-and-Paper Sketches to Prototypes: The Advanced Interaction Design Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Pen and paper is still the best tool for sketching GUIs. How-ever, sketches cannot be executed, at best we have facilitated or animated scenarios. The Advanced User Interaction Environment facilitates turn-ing hand-drawn sketches into executable prototypes.......Pen and paper is still the best tool for sketching GUIs. How-ever, sketches cannot be executed, at best we have facilitated or animated scenarios. The Advanced User Interaction Environment facilitates turn-ing hand-drawn sketches into executable prototypes....

  1. Dynamic monitoring of weight data at the pen vs at the individual level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan; Toft, Nils; Kristensen, A. R. K.;

    (univariate) and using individual pig values as parameters in a hierarchical (multivariate) model including section, double pen, and individual level. Variance components of the different models are estimated using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The difference of information obtained...... at the individual vs pen level is thereafter assessed. Whereas weight data is usually monitored after a batch is being sent to the slaughter house, this method provides weekly updating of the data. Perspectives of application include dynamic monitoring of weight data in relation to events such as diarrhoea, tail...

  2. Mass measurements on radioactive isotopes with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Audi, G; Beck, D; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; De Saint-Simon, M; Schark, E; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, R B

    1999-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on short-lived isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at the radioactive beam facility ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended by the installation of an RFQ trap ion beam buncher and a new cooler Penning trap, which is operated as an isobar separator. These improvements allowed for the first time measurements on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. In all cases an accuracy of $\\delta$m/m approximately =1$\\cdot$10$^{-7}$was achieved. (20 refs).

  3. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  4. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  5. The effects of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators on airflow in a livestock test room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B.; Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.

    2000-01-01

    partitions which divided the room into four equal-sized pens. The guiding plates beneath the ceiling were efficient in creating two-dimensional how in the occupied zone, but they increased the differences between measured and simulated air velocity close to the ceiling and close to the floor. Both...... measurements and CFD simulations showed that the introduction of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators reduced the air velocities in the occupied zone of the test room. Detailed geometric modelling of the animals might often be unnecessary for simulation of airflow in livestock rooms. This will especially...

  6. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  7. The Comparison of the Rheological Behaviour of PET and PEN%PEN和PET的流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文刚; 罗琳琳; 路海冰; 袁雯

    2011-01-01

    聚2,6-萘二甲酸乙二醇酯(PEN)是一种结构上与PET非常相近的新型聚酯,近年来逐渐成为研究的热点.利用哈克流变仪对PET和PEN在不同温度及剪切速率下的流变性能进行了研究.流变行为研究表明:PEN的剪切黏度随剪切速度的增加而减小,属于典型的非牛顿流体;从流变曲线上来看,随着剪切速率的改变,PEN的剪切黏度的变化要小;而黏流活化能则表明:PEN剪切黏度的变化对温度的变化更敏感,这就意味着PEN对加工工艺具有更高的要求.%Poly (ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) was a new kind of polyester with the structure like poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Because of the double benzene nucleus in PEN,PEN products had high strength and modulus,stable dimension and thermal stability and so on. In recent years, PEN was gradually becoming a research focus. The results of rheology showed that the apparent viscosity of PEN decreased with the increase of shearing speed, so PEN belongs to the typical Non-Newton Fluid. The apparent viscosity of PEN was smaller dependent on shear rate than PET from the flow curve. The low activation energy indicated that the change of apparent viscosity of PEN was more sensitive to the changes of temperature, so higher requirements was needed for the processing of PEN.

  8. Demonstration of Thermodynamics and Kinetics Using FriXion Erasable Pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bosma, Wayne B.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.; Hammar, Margaret K.

    2012-01-01

    FriXion erasable pens contain thermochromic inks that have colored low-temperature forms and colorless high-temperature forms. Liquid nitrogen can be used to kinetically trap the high-temperature forms of the ink at temperatures at which ordinarily the low-temperature forms are more thermodynamically stable. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Penning ionization electron spectroscopy of hydrogen sulfide by metastable helium and neon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Candori, Pietro; Bettoni, Marta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2014-08-21

    The dynamics of the Penning ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecules by collision with helium and metastable neon atoms, occurring in the thermal energy range, has been studied by analyzing the energy spectra of the emitted electrons obtained in our laboratory in a crossed beam experiment. These spectra are compared with the photoelectron spectra measured by using He(I) and Ne(I) photons under the same experimental conditions. In this way we obtained the negative energy shifts for the formation of H2S(+) ions in the first three accessible electronic states by He*(2(3,1)S1,0) and Ne*((3)P2,0) Penning ionization collisions: the 2b1 (X̃(2)B1) fundamental one, the first 5a1 (Ã(2)A1), and the second 2b2 (B̃(2)B2) excited states, respectively. The recorded energy shifts indicate that in the case of He* and Ne*-H2S the autoionization dynamics depends on the features of the collision complex and is mainly driven by an effective global attraction that comes from a balance among several non covalent intermolecular interaction components. This suggests that the Penning ionization should take place, in a specific range of intermolecular distances, as we have already observed in the case of Penning ionization of water molecules [Brunetti, B. G.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Pirani, F.; Vecchiocattivi, F. J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 164305-1-164305-8].

  10. The PEN Project in Santa Monica: Interactive Communication, Equality, and Political Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the socioeconomic and gender equality aspects of the public's use of PEN (Public Electronic Network), a computer-based interactive communication system provided free to residents of Santa Monica (California). Topics discussed include public terminals; use by homeless people and by women; and participation in political communication…

  11. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  12. Comparison of Eysenck's PEN and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory in a Group of American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eysenck's PEN Inventory and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory were given to groups of male and female American undergraduates from a state university. A factorial analysis of the intercorrelations showed that three major factors could account for the bulk of correlations among the nine differently labeled characteristics covered by the…

  13. Personality and psychopathology: a theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, van D.

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck’s original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck’s personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism.

  14. Comparison of Pen and Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Augsburger, Amy; Garcia, Noelia

    2009-01-01

    Fourth graders with learning disabilities in transcription (handwriting and spelling), LD-TD, and without LD-TD (non-LD), were compared on three writing tasks (letters, sentences, and essays), which differed by level of language, when writing by pen and by keyboard. The two groups did not differ significantly in Verbal IQ but did in handwriting,…

  15. The digital pen as a novel device to facilitate the feedback process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Dekker, Martha J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve clinical performance assessment, checklist data should be immediately available to students to offer them detailed feedback and be stored in a database for quality assurance purposes. Aim: To introduce the digital pen as clinical performance assessment tool, report examiner sa

  16. Flipchip bonding of ultrahin Si dies onto PEN/PET substrates with low cost circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Heeren, M.M.G.; Remoortere, B. van; Dietzel, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    All-printed, cost effective, smart electronic products are expected to be used in a wide range of applications and in large quantities in our society. The substrate material for these applications will be low cost materials like PEN or PET foils. For the functionality of the printed electronics prod

  17. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36) with re...

  18. Shallow seismic structure of the Pen Duick area, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Henk; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Tokarev, Mikhail; Ivanov, Michael; Gorban, Anna; Mienis, Furu

    2010-05-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between structural features, seabed morphology and carbonate mounds in the Pen Duick and Renard Ridge area of the El Arraiche mud volcano field in the south-eastern Gulf of Cadiz, based on seismic and multibeam echosounder data. In 2006 a grid of 100 high resolution 24-channel seismic lines with a length of about 5 nautical miles and a spacing of about 50 m mainly aligned NE-SW and NW-SE was recorded using an array of three sleeve guns (40, 20 and 10 cu.inch) towed at 37 meters behind the ship. Shooting was done every 5 seconds at a pressure of 100 bars and an average sailing speed of 4.2 knots, thus with an average shot distance of 10.5 metres across the Pen Duick Escarpment and the Lazarillo de Tormes mud volcano. Addditional lines were recorded as cross lines for correlation accross the western cone of the Gemini mud volcano. During a follow-up cruise in October 2006 with RV Pelagia, the multibeam coverage was expanded to include the Gemini and Al Idrissi mud volcanoes and adjacent area. NMO corrections, CDP stacking and swell correction were applied to improve the raw images. Results show that the Pen Duick Escarpment is lined along its upper flank with a string of relatively small and steep mound structures. The majority of mounds concentrate on the top and on the western slope of the Pen Duick Escarpment. A large chain of mounds (about 1.6 km long) is situated to the west of the Pen Duick Escarpment. There are also small isolated groups of mounds located to the east of the Pen Duick Escarpment. These mounds do not show a clear internal structure. The seismic facies within the mounds are chaotic. The mounds at the Pen Duick Escarpment occur locally clustered but mainly as isolated structures They are at maximum about 50 m high, are located in water depths from 500 to 650 m and consist mainly of fine grained (muddy) sediments. Our seismic profiles do not reflect a relationship with the possible presence of gas, gashydrates

  19. Determination of the working time requirement for suckling sows in the pen of Wels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quendler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, especially in organic piglet production, it is necessary to reduce the production costs to be competitive on the market. A large proportion of the production costs are caused by labor and construction costs to ensure a high level of animal welfare. The farrowing pen of Wels, currently existing in prototype form, was designed to fulfill organic farming requirements, improve animal welfare, and minimize the costs for construction and labor. The housing system is characterized by four separate functional areas: the lying area, the excretion and moving area, the feeding area for the sow, and a piglet nest. To identify the working time requirements of routine and special tasks, a time study, based on the work element method and an electronic time recording system (ortim b3 (a Pocket PC with time recording software, was conducted. The influencing variables and the time measurements were collected by directly observing work processes in the farrowing unit, which had 5 farrowing pens, over a period of 21 days at the “LFZ Raumberg Gumpenstein.” The data were descriptive and statistically analyzed to obtain planning data on the element basis. The time requirement was modeled according to the related task and in total over the suckling period. The routine tasks consisted in transporting the feed to the pen, feeding the sows, monitoring the sows and piglets, mucking out the dung corridor with a tractor and sprinkling straw in it, as well as filling up the hay rack. The labor input was 3.99 AKmin per sow and day in total. The special tasks included inoculating the piglets, marking with ear tags, castrating the male piglets, cleaning the whole pen and the dung corridor, and preparing the farrowing pen for the next sows. Special work required 25.9 MPmin per sow over the keeping period of 21 days. The total working time requirements over the period of 21 days were 1.82 MPh per sow. Overall, the farrowing pen of Wels has low time requirements and

  20. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  1. Fabrication of dye solar cell on flexible substrate using ITO-PEN film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    Dye solar cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has the potential to reach low cost in future indoor power applications. To realize its application for powering the electrical appliances, dye solar cell (DSC) must be made mechanically robust and flexible where indium-doped tin oxide (ITO-PEN) film substrate will be used as the working electrode. In terms of fabrication process, the ITO-PEN film is easier to handle in a process such as cutting of larger film sheet into smaller individual modules or cell. Moreover the processing of the film into complete flexible solar cells can be realized by means of a continuous roll to roll production process. The paper reports the study on the fabrication of dye solar cell on the flexible ITO-PEN. Here, the temperature constraint in the sintering process is addressed by using low temperature of 150°C and further enhanced with direct heat on the photo-electrode at 140°C to achieve a good bonding between the ITO and the deposited TiO2 film. The TiO2 coated ITO-PEN substrate was then soaked in commercial N719 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with AM1.5 solar simulator. The fabricated flexible ITO-PEN DSC test cell was found to have an efficiency of 2.1% which is comparatively lower to DSC cell based on TCO rigid glass. This is attributed to the overall higher internal resistance of TiO2 film as a result of incomplete decomposition of ethyl cellulose at low sintering temperature.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of irradiated crab chitosan and New Zealand Arrow squid pen chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Adnan A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Ali, M. Azam [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-11-01

    The properties of chitosan from Arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii) pen (CHS) and commercial crab shell (CHC) were investigated using FTIR, DSC, SEM and XRD before and after irradiation at the dose of 28 kGy in the presence or absence of 5% water. Also, the viscosity, deacetylation degree, water and oil holding capacities, colour and antimicrobial activities of the chitosan samples were determined. Irradiation decreased (P < 0.05) the viscosity of CHC from 0.21 to 0.03 Pa s and of CHS from 1.71 to 0.23 Pa s. The inclusion of water had no effect on the viscosity of irradiated chitosan. Irradiation did not affect the degree of deacetylation of CHC, but increased the deacetylation degree of CHS from 72.78 to 82.29% in samples with 5% water. Water and oil holding capacities of CHS (1197.30% and 873.3%, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than those found in CHC (340.70% and 264.40%, respectively). The water and oil holding capacities were decreased for both types of chitosan irradiation, but were not affected by the addition of water. Squid pen chitosan was whiter in colour (White Index = 90.06%) compared to CHC (White Index = 83.70%). Generally, the CHC samples (control and irradiated) exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to CHS, but the opposite was observed with antifungal activity. - Highlights: • Chitosan prepared from Arrow squid pens (Nototodarus sloanii). • Chitosan samples were gamma irradiated at 28 kGy. • Squid pen chitosan showed high fat and water uptake capacities compared to crab shell chitosan. • Gamma irradiation enhanced the DDA of squid pen chitosan but not crab shell chitosan.

  3. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  4. Sow postural changes, responsiveness to piglet screams, and their impact on piglet mortality in pens and crates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melišová, M; Illmann, G; Chaloupková, H; Bozděchová, B

    2014-07-01

    Free farrowing pens (pens) improve the welfare of sows but may increase sow activity and negatively influence piglet production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pens and crates on sow postural changes, piglet trapping, sow responses to piglet screams, piglet mortality, and piglet BW gain. It was predicted that provision of greater space (in pens) would increase not only the frequency of sow postural changes and the probability of trappisng but also sow responses to the screams of piglets; thus, the outcome would be no differences in fatal piglet crushing or overall mortality between the housing systems. Sows were randomly moved to either a farrowing pen (n = 20) or farrowing crate (n = 18). Sow behavior was recorded and analyzed for 72 h from the birth of the first piglet (BFP). Sow postural changes included rolling from a ventral to lateral position and vice versa and going from standing to sitting, standing to lying, and sitting to lying. Occurrences of piglet trapping and sow responsiveness to real crushing situations were analyzed. Sow responsiveness was assessed in response to audio playbacks (PB) of piglet screams on d 3 postpartum (48 to 72 h after BFP; PB crush calls) and real piglet crushing during the first 72 h after BFP (real crush calls). Piglet BW gain was estimated 24 h after BFP, piglet BW was recorded at weaning, and piglet crushing and piglet mortality were recorded during the 72 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC GENMOD of SAS. Sows in pens showed more postural changes (P = 0.04) and tended to have greater incidences of piglet trapping (P = 0.07) than those in crates. Sow response to PB crush calls was greater in pens (P = 0.04) but did not differ for real crush calls between pens and crates (P = 0.62). There was no effect on the probability of piglet crushing (P = 0.38) and mortality (P = 0.41) during the 72 h after BFP nor in piglet mortality at weaning (P = 0.81) between pens and crates. Piglet BW gain

  5. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  6. Broad-Band Imaging of a Large Sample of Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, D A; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of UBV imaging of a large sample of irregular galaxies: 94 Im systems, 24 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 18 Sm galaxies. We also include JHK imaging of 41 of these galaxies. The sample spans a large range in galactic parameters. Ellipse fit axial ratios, inclinations, and position angles are derived, integrated photometry and azimuthally-averaged surface photometry profiles are determined, and exponential fits give the central surface brightnesses, scale lengths, and isophotal and half-power radii. These data are used to address the shapes of Im galaxies, look for clues to past interactions in large-scale peculiarities, examine the nature and consequences of bars, study color gradients and large-scale color variations, and compare the exponential disk profiles of the young and old stellar components. For example, color gradients exhibit a great variety and not all passbands are correlated. Bars are associated with higher star formation rates. Many irregulars show a double exponential r...

  7. Coaxial Sensors For Broad-Band Complex Permittivity Measurements of Petroleum Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgeroe, K.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis verifies that dielectric spectroscopy and microwave permittivity measurements can be used to characterize petroleum liquids. It concentrates on developing sensors for three potential industrial applications: quality characterization of crude oil and petroleum fractions, monitoring of gas-hydrate formation in water-in-oil emulsions, and determination of water-content in thin liquid layers. The development of a permittivity measurement system for crude oil and petroleum fractions is described. As black oils have low dielectric constant and loss, the system must be very sensitive in order to measure the dielectric spectra and to distinguish oils of different permittivity. Such a system was achieved by combining impedance and scattering parameter measurements with appropriate permittivity calculation methods. The frequency range from 10 kHz to 6 GHz was found convenient for observing the main dispersion of the oils. All the oils had dielectric constants between 2.1 and 2.9 and dielectric loss below 0.01. The oils studied were samples of the feedstock for the cracker and coke processes at a petroleum refinery. This verifies that dielectric spectroscopy is a potential technique for on-line quality monitoring of the feedstock at petroleum refineries. Gas hydrates may cause major problems like clogging of pipelines. Dielectric spectroscopy is proposed as a means of monitoring the formation of gas hydrates in emulsions. It is found that open-ended coaxial probes fulfill the sensitivity requirements for such sensors. 312 refs., 87 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Multiwavelength observations of the energetic GRB 080810: detailed mapping of the broad-band spectral evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, K.L.; Willingale, R.; Bissaldi, E.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Holland, S.T.; McBreen, S.; O'Brien, P.T.; Osborne, J.P.; Prochaska, J.X.; Rol, E.; Rykoff, E.S.; Starling, R.L.C.; Tanvir, N.R.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.; Aceituno, F.J.; Akerlof, C.; Beardmore, A.P.; Briggs, M.S.; Burrows, D.N.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Connaughton, V.; Evans, P.A.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gehrels, N.; Guidorzi, C.; Howard, A.W.; Kennea, J.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pagani, C.; Preece, R.; Perley, D.; Steele, I.A.; Yuan, F.

    2009-01-01

    GRB 080810 was one of the first bursts to trigger both Swift and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It was subsequently monitored over the X-ray and UV/optical bands by Swift, in the optical by Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and a host of other telescopes, and was detected in

  9. Broad band Transmission Performance over Residential Power Lines Employing VDSL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani K R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging and Transmission of VDSL2 broadband over power lines has received considerable attention recently to cater to broadband distribution within the premises of a residence. Power lines are fundamentally different from telephone lines both in topology and load impedance. Power lines have a thicker gauge and shorter straight lengths, apart from a large number of bridge taps (BT with inductive load terminations, which are not matched to line impedances. In this paper ABCD parameters of the individual sections are used to analyze the power line channel of upto 10 bridge taps over a 600 meter length. The noise profiles considered include periodic impulse noise which is predominant over power line sections, apart from AWGN. Tone loading profiles have been obtained using Discrete Multitone Transmission (DMT as in VDSL2 over a bandwidth of 30 MHz. This analysis points to the fact that lower Transmit PSD would suffice to match the rates achievable by traditional VDSL2 when bridge taps are open. However with inductive loads typical in residences, we recommend a two step approach of (a equipping existing VDSL2 modem front end hybrids with settable impedances that would approach a conjugate match of the loaded line along with (b capability to nominally increase the Transmit PSD and added subbands to achieve the desired rates in a seamless manner as in VDSL2.

  10. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Narrow-band applications of the multi-grating theory include spectral beam combining (SBC) systems. SBC systems utilizing multiple VBGs must be carefully analyzed to maximize channel density and efficiency, and thus output radiance. This analysis grows increasingly difficult as the number of channels in the system increases, and heuristic optimization techniques (e.g. PSO) are again useful tools for exploring the limits of these systems. We explore three classes of multi-grating SBC systems: "cascaded" where each grating adds a new channel to the system in sequence, "sandwiched" where several individual gratings are placed together and all channels enter the system at the same facet, and "multiplexed" where all of the gratings occupy the same holographic optical element (HOE). Loss mechanisms differ among these three basic classes, and the optimization algorithm shows that the highest channel density for a given minimum efficiency and fixed operating bandwidth is achieved for a cascaded-grating system. The multiplexed-grating system exhibits the lowest channel density under that same constraints but has the distinct advantage of being realized by a single HOE. For a particular application, one must weigh channel density and efficiency versus system complexity when choosing among these basic classes of SBC system. Additionally, one may need to consider the effects of finite-width input beams. As input beam radius is reduced, angular clipping effects begin to dominate over spectral interference and crosstalk effects, limiting all three classes of SBC systems in a similar manner.

  11. Development of a large reactive silencer to attenuate mid frequency broad band sound: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, M. P.; Kane, J.

    1996-08-01

    Development of a large reactive silencer, modifying the pollution control system of a fluid catalytic cracking unit at an east coast oil refinery, was described. The modification was necessitated by complaints from nearby residents, and company determination that sound levels in the community could reach 75dBA to 80 dBA under frequent downwind conditions in an otherwise quiet residential area. Design, construction and testing of a scale model, static testing of the full size silencer prior to delivery and installation, and preliminary in situ results were reviewed and discussed. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  12. Happy Birthday Swift: Ultra-long GRB141121A and its broad-band Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchiara, A; Corsi, A; Cenko, S B; Perley, D A; Marshall, A Lien F E; Pagani, C; Toy, V L; Capone, J I; Frail, D A; Horesh, A; Modjaz, M; Butler, N R; Littlejohns, O M; Watson, A M; Kutyrev, A S; Lee, W H; Richer, M G; Klein, C R; Fox, O D; Prochaska, J X; Bloom, J S; Troja, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; de Diego, J A; Georgiev, L; Gonzalez, J; Roman-Zuniga, C G; Gehrels, N; Moseley, H

    2015-01-01

    We present our extensive observational campaign on the Swift-discovered GRB141121A, al- most ten years after its launch. Our observations covers radio through X-rays, and extends for more than 30 days after discovery. The prompt phase of GRB 141121A lasted 1410 s and, at the derived redshift of z = 1.469, the isotropic energy is E{\\gamma},iso = 8.0x10^52 erg. Due to the long prompt duration, GRB141121A falls into the recently discovered class of UL-GRBs. Peculiar features of this burst are a flat early-time optical light curve and a radio-to-X-ray rebrightening around 3 days after the burst. The latter is followed by a steep optical-to-X-ray decay and a much shallower radio fading. We analyze GRB 141121A in the context of the standard forward-reverse shock (FS,RS) scenario and we disentangle the FS and RS contributions. Finally, we comment on the puzzling early-time (t ~3 d) behavior of GRB 141121A, and suggest that its interpretation may require a two-component jet model. Overall, our analysis confirms that ...

  13. Advanced Multi-Photon Chromophores for Broad-Band Ultra-Fast Optical Limiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    benzothiazole (BT) and NO2, represent a range of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) strengths, while the Pt-core acts as a weak ED...different substituents, R = N(phenyl)2 (NPh2), NH2, OCH3, t-butyl, CH3, H, F, CF3, CN, benzothiazole (BT) and NO2, represent a range of electron...variation in electron donating (ED) and electron withdrawing (EW) strengths R = NPh2, NH2, OCH3, t-Butyl, CH3, H, F, CF3, CN, Benzothiazole (BT) and

  14. Teleseismic SKS splitting beneath East Antarctica using broad-band stations around Soya Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.

    2006-12-01

    We observed shear wave splitting of SKS waves from digital seismographs that are recorded at 5 stations around Soya Coast in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Their recording systems are composed of a three-component broadband seismometer (CMG-40T), a digital recording unit and a solar power battery supply. The events used were selected from 1999 to 2004 and phase arrival times were calculated using the IASPEI91 earth model (Kennet, 1995). In general, we chose the data from earthquakes with m>6.0 and a distance range 85° < Δ < 130° for the most prominent SKS waves We used the methods of Silver and Chan (1991) for the inversion of anisotropy parameters and estimated the splitting parameters φ (fast polarization direction) and δt (delay time between split waves) assuming a single layer of hexagonal symmetry with a horizontal symmetry axis. The weighted averages of all splitting parameters (φ, δt) for each station are AKR (30±4, 1.30±0.2), LNG (58±6, 1.27±0.2), SKL (67±10, 0.94±0.2), SKV (40±6, 1.28±0.3) and TOT (52±8, 1.26±0.3), where the weights are inversely proportional to the standard deviations for each solution. As compared to typical delay times of SKS waves which show 1.2s (Silver and Chan 1991; Vinnik et al., 1992), the result shows generally the same value. In previous study, Kubo and Hiramatsu (1998) estimate the splitting parameter for Syowa station (SYO), where is located near our using stations in East Antarctica, and the results are (49±3, 0.70±0.1). Although it is consistent with our results for fast polarization direction, δt for our results are large relatively to those of SYO. The difference may be due to either different incident angle or more complex anisotropic structure. We found that fast polarization direction is systematically parallel to coast line in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, which is consistent with NE-SW paleo compressional stress. The absolute plate motion based on the HS2-NUVEL1 (Gripp and Gordon, 1990), that may reflect the present horizontal mantle flow, shows the direction of N120°E and velocity of 1cm/yr in this study region. Since it doesn't coincide with fast polarization direction (the difference is about 50°~90°), we conclude that the mechanism of observed anisotropy is lattice preferred orientation of olivine along the mantle flow which caused NE-SW paleo compressional stress. In future works, we will accomplish the analysis assumed more complex anisotropy systems, such as a two layer model of azimuthal anisotropy, because we could find there is the possibility of azimuthal variations of the splitting parameters in a few station.

  15. Compact High-Resolution Broad-Band Terahertz Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to develop a compact scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer, for satellite far-infrared astronomy and Earth remote sensing, that operates at wavelengths...

  16. Broad-band Gaussian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Carlos; Mikulić, Areh; Manjarrez, Elias; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2014-01-01

    Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR). SR is a phenomenon in non-linear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0-15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0-15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250-300 Hz for Pacini corpuscles and 0-300 Hz for all). We document that only the 0-300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz than for 0-15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0-15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0-300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations.

  17. W频段宽带倍频器%BROAD-BAND TRIPLER OF W-BAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 向志军; 吴伟; 杨自强; 钱可伟

    2007-01-01

    A W-band broadband frequency tripler was formed by anti-parallel Schottky-barrier diode pair. The input signal was fed in by a WR-28 waveguide-to-microstrip transition, and the output signal was fed out by a reduced-height WR-10 waveguide. For the input power of 5dBm, the output power was 0.81±1.80dBm and the second harmonic rejection was greater than 25dBc in the whole W-band. This tripler can be used to extend Ka-band signal source to W-band.%介绍了一个W频段宽带倍频器.采用反向并联二极管对结构实现宽带倍频.该倍频器输入为WR-28波导到微带过渡结构,输出为WR-10减高波导.在输入功率为5dBm时,在整个W频段输出功率为0.81±1.80dBm,二次谐波抑制度大于25dBc.该倍频器可把Ka频段的信号源扩展到W频段.

  18. Detecting Lamb waves with broad-band acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave dispersion curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMC, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  19. Internal entrainment and the origin of jet-related broad-band emission in Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Wykes, Sarka; Karakas, Amanda I; Vink, Jorick S

    2014-01-01

    The dimensions of Fanaroff-Riley class I jets and the stellar densities at galactic centres imply that there will be numerous interactions between the jet and stellar winds. These may give rise to the observed diffuse and 'knotty' structure of the jets in the X-ray, and can also mass load the jets. We performed modelling of internal entrainment from stars intercepted by Centaurus A's jet, using stellar evolution- and wind codes. From photometry and a code-synthesised population of 12 Gyr (Z = 0.004), 3 Gyr (Z = 0.008) and 0 - 60 Myr (Z = 0.02) stars, appropriate for the parent elliptical NGC 5128, the total number of stars in the jet is ~ 8 x 10^8. Our model is energetically capable of producing the observed X-ray emission, even without young stars. We also reproduce the radio through X-ray spectrum of the jet, albeit in a downstream region with distinctly fewer young stars, and recover the mean X-ray spectral index. We derive an internal entrainment rate of ~ 2.3 x 10^-3 Msun yr^-1 which implies substantial ...

  20. ASTRO-H White Paper - Broad-band Spectroscopy and Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Coppi, P; Done, C; Fukazawa, Y; Gandhi, P; Hagino, K; LaMassa, S; Laurent, P; Madejski, G; Mizuno, T; Mukai, K; Odaka, H; Tajima, H; Tanaka, Y; Tombesi, F; Urry, M

    2014-01-01

    The broad energy range spanned by ASTRO-H instruments, from ~0.3 to 600 keV, with its high spectral resolution calorimeter and sensitive hard X-ray imaging, offers unique opportunities to study black holes and their environments. The ability to measure polarization is particularly novel, with potential sources including blazars, Galactic pulsars and X-ray binaries. In this White Paper, we present an overview of the synergistic instrumental capabilities and the improvements over prior missions. We also show how ASTRO-H fits into the multi-wavelength landscape. We present in more detail examples and simulations of key science ASTRO-H can achieve in a typical 100 ksec observation when data from all four instruments are combined. Specifically, we consider observations of black-hole source (Cyg X-1 and GRS 1915+105), blazars (Mrk 421 and Mrk 501), a quasar (3C 273), radio galaxies (Centaurus A and 3C 120), and active galaxies with a strong starburst (Circinus and NGC 4945). We will also address possible new discov...

  1. A Computer Aided Broad Band Impedance Matching Technique Using a Comparison Reflectometer. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An improved broadband impedance matching technique was developed. The technique is capable of resolving points in the waveguide which generate reflected energy. A version of the comparison reflectometer was developed and fabricated to determine the mean amplitude of the reflection coefficient excited at points in the guide as a function of distance, and the complex reflection coefficient of a specific discontinuity in the guide as a function of frequency. An impedance matching computer program was developed which is capable of impedance matching the characteristics of each disturbance independent of other reflections in the guide. The characteristics of four standard matching elements were compiled, and their associated curves of reflection coefficient and shunt susceptance as a function of frequency are presented. It is concluded that an economical, fast, and reliable impedance matching technique has been established which can provide broadband impedance matches.

  2. Molecular response of nasal mucosa to therapeutic exposure to broad-band ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Sanchez, Guillermo; Bella, Zsolt; Garaczi, Edina; Szell, Marta; Hamid, Qutayba; Kemeny, Lajos; Koreck, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) phototherapy is a promising new treatment for inflammatory airway diseases. However, the potential carcinogenic risks associated with this treatment are not well understood. UV-specific DNA photoproducts were used as biomarkers to address this issue. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts in DNA purified from two milieus: nasal mucosa samples from subjects exposed to intranasal phototherapy and human airway (EpiAirway) and human skin (EpiDerm) tissue models. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect CPD formation and persistence in human nasal biopsies and human tissue models. In subjects exposed to broadband ultraviolet radiation, DNA damage frequencies were determined prior to as well as immediately after treatment and at increasing times post-treatment. We observed significant levels of DNA damage immediately after treatment and efficient removal of the damage within a few days. No residual damage was observed in human subjects exposed to multiple UVB treatments several weeks after the last treatment. To better understand the molecular response of the nasal epithelium to DNA damage, parallel experiments were conducted in EpiAirway and EpiDerm model systems. Repair rates in these two tissues were very similar and comparable to that observed in human skin. The data suggest that the UV-induced DNA damage response of respiratory epithelia is very similar to that of the human epidermis and that nasal mucosa is able to efficiently repair UVB induced DNA damage.

  3. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor; Martin, Ian; Fielder, Richard; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  4. Secure communication in fiber optic systems via transmission of broad-band optical noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, O; Eyal, A; Shtaif, M

    2008-03-03

    We propose a new scheme for data encryption in the physical layer. Our scheme is based on the distribution of a broadband optical noise-like signal between Alice and Bob. The broadband signal is used for the establishment of a secret key that can be used for the secure transmission of information by using the one-time-pad method. We characterize the proposed scheme and study its applicability to the existing fiber-optics communications infrastructure.

  5. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  6. Optimising the design of a broad-band light source for the treatment of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marc; Daniel, Gwenaelle; Trelles, Mario

    2005-12-01

    Phototherapy has become a treatment of choice in many areas of medicine. Light can be used to deliver energy to tissue selectively targeting specific structures in order to induce the desired therapeutic outcome. The choice of optical parameters for a specific application is not simple. Wavelength, energy, exposure time and fluence can be varied and induce a wide range of tissue effects. The treatment of the skin with light is probably the one phototherapy application that is most developed in terms of technology and market maturity. White light systems are extensively used to address a range of skin conditions. However, different conditions have different physiology and hence require differing optical parameters. The technology standard is based upon systems, which have a number of different optical filters allowing the output to be tailored to the specific application. This paper discusses the advantages of a different type of system, namely the iPulse i300 (Cyden Ltd, Swansea, UK), which uses a single dichroic reflectance filter and whose optical output is changed by varying other parameters in a carefully controlled manner.

  7. The redshift and broad band spectral energy distribution of NRAO 150

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta-Pulido, J A; Barrena, R; Almeida, C Ramos; Manchado, A; Rodríguez-Gil, P

    2010-01-01

    Context. NRAO 150 is one of the brightest radio and mm AGN sources on the northern sky. It has been revealed as an interesting source where to study extreme relativistic jet phenomena. However, its cosmological distance has not been reported so far, because of its optical faintness produced by strong Galactic extinction. Aims. Aiming at measuring the redshift of NRAO 150, and hence to start making possible quantitative studies from the source. Methods. We have conducted spectroscopic and photometric observations of the source in the near-IR, as well as in the optical. Results. All such observations have been successful in detecting the source. The near-IR spectroscopic observations reveal strong H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines from which the cosmological redshift of NRAO 150 ($z=1.517\\pm0.002$) has been determined for the first time. We classify the source as a flat-spectrum radio-loud quasar, for which we estimate a large super-massive black-hole mass $\\sim5\\times 10^{9} \\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. After extinc...

  8. Design of Grazing-Incidence Broad-Band Multilayers for Hard X-Ray Reflectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; WANG Zhan-Shan; WANG Feng-Li; QIN Shu-Ji; CHEN Ling-Yan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new method of designing x-ray supermirrors with broad angular or energy response for use as coatings in x-ray optics is presented. The design is based on an analytical method with oversimplified analytical and semi-empirical formulae, and an extensive numerical method is used in the optimization design. A better initial multilayer is obtained with the former method and optimized with the latter method. In the optimization, a good design is achieved with much less computing time. In addition, the saturation effect due to the interfacial roughness in multilayer also emerges in the design of x-ray supermirrors with definite performances. The reflectivity of C/W x-ray supermirrors as a function of photon energy at the fixed grazing incident angle 0.5° is presented.

  9. Broad band polarimetric follow-up of Type IIP SN 2012aw

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Brajesh; Eswaraiah, C; Gorosabel, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results based on R-band polarimetric follow-up observations of the nearby (~10 Mpc) Type II-plateau SN 2012aw. Starting from ~10 days after the SN explosion, these polarimetric observations cover ~90 days (during the plateau phase) and are distributed over 9 epochs. To characterize the Milky Way interstellar polarization (ISP_MW ), we have observed 14 field stars lying in a radius of 10 degree around the SN. We have also tried to subtract the host galaxy dust polarization component assuming that the dust properties in the host galaxy are similar to that observed for Galactic dust and the general magnetic field follow the large scale structure of the spiral arms of a galaxy. After correcting the IS_PMW , our analysis infer that SN 2012aw has maximum polarization of 0.85% +- 0.08% but polarization angle does not show much variation with a weighted mean value of ~138 degree. However, if both ISP_MW and host galaxy polarization (ISP_HG ) components are subtracted from the observed polarization valu...

  10. Broad-Band Tunability of a Far-Infrared Free-Electron Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R. J.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    A unique property of the free-electron laser (FEL) is its capability to be tuned continuously over a wide spectral range. This is a major difference with all other high-power lasers. However, the tunability of first-generation FELs used to be quite poor (typically 10% or less), due to constraints im

  11. The broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 measured by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M C; Goldwurm, A; Rodríguez, J; Laurent, P; Zdziarski, A A; Foschini, L; Goldoni, P; Gouiffes, C; Malzac, J; Jourdain, E; Roques, J P

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite extensively observed the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 from 2002 November to 2004 November during calibration, open time and core program (Galactic Plane Scan) observations. These data provide evidence for significant spectral variations over the period. In the framework of the accreting black hole phenomenology, the source was most of the time in the Hard State and occasionally switched to the so-called "Intermediate State". Using the results of the analysis performed on these data, we present and compare the spectral properties of the source over the whole energy range (5 keV - 1 MeV) covered by the high-energy instruments on board INTEGRAL, in both observed spectral states. Fe line and reflection component evolution occurs with spectral changes in the hard and soft components. The observed behaviour of Cygnus X-1 is consistent with the general picture of galactic black holes. Our results give clues to the physical changes that took place in the system (disc and corona) at almost const...

  12. Broad-band colors and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    2005-01-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, that account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disk, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and color evolution (including Johnson/Cousins "UBVRcIcJHK", Gunn "gri", and Washington "CMT1T2" photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. Luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluated, both in terms of nebular continuum and Balmer-line enhancement.

  13. Broad-band colors and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, that account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disk, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and color evolution (including Johnson/Cousins "UBVRcIcJHK", Gunn "gri", and Washington "CMT1T2" photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. Luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluate...

  14. Broad-band short term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of a recent 500 ks Suzaku observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. Short term X-ray spectral variability has been detected, which may be caused by two variable coverers of column density log (N_{H,1}/cm^{-2})=22.3±0.1 and log (N_{H,2}/cm(-2) )=23.2±0.1 We find that the partial covering requires an outflow velocity of ˜0.25 c, coincident with the velocity of the highly ionised outflow at the 99.9 % confidence level. Therefore the partial covering clouds could be the denser clumpy part of an inhomogeneous wind. An obscuration event occurs 1250 ks into the observation, where the spectrum becomes totally opaque at Fe K. This implies that the size of the absorber and likewise the X-ray emitter, to be less than 20 Rg. We also analyse the flaring behaviour in the lightcurve. The behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray flux, suggested a corona characterised by an extended "warm" region of ˜20 Rg in size combined with more compact regions of "hot" electrons of ˜8 Rg in size.

  15. Description and Field Evaluation of the Broad-Band Underwater Recording Buoy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    expériences de transmission acoustique. Importance des résultats Une nouvelle capacité d’enregistrement acoustique sous-marin large bande a été produite...HMCS Ville de Quebec in Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia. These measurements were severely compromised by the fact that the ship was not able to

  16. Algorithm Development for Measurement and Prediction the Traffic in Broad Band Integrated Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rawajbeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study an effort had been made to develop an algorithm for traffic prediction and measurement for a wide use networks such as B-ISDN. Such algorithm should base on valuable parameters during the various stages of data elements transmission. The offered algorithm was expected to enforce the main sources of congestion problem in network. With this technique the admission decision is made according to the prediction of a few quality of service parameters expected for the new connections. Approach: This research aimed to find out the suitable method for improving the performance and the quality of service during the real time work in wide used networks now days. The improvement of quality of services in B-ISDN can be achieved by a significant estimation of the network state and discovering the most critical situation during the work time. The most repeated problems in such networks are loses of connection, delay time and saturation of communication lines. These problems are known and some solution could be sufficient to deal with, but not for a long time. Results: The proposed solution was based on the need of traffic prediction method in real time to determine the state of network and decide how to deal with. Such method should base on finding the most significant parameters in network during the real time work and use them as prediction variable to predict the situation or the state of network in the future time and then take the appropriate action. Suffering from permanent problems finding the most significant parameters, which can be estimated at the real time to help for solving a raw problems which encountered during the work in networks such as saturation, bottleneck, disconnecting and time delay. Conclusion: The results which achieved by this research was based on the developed algorithm which can be used to predict the traffic in B-ISDN, optimizing the bandwidth and making the bandwidth available to the behaving sources under congestion situation and also when there is no congestion. Meet the QoS demands of the network traffic during congestion situation and also when there is no congestion. Reject/drop all the packets. First guideline for future study in this direction is investigation additional objective functions, such as bandwidth limitation for archive more general results.

  17. A compact planar multi-broad band monopole antenna for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoqing; Yao, Bin; Zheng, Qinhong; Yang, Jikong; Cao, Xiangqi

    2015-10-01

    A Multiple-frequency broadband planar monopole antenna is proposed in this Paper. The antenna is stimulated and numerically optimized by HFSS13.0 (High Frequency Structure Simulator). The size of it is 39mm×22mm×1.7mm. The antenna resonates at many frequencies. The parameter S11antenna matches well with its feed-line and covers many useful operation frequency bands, including 2G(DCS1800 and PCS1900), 3G(UMTS), 4G(LTE2300 and LTE2500), ISM, WLAN. It is quiet appropriate for the present ultra-thin smart phones

  18. Broad-band chopper for a CW proton linac at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Lebedev, V.A.; Solyak, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sun, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The future Fermilab program in the high energy physics is based on a new facility called the Project X [1] to be built in the following decade. It is based on a 3 MW CW linear accelerator delivering the 3 GeV 1 mA H{sup -} beam to a few experiments simultaneously. Small fraction of this beam will be redirected for further acceleration to 8 GeV to be injected to the Recycler/Main Injector for a usage in a neutrino program and other synchrotron based high energy experiments. Requirements and technical limitations to the bunch-by-bunch chopper for the Fermilab Project X are discussed.

  19. Microcalorimeters for broad band high resolution X-ray spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGros, Mark (Laboratory For Experimental Astrophysics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)); Silver, Eric (Laboratory For Experimental Astrophysics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)); Madden, Norman (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States)); Beeman, Jeffrey (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States)); Goulding, Frederick (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States)); Landis, Donald (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States)); Haller, Eugene (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A large area microcalorimeter with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV has been developed. When fully illuminated, it produces X-ray spectra between 0.5 and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 23 eV. On a smaller, but similar detector, we measure 18 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates of 10-50 Hz in real-time with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. The detector is incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use as a tool for analytical spectroscopy. ((orig.))

  20. A Class of Broad-Band Dissipative Matching Networks Designed on an Insertion-Loss Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-01-25

    34" "~3Ö MMnaaaHapiKiNX-’jM ÜM85F PLEASE RETURN THIS COPY f-D- ARMED SERVICES TECHNICAL /NFCkuT/OttAGEfCY D(KUMEimSERy!CECMmR ^ Knott Building...nee;d be- taken. This, haä been ^RßfÄliti^: c Report &~0i.*$2, FIB -2Q3 Contract ;J!o;=, NÖDsa?«i Page 11 ! f indicated by the heavy lines in...Make, corrections in,~^ the .läcujj> f o~^^ circular !ärc;i - - • -: : - ; ’I i •••<::A ~f -n ;. t: Report Ä«-26fe£2* FIB * 203 •Göhtract No

  1. Swift broad band observations of the Black Hole transient GRS 1716-249

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Melania; D'Ai', Antonino; Bassi, Tiziana; Segreto, Alberto; Belloni, Tomaso; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Parola, Valentina La

    2017-02-01

    We report on Swift observations of the ongoing outburst of the Black Hole Transient (BHT) GRS 1716-249 (ATel #9876, #9895). We analyzed both XRT and BAT data of three Swift ToO pointings performed on 2017 January 28, 29 and 30 (Target ID 34924, segments 1, 2, 3). The XRT count rate is about 90 count/s and therefore the observations have been performed in window-timing mode.

  2. The Solar Shield: A Thermally Insulating, Broad-Band, Electromagnetic Window for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-02

    usually somewhat puckered , instead of lying flat, and in addition to the fact that the netting between sandwiches is often somewhat wrinkled, there is...On the front of each of the secondary envelopes three separating layers of polyester mesh (See Table I) shall be installed. Sew a polyester seam on the

  3. A new method for detemining the Angstrom turbidity coefficient from broad-band filter measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Utrillas Esteban, Mª Pilar; Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Martínez Lozano, José Antonio; Tena Sangüesa, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    In this work, a new method for determining Ångström turbidity coefficients is presented. This method is based on broadband filter irradiance measurements. By combining measurements obtained with different filters it is possible to obtain a single value of the turbidity coefficient representative of the whole measurement range of the pyrheliometer. The results provided by this new method are compared with the original Ångström method and turbidity coefficient values derived by spectroradiometr...

  4. A concept of advanced broad-band solid-state supermirror polarizers for cold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, A. K.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Bigault, T.; Courtois, P.; Jullien, D.; Soldner, T.

    2016-12-01

    An ideal solid-state supermirror (SM) neutron polarizer assumes total reflection of neutrons from the SM coating for one spin-component and total absorption for the other, thus providing a perfectly polarized neutron beam at the exit. However, in practice, the substrate's neutron-nuclei optical potential does not match perfectly that for spin-down neutrons in the SM. For a positive step in the optical potential (as in a Fe / Si Nx SM on Si substrate), this mismatch results in spin-independent total reflection for neutrons with small momentum transfer Q , limiting the useful neutron bandwidth in the low- Q region. To overcome this limitation, we propose to replace Si single-crystal substrates by media with higher optical potential than that for spin-down neutrons in the SM ferromagnetic layers. We found single-crystal sapphire and single-crystal quartz as good candidates for solid-state Fe / Si Nx SM polarizers. To verify this idea, we coated a thick plate of single-crystal sapphire with a m = 2.5 Fe / Si Nx SM. At the T3 instrument at the ILL, we measured the spin-up and spin-down reflectivity curves with λ = 7.5 Å neutrons incident from the substrate to the interface between the substrate and the SM coating. Results of this experimental test are in excellent agreement with our expectations: the bandwidth of high polarizing power extends significantly into the low- Q region. This finding, together with the possibility to apply a strong magnetizing field, opens a new road to produce high-efficiency solid-state SM polarizers with an extended neutron wavelength bandwidth and near-to-perfect polarizing power.

  5. Optimized Variational 1D Boussinesq Modelling for broad-band waves over flat bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhturov, I.; Adytia, D.; Groesen, van E.

    2012-01-01

    The Variational Boussinesq Model (VBM) for waves above a layer of ideal fluid conserves mass, momentum, energy, and has decreased dimensionality compared to the full problem. It is derived from the Hamiltonian formulation via an approximation of the kinetic energy, and can provide approximate disper

  6. Optimized variational Boussinesq modelling; part 1: Broad-band waves over flat bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhturov, I.; Groesen, van E.

    2010-01-01

    The Variational Boussinesq Model (VBM) for waves above a layer of ideal fluid conserves mass, momentum, energy, and has decreased dimensionality compared to the full problem. It is derived from the Hamiltonian formulation via an approximation of the kinetic energy, and can provide approximate disper

  7. Broad-band Gausssian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eTrenado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR. SR is a phenomenon in nonlinear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0-15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0-15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250-300 Hz for Pacini corpuscules and 0-300 Hz for all. We document that only the 0-300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz than for 0-15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0-15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0-300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations. These new findings provide worthy information for neurorehabilitation.

  8. Experimental estimations of viscoelastic properties of multilayer damped plates in broad-band frequency range

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Kerem; Laulagnet, Bernard; Guyader, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Regarding lightweighting structures for aeronautics, automotive or construction applications, the level of performance of solutions proposed in terms of damping and isolation is fundamental. Hence multilayered plate appears as an interesting answer if damping performances are properly optimized. In this paper, a novel modal analysis method (Ege et al, JSV 325 (4-5), 2009) is used to identify viscoelastic properties (loss factors, Young's modulus) of "polyethylene thermoplastic / aluminum" bilayer plates. The thermoplastic is chosen for its high loss factors and relative low mass. The experimental method consists in a high-resolution technique (ESPRIT algorithm) which allows precise estimations of the viscoelastic properties even in frequency domains with high modal overlap (high damping or modal density). Experimental loss factors estimated from impact hammer excitations on the free-free plates highly corresponds with two theoretical estimations. In the first model (Guyader & Lesueur, JSV 58(1), 1978) the...

  9. Advanced broad-band solid-state supermirror polarizers for cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Petukhov, A K; Bigault, T; Courtois, P; Jullien, D; Soldner, T

    2016-01-01

    An ideal solid-state supermirror (SM) neutron polarizer assumes total reflection of neutrons from the SM coating for one spin-component and total absorption for the other, thus providing a perfectly polarized neutron beam at the exit. However, in practice, the substrate's neutron-nucleai optical potential does not match perfectly that for spin-down neutrons in the SM. For a positive step in the optical potential (as in a Fe/SiN(x) SM on Si substrate), this mismatch results in spin-independent total reflection for neutrons with small momentum transfer Q, limiting the useful neutron bandwidth in the low-Q region. To overcome this limitation, we propose to replace Si single-crystal substrates by media with higher optical potential than that for spin-down neutrons in the SM ferromagnetic layers. We found single-crystal sapphire and single-crystal quartz as good candidates for solid-state Fe/SiN(x) SM polarizers. To verify this idea, we coated a thick plate of single-crystal sapphire with a m=2.4 Fe/SiN(x) SM. At ...

  10. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  11. The design of broad band anti-reflection coatings for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Rama Krishna, Angirekula; Sabat, Samrat Lagnajeet; Ghanashyam Krishna, Mamidipudi

    2017-01-01

    The design of broadband anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) for solar cell applications using multiobjective differential evolutionary (MODE) algorithms is reported. The effect of thickness and refractive index contrast within the layers of the ARC on the bandwidth of reflectance is investigated in detail. In the case of the hybrid plasmonic ARC structures the effect of size, shape and filling fraction of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the reflectance is studied. Bandwidth is defined as the spectral region of wavelengths over which the reflectance is below 2%. Single, two and three layers ARCs (consisting of MgF2, Al2O3, Si3N4, TiO2 and ZnS or combinations of these materials) were simulated for performance evaluation on an a-Si photovoltaic cell. It is observed that the three layer ARC consisting of MgF2/Si3N4/TiO2(ZnTe) of 81/42/36 nm thicknesses, respectively, exhibited a weighted reflectance of 1.9% with a bandwidth of 450 nm over the wavelength range of 300-900 nm. The ARC bandwidth could be further improved by embedding randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles of size between 100 and 120 nm on a two layer ARC consisting of Al2O3/TiO2 with thickness of 42 nm and 56 nm respectively. This plasmon-dielectric hybrid ARC design exhibited a weighted reflectance of 0.6% with a bandwidth of 560 nm over the wavelength range of 300-900 nm.

  12. Data Acquisition and Control System for Broad-band Microwave Reflectometry on EAST

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Fei; Zhang, Shoubiao; Kong, Defeng; Wang, Yuming; Han, Xiang; Qu, Hao; Gao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry is a non-intrusive plasma diagnostic tool which is widely applied in many fusion devices. In 2014, the microwave reflectometry on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) had been upgraded to measure plasma density profile and fluctuation, which covered the frequency range of Q-band (32-56 GHz), V-band (47-76 GHz) and W-band (71-110 GHz). This paper presented a dedicated data acquisition and control system (DAQC) to meet the measurement requirements of high accuracy and temporal resolution. The DAQC consisted of two control modules, which integrated arbitrary waveform generation block (AWG) and trigger processing block (TP), and two data acquisition modules (DAQ) that was implemented base on the PXIe platform from National Instruments (NI). All the performance parameters had satisfied the requirements of reflectometry. The actual performance will be further examined in the experiments of EAST in 2014.

  13. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  14. A theoretical and experimental study on no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Zhang(张晓芳); Xin Yu(俞信); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志); Baoguang Wang(王宝光)

    2003-01-01

    A novel no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system with three sets of position sensitivedevices (PSDs) to realize intersection converge inaging is introduced. It is called as the light pen typemeasurement system, because the measuring head is shaped as a pen with several light sources on it. Thestructure design, measurement principle and experimental results are presented. The theoretical analysisand experimental results prove that this system has advanced features of simple structure, high automation,and high accuracy, and can be used in the measurement fields of mechanical manufacture, robot, auto,aviation and medicine effectively.

  15. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  16. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  17. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  18. Fabrication and performance of PEN SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Li; LUO Jingli

    2007-01-01

    A positive-electrolyte-negative (PEN) assembly solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a thin electrolyte film for intermediate temperature operation was fabricated.Instead of the traditional screen-printing method,both anode and cathode catalysts were pressed simultaneously and formed with the fabrication of nano-composite electrolyte by press method.This design offered some advantageous configurations that diminished ohmic resistance between electrolyte and electrodes.It also increased the proton-conducting rate and improved the performance of SOFCs due to the reduction of membrane thickness and good contact between electrolyte and electrodes.The fabricated PEN cell generated electricity between 600℃ and 680~C using H2S as fuel feed and Ni-S-based composite anode,nano-composite electrolyte (Li2SO4 + Al2O3) film and a NiO-based composite cathode were achieved at 600℃ and 680℃,respectively.

  19. Charge transfer and penning ionization of dopants in or on helium nanodroplets exposed to EUV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Dominic; Krishnan, Siva R; Brauer, Nils B; Drabbels, Marcel; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Devetta, Michele; Di Fraia, Michele; Callegari, Carlo; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Prince, Kevin C; Stienkemeier, Frank; Moshammer, Robert; Mudrich, Marcel

    2013-05-30

    Helium nanodroplets are widely used as a cold, weakly interacting matrix for spectroscopy of embedded species. In this work, we excite or ionize doped He droplets using synchrotron radiation and study the effect onto the dopant atoms depending on their location inside the droplets (rare gases) or outside at the droplet surface (alkali metals). Using photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging spectroscopy at variable photon energies (20-25 eV), we compare the rates of charge-transfer to Penning ionization of the dopants in the two cases. The surprising finding is that alkali metals, in contrast to the rare gases, are efficiently Penning ionized upon excitation of the (n = 2)-bands of the host droplets. This indicates rapid migration of the excitation to the droplet surface, followed by relaxation, and eventually energy transfer to the alkali dopants.

  20. Quantification of Tissue Trauma following Insulin Pen Needle Insertions in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Larsen, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop a computa......Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop...... digitized using 200X magnification. Based on thresholding, morphological masks and blob detection, segmentation of the histology was performed to locate tissue bleeding and immune response. Image-to-image registration was used on images originating from the same tissue, and a quantitative measure of tissue...

  1. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  2. Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Penning-Malmberg Gold Plated Silicon Trap Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Narimannezhad, Alireza; Weber, Marc H; Lynn, Kelvin G

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring a portable high density charged particles trap might consist of an array of micro-Penning-Malmberg traps (microtraps) with substantially lower end barriers potential than conventional Penning-Malmberg traps [1]. We report on the progress of the fabrication of these microtraps designed for antimatter storage such as positrons. The fabrication of large length to radius aspect ratio (1000:1) microtrap arrays involved advanced techniques including photolithography, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon wafers to achieve through-vias, gold sputtering of the wafers on the surfaces and inside the vias, and thermal compression bonding of the wafers. This paper describes the encountered issues during fabrication and addresses geometry errors and asymmetries. In order to minimize the patch effects on the lifetime of the trapped positrons, the bonded stacks were gold electroplated to achieve a uniform gold surface. We show by simulation and analytical calculation that how positrons confinement time depen...

  3. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime); Debat public sur le projet PENLY 3. Construction d'une unite de production electronucleaire sur le site de Penly (Seine-Maritime)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  4. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  5. Comment Nicolas Sarkozy a rétréci l’électorat Le Pen

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    D’une élection présidentielle à l’autre Jean-Marie Le Pen recule de 6 points et perd un million d’électeurs. Le Panel Electoral Français (2007) montre que cet électorat se distingue toujours par son tropisme droitier, son attitude ethnocentrique autoritaire. Mais plus du quart des électeurs de Le Pen en 2002 lui ont préféré Nicolas Sarkozy en 2007, parce qu’il leur semblait avoir l’étoffe d’un président et plus de chances d’être élu. Le FN perd plus chez les indépendants et chez les employés ...

  6. Experimental transmission by mosquitoes of Plasmodium hermani between domestic turkeys and pen-reared bobwhites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, J K; Young, M D; Forrester, D J

    1982-10-01

    Plasmodium hermani was experimentally transmitted from domestic turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) to pen-reared bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and then from these bobwhites back to domestic turkey poults. Transmission was achieved by Culex nigripalpus both by bites of the mosquito and by intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. All of the 23 bobwhites and the 13 turkeys exposed to sporozoites became infected. These results indicate that the bobwhite might be a reservoir host for this malaria of wild turkeys in nature.

  7. Experimentally transmitted marble spleen disease in pen-raised wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, J P; Jakowski, R M; Wyand, D S

    1975-10-01

    Pen-raised North American wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo L.) were experimentally infected with marble spleen disease (MSD) to determine their susceptibility to this disease. Gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with experimental MSD in pheasants and domestic turkeys: an enlarged mottled spleen, intranuclear inclusion bodies, and absence of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Detectable levels of viral antigen were not demonstrable in sera of turkeys using the agar gell precipitin test.

  8. DD-08PHASE I CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL FOR 4-DEMETHYL-4-CHOLESTERYLOXYCARBONYLPENCLOMEDINE (DM-CHOC-PEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Marcus; Weiner, Roy; Friedlander, Paul; Gordon, Crag; Saenger, Yvonne; Mahmood, Tallat; Rodgers, Andrew; Bastian, Gerald; Urien, S.; Lee; Morgan, Roy

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: DM-CHOC-PEN is a poly-chlorinated pyridine cholesteryl carbonate whose MOA is via alkylation of DNA @ N7 – guanine and via oxidative stress. The aims of this clinical trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK) of DM-CHOC-PEN and monitor for clinical responses. METHODS: DM-CHOC-PEN was administered as a 3-hr IV infusion once every 21-days to patients with advanced cancer; melanoma (n = 3), colorectal CA (n = 3), breast (n = 3) and glioblastoma multiforme (n = 6). The trial included patients with advanced cancer +/- CNS involvement. The starting dose was 39 mg/m2 with escalations to date up to 111 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty-six (26) patients have been treated. The MTD was 2-tiered and defined as 85.8 mg/m2 for patients with liver involvement and 98.7 mg/m2 for patients without liver abnormalities. The most common adverse effects were fatigue (n = 2), liver dysfunction – elevated bilirubin (Gr-3, n = 3; Gr-2, n = 1), ALT/AST (Gr-2, n = 3), alk phos (Gr-2, n = 3) and an allergic reaction (Gr-2, n = 1). Three (3) patients with liver metastasis demonstrated hyperbilirubinemia (Gr-3 SLT) – 2 at the 98.7 mg/m2 and one (1) at the 111 mg/m2 levels Five (5) additional patients with liver disease have been treated at 85.8 mg/m2 level without toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: DM-CHOC-PEN is safe at the presented dose levels and has a favorable PK profile. Eight (8) patients had responses or significant PFS, including 6 with CNS involvement. A Phase II trial has begun in patients with primary brain cancer and brain metastases from melanoma, breast cancer and lung cancer.

  9. The mechanical design and simulation of a scaled H{sup −} Penning ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, T., E-mail: theo.rutter@stfc.ac.uk; Faircloth, D.; Turner, D.; Lawrie, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX110QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    The existing ISIS Penning H{sup −} source is unable to produce the beam parameters required for the front end test stand and so a new, high duty factor, high brightness scaled source is being developed. This paper details first the development of an electrically biased aperture plate for the existing ISIS source and second, the design, simulation, and development of a prototype scaled source.

  10. Optical pen-size reflectometer for monitoring of early dental erosion in native and polished enamels

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Bachofner, Kai K.; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Application of the specular reflection intensity was previously reported for the quantification of early dental erosion. Further development of the technique and assembly of the miniaturized pen-size instrument are described. The optical system was adjusted to fit into a handy device which could potentially access different positions in the oral cavity. The assembled instrument could successfully detect early erosion progression in both polished (n=70) and native (n=20) human enamels. Differe...

  11. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 头孢曲松低敏淋球菌中penA基因的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the PenA Gene in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Ceftriaxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    其木格; 张秀丽; 塔娜; 董磊

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测头孢曲松低敏淋球菌中penA基因的改变,探讨其是否与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低有关.方法:通过对5株头孢曲松低敏和1株头孢曲松敏感的淋球菌进行penA基因全基因测序,进一步了解penA基因的碱基置换或插入情况及青霉素结合蛋白2(PBP2)的结构模式.结果:5株头孢曲松低敏淋球菌的penA基因中有多个碱基置换或突变,没有发现含有镶嵌状penA基因结构模式.结论:penA基因的多个碱基置换或突变可能与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低相关.

  13. A preparation Penning trap for the TRAPSENSOR project with prospects for MATS at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J. M.; Rodríguez, D.

    2016-06-01

    Most of the Penning trap spectrometers for precision measurements at radioactive ion beam facilities make use of another Penning trap, located upstream in the experimental set up, to perform isobaric separation and deliver cooled and pure ion samples to be measured. The preparation trap for the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada has been built to prepare ions, produced off-line with a laser-desorption ion source, using firstly the buffer-gas cooling technique. The system has been built following the geometrical specifications given in the Technical Design Report for the MATS Penning-trap system to be built at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. So far, cooling resonances have been obtained for stable nuclides, with mass-to-charge ratios ranging from 40 to about 200, with a performance similar to those systems already in operation at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this contribution, the preparation trap, built and commissioned at the University of Granada, will be briefly described. First results on buffer-gas cooling will be presented.

  14. Dip Pen Nanolithography: a maturing technology for high-throughput flexible nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Tevaarwerk, E. R.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.

    2007-04-01

    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for much of current nanoscience research. Further, depositing a wide range of materials as nanoscale features onto diverse surfaces is a challenging requirement for nanoscale processing systems. As a high resolution scanning probe-based direct-write technology, Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) satisfies and exceeds these fundamental requirements. Herein we specifically describe the massive scalability of DPN with two dimensional probe arrays (the 2D nano PrintArray). In collaboration with researchers at Northwestern University, we have demonstrated massively parallel nanoscale deposition with this 2D array of 55,000 pens on a centimeter square probe chip. (To date, this is the highest cantilever density ever reported.) This enables direct-writing flexible patterns with a variety of molecules, simultaneously generating 55,000 duplicates at the resolution of single-pen DPN. To date, there is no other way to accomplish this kind of patterning at this unprecedented resolution. These advances in high-throughput, flexible nanopatterning point to several compelling applications. The 2D nano PrintArray can cover a square centimeter with nanoscale features and pattern 10 7 μm2 per hour. These features can be solid state nanostructures, metals, or using established templating techniques, these advances enable screening for biological interactions at the level of a few molecules, or even single molecules; this in turn can enable engineering the cell-substrate interface at sub-cellular resolution.

  15. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  16. Pen rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1994 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1994-06-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  17. LEBIT II: Upgrades and developments for high precision Penning trap mass measurements with rare isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redshaw, M., E-mail: redsh1m@cmich.edu [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Kwiatkowski, A.A.; Lincoln, D.L.; Novario, S.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Valverde, A.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Development and implementation of new experimental techniques at the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). • Development of a laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters for use as mass references and stable isotopes for offline mass measurement programs. • Implementation of stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT) for efficient removal of contaminant ions. • Development of a miniature Penning trap to be installed in the LEBIT magnet and used as a magnetometer for monitoring temporal variations in the magnetic field strength. • Development of a new 7 T single-ion Penning trap (SIPT) at the NSCL that will use image charge detection for ultra-high sensitivity measurements of short-lived rare isotopes with very low production rates. -- Abstract: During the next several years and decades the extension of high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry measurements to more-exotic isotopes, lying far from the valley of stability will continue to provide significant contributions to nuclear physics. However, such measurements must overcome the challenges of working with isotopes that have low production rates and short lifetimes. At the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, a number of developments have been implemented or are underway to meet these challenges by minimizing rare-isotope preparation and measurement time, maximizing use of available beam time, and increasing sensitivity. These developments and the current status of the LEBIT facility will be discussed.

  18. Utilization of squid pen for the efficient production of chitosanase and antioxidants through prolonged autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Wu, Pei-Chen; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2009-05-26

    We have developed a culture system for efficient production of chitosanase by Bacillus sp. TKU004. TKU004 was cultivated by using squid pen powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The effects of autoclave treatments of the medium on the production of chitosanase were investigated. Autoclave treatment of squid pen powder for 45 min remarkably promoted enzyme productivity. When the culture medium containing an initial squid pen powder concentration of 3% was autoclaved for 45 min, the chitosanase activity was optimal and reached 0.14-0.16 U/mL. In addition, extracellular surfactant-stable chitosanase was purified from the TKU004 culture supernatant. The antioxidant activity of TKU004 culture supernatant was determined through the scavenging ability of DPPH, with 70% per mL. With this method, we have shown that marine wastes can be utilized efficiently through prolonged autoclave treatments to generate a high value-added product, and have revealed its hidden potential in the production of functional foods.

  19. Highly charged ions in Penning traps, a new tool for resolving low lying isomeric states

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Simon, V V; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Andreoiu, C; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly charged ions greatly increases the precision and resolving power, in particular for short-lived species produced at on-line radio-isotope beam facilities, achievable with Penning trap mass spectrometers. This increase in resolving power provides a new and unique access to resolving low-lying long-lived ($T_{1/2} > 50$ ms) nuclear isomers. Recently, the $111.19(22)$ keV (determined from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy) isomeric state in $^{78}$Rb has been resolved from the ground state, in a charge state of $q=8+$ with the TITAN Penning trap at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The energy level of the isomer was measured to be $108.7(6.4)$ keV above the ground state. The extracted masses for both the ground and isomeric states, and their difference, agree with the AME2003 and Nuclear Data Sheet values. This proof of principle measurement demonstrates the feasibility of using Penning trap mass spectrometers coupled to charge breeders to study nuclear isomers and opens a new route for isomer searches.

  20. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  1. Dose measurement in periapical radiographic exams using dosemeter pen: a look at the radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato; Ferreira, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessamachado@ufmg.br [Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Veloso, M.A.F., E-mail: gbarros@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: Dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The use of radiology has been a large increase with the crescent accessibility to dental care, orthodontics and aesthetic. Besides the increase in the number of exams, there was an increase in radiation dose during dental exams such as computed tomography. The objective of this work is to evaluate the radiation dose to which the patient is subjected in a peri apical dental radiography. The dose values were measured with a dosimeter pen during radiographs in real exams peri apical with the X-ray equipment Timex 70 C Gnatus. During the exams realization, was maintained, in the holder, the dosimeter pen near to the region of interest. The values collected were recorded in dosimeter pen. These values were compared with the reference doses of the Portaria 453 of ANVISA, this procedure allows to verify if the recommended dose limits for this exam are being respected. These data indicates if the used equipment is calibrated and in good condition of use. It was performed a comparison between the obtained experimental dose values and the values found from computer simulation with the code MCNPX 2.6.0. (author)

  2. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  3. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441 and high yield of activity recovery (51% by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5% for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazine (Y4. The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  4. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Ju; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Huang, Chung-Chi; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU), beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2) subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2) subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  5. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU, beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  6. Cold-water coral growth and mound formation on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Furu; de Stigter, Henko C.; de Haas, Henk; Groot, Diane; Frank, Norbert; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundant skeletal remains of cold-water corals in sediments around the Pen Duick Escarpment, southern Gulf of Cadiz, suggest that corals thrived in the area in a relatively recent past. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds with heights of up to 60 m are found at about 550 m water depth on the edge of an elevation delimited by the Pen Duick Escarpment. Coral debris is abundantly present in the sediment on the carbonate mounds as well as on the escarpment, with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata as most common species. However, living coral is rare, and a mud drape of a few cm to tens of cm thick is usually found covering the coral-bearing sediment. On and off mound sediment cores are presently investigated in detail to determine the timing of the decline of cold-water coral communities on the Pen Duick Escarpment. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope stratigraphy and U/Th datings of coral debris from the on mound core show that the main framework building cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were present on the mound during glacial periods (Marine Isotope Stage 2, 6 and 8) and the early Holocene, but absent during the late Holocene. During glacial periods a dense framework of cold-water corals existed and sedimentation rates were high. Both on and off mound cores show low magnetic susceptibility values until marine isotope stage 3, after which values are increasing. A large hiatus is found between 36 and 141 kyr. Our finding that cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment occurred mostly during glacial times contrasts with that of cold-water corals on the Rockall Trough margins and in the Porcupine Seabight, where they seem to have mainly lived during interglacials. The reason for the late Holocene decline of cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment is still a matter of speculation. Observations made with CTD and long-term deployment of benthic landers indicate activity of internal waves in the area with semi-diurnal periodicity, inducing

  7. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  8. Performance of a dispersion model to estimate methane loss from cattle in pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Flesch, T K; Coates, T

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurements of enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions from cattle (Bos taurus) are necessary to improve emission coefficients used in national emissions inventories, and to evaluate mitigation strategies. Our study was conducted to evaluate a novel approach that allowed near continuous CH(4) measurement from beef cattle confined in pens. The backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion technique was used in conjunction with global position system (GPS) information from individual animals, to evaluate CH(4) emissions from pens of cattle. The dispersion technique was compared to estimates of CH(4) production using the SF(6) tracer technique. Sixty growing beef cattle were fed a diet containing 60% barley silage (dry matter basis) supplemented with either barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain or corn (Zea mays L.) distillers dried grains. The results show that daily CH(4) emissions were about 7% lower for the dispersion technique than for the tracer technique (185 vs. 199 g CH(4) animal(-1) d(-1)). The precision of the dispersion technique, relative to the SF(6) tracer technique, expressed by the Pearson coefficient was 0.76; the relative accuracy given by the concordance coefficient was 0.69. The bLS dispersion technique was able to detect differences (P emissions ranging from 161 to 279 g CH(4) animal(-1) d(-1). Configuring the cattle as point sources resulted in more accurate CH(4) emissions than assuming a uniform area release from the pen surface. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using cattle as point sources can be used to accurately measure enteric CH(4) from cattle and to evaluate the impact of dietary mitigation strategies.

  9. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  10. Combined-dynamic mode"dip-pen" nanolithography and physically nanopatterning along single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; WANG Ying; WU Haiping; ZHANG Yi; ZHANG Zhixiang; ZHOU Xingfei; LI Minqian; HU Jun

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force micriscope (AFM)-based dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an emerging approach for constructing nanostructures on material surfaces such as gold, silicon and silicon oxide. Although DPN is a powerful technique, it has not shown its ability of direct-writing and patterning of nanostructures on surfaces of soft materials, for example biomacromolecules. Direct depositing on soft surfaces becomes possible with the introduction of a combined-dynamic mode DPN rather than mostly used contact mode DPN or tapping mode DPN. In this report, the combined dynamic mode DPN is used for direct depositing protein ink on DNA molecules at the nanometer scale.

  11. Minorias étnico-religiosas na Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    AMRAN, Rica; Barletta, Vincent; Barrio Barrio, Juan Antonio; Barros, Maria Filomena Lopes de; Braga,Isabel M. R. Mendes Drumond; Echevarría Arsuaga, Ana; Gomes, Saul António; Hinojosa Montalvo, José; Martínez San Pedro, Maria Desamparados; Mea, Elvira Cunha de Azevedo; Molenat, Jean-Pierre; Molina Molina, Ángel Luis; Olival, Fernanda; Romero-Camacho, Isabel Montes; Soyer, François

    2016-01-01

    Esta obra contempla urna reflexáo centrada ñas minorías da Península Ibérica, num percurso abrangente que privilegia os períodos Medieval e Moderno. A apresentagao dos avangos da investigagáo ou dos estados da arte sobre os grupos minoritarios e a respectiva discussao, procurou questionar conceitos, metodologías e perspectivas. Subsidio para o estudo das minorías peninsulares, que se pretende continuado e sempre dialéctico, resgatando um Passado que integra plenamente o Presente e se projecta...

  12. Fabrication of a segmented micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, M; Singer, K; Werth, G; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe a versatile planar Penning trap structure, which allows to dynamically modify the trapping configuration almost arbitrarily. The trap consists of 37 hexagonal electrodes, each of 300 mikron diameter, fabricated in a gold-on-sapphire lithographic technique. Every hexagon can be addressed individually, thus shaping the electric potential. The fabrication of such a device with clean room methods is demonstrated. We illustrate the variability of the device by a detailed numerical simulation of a lateral and a vertical transport and we simulate trapping in racetrack and artificial-crystal configurations. The trap may be used for ions or electrons, as a versatile container for quantum optics and quantum information experiments.

  13. JYFLTRAP: a cylindrical Penning trap for isobaric beam purification at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Kopecky, S. E-mail: kopecky@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-11

    A Penning trap has been installed for isobaric beam purification at the IGISOL-facility at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In this paper, the technical details of this new device together with results of the first tests are presented. The mass resolving power, depending on the excitation parameters and the ion species, can be as high as 145 000 and the total transmission has been determined to be 17%. In addition, it is shown that with this experimental setup it is possible to measure atomic masses up to A=120 with accuracies of approximately 50 keV.

  14. Mass measurements of neutron-deficient nuclides close to A=80 with a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Ronkanen, P.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (Finland); Batist, L.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Popov, A.V.; Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eliseev, S.A.; Vorobjev, G.K. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The masses of {sup 80,} {sup 81,} {sup 82,} {sup 83}Y, {sup 83,} {sup 84,} {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 88}Zr and {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 87,} {sup 88}Nb have been measured with a typical precision of 7keV by using the Penning trap setup at IGISOL. The mass of {sup 84}Zr has been measured for the first time. These precise mass measurements have improved S{sub p} and Q{sub EC} values for astrophysically important nuclides. (orig.)

  15. Los elefantes marinos de península Valdés

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M; Campagna, C.

    2002-01-01

    Durante la primavera austral, la Península Valdés (Chubut, Argentina) es el escenario de la masiva visita del elefante marino sudamericano (Otaria flavescens). Se trata de la temporada reproductiva. El recuento año tras año de este conjunto migrante es un trabajo indispensable para conocer la dinámica de la población. Los censos poblacionales terrestres ofrecen un invalorable conocimiento de sus fluctuaciones y migraciones. Se brindan particularidades de la elefantería de Valdés y sus poblaci...

  16. A 10,000-Pen Nanoplotter with Integrated Ink Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-03

    Nanolithography," IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2004, 13(4), 594-602. 3. Chung, S.–W.; Ginger , D.S.; Morales, M.; Zhang, Z...Nanolithography and a Sol-Based Ink,” Nano Lett. 2003, 3, 757-760. 5. Ginger , D.S.; Zhang, H.; Mirkin, C.A. “The Evolution of Dip-Pen... Nanoparticles Based on Thermally Addressable DNA Interconnects,” Adv. Mater., 2006, 18, 2304-2306. 8. Jin, R.; Cao, Y.C., Thaxton, C.S.; Mirkin, C.A

  17. Operational and theoretical temperature considerations in a Penning surface plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faircloth, D. C., E-mail: dan.faircloth@stfc.ac.uk; Lawrie, S. R. [ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Pereira Da Costa, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dudnikov, V. [Muons Inc. United States of America (United States)

    2015-04-08

    A fully detailed 3D thermal model of the ISIS Penning surface plasma source is developed in ANSYS. The proportion of discharge power applied to the anode and cathode is varied until the simulation matches the operational temperature observations. The range of possible thermal contact resistances are modelled, which gives an estimation that between 67% and 85% of the discharge power goes to the cathode. Transient models show the electrode surface temperature rise during the discharge pulse for a range of duty cycles. The implications of these measurements are discussed and a mechanism for governing cesium coverage proposed. The requirements for the design of a high current long pulse source are stated.

  18. Retroperitoneal migration of a self-inflicted ballpoint pen via the urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous accounts documenting the introduction of foreign bodies into the urinary bladder have been reported. These foreign bodies are typically self-inserted via urethral but migration from adjacent organs by an ulcerative process and penetrating injuries are also reported. However, "contrary" migration of a self-inflicted vesical foreign body to the retroperitoneum was not previously reported in literature. We report here a case of a ballpoint pen self-inserted via urethral by a female patient, which was identified in retroperitoneal position years later.

  19. Evaporative cooling and coherent axial oscillations of highly charged ions in a penning trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobein, M; Solders, A; Suhonen, M; Liu, Y; Schuch, R

    2011-01-07

    Externally, in an electron beam ion trap, generated Ar16+ ions were retrapped in a Penning trap and evaporatively cooled in their axial motion. The cooling was observed by a novel extraction technique based on the excitation of a coherent axial oscillation which yields short ion bunches of well-defined energies. The initial temperature of the ion cloud was decreased by a factor of more than 140 within 1 s, while the phase-space density of the coldest extracted ion pulses was increased by a factor of up to about 9.

  20. Carbon cluster mass calibration at the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    TRIGA-TRAP is a facility which aims for mass measurements on neutron-rich short-lived fission products and actinides with relative mass uncertainties of 10{sup -7} and below. To this end the cyclotron frequency of a stored ion in a Penning trap is determined. In high-precision mass spectrometry the investigation of systematic errors is of utmost importance. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the measured values, various carbon cluster ions have been used in cross reference measurements. The results are presented and the accuracy limit of TRIGA-TRAP is discussed.

  1. Diagnosis of Hydrogen Plasma in a Miniature Penning Ion Source by Double Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dazhi; YANG Zhonghai; XIAO Kunxiang; DAI Jingyi

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of hydrogen plasma in a miniature Penning discharge ion source,including the electron temperature and the electron density,were measured by using double probes.The results indicate that the electron density increases and the electron temperature decreases with the increase in gas pressure and the discharge current.The electron temperature is about 5~9 eV and the electron density is 6.0x1013~1.2×1014 m-3 while the discharge current is in a range of 50~12μA.

  2. The Islamic connotation in the Gematric pen-names of Franqois Rabelais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available François Rabelais signed his books on Gargantua et Pantagruel with pen­ names. The gematric value of his pseudonyms, NASIER, M. ALCOFRIBAS, and ALCOFRIBAS NASIER, are 66, 99 and 152, respectively. With numbers 66 and 99, Rabelais identified himself as the Apocalyptic beast, according to the report by St, John the Divine: And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had horns like a lamb. The ram's and buck's horns are indeed similar to the Indian figures 66 and 99.

  3. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  4. Photophysical and photochemical effects of UV and VUV photo-oxidation and photolysis on PET and PEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a widely used polymer in the bottling, packaging, and clothing industry. In recent years an increasing global demand for PET has taken place due to the Solar Disinfection (SODIS) process. SODIS is a method of sterilizing fresh water into drinkable water. The PET bottles are used in the process to contain the water during solar irradiation due to its highly transparent optical property. Alongside PET, polyethylene 2,6-napthalate (PEN) is used in bottling and flexible electronic applications. The surface of PEN would need to be modified to control the hydrophilicity and the interaction it exudes as a substrate. The UV light absorption properties of PET and PEN are of great importance for many applications, and thus needs to be studied along with its photochemical resistance. The optical and chemical nature of PET was studied as it was treated by UV photo-oxidation, photo-ozonation, and photolysis under atmospheric pressure. Another investigation was also used to study PEN and PET as they are treated by vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation, VUV photolysis, and remote oxygen reactions. The extent of the photoreactions' effect into the depth of the polymers is examined as treatment conditions are changed. The different experimental methods established the rate of several competing photoreactions on PET and PEN during irradiance, and their effect on the optical quality of the polymers.

  5. Behavior of many ions in a Penning trap and results of the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Porobic, Tomica

    Precision measurements of the beta−neutrino angular correlation in nuclear beta-decay provide a unique window into the physics beyond the Standard model. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) experiment aims to measure this correlation, a(beta-nu), in order to impose a more stringent constraint on the exotic scalar current admixture in the beta-decay Hamiltonian. The apparatus is situated at CERN/ISOLDE laboratory and consists of a unique combination of a retardation spectrometer and two Penning traps, with one of them serving as a scattering-free source. This configuration is suited for a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of 35Ar recoiled daughter ions. The shape of the spectrum then allows a determination of a(beta-nu) and consequently of the presence or absence of a scalar current. Radioactive 35Ar ions are created at ISOLDE by impinging 1.2 GeV protons on the target material. After being separated by a magnetic separator and bunched by REXTRAP, a high-capacity Penning trap, th...

  6. Comparison of filters: Inkjet printed on PEN substrate versus a laser-etched on LCP substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, microstrip-based bandpass filters on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are presented to investigate the performance of filters on ultra-thin substrates. PEN (with a thickness of 120 μm) has been characterized and used for a filter for the first time. In addition to being low cost and transparent, it demonstrates comparable RF performance to LCP. The conductor losses are compared by fabricating filters with inkjet printed lines as well as laser etched copper clad LCP sheets. With 5 layers of inkjet printing, and a curing temperature below 200°C, a final silver thickness of 2 μm and conductivity of 9.6 × 106 S/m are achieved. The designs are investigated at two frequencies, 24 GHz as well as 5 GHz to assess their performance at high and low frequencies respectively. The 24 GHz inkjet printed filter shows an insertion loss of 2 dB, while the 5 GHz design gives an insertion loss of 8 dB. We find that thin substrates have a strong effect on the insertion loss of filters especially as the frequency is reduced. The same design, realized on LCP (thickness of 100 μm) through laser etching, demonstrates a very similar performance, thus verifying this finding. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  7. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  8. Characteristics of deacetylation and depolymerization of β-chitin from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2011-09-27

    This study evaluated the deacetylation characteristics of β-chitin from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens by using strongly alkaline solutions of NaOH or KOH. Taguchi design was employed to investigate the effect of reagent concentration, temperature, time, and treatment step on molecular mass (MM) and degree of deacetylation (DDA) of the chitosan obtained. The optimal treatment conditions for achieving high MM and DDA of chitosan were identified as: 40% NaOH at 90°C for 6h with three separate steps (2h+2h+2h) or 50% NaOH at 90°C for 6h with one step, or 50% KOH at 90°C for 4h with three steps (1h+1h+2h) or 6h with one step. The most important factor affecting DDA and MM was temperature and time, respectively. The chitosan obtained was then further depolymerized by cellulase or lysozyme with cellulase giving a higher degradation ratio, lower relative viscosity, and a larger amount of reducing-end formations than that of lysozyme due to its higher susceptibility. This study demonstrated that jumbo squid pens are a good source of materials to produce β-chitosan with high DDA and a wide range of MM for various potential applications.

  9. Estructuras de fondo rehundido altomedievales en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEJERIZO GARCÍA, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de estructuras de fondo rehundido en contextos arqueológicos altomedievales está ampliamente documentada en toda Europa y cuenta con una dilatada historiografía. En la Península Ibérica, asociado a la expansión urbanística, se ha podido detectar un conjunto muy significativo de estas estructuras. Sin embargo, la falta de sistematización y análisis ha llevado a algunos problemas en su detección y documentación, así como a excesos conceptuales y de interpretación. En este trabajo se realiza una recopilación analítica de las evidencias de estructuras de fondo rehundido de época altomedieval presentes en la Península Ibérica mostrando su alta complejidad y diversidad. Basado en un análisis de la evidencia disponible, y frente a las tesis etnicistas que las vinculan a la llegada de grupos alóctonos, se propone una interpretación relacionada con el desarrollo de un modo de producción campesino tras la desarticulación de la economía imperial romana.

  10. Effect of narasin and roxarsone combinations on Eimeria tenella infections in floor pen-raised broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafundo, K W; Schlegel, B F; Tonkinson, L V; Donovan, D J

    1989-07-01

    A series of four floor pen trials was conducted to evaluate the effects of narasin and roxarsone, both alone and in combination, on their capacity to control severe Eimeria tenella infections in broilers. Three levels of narasin (0, 60, and 80 ppm) were fed to chickens receiving either 0, 25, or 50 ppm roxarsone in a factorial design. Cecal coccidiosis was induced by seeding the litter with ionophore-tolerant and ionophore-sensitive strains of E. tenella. After 8 days, 10 birds/pen were killed and their cecal lesions scored. Performance (body weight and feed consumption) and mortality were measured at the termination of the trials. Narasin reduced the severity of cecal coccidiosis as measured by a reduction in cecal lesions and an improvement in bird performance. Roxarsone also reduced cecal lesion scores. The highest level of roxarsone (50 ppm) in combination with 60 or 80 ppm narasin produced additive responses in the control of E. tenella infections. Maximum performance was obtained when narasin alone was fed at 80 ppm; drug combinations improved performance when compared with that of nontreated or roxarsone only-medicated groups.

  11. Preferences of lame cows for type of surface and level of social contact in hospital pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S; Thomsen, Peter T.;

    2015-01-01

    they could maintain visual contact with neighboring heifers. Lame cows with sole ulcers or white line disease preferred deep-bedded sand for lying, and preferred to perform self-grooming while on the rubber surface. Similarly, they preferred to lie and to perform self-grooming while positioned near animals......To investigate preferences of lame cows for flooring and level of social contact, 37 lame, lactating dairy cows (diagnosed with sole ulcer or white line disease) were housed individually for 6 d in experimental hospital pens, where they could choose between 2 equally sized areas (6m × 4.5m...... from them; this was true both while lying (565 vs. 374min/d) and upright (276 vs. 223min/d). Self-grooming was seen significantly more near neighboring heifers than away from them (4.8 vs. 3.3% of time spent upright). When lying, cows more often positioned themselves in areas of the pen where...

  12. Heritability of dimensions of Eysenck's pen model and the alternative five-factor model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to estimate the heritability of AFFM and PEN dimensions, including 67 pairs of twins (34 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic of both genders, aged 18 - 44. The heritability has been estimated by the biometric method, two full (ACE and ADE and three reduced (AE, DE and CE models tested for each personality trait. Taking into consideration the AFFM dimensions, additive genetic factors and a non-shared environment contribute the most significantly to the phenotypic variation of activity, sociability and the impulsive sensation seeking; anxiety and aggressiveness are best accounted for by the dominant genetic effects. In the PEN domain, fit indicators suggest that ACE and the reduced AE models provide the best explanation for the phenotypic manifestations of neuroticism, while ACE and CE models account for the variation of L scale. Although the fit indicators calculated for extraversion and psychotic behavior are somewhat problematic, the parameter estimates show that extraversion is best accounted for by the additive genetic variance, shared environmental effects, and the non-shared environment, whereas psychotic behavior is the most adequately explained by both shared and non-shared environmental effects.

  13. Decay study of neutron-rich zirconium isotopes employing a Penning trap as a spectroscopy tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Antila, S.; Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Penttilae, H.; Rissanen, J.; Sonoda, T.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    A new technique to produce isobarically pure ion beams for decay spectroscopy by using a gas-filled Penning trap was commissioned at the ion guide isotope separator on-line facility, IGISOL. {beta}-decays of neutron-rich {sup 100}Zr, {sup 102}Zr and {sup 104}Zr isotopes were studied with this technique. In addition, the Q{sub {beta}{sup -}} values of {sup 100,102,104}Zr {beta}-decays were determined from the direct mass measurements of zirconium and niobium isotopes performed with a high-precision Penning trap. The mass of {sup 104}Nb was directly measured for the first time and the obtained mass excess value for the longer-living (1{sup +}) state is -71823{+-}10 keV. For the ground states of {sup 100}Nb and {sup 102}Nb the obtained mass excess values were -79802{+-}20 keV and -76309{+-}10 keV, respectively. The observed distribution of the {beta} strength supports a prolate deformation assignment for {sup 100,102,104}Zr isotopes. (orig.)

  14. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  15. Marker Pen Lithography for Flexible and Curvilinear On-Chip Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu

    2015-07-14

    On-chip energy storage using microsupercapacitors can serve the dual role of supplementing batteries for pulse power delivery, and replacement of bulky electrolytic capacitors in ac-line filtering applications. Despite complexity and processing costs, microfabrication techniques are being employed in fabricating a great variety of microsupercapacitor devices. Here, a simple, cost-effective, and versatile strategy is proposed to fabricate flexible and curvilinear microsupercapacitors (MSCs). The protocol involves writing sacrificial ink patterns using commercial marker pens on rigid, flexible, and curvilinear substrates. It is shown that this process can be used in both lift-off and etching modes, and the possibility of multistack design of active materials using simple pen lithography is demonstrated. As a prototype, this method is used to produce conducting polymer MSCs involving both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyaniline, and metal oxide (MnO2) electrode materials. Typical values of energy density in the range of 5-11 mWh cm-3 at power densities of 1-6 W cm-3 are achieved, which is comparable to thin film batteries and superior to the carbon and metal oxide based microsupercapacitors reported in the literature. The simplicity and broad scope of this innovative strategy can open up new avenues for easy and scalable fabrication of a wide variety of on-chip energy storage devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging coupled with chemometric analysis for non-invasive differentiation of black pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebda, Damian K.; Majda, Alicja; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Differentiation of the written text can be performed with a non-invasive and non-contact tool that connects conventional imaging methods with spectroscopy. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a relatively new and rapid analytical technique that can be applied in forensic science disciplines. It allows an image of the sample to be acquired, with full spectral information within every pixel. For this paper, HSI and three statistical methods (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and spectral angle mapper) were used to distinguish between traces of modern black gel pen inks. Non-invasiveness and high efficiency are among the unquestionable advantages of ink differentiation using HSI. It is also less time-consuming than traditional methods such as chromatography. In this study, a set of 45 modern gel pen ink marks deposited on a paper sheet were registered. The spectral characteristics embodied in every pixel were extracted from an image and analysed using statistical methods, externally and directly on the hypercube. As a result, different black gel inks deposited on paper can be distinguished and classified into several groups, in a non-invasive manner.

  17. Personality and Psychopathology: a Theory-Based Revision of Eysenck's PEN Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-12-08

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck's original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck's personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism. Addressing three approaches that have been followed to answer the question 'which personality factors are basic?', arguments are listed to show that particularly the theory-informed approach, originally defended by Eysenck, may lead to scientific progress. However, also noting the many deficiencies in the nomological network surrounding P, the peculiar situation arises that we adhere to Eysenck's theory-informed methodology, but criticize his theory. These arguments and criticisms led to the replacement of P by three orthogonal and theory-based factors, Insensitivity (S), Orderliness (G), and Absorption (A), that together with the dimensions E or Extraversion and N or Neuroticism, that were retained from Eysenck's PEN model, appear to give a comprehensive account of the main vulnerability factors in schizophrenia and affective disorders, as well as in other psychopathological conditions.

  18. Combinatorial Screening of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion and Differentiation Using Polymer Pen Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Maria D.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Brown, Keith A.; Mrksich, Milan; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex, spatially inhomogeneous environment that is host to myriad cell–receptor interactions that promote changes in cell behavior. These biological systems can be probed and simulated with engineered surfaces,but doing so demands careful control over the arrangement of ligands. Here, we describe how such surfaces can be fabricated by utilizing polymer pen lithography (PPL), which is a cantilever-free scanning probe lithographic method that utilizes polymeric pen arrays to generate patterns over large areas. With the advent of PPL, fundamental questions in cell biology can be answered by recapitulating cell–ECM interactions to explore how these interactions lead to changes in cell behavior. Here, we describe an approach for the combinatorial screening of cell adhesion behavior to gain understanding of how ECM protein feature size dictates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The technique outlined here is generalizable to other biological systems and can be paired with quantitative analytical methods to probe important processes such as cell polarization, proliferation, signaling, and differentiation. PMID:24439289

  19. Pen Branch fault program: Interim report on the High Resolution, Shallow Seismic Reflection surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieve, A.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-01-31

    The Pen Branch fault was identified in the subsurface at the Savannah River Site in 1989 based upon the interpretation of earlier seismic reflection surveys and other geologic investigations. A program was initiated at that time to further define the fault in terms of its capability to release seismic energy. The High-Resolution, Shallow Seismic Reflection survey recently completed at SRS was initiated to determine the shallowest extent of the fault and to demonstrate the presence of flat-lying sediments in the top 300 feet of sediments. Conclusions at this time are based upon this shallow seismic survey and the Conoco deep seismic survey (1988--1989). Deformation related to the Pen Branch fault is at least 200 milliseconds beneath the surface in the Conoco data and at least 150 milliseconds in the shallow seismic reflection data. This corresponds to approximately 300 feet below the surface. Sediments at that depth are lower Tertiary (Danian stage) or over 60 million years old. This indicates that the fault is not capable.

  20. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  1. Nuclear structure research with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidherr, Dennis [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    At the double-Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN the cyclotron frequency of short-lived radionuclides is measured in order to determine their mass with a relative uncertainty in the order of 10{sup -8} and below. This ground state property plays an important role in many fields of modern physics from nuclear-structure research to nuclear astrophysics and tests of the weak interaction of the Standard Model. An example for the first one is the evolution of the nuclear shape as a function of the number of neutrons and protons. In 2008 the masses of {sup 223-229}Rn and {sup 143-146}Xe were measured for the first time directly, whereas {sup 229}Rn was even discovered by our Penning trap based experiment. With this mass values one can study the proton-neutron interaction and therefore get information about the nuclear structure like collectivity, the onset of deformation or the geometrical shapes in atomic nuclei. The experimental results as well as the impact on the theoretical models will be presented.

  2. Quantum-state-controlled Penning-ionization reactions between ultracold alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. S.; Vassen, W.; Knoop, S.

    2016-11-01

    In an ultracold, optically trapped mixture of 87Rb and metastable triplet 4He atoms we have studied trap loss for different spin-state combinations, for which interspecies Penning ionization is the main two-body loss process. We observe long trapping lifetimes for the purely quartet spin-state combination, indicating strong suppression of Penning-ionization loss by at least two orders of magnitude. For the other spin mixtures we observe short lifetimes that depend linearly on the doublet character of the entrance channel. We compare the extracted loss rate coefficient with recent predictions of multichannel quantum-defect theory for reactive collisions involving a strong exothermic loss channel and find near-universal loss for doublet scattering. Our work demonstrates control of Penning-ionization reactive collisions by internal atomic state preparation.

  3. New Ceftriaxone- and Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with a Novel Mosaic penA Gene Isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shu-Ichi; Shimuta, Ken; Furubayashi, Kei-Ichi; Kawahata, Takuya; Unemo, Magnus; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We have characterized in detail a new ceftriaxone- and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (FC428) isolated in Japan in 2015. FC428 differed from previous ceftriaxone-resistant strains and contained a novel mosaic penA allele encoding a new mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2). However, the resistance-determining 3'-terminal region of penA was almost identical to the regions of two previously reported ceftriaxone-resistant strains from Australia and Japan, indicating that both ceftriaxone-resistant strains and conserved ceftriaxone resistance-determining PBP 2 regions might spread.

  4. Evaluation of the Newton Pen-Pad as a tool for collecting clinical research data at the bed-side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A M; Delisle, E; Champagne, S; Théroux, P

    1996-01-01

    A protocol for the study of practice variation between Quebec Intensive Care Units in the treatment of myocardial infarction by thrombolysis was coded into the Newton Pen-Pad. This tool for the direct recording of clinical data was tested in the working environment by research nurses of 4 different teaching hospitals. Data was sent directly from the pen-pad by telecommunication to the information coordinating center. The results of this evaluation confirm the reliability and robustness of this approach which promises to be an important tool for applied clinical research.

  5. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  6. Identification of amino acids conferring high-level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the penA gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain H041.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, Joshua; Unemo, Magnus; Ohnishi, Makoto; Davies, Christopher; Nicholas, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The recent identification of a high-level-ceftriaxone-resistant (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml) isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Japan (H041) portends the loss of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections. This is of grave concern because ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for first-line empirical antimicrobial monotherapy. The penA gene from H041 (penA41) is a mosaic penA allele similar to mosaic alleles conferring intermediate-level cephalosporin resistance (Ceph(i)) worldwide but has 13 additional mutations compared to the mosaic penA gene from the previously studied Ceph(i) strain 35/02 (penA35). When transformed into the wild-type strain FA19, the penA41 allele confers 300- and 570-fold increases in the MICs for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in high-level ceftriaxone resistance and to improve surveillance and epidemiology during the potential emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, we sought to identify the minimum number of amino acid alterations above those in penA35 that confer high-level resistance to ceftriaxone. Using restriction fragment exchange and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified three mutations, A311V, T316P, and T483S, that, when incorporated into the mosaic penA35 allele, confer essentially all of the increased resistance of penA41. A311V and T316P are close to the active-site nucleophile Ser310 that forms the acyl-enzyme complex, while Thr483 is predicted to interact with the carboxylate of the β-lactam antibiotic. These three mutations have thus far been described only for penA41, but dissemination of these mutations in other mosaic alleles would spell the end of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections.

  7. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fei Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles.

  8. Plan de marketing turístico de Penáguila

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERIAS BLANES, ADRIAN

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El proyecto se orienta a la elaboración de un Plan de Marketing turístico de la Población de Penáguila. Hoy en día e históricamente, el turismo es un importante motor económico y de desarrollo a nivel mundial. Es un sector a tener muy en cuenta tanto por los gobiernos como por las empresas ya que de su incentivación depende el empleo de millones de personas y los ingresos y beneficios de muchas empresas y comunidades. Para llevarlo a cabo, se realizará un análisis externo e interno de...

  9. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Yang, Z; Dong, P; long, J D; He, X Z; Wang, X; Zhang, K Z; Zhang, L W

    2012-06-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H(-)) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H(-) beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H(-) beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  10. University Mentoring with the Support of a Digital Pen and Hypermedia Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Aguilar Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematizes face-to-face tutoring experience and the use of technologies to make audio and written recordings of tutorial sessions with undergraduate, master’s and doctoral students available online. One hundred and three tutorial sessions with 26 students and a single tutor are analyzed; the sessions were recorded by means of a digital pen that recorded sound and writing synchronously. By means of this analysis students’ issues and problems were identified and a model for connecting teaching strategy and the production of hypermedia resources is presented. We contend that it is important to create learning resources to accompany the educational process of tutees. In conclusion the study presents a model for organizing and supporting university level tutoring.

  11. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    that cows tested on day 4 spent more time sniffing and licking their calves than cows tested on days 8 and 12. The decrease in maternal grooming, and the concurrent increase in social behaviour of the calf towards the dam, may illustrate the beginning of a gradual shift from the dam being the initiator......The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11...... increased the time spent sniffing and licking their dams’ head from 2 to 8 min over the days studied (P behaviour from 7 to 10 min (P behaviour from 1.4 to 4 min over the days...

  12. Development of educational software for beam loading analysis using pen-based user interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong S. Suh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most engineering software tools use typical menu-based user interfaces, and they may not be suitable for learning tools because the solution processes are hidden and students can only see the results. An educational tool for simple beam analyses is developed using a pen-based user interface with a computer so students can write and sketch by hand. The geometry of beam sections is sketched, and a shape matching technique is used to recognize the sketch. Various beam loads are added by sketching gestures or writing singularity functions. Students sketch the distributions of the loadings by sketching the graphs, and they are automatically checked and the system provides aids in grading the graphs. Students receive interactive graphical feedback for better learning experiences while they are working on solving the problems.

  13. Penning trap assisted decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 115}Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A.; Urban, W. [Warsaw University, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Exotic, neutron-rich {sup 111}Mo and {sup 115}Ru nuclei, produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U target, were separated with the IGISOL mass separator. The separator was coupled to the JYFLTRAP Penning trap to select the ions of a single, desired element out of the isobaric IGISOL beam. Monoisotopic samples of {sup 115}Ru and {sup 111}Mo ions were observed with a microchannel plate detector after the trap or were implanted on a catcher foil for gamma- and beta-ray coincidence spectroscopy. In spite of short data taking time new gamma transitions were identified in the beta decay of very neutron-rich {sup 115}Ru. (orig.)

  14. JYFLTRAP: a penning trap for precision mass spectroscopy and isobaric purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Elomaa, V.V.; Gorelov, D.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.D.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Szerypo, J.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this article a comprehensive description and performance of the double Penning-trap setup JYFLTRAP will be detailed. The setup is designed for atomic mass measurements of both radioactive and stable ions and additionally serves as a very high-resolution mass separator. The setup is coupled to the IGISOL facility at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The trap has been online since 2003 and it was shut down in the summer of 2010 for relocation to the upgraded IGISOL facility. Numerous atomic mass and decay energy measurements have been performed using the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance technique. The trap has also been used in several decay spectroscopy experiments as a high-resolution mass filter. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic field design for a Penning ion source for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Sadati, S. M.; Ebrahimibasabi, E.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the structure of magnetic field for a Penning ion source has been designed and constructed with the use of permanent magnets. The ion source has been designed and constructed for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator. With using CST Studio Suite, the magnetic field profile inside the ion source was simulated and an appropriate magnetic system was designed to improve particle confinement. Designed system consists of two ring magnets with 9 mm distance from each other around the anode. The ion source was constructed and the cylindrical magnet and designed magnetic system were tested on the ion source. The results showed that the ignition voltage for ion source with the designed magnetic system is almost 300 V lower than the ion source with the cylindrical magnet. Better particle confinement causes lower voltage discharge to occur.

  16. Communication: Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem by performing a merged-beam study of the He(3S1)+CHF3 Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies E/kB = 0.5-120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of CHF3 makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  17. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  18. Comparative sessile drop and dip pen nanolithography investigation for various hydrophilic ink/surface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pradeep K; Lemoine, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a dip pen nanolithography study of various hydrophilic ink/surface systems with application in the field of biosensors and novel nano-materials. The inking process was investigated by studying a number of inks, such as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Streptavidin, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) and a 20 nm nanosphere (NS) polystyrene solution onto a range of substrates, namely glass, silicon, gold and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (taC). In the majority of cases, this resulted in patterns with sub-100 nm line widths and dot diameters. Importantly, contact angle measurements in the microl range showed a decrease of contact angle with drop volume, interpreted as a line tension effect. The significance of this to the nanoscale wetting behaviour is discussed. The effect of dwell time and writing speed indicates that the inking process is not solely defined by surface diffusion but also influenced by the ink dissolution rate from the tip.

  19. Photoassociation spectroscopy in Penning ionization reactions at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Skomorowski, Wojciech; Narevicius, Edvardas; Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    Penning ionization reactions in merged beams with precisely controlled collision energies have been shown to accurately probe quantum mechanical effects in reactive collisions. A complete microscopic understanding of the reaction is, however, faced with two major challenges---the highly excited character of the reaction's entrance channel and the limited precision of even the best state-of-the-art ab initio potential energy surfaces. Here, we suggest photoassociation spectroscopy as a tool to identify the character of orbiting resonances in the entrance channel and probe the ionization width as a function of inter-particle separation. We introduce the basic concept and discuss the general conditions under which this type of spectroscopy will be successful.

  20. Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Jankunas, Justin; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem performing a merged-beam study of the He*+CHF$_3$ Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies $E/k_B$=0.5--120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of the quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of \\chfs makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  1. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  2. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  3. TRIGA-TRAP: A penning trap mass spectrometer at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin; Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear masses represent the binding energies and, therefore, the sum of all interactions in the nucleus. They provide an important input parameter to nuclear structure models. Presently, a tremendous interest in masses of very exotic neutron-rich nuclides exists to support theoretical models for the nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron capture process. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz provides access to a large variety of neutron-rich nuclides produced by thermal-neutron induced fission of an actinide target. The double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements in this region of the nuclear chart as well as on actinides from uranium to californium. It also serves as a test facility for the development of new techniques that will be implemented in future facilities like MATS at FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt). The layout of TRIGA-TRAP as well as recent mass measurements are presented.

  4. Development of miniaturized, spectroscopically assisted Penning gauges for fractional helium and hydrogen neutral pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, K.; Kremeyer, T.; Schmitz, O.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wenzel, U.

    2016-11-01

    Direct measurements of the helium (He) fractional neutral pressure in the neutral gas around fusion devices is challenging because of the small mass difference between the abundant D2 molecules and the He ash which will be produced by deuterium-tritium fusion. To study He exhaust, an in situ Penning gauge system is being developed at UW-Madison that is optimized for good pressure and high spectroscopic sensitivity. Three different anode geometries have been studied regarding their vacuum electrostatic fields, light output, and ion current. The light output of the two new anode configurations are at least one order of magnitude above the currently available designs, hence improving the spectroscopic sensitivity at similar total neutral pressure resolution.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Digital Pens and Tabletop User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Kazue; Satou, Kenji; Kawana, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomohiro

    Most traditional disaster information systems are necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster occurs. However, in the current disaster response system of local governments, it is not easy for local governments to post such expert staff because they are struggling with staff cuts due to administrative and fiscal reform. In this research, we propose a disaster information management system that can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by municipal personnel in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.

  6. Paper-pen peer-correction versus wiki-based peer-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froldova Vladimira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the comparison of the students’ achievement and their attitudes towards the use of paper-pen peer-correction and wiki-based peer-correction within English language lessons and CLIL Social Science lessons at the higher secondary school in Prague. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were utilized to gather information. The data suggests that students made considerable use of wikis and showed higher degrees of motivation in wiki-based peer-correction during English language lessons than in CLIL Social Science lessons. In both cases wikis not only contributed to developing students’ writing skills, but also helped students recognize the importance of collaboration.

  7. A Modified MeVVA Ion Source for a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2006-10-01

    We have designed a new type of plasma gun ion source for a Malmberg-Penning trap based on Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MeVVA) ion source designs. Our primary intent with this MeVVA-type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7Be) plasma. The radioactivity of 7Be requires us to replace the sample inside the ion source on a regular basis. Our design makes it possible to easily remove the cathode of the ion source from an ultra-high vacuum trap and exchange 7Be samples while only needing to repressurize a small chamber rather than the entire trap. This design has an added benefit of being capable of generating plasmas from a wide variety of metals by simply exchanging the source target in the removable cathode. Because of this wide compatibility, we will be able to use our trap for studying any number of different plasmas, including other radioactive types.

  8. 9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.17... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for such purpose. 72.17 Section 72.17 Animals...

  9. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals...

  10. Comparing the Use of the Interpersonal Computer, Personal Computer and Pen-and-Paper When Solving Arithmetic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholado, Cristián; Diaz, Anita; Tagle, Arturo; Nussbaum, Miguel; Infante, Cristián

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the differences in student learning outcomes and classroom behaviour when using the interpersonal computer, personal computer and pen-and-paper to solve arithmetic exercises. In this multi-session experiment, third grade students working on arithmetic exercises from various curricular units were divided into three…

  11. Analysis of the burden of treatment in patients receiving an EpiPen for yellow jacket anaphylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberink, Joanne N. G. Oude; van der Heide, S.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is a treatment with established efficacy for the prevention of repeated anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera allergy, which also allows patients to discontinue carrying an EpiPen. Despite their merits, both treatments can have negative aspects pot

  12. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  13. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living cold-

  14. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  15. MEMS-enabled Dip Pen Nanolithography for directed nanoscale deposition and high-throughput nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Nafday, O. A.; Levesque, T.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.

    2009-02-01

    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for nanoscience research, development, and commercial implementation. Dip Pen Nanolithography(R) (DPN) is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. This technique is fundamentally enabled by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials via actuated cantilevers, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Multiplexed deposition of nanoscale materials is a challenging problem, but we have implemented InkWells(TM) to enable selective delivery of ink materials to different tips in multiple probe arrays, while preventing cross-contamination. Active Pens(TM) can take advantage of this, directly place a variety of materials in nanoscale proximity, and do so in a "clean" fashion since the cantilevers can be manipulated in Z. Further, massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray(TM), making DPN a highthroughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. By fabricating 55,000 tip-cantilevers across a 1 cm2 chip, we leverage the inherent versatility of DPN and demonstrate large area surface coverage, routinely achieving throughputs of 3×107 μm2 per hour. Further, we have engineered the device to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with the NSCRIPTOR's scanner, stage, and sophisticated lithography routines. In this talk we discuss the methods of operating this commercially available device, and subsequent results showing sub-100 nm feature sizes and excellent uniformity (standard deviation portfolio including: 1) rapidly and flexibly generating nanostructures; 2) chemically directed assembly and 3) directly writing biological materials.

  16. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P piglets. The results emphasize that the microclimate in the PN for newborn piglets and its heat-preserving properties are more important for survival than whether the sow is crated or penned.

  17. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Gould, Maree [Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Biocomposite scaffolds were made from mussel shells HA and β-TCP, and squid pin chitosan. • The porosity of the composites decreased with an increase in HA/β-TCP ratio. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. • Composite containing 50% HA and β-TCP had the best mechanical properties.

  18. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  19. Commercial formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana G; Marciano, Allan F; Sá, Fillipe A; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Quinelato, Simone; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Angelo, Isabele C; Prata, Márcia C A; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2014-09-15

    The present study evaluated, for the first time, the effect of the commercial formulation Metarril(®) SP Organic of Metarhizium anisopliae plus 10% mineral oil to control Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study. Three groups were formed with six animals each: the first group was exposed to Metarril(®) plus 10% mineral oil and 1% Tween 80; the second group was exposed to sterile distilled water, mineral oil and Tween 80 (oil control group); and the third group received no treatment (control group). The fungal formulation contained 1 × 10(8)conidiaml(-1). Each animal was sprayed with 3L of formulation. Fallen ticks were counted daily and a sample of 20 engorged females per day was incubated for assessment of biological parameters. Throughout the study period, Metarril(®) oil-based formulation showed an efficacy ranging from 19.20% to 67.39% in comparison with the control group; and from 8.18% to 61.38% in comparison with the oil control group. The average efficacy of Metarril(®) oil-based formulation was 47.74% and 40.89% in comparison with control and oil control groups, respectively. Changes in the biological parameters of engorged R. microplus females were observed in the first three days after treatment, with a significant reduction in hatching percentage and egg production index. We concluded that Metarril(®) SP Organic plus 10% mineral oil was efficient against R. microplus in pen studies. However, further in vivo studies are required to increase the efficacy and to establish a protocol for the use of this product in the field against the cattle tick.

  20. Amplification of an MFS Transporter Encoding Gene penT Significantly Stimulates Penicillin Production and Enhances the Sensitivity of Penicillium chrysogenum to Phenylacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Xinxin Xu; Gang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Penicillin is historically important as the first discovered drug against bacterial infections in human.Although the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism have been well studied in Penicillium chrysogenum,the compartnentation and molecular transport of penicillin or its precursors are still poorly understood.In search of the genomic database,more than 830 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to encode transmembrane proteins of P.chrysogenum.In order to investigate their roles on penicillin production,one of them (penT) was selected and cloned.The deduced protein of penT belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and contains 12transmembrane spanning domains (TMS).During fermentation,the transcription of penT was greatly induced by penicillin precursors phenylacetic acid (PAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (POA).Knock-down of penT resulted in significant decrease of penicillin production,while over-expression of penT under the promoter of trpC enhanced the penicillin production.Introduction of an additional penT in the wild-type strain of P.chrysogenum doubled the penicillin production and enhanced the sensitivity of P.chrysogenum to the penicillin precursors PAA or POA.These results indicate that penT stimulates penicillin production probably through enhancing the translocation of penicillin precursors across fungal cellular membrane.