WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad range biothreat

  1. Broad-spectrum identification and discrimination between biothreat agents and near-neighbor species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, Anthony P.; Leski, Tomasz A.; Cheng, Luke; Wang, Zheng; Stenger, David A.; Lin, Baochuan

    2009-05-01

    A comprehensive resequencing microarray "Tropical and Emerging Infections (TessArray RPM-TEI 1.0 array)" has been developed to identify and distinguish between biothreat organisms of interest and genetically close related species. This array has undergone validation using an innovative approach where synthetic DNA fragments are used for organisms that it is not safe to work with outside a biosafety 3 facilities. The approach was confirmed from testing a subset of target organisms, such as Ebola viruses and Lassa viruses, at USAMRIID. Most potential biothreat organisms are actually endemic in some part of the world. Proper surveillance of biothreat agents will require some form of monitoring the evolution of the indigenous organisms under their natural environment, so when changes in the organisms occur, the diagnostic assays for these organisms can be reviewed to assure they still provide detection. Using the resequencing microarray (RPM) for detection in locations such as the Africa can support indigenous monitoring as it provides sequence information. An ongoing collaboration with Njala University aims to establish a broad-spectrum pathogen surveillance capability in the Republic of Sierra Leone, West Africa using RPM technology combined with a Geographic Information System. This has the potential to improve the public health efforts in an infected area as well as provide monitoring of the changes occurring to a biothreat organism, i.e. Lassa viruses, in its natural location.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Chlamydia psittaci Genomes Reveals the Recent Emergence of a Pathogenic Lineage with a Broad Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Timothy D.; Joseph, Sandeep J; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the findin...

  3. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  4. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words "narrow" and especially "broad" when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy. PMID:27660623

  5. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words "narrow" and especially "broad" when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy.

  6. Broad spectral range synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran; Doerr, Christopher R.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.

    2012-01-01

    A broad-band Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating is presented with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over 90 nm of spectral range and a central excess loss value of -0.5 dB.

  7. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words “narrow” and especially “broad” when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy. PMID:27660623

  8. Comparative analysis of Chlamydia psittaci genomes reveals the recent emergence of a pathogenic lineage with a broad host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy D; Joseph, Sandeep J; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the finding of frequent homologous recombination across the genome of the sexually transmitted and trachoma pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We sought to determine if similar evolutionary dynamics occurred in C. psittaci. We analyzed 20 C. psittaci genomes from diverse strains representing the nine known serotypes of the organism as well as infections in a range of birds and mammals, including humans. Genome annotation revealed a core genome in all strains of 911 genes. Our analyses showed that C. psittaci has a history of frequently switching hosts and undergoing recombination more often than C. trachomatis. Evolutionary history reconstructions showed genome-wide homologous recombination and evidence of whole-plasmid exchange. Tracking the origins of recombinant segments revealed that some strains have imported DNA from as-yet-unsampled or -unsequenced C. psittaci lineages or other Chlamydiaceae species. Three ancestral populations of C. psittaci were predicted, explaining the current population structure. Molecular clock analysis found that certain strains are part of a clonal epidemic expansion likely introduced into North America by South American bird traders, suggesting that psittacosis is a recently emerged disease originating in New World parrots. PMID:23532978

  9. Adaptive Plasmid Evolution Results in Host-Range Expansion of a Broad-Host-Range Plasmid

    OpenAIRE

    De Gelder, Leen; Williams, Julia J.; Ponciano, José M; Sota, Masahiro; Eva M. Top

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the range of hosts in which broad-host-range (BHR) plasmids can persist in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, and whether this “long-term host range” can evolve over time. Previously, the BHR multidrug resistance plasmid pB10 was shown to be highly unstable in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia P21 and Pseudomonas putida H2. To investigate whether this plasmid can adapt to such unfavorable hosts, we performed evolution experiments wherein pB10 was maintained ...

  10. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Barbier

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  11. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26937640

  12. Laser-guide-stars used for cophasing broad capture ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez,

    2016-01-01

    Segmented primary mirrors are indispensable to master the steady increase in spatial resolution. Phasing optics systems must reduce segment misalignments to guarantee the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. Modern telescopes routinely use adaptive optics systems to compensate for the atmosphere and use laser-guide-stars to create artificial stars as bright references in the field of observation. Because multiple laser-guide-star adaptive optics are being implemented in all major observatories, we propose to use man-made stars not only for adaptive optics, but for phasing optics. We propose a method called the doublet-wavelength coherence technique (DWCT), exploiting the D lines of sodium in the mesosphere using laser guide-stars. The signal coherence properties are then used. The DWCT capture range exceeds current abilities by a factor of 100. It represents a change in paradigm by improving the phasing optics capture range from micrometric to millimetric. It thereby potentially el...

  13. Laser-guide-stars used for cophasing broad capture ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, P.; Janin-Potiron, P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Segmented primary mirrors are indispensable to master the steady increase in spatial resolution. Phasing optics systems must reduce segment misalignments to guarantee the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. Aims: Modern telescopes routinely use adaptive optics systems to compensate for the atmosphere and use laser-guide-stars to create artificial stars as bright references in the field of observation. Because multiple laser-guide-star adaptive optics are being implemented in all major observatories, we propose to use man-made stars not only for adaptive optics, but for phasing optics. Methods: We propose a method called the doublet-wavelength coherence technique (DWCT), exploiting the D lines of sodium in the mesosphere using laser guide-stars. The signal coherence properties are then used. Results: The DWCT capture range exceeds current abilities by a factor of 100. It represents a change in paradigm by improving the phasing optics capture range from micrometric to millimetric. It thereby potentially eliminates the need of a man-made mechanical pre-phasing step. Conclusions: Extremely large telescopes require hundreds of segments, several of which need to be substituted on a daily basis to be recoated. The DWCT relaxes mechanical integration requirements and speeds up integration and re-integration process.

  14. Nucleotide Sequence and Characterization of the Broad-Host-Range Lactococcal Plasmid pWVO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, Cornelis; Tolner, Berend; Bron, Sierd; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus; Seegers, Jozef

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Lactococcus lactis broad-host-range plasmid pWVO1, replicating in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, was determined. This analysis revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF A appeared to encode a trans-acting 26.8-kDa protein (RepA), necessary for repli

  15. Activation of toll-like receptors and dendritic cells by a broad range of bacterial molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, L.C.L.; Bajramovic, J.J.; Vries, A.M.M.B.C. de; Voskamp-Visser, I.A.I.; Kaman, W.E.; Kleij, D. van der

    2009-01-01

    Activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by pathogens leads to activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC), which orchestrate the development of the adaptive immune response. To create an overview of the effects of a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, the

  16. Transformation of Actinomyces spp. by a gram-negative broad-host-range plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, M K; Kozelsky, C S

    1994-01-01

    The gram-negative broad-host-range vector pJRD215 was transferred by electroporation into strains of Actinomyces viscosus or Actinomyces naeslundii at efficiencies which ranged from 10(2) to 10(7) transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA. The Actinomyces transformants expressed pJRD215-encoded resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. Moreover, the transforming plasmid DNA had not undergone any deletions or rearrangements, nor had it integrated into the genomes of these strains.

  17. Broad range pH sensor based on sol-gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xiao-peng

    2014-01-01

    A broad-range fibre optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented in this paper. This sensor is prepared by immobilizing a mixture of three pH sensitive indicators (dyes):cresol red, bromophenol blue and chlorophenol red onto the unclad fibre surface using a sol–gel cladding technology. Triton is introduced into the sol–gel cladding to improve the cladding quality. Smooth and strong sol–gel cladding with entrapped indicators and triton has been fabricated and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pH sensor based the cladding has shown a linear, reversible and repeatable response over a broad range of pH values between 4.5 and 13.0.

  18. Harnessing prions as test agents for the development of broad-range disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenführ, Katja; Beekes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The development of disinfectants with broad-range efficacy against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions constitutes an ongoing challenge. Prions, the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or its variant (vCJD) rank among the pathogens with the highest resistance to disinfection. Pilot studies have shown that different procedures devised for prion disinfection were also highly effective against microbial pathogens....

  19. Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by comparing with conventional MoS2 devices. This study demonstrates a very high performance ReSe2 photodetector with high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms), and broad photodetection range (possible above 1064 nm).

  20. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud;

    2014-01-01

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer...... bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids....

  1. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  2. New hepatitis B virus of cranes that has an unexpected broad host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, Alexej; Hohenberg, Heinz; Kalinina, Tatyana; Schneider, Carola; Cova, Lucyna; Krone, Oliver; Frölich, Kai; Will, Hans; Sirma, Hüseyin

    2003-02-01

    All hepadnaviruses known so far have a very limited host range, restricted to their natural hosts and a few closely related species. This is thought to be due mainly to sequence divergence in the large envelope protein and species-specific differences in host components essential for virus propagation. Here we report an infection of cranes with a novel hepadnavirus, designated CHBV, that has an unexpectedly broad host range and is only distantly evolutionarily related to avihepadnaviruses of related hosts. Direct DNA sequencing of amplified CHBV DNA as well a sequencing of cloned viral genomes revealed that CHBV is most closely related to, although distinct from, Ross' goose hepatitis B virus (RGHBV) and slightly less closely related to duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). Phylogenetically, cranes are very distant from geese and ducks and are most closely related to herons and storks. Naturally occurring hepadnaviruses in the last two species are highly divergent in sequence from RGHBV and DHBV and do not infect ducks or do so only marginally. In contrast, CHBV from crane sera and recombinant CHBV produced from LMH cells infected primary duck hepatocytes almost as efficiently as DHBV did. This is the first report of a rather broad host range of an avihepadnavirus. Our data imply either usage of similar or identical entry pathways and receptors by DHBV and CHBV, unusual host and virus adaptation mechanisms, or divergent evolution of the host genomes and cellular components required for virus propagation.

  3. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible-NIR unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than approx. 30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be accurately measured with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using UBVRIJHK photometry.

  4. Development of a neutron detector with broad dynamic range and multi-hit capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczak, Iwona; Toke, Jan; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Udo Schröder, W.

    2007-10-01

    A new type of Gd-loaded plastic neutron detector with a broad dynamic range (from thermal to MeV range) and multi-hit capability has been designed and subjected to series of tests. The device consists of a stack of alternating plastic scintillator (Saint Gobain BC-408) slabs and thin radiator films (PDMS -- SYLGARD 184) loaded with 0.5% of Gd per weight, viewed by a photomultiplier tube. The scintillator functions as neutron moderator, provides a prompt integrated neutron energy signal, and detects delayed n capture by Gd nuclei via associated capture γ-rays. The design, Monte Carlo simulations carried out with an extended code DENIS(E), as well as first measurements with the detector will be discussed.

  5. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  6. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina 3D FDTD Modelling for a Broad Range of Inter-pore Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Roselló, Francesc; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F

    2016-12-01

    The capability of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the numerical modelling of the optical properties of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in a broad range of inter-pore distances is evaluated. FDTD permits taking into account in the same numerical framework all the structural features of NAA, such as the texturization of the interfaces or the incorporation of electrolyte anions in the aluminium oxide host. The evaluation is carried out by comparing reflectance measurements from two samples with two very different inter-pore distances with the simulation results. Results show that considering the texturization is crucial to obtain good agreement with the measurements. On the other hand, including the anionic layer in the model leads to a second-order contribution to the reflectance spectrum. PMID:27518230

  7. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina 3D FDTD Modelling for a Broad Range of Inter-pore Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Roselló, Francesc; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F.

    2016-08-01

    The capability of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the numerical modelling of the optical properties of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in a broad range of inter-pore distances is evaluated. FDTD permits taking into account in the same numerical framework all the structural features of NAA, such as the texturization of the interfaces or the incorporation of electrolyte anions in the aluminium oxide host. The evaluation is carried out by comparing reflectance measurements from two samples with two very different inter-pore distances with the simulation results. Results show that considering the texturization is crucial to obtain good agreement with the measurements. On the other hand, including the anionic layer in the model leads to a second-order contribution to the reflectance spectrum.

  8. Peracetic Acid Treatment Generates Potent Inactivated Oral Vaccines from a Broad Range of Culturable Bacterial Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 10(10) peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024

  9. Stable encoding of sounds over a broad range of statistical parameters in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jennifer M; Taillefumier, Thibaud O; Natan, Ryan G; Carruthers, Isaac M; Magnasco, Marcelo O; Geffen, Maria N

    2016-03-01

    Natural auditory scenes possess highly structured statistical regularities, which are dictated by the physics of sound production in nature, such as scale-invariance. We recently identified that natural water sounds exhibit a particular type of scale invariance, in which the temporal modulation within spectral bands scales with the centre frequency of the band. Here, we tested how neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex encode sounds that exhibit this property, but differ in their statistical parameters. The stimuli varied in spectro-temporal density and cyclo-temporal statistics over several orders of magnitude, corresponding to a range of water-like percepts, from pattering of rain to a slow stream. We recorded neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex of awake rats presented with these stimuli. The responses of the majority of individual neurons were selective for a subset of stimuli with specific statistics. However, as a neuronal population, the responses were remarkably stable over large changes in stimulus statistics, exhibiting a similar range in firing rate, response strength, variability and information rate, and only minor variation in receptive field parameters. This pattern of neuronal responses suggests a potentially general principle for cortical encoding of complex acoustic scenes: while individual cortical neurons exhibit selectivity for specific statistical features, a neuronal population preserves a constant response structure across a broad range of statistical parameters. PMID:26663571

  10. A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Zhuo, Zong-Yan; Huang, Chen-Han; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Diversified research interests in scanning laser microscopy nowadays require broadband capability of the optical system. Although an all-mirror-based optical design with a suitable metallic coating is appropriate for broad-spectrum applications from ultraviolet to terahertz, most researchers prefer lens-based scanning systems despite the drawbacks of a limited spectral range, ghost reflection, and chromatic aberration. One of the main concerns is that the geometrical aberration induced by off-axis incidence on spherical mirrors significantly deteriorates image resolution. Here, we demonstrate a novel geometrical design of a spherical-mirror-based scanning system in which off-axis aberrations, both astigmatism and coma, are compensated to reach diffraction-limited performance. We have numerically simulated and experimentally verified that this scanning system meets the Marechà l condition and provides high Strehl ratio within a 3°×3° scanning area. Moreover, we demonstrate second-harmonic-generation imaging from starch with our new design. A greatly improved resolution compared to the conventional mirror-based system is confirmed. This scanning system will be ideal for high-resolution linear/nonlinear laser scanning microscopy, ophthalmoscopic applications, and precision fabrications.

  11. Personal glucose meters for detection and quantification of a broad range of analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-02-03

    A general methodology for the development of highly sensitive and selective sensors that can achieve portable, low-cost and quantitative detection of a broad range of targets using only a personal glucose meter (PGM) is disclosed. The method uses recognition molecules that are specific for a target agent, enzymes that can convert an enzyme substrate into glucose, and PGM. Also provided are sensors, which can include a solid support to which is attached a recognition molecule that permits detection of a target agent, wherein the recognition molecule specifically binds to the target agent in the presence of the target agent but not significantly to other agents as well as an enzyme that can catalyze the conversion of a substance into glucose, wherein the enzyme is attached directly or indirectly to the recognition molecule, and wherein in the presence of the target agent the enzyme can convert the substance into glucose. The disclosed sensors can be part of a lateral flow device. Methods of using such sensors for detecting target agents are also provided.

  12. A Lactobacillus plantarum esterase active on a broad range of phenolic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments.

  13. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies: Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pagano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver, neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF along with the occurrence of oxidative stress (OS have been investigated within the pathogenesis of individual disorders or in groups of interrelated disorders. We attempt to review broad-ranging pathologies that involve mitochondrial-specific deficiencies or rely on cytosol-derived prooxidant states or on autoimmune-induced mitochondrial damage. The established knowledge in these subjects warrants studies aimed at elucidating several open questions that are highlighted in the present review. The relevance of OS and MDF in different pathologies may establish the grounds for chemoprevention trials aimed at compensating OS/MDF by means of antioxidants and mitochondrial nutrients.

  14. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-15

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  15. Universal scaling law for the condensation energy across a broad range of superconductor classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Tam, G. N.; Stewart, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals in understanding any new class of superconductors is to search for commonalities with other known superconductors. The present work investigates the superconducting condensation energy, U , in the iron based superconductors (IBSs), and compares their U with a broad range of other distinct classes of superconductor, including conventional BCS elements and compounds and the unconventional heavy fermion, S r2Ru O4 ,L i0.1ZrNCl ,κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu (NCS )2 , and optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Surprisingly, both the magnitude and Tc dependence (U ∝Tc3.4 ±0.2 ) of U are—contrary to the previously observed behavior of the specific heat discontinuity at Tc, Δ C —quite similar in the IBS and BCS materials for Tc>1.4 K. In contrast, the heavy fermion superconductors' U vs Tc are strongly (up to a factor of 100) enhanced above the IBS/BCS while the cuprate superconductors' U are strongly (factor of 8) reduced. However, scaling of U with the specific heat γ (or Δ C ) brings all the superconductors investigated onto one universal dependence upon Tc. This apparent universal scaling U / γ ∝Tc2 for all superconductor classes investigated, both weak and strong coupled and both conventional and unconventional, links together extremely disparate behaviors over almost seven orders of magnitude for U and almost three orders of magnitude for Tc. Since U has not yet been explicitly calculated beyond the weak coupling limit, the present results can help direct theoretical efforts into the medium and strong coupling regimes.

  16. Theoretical Study of Radiation from a Broad Range of Impurity Ions for Magnetic Fusion Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, Alla [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities plays an important role in the study of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The measurements of these impurities are crucial for the control of the general machine conditions, for the monitoring of the impurity levels, and for the detection of various possible fault conditions. Low-Z impurities, typically present in concentrations of 1%, are lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, and oxygen. Some of the common medium-Z impurities are metals such as iron, nickel, and copper, and high-Z impurities, such as tungsten, are present in smaller concentrations of 0.1% or less. Despite the relatively small concentration numbers, the aforementioned impurities might make a substantial contribution to radiated power, and also influence both plasma conditions and instruments. A detailed theoretical study of line radiation from impurities that covers a very broad spectral range from less than 1 Å to more than 1000 Å has been accomplished and the results were applied to the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) and to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton. Though low- and medium-Z impurities were also studied, the main emphasis was made on the comprehensive theoretical study of radiation from tungsten using different state-of-the-art atomic structure codes such as Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory (RMBPT). The important component of this research was a comparison of the results from the RMBPT code with other codes such as the Multiconfigurational Hartree–Fock developed by Cowan (COWAN code) and the Multiconfiguration Relativistic Hebrew University Lawrence Atomic Code (HULLAC code), and estimation of accuracy of calculations. We also have studied dielectronic recombination, an important recombination process for fusion plasma, for variety of highly and low charged tungsten ions using COWAN and HULLAC codes. Accurate DR rate coefficients are needed for

  17. Escherichia coli Vertebral Osteomyelitis Diagnosed According to Broad-range 16S rRNA Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Koji; Makabe, Kenta; Shoda, Naoki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Nagamatsu, Maki; Oka, Shinichi; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the causative agent of pyogenic osteomyelitis is often challenging, especially when antibiotics are administered before a biopsy. We herein present a case of osteomyelitis in the cervical vertebrae presenting with progressive paralytic symptoms, in which we successfully identified Escherichia coli from a biopsy specimen using broad-range 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) even though sensitive antibiotics had been used for more than 50 days before the biopsy. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR is a useful diagnostic method, especially when prebiopsy antibiotics are unavoidably used for a clinically unstable state.

  18. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  19. Diagnosis of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Susanna; Dahlberg, Daniel; Hedegaard, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic strategy with culture to evaluate additional effects on the etiological diagnosis and the quantification of the bacterial load during the course of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis (VR...

  20. Two domains at the origin are required for replication and maintenance of broad-host-range plasmid R1162.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y.J.; Lin, L. S.; Meyer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Two domains at the replicative origin of broad-host-range plasmid R1162 are required in cis for plasmid maintenance in Escherichia coli and for plasmid DNA replication in cell extracts. Increasing the distance between the domains reduces replication in vitro, without substantially changing plasmid DNA content or stability in vivo.

  1. Development of Broad Range Scan Capabilities with Jet Cooled Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Terrance J.; Chen, Ming-Wei; Miller, Terry A.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a technique for obtaining broad scans, >100 Cm-1, for jet cooled cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) spectra. Previously the scans of the jet cooled, CRDS apparatus were limited to <10 Cm-1 due to the use of a narrow linewidth radiation source. However, by coupling our jet cooled, CRDS apparatus with a moderate resolution (≃q 0.05 Cm-1) dye laser we are able to greatly increase our rate of data acquisition thereby gaining the capability to perform broad spectral surveys of jet cooled molecules. As a test of the capabilities of the technique we have scanned the tilde{A}-tilde{X} transition of NO_3 previously reported by Deev et al. at room temperature. We believe that this will be a very useful technique to search for transitions of cold molecules whose frequencies are not well known and which later can be studied using high resolution methods. A. Deev, J. Sommar, and M. Okumura, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 224305 (2005).

  2. BROAD-BAND AND WIDE DYNAMIC-RANGE SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS WITH AN STS-SEISMOGRAPH AT SYOWA STATION, EAST ANTARCTICA

    OpenAIRE

    カナオ, マサキ; カミヌマ, カツタダ; Masaki, KANAO; Katsutada, Kaminuma

    1994-01-01

    Broad-band and wide dynamic-range seismic observations with a three-component Streckeisen seismometer (STS-1V, -1H) have been carried out at Syowa Station, East Antarctica since April 1989. A digital acquisition system for broad-band (BRB) velocity signals was started from May 1990,for the purpose of providing valuable data for the study of global seismology. In this paper, the seismic observations with STS are presented during the winter period of the 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedit...

  3. Fluorescence lifetime-based biosensing of zinc: Origin of the broad dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R B; Patchan, M W

    1995-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime-based chemical sensors have recently been described for applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and bioprocess control. These sensors transduce the level of the analyte as a change in the apparent fluorescence lifetime of an indicator phase. We have previously developed a wavelength-ratiometric fluorescence biosensor for zinc based on binding of zinc and dansylamide to apo-carbonic anhydrase which exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrate that the apo-carbonic anhydrase/dansylamide indicator system is very well suited for lifetime-based sensing, with a subnanomolar detection limit and greater than 1000-fold dynamic range. The theoretical basis for the wide dynamic range is discussed.

  4. Design, calibration and application of broad-range optical nanosensors for determining intracellular pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    Particle-based nanosensors offer a tool for determining the pH in the endosomal-lysosomal system of living cells. Measurements providing absolute values of pH have so far been restricted by the limited sensitivity range of nanosensors, calibration challenges and the complexity of image analysis...

  5. Emerging trends in molecular interactions between plants and the broad host range fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Peyraud, Rémi; Barascud, Marielle; Badet, Thomas; Vincent, Rémy; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is know...

  6. Characterization of JG024, a pseudomonas aeruginosa PB1-like broad host range phage under simulated infection conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Manfred

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes lung infections in patients suffering from the genetic disorder Cystic Fibrosis (CF. Once a chronic lung infection is established, P. aeruginosa cannot be eradicated by antibiotic treatment. Phage therapy is an alternative to treat these chronic P. aeruginosa infections. However, little is known about the factors which influence phage infection of P. aeruginosa under infection conditions and suitable broad host range phages. Results We isolated and characterized a phage, named JG024, which infects a broad range of clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa strains. Sequencing of the phage genome revealed that the phage JG024 is highly related to the ubiquitous and conserved PB1-like phages. The receptor of phage JG024 was determined as lipopolysaccharide. We used an artificial sputum medium to study phage infection under conditions similar to a chronic lung infection. Alginate production was identified as a factor reducing phage infectivity. Conclusions Phage JG024 is a suitable broad host range phage which could be used in phage therapy. Phage infection experiments under simulated chronic lung infection conditions showed that alginate production reduces phage infection efficiency.

  7. Mapping of regions participating in replication, maintenance, and mobilization of the broad host range R plasmid pBS222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of analysis of the deletion derivatives, obtained in vitro by sodium bisulfite mutagenesis and cloned within the pUC19 vector regions of the broad host-range plasmid pBS222, genes participating in replication, maintenance, and mobilization of the plasmids have been mapped in a region with coordinates 0.2-2.5 kb and an area including the unique HindIII restriction site (12.3 kb). The derivatives pBS359, pBS361, and pBS362 belong to the smallest broad host-range plasmids. The authors have identified three polypeptides (molecular weights ∼ 15, 25, and 30 kdalton), two of which presumably participate in the provision of the broad host-range functions, and the other in the mobilization of plasmid pBS222. The possibility of molecular and genetic organization of plasmid pBS222 and the presence of recombination hot points and also the prospects of using this method for the preparation of vector derivatives are discussed

  8. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Filloux, D.; Roumagnac, P.; Bigot, D.; Gayral, P.; Martin, D. P.; Froissart, R.; Ogliastro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom. PMID:27600734

  9. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Filloux, D; Roumagnac, P; Bigot, D; Gayral, P; Martin, D P; Froissart, R; Ogliastro, M

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom. PMID:27600734

  10. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Filloux, D.; Roumagnac, P.; Bigot, D.; Gayral, P.; Martin, D. P.; Froissart, R.; Ogliastro, M.

    2016-09-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom.

  11. Estimation of the RF Characteristics of Absorbing Materials in Broad RF Frequency Ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Fandos, R

    2008-01-01

    Absorbing materials are very often used in RF applications. Their electromagnetic characteristics (relative permittivity εr, loss tangent tan δ and conductivity σ) are needed in order to obtain a high-quality design of the absorbing pieces in the frequency range of interest. Unfortunately, suppliers often do not provide these quantities. A simple technique to determine them, based on the RF measurement of the disturbance created by the insertion of a piece of absorber in a waveguide, is presented in this note. Results for samples of two different materials, silicon carbide and aluminum nitride are presented. While the former has a negligible conductivity at the working frequencies, the conductivity of the latter has to be taken into account in order to obtain a meaningful estimation of εr and tan δ. The equations of Kramers & Kronig have been applied to the data as a cross check, confirming the results.

  12. Effect of spectral range in surface inactivation of Listeria innocua using broad-spectrum pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodling, Sarah E; Moraru, Carmen I

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatment is an alternative to traditional thermal treatment that has the potential to achieve several log-cycle reductions in the concentration of microorganisms. One issue that is still debated is related to what specifically causes cell death after PL treatments. The main objective of this work was to elucidate which portions of the PL range are responsible for bacterial inactivation. Stainless steel coupons with controlled surface properties were inoculated with a known concentration of Listeria innocua in the stationary growth phase and treated with 1 to 12 pulses of light at a pulse rate of 3 pulses per s and a pulse width of 360 micros. The effects of the full spectrum (lambda = 180 to 1,100 nm) were compared with the effects obtained when only certain regions of UV, visible, and near-infrared light were used. The effectiveness of the treatments was determined in parallel by the standard plate count and most-probable-number techniques. At a fluence of about 6 J/cm(2), the full-spectrum PL treatment resulted in a 4.08-log reduction of L. innocua on a Mill finish surface, the removal of lambda 400 nm). This work provides additional supporting evidence that cell death in PL treatment is due to exposure to UV light. Additionally, it was shown that even a minor modification of the light path or the UV light spectrum in PL treatments can have a significant negative impact on the treatment intensity and effectiveness. PMID:17477260

  13. Investigations of Saturn’s Main Rings over Broad Range of Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Deau, Estelle; Morishima, Ryuji; Filacchione, Gianrico; Hedman, Matt; Nicholson, Phil; Colwell, Josh; Bradley, Todd; Showalter, Mark; Pilorz, Stu; Brooks, Shawn; Ciarniello, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    An abundance of information about the characteristics of Saturn’s ring particles and their regolith can be obtained by comparing the changes in their brightness, color and temperature with changing viewing geometry over a wide range of wavelengths from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared. Data from Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) are jointly studied using data from the lit and unlit main rings at multiple geometries and solar elevations over 11 years of the Cassini mission. Using multi-wavelength data sets allows us to test different thermal models by combining the effects of particle albedo, regolith grain size and surface roughness with thermal emissivity and inertia, particle spin rate and spin axis orientation.CIRS temperatures, ISS colors and UVIS brightness appear to vary noticeably with phase angle, but are not a strong function of spacecraft elevation angle. Color, temperature and brightness dependence on solar elevation angle are also observed. VIMS observations show that the infrared ice absorption band depths change with the solar phase angle, in particular between 0-20° and at high phase. This trend indicates that single scattering approximation is correct only at low phases (Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship is acknowledged.

  14. Conjugative transfer of broad host range plasmids to an acidobacterial strain, Edaphobacter aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhajja, Emna; Efthymiopoulos, Theocharis; George, Isabelle F; Moreels, David; Van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Agathos, Spiros N

    2016-03-10

    The Acidobacteria phylum is of high ecological interest. Its members are ubiquitous and particularly abundant in soils but many are recalcitrant to cultivation in the laboratory. Thus, the ability of Acidobacteria to capture and maintain plasmids remains largely unexplored. In this work we tested the transfer and the stability of (i) the PromA plasmid pMOL98 and (ii) the IncQ plasmid pKT230 to the acidobacterial strain Edaphobacter aggregans DSM 19364. To this end quantitative conjugation assays were performed and transconjugants were scored for plasmid-borne antibiotic selection markers. The tested plasmids were transferred and maintained in the new host. Plasmid pMOL98 was more stable than pKT230 in Ed. aggregans in the absence of positive selection. Thus, from an ecological point of view, we have extended the host range of PromA and IncQ plasmids for the first time to an acidobacterial strain. Furthermore, we have uncovered the potential of Acidobacteria to capture as-yet-unknown plasmids and to foster the development of new cloning and expression systems for the exploitation of biotechnologically valuable soil resources. PMID:26808872

  15. Novel broad host range shuttle vectors for expression in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeschel, Sonja Christina; Thies, Stephan; Link, Olga; Real, Catherine Isabell; Knops, Katja; Wilhelm, Susanne; Rosenau, Frank; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2012-10-15

    Novel shuttle vectors named pEBP were constructed to allow the gene expression in different bacterial hosts including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. These vectors share the inducible promoters P(T7) and P(Xyl) and a cos site to enable packaging of plasmid DNA into phage, and carry different multiple cloning sites and antibiotic resistance genes. Vector pEBP41 generally replicates episomally while pEBP18 replicates episomally in Gram-negative bacteria only, but integrates into the chromosome of B. subtilis. Plasmid copy numbers determined for E. coli and P. putida were in the range of 5-50 per cell. The functionality of pEBP18 and pEBP41 was confirmed by expression of two lipolytic enzymes, namely lipase A from B. subtilis and cutinase from the eukaryotic fungus Fusarium solani pisi in three different host strains. Additionally, we report here the construction of a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression strain of P. putida. PMID:22440389

  16. A hydrogel based nanosensor with an unprecedented broad sensitivity range for pH measurements in cellular compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, M.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Ek, Pramod Kumar;

    2015-01-01

    H-sensitive fluorophores (difluoro-Oregon Green, Oregon Green 488, and fluorescein) and one pH-insensitive fluorophore (Alexa 568) were covalently incorporated into a nanoparticle hydrogel matrix. With this broad range quadruple-labelled nanosensor all physiological relevant pH levels in living cells can be measured......Optical pH nanosensors have been applied for monitoring intracellular pH in real-time for about two decades. However, the pH sensitivity range of most nanosensors is too narrow, and measurements that are on the borderline of this range may not be correct. Furthermore, ratiometric measurements...... of acidic intracellular pH (pH pH 1.4 to 7.0. In this nanosensor, three p...

  17. The korF region of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 encodes two polypeptides with transcriptional repressor activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jagura-Burdzy, G; Ibbotson, J P; Thomas, C M

    1991-01-01

    Broad-host-range IncP plasmid RK2 possesses a series of operons involved in plasmid maintenance, whose expression is coordinated by a number of regulators, most of which are encoded in the central regulatory korA-korB operon. The nucleotide sequence of two new cistrons in this operon, comprising what we have previously designated the korF locus located between coordinates 57.0 and 56.0 kb on the genome of the IncP alpha plasmid RK2, is presented. The cistrons encode polypeptides of 173 and 17...

  18. Facile implementation of integrated tempering sampling method to enhance the sampling over a broad range of temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Peng; Gao, Yi Qin; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated tempering sampling (ITS) method is an approach to enhance the sampling over a broad range of energies and temperatures in computer simulations. In this paper, a new version of integrated tempering sampling method is proposed. In the new approach presented here, we obtain parameters such as the set of temperatures and the corresponding weighting factors from canonical average of potential energies. These parameters can be easily obtained without estimating partition functions. We apply this new approach to study the Lennard-Jones fluid, the ALA-PRO peptide and the single polymer chain systems to validate and benchmark the method.

  19. Contribution of different segments of the par region to stable maintenance of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2.

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, C L; Sobecky, P A; Helinski, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    A 3.2-kb region of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 has been shown to encode a highly efficient plasmid maintenance system that functions in a vector-independent manner. This region, designated par, consists of two divergently arranged operons: parCBA and parDE. The 0.7-kb parDE operon promotes plasmid stability by a postsegregational killing mechanism that ensures that plasmid-free daughter cells do not survive after cell division. The 2.3-kb parCBA operon encodes a site-specific resolvase p...

  20. A nonlinear theory of a coherent generation in the resonant tunnel diodes within a broad frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical solution to the Schroedinger equation with open boundary conditions is found out, which makes it possible to describe coherent generation in resonant-tunneling diodes in a broad interval of frequencies and field amplitudes. Within the linear field area approximation results obtained coincide with a high degree of accuracy with analytical results. The power of generation is calculated as a function of the current and other parameters of the resonant-tunneling diode. It is demonstrated that the high-power generation is possible in the quantum regime at frequencies exceeding the level width, i. e. within the THz range

  1. Emerging trends in molecular interactions between plants and the broad host range fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malick eMbengue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum , the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi.

  2. Emerging Trends in Molecular Interactions between Plants and the Broad Host Range Fungal Pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Peyraud, Rémi; Barascud, Marielle; Badet, Thomas; Vincent, Rémy; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi. PMID:27066056

  3. Artificial neural network model to predict slag viscosity over a broad range of temperatures and slag compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, Marc A. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Macchi, Arturo [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Lu, Dennis Y.; Hughes, Robin W.; McCalden, David; Anthony, Edward J. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Threshold slag viscosity heuristics are often used for the initial assessment of coal gasification projects. Slag viscosity predictions are also required for advanced combustion and gasification models. Due to unsatisfactory performance of theoretical equations, an artificial neural network model was developed to predict slag viscosity over a broad range of temperatures and slag compositions. This model outperforms other slag viscosity models, resulting in an average error factor of 5.05 which is lower than the best obtained with other available models. Genesee coal ash viscosity predictions were made to investigate the effect of adding Canadian limestone and dolomite. The results indicate that magnesium in the fluxing agent provides a greater viscosity reduction than calcium for the threshold slag tapping temperature range. (author)

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnS:Eu3+ - CMC nanophosphors emitting white light over broad excitation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Dilip; Ahemen, Ikorya; Bruno, Viena

    In this paper we report for the first time the synthesis and characterization of nanophosphors of ZnS:Eu3+ - embedded in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose matrix (CMC) that emits high quality white light over broad range of excitation. The nano-phosphors of cubic (zinc blende) structure were synthesized using precipitation technique with doping concentrations of Eu3+ ions 1 mol% and 5 mol%. The crystal sizes were 2.56 nm and 2.91 nm respectively. Annealing at 300 oC in a sulfur-rich atmosphere altered the crystal size to 4.35 nm and 3.65 nm respectively and the band gap from 4.2 eV to 3.76 eV and 3.81 eV respectively. The as-synthesized samples gave pure orange-red emission when excited at wavelengths of 394 nm and 465 nm. After thermal annealing of the samples, a broad emission band in the blue-green region assigned to defect related states emerged or were enhanced. Also enhanced were the emission lines of Eu3+ ions in the orange-red region. A combination of these two transitions gave white light of different shades (recorded on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram) from cool white through Day-light to warm white light, depending on Eu3+ concentration and the excitation wavelengths (UV-330 to blue 465 nm), thus showing great potential applications of these nano-phosphors.

  5. Abundance and local range of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Alligatoridae in the northwest of Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Moraes Tomás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the distribution and relative abundance of the broad-snouted caiman on Santa Catarina Island. The study estimated the relative abundance of caiman along the rivers at Estação Ecológica de Carijós, in addition to evaluating the occurrence of this species in the entire area of the Ratones River plain on the northwestern portion of the island. The mean relative abundance obtained by nocturnal counts was 0.25 (±0.07 caiman/km surveyed. There was a weak correlation between the number of caimans and the air temperature. Based on interviews with the local community and nocturnal surveys of caimans in rivers and reservoirs surrounding the protected area, we concluded that the range occupied by caimans covered the entire area of the Ratones river plain, inhabiting natural habitats (rivers, mangroves, swamps as well as artificial habitats (reservoirs and water channels. Although this study provides basic information about the broad-snouted caiman population on this part of the island, it is aimed mainly at providing guidance for future research.

  6. Broad host range plasmid-based gene transfer system in the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus which lacks thylakoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Haitao; XU Xudong

    2004-01-01

    Gloeobacter violaceus, a cyanobacterium lack of thylakoids, is refractory to genetic manipulations because its cells are enveloped by a thick gelatinous sheath and in colonial form.In this study, a large number of single cells were obtained by repeated pumping with a syringe with the gelatinous sheath removed.And an exogenous broad host range plasmid pKT210 was conjugatively transferred into G.violaceus.Analyses with dot-blot hybridization and restriction mapping showed that the exogenous plasmid pKT210 had been introduced into G.violaceus and stably maintained with no alteration in its structure.pKT210 extracted from G.violaceus exconjugants could be transformed into the mcr- mrr- E.coli strain DH10B but not the mcr+ mrr+ strain DH5α, which suggests that a methylase system may be present in G.violaceus.

  7. Optimizing Taq polymerase concentration for improved signal-to-noise in the broad range detection of low abundance bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Spangler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR in principle can detect a single target molecule in a reaction mixture. Contaminating bacterial DNA in reagents creates a practical limit on the use of PCR to detect dilute bacterial DNA in environmental or public health samples. The most pernicious source of contamination is microbial DNA in DNA polymerase preparations. Importantly, all commercial Taq polymerase preparations inevitably contain contaminating microbial DNA. Removal of DNA from an enzyme preparation is problematical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that the background of contaminating DNA detected by quantitative PCR with broad host range primers can be decreased greater than 10-fold through the simple expedient of Taq enzyme dilution, without altering detection of target microbes in samples. The general method is: For any thermostable polymerase used for high-sensitivity detection, do a dilution series of the polymerase crossed with a dilution series of DNA or bacteria that work well with the test primers. For further work use the concentration of polymerase that gave the least signal in its negative control (H(2O while also not changing the threshold cycle for dilutions of spiked DNA or bacteria compared to higher concentrations of Taq polymerase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is clear from the studies shown in this report that a straightforward procedure of optimizing the Taq polymerase concentration achieved "treatment-free" attenuation of interference by contaminating bacterial DNA in Taq polymerase preparations. This procedure should facilitate detection and quantification with broad host range primers of a small number of bona fide bacteria (as few as one in a sample.

  8. Transformation of Azotobacter vinelandii OP with a broad host range plasmid containing a cloned chromosomal nif-DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, W H

    1988-05-01

    The non-nitrogen-fixing (Nif-) strain UW10 of Azotobacter vinelandii OP (UW) was naturally induced to competence and transformed with broad host range plasmid pKT210 containing the cloned wild-type nif-10 locus from A. vinelandii UW (Nif+); this marker was unable to complement the nif-10 mutation in trans, but could through recombination with the chromosome. The most frequent type of transformation event observed was recombination between the homologous regions of the plasmid and chromosome (producing Nif+ transformants) with loss of the plasmid vector. At a substantially lower frequency, transformants expressing the plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance determinants were isolated which were phenotypically Nif-. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that these transformants contained a plasmid migrating with the same mobility as the original donor plasmid. During culture these transformants acquired a Nif+ phenotype without the loss of the plasmid, as judged by the use of a hybridization probe specific for the cloned nif-DNA fragment. These data indicate that plasmids carrying sequences homologous to chromosomal sequences could be maintained in recombination-proficient A. vinelandii UW. The introduction of plasmids containing sequences homologous to chromosomal sequences was facilitated by prelinearization of the plasmid using a restriction endonuclease generating cohesive ends. Because the site of linearization could be chosen outside the region of shared homology, it was unlikely that the route of plasmid establishment occurred via a homology-facilitated transformation mechanism. The data also indicated that A. vinelandii UW could harbor broad host range cloning vectors based on plasmid RSF1010 without significant impairment of its nitrogen-fixation ability.

  9. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  10. Comparison between a Broad-Range Real-Time and a Broad-Range End-Point PCR Assays for the Detection of Bacterial 16S rRNA in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Koebel, Christelle; Jaulhac, Benoît; Schramm, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Broad range PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene is widely used to test clinical samples for the presence of bacterial DNA. End-point 16S PCR is both time-consuming and at high risk of cross-contamination. Prior to the replacement of the 16S end-point PCR assay routinely used in our clinical laboratory by a new 16S real-time PCR assay, we aimed to compare the performances of both techniques for the direct diagnosis of bacterial infections in clinical samples. In this prospective study, 129 clinical samples were included for direct comparison of both techniques. The sensitivity of 16S real-time PCR assay (76%) was significantly higher than that of end-point 16S PCR assay (41%) (pPCR assays did not differ significantly (p=0.43). The 16S real-time PCR assay yielded an etiological diagnosis in 19% of culture-negative samples. It constitutes a reliable and complementary diagnostic tool to the bacterial culture.

  11. Construction of the recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Ciezkowska, Martyna; Radlinska, Monika; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-02-20

    The plasmid pSinA of Sinorhizobium sp. M14 was used as a source of functional phenotypic modules, encoding proteins involved in arsenite oxidation and arsenic resistance, to obtain recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidative ability. An arsenite oxidation module was cloned into pBBR1MCS-2 vector yielding plasmid vector pAIO1, while an arsenic resistance module was cloned into pCM62 vector yielding plasmid pARS1. Both plasmid constructs were introduced (separately and together) into the cells of phylogenetically distant (representing Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and physiologically diversified (unable to oxidize arsenite and susceptible/resistant to arsenite and arsenate) bacteria. Functional analysis of the modified strains showed that: (i) the plasmid pARS1 can be used for the construction of strains with an increased resistance to arsenite [up to 20mM of As(III), (ii) the presence of the plasmid pAIO1 in bacteria previously unable to oxidize As(III) to As(V), contributes to the acquisition of arsenite oxidation abilities by these cells, (iii) the highest arsenite utilization rate are observed in the culture of strains harbouring both the plasmids pAIO1 and pARS1, (iv) the strains harbouring the plasmid pAIO1 were able to grow on arsenic-contaminated mine waters (∼ 3.0 mg As L(-1)) without any supplementation. PMID:25617684

  12. Characterization of passive film formed on AISI 316L stainless steel after magnetoelectropolishing in a broad range of polarization parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokosz, Krzysztof; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz [Politechnika Koszalinska, Division of Surface Electrochemistry, Raclawicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin (Poland); Raaen, Steiner [NTNU Trondheim, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to present the changes in the surface film composition on AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) after electropolishing (EP) and magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) in a broad range of the process conditions. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analyses were performed to reveal the effect of MEP. The EP process has been performed under natural convection (in a stagnant electrolyte), much above the polarization plateau. A series of experiments were carried out on AISI 316L SS samples in accordance with the five-level composite rotary statistical plan with the variables being the magnetic field intensity B (mT), and the anodic current density i (A dm{sup -2}). XP high resolution spectra have been obtained on AISI 316L SS surface concerning Fe 2p, Cr 2p, O 1s, S 2p, P 2p, and C 1s, respectively. The Cr:Fe ratio regarding both metallic M and compound X was also studied and calculated. At the end, the summary results of Cr/Fe = f(B, i) in relation to the corrosion potential, have been compared. The conclusions, concerning the selection of MEP process conditions, regarding the optimum Cr/Fe ratio and corrosion behavior, have been formulated. It was found the Cr:Fe ratio well correlates with the pitting corrosion potential. MEP process can modify not only the rate of dissolution to a determined extent, but also control the corrosion behavior and Cr:Fe ratio results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Broad-Host-Range Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages ΦR18 and ΦS12-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Takaaki; Iwano, Hidetomo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Usui, Masaru; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of racehorse keratitis. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by P. aeruginosa We present here the complete genome sequences of two phages, ΦR18 and ΦS12-1, which exhibit infectivity for a broad range of P. aeruginosa isolates.

  14. Design and fabrication of broad angular range depth-graded C/W multilayer mirror for hard X-ray optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhang; Zhanshan Wang; Fengli Wang; Wenjuan Wu; Hongchang Wang; Shuji Qin; Lingyan Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this paper, a depth-graded C/W multilayer mirror with broad grazing incident angular range, consisting of three multilayer stacks, each of which has different period thickness d and the layer pair number,was designed and fabricated by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering.

  15. A methodology for model-based greenhouse design: Part 1, a greenhouse climate model for a broad range of designs and climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Henten, van E.J.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a model-based method to design greenhouses for a broad range of climatic and economic conditions, a greenhouse climate model has been developed and validated. This model describes the effects of the outdoor climate and greenhouse design on the indoor greenhouse climate. Fo

  16. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought is linked to site water availability across a broad range of species and climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims: Vulnerability of the leaf hydraulic pathway to water-stress-induced dysfunction is a key component of drought tolerance in plants and may be important in defining species’ climatic range. However, the generality of the association between leaf hydraulic vulnerability and climate...

  17. Can job redesign interventions influence a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, David; Axtell, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641482

  18. Broad-range PCR as a supplement to culture for detection of bacterial pathogens in patients with a clinically diagnosed spinal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, K.; Arpi, M.; Lindblad, B.E.;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate broad-range PCR and subsequent sequencing compared to conventional culture in the diagnosis of spinal infection. The method was a prospective study of all patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital for surgery during a 12-months period with a clinically diagnosed infection...... of the spine. Samples from patients undergoing surgery for non-infectious causes (malignancy etc.) were included as control group. Specimens were submitted to conventional culture and molecular investigation with 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence analysis. 38 patients were included in the study...... (clinically diagnosed spinal infections=18; non-infectious diseases=20). The specificity was excellent for both culture and PCR (95% and 100%, respectively). A true culture positive result was obtained in 50% of patients (9/18) and 61% was positive (11/18) by broad-range PCR. When combined, culture and PCR...

  19. A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, L.; D. Lupi; Savoldelli, S.; B. Rossaro

    2016-01-01

    Spinosyns are a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests belonging to different orders, noxious to a wide variety of agricultural crops; spinosyns were also used against insects of sanitary interest. Spinosyns are derivative of biological active substances produced by soil Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa; being of biological origin, they are considered to have a low environmental impact and they are not much aggressive against nontarget species. They...

  20. Construction of a self-luminescent cyanobacterial bioreporter that detects a broad range of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Betancor, Keila; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Muñoz-Martín, M A; Leganés, Francisco; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    A self-luminescent bioreporter strain of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was constructed by fusing the promoter region of the smt locus (encoding the transcriptional repressor SmtB and the metallothionein SmtA) to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens; the sensor smtB gene controlling the expression of smtA was cloned in the same vector. The bioreporter performance was tested with a range of heavy metals and was shown to respond linearly to divalent Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Hg, and monovalent Ag. Chemical modeling was used to link bioreporter response with metal speciation and bioavailability. Limits of Detection (LODs), Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs) and dynamic ranges for each metal were calculated in terms of free ion concentrations. The ranges of detection varied from 11 to 72 pM for Hg(2+) (the ion to which the bioreporter was most sensitive) to 1.54-5.35 μM for Cd(2+) with an order of decreasing sensitivity as follows: Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Ag(+) > Co(2+) ≥ Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). However, the maximum induction factor reached 75-fold in the case of Zn(2+) and 56-fold in the case of Cd(2+), implying that Zn(2+) is the preferred metal in vivo for the SmtB sensor, followed by Cd(2+), Ag(+) and Cu(2+) (around 45-50-fold induction), Hg(2+) (30-fold) and finally Co(2+) (20-fold). The bioreporter performance was tested in real environmental samples with different water matrix complexity artificially contaminated with increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ag, and Cu, confirming its validity as a sensor of free heavy metal cations bioavailability in aquatic environments. PMID:25806029

  1. Construction of a self- luminescent cyanobacterial bioreporter that detects a broad range of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila eMartin-Betancor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A self-luminescent bioreporter strain of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was constructed by fusing the promoter region of the smt locus (encoding the transcriptional repressor SmtB and the metallothionein SmtA to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens; the sensor smtB gene controlling the expression of smtA was cloned in the same vector. The bioreporter performance was tested with a range of heavy metals and was shown to respond linearly to divalent Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Hg and monovalent Ag. Chemical modelling was used to link bioreporter response with metal speciation and bioavailability. Limits of Detection (LODs, Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs and dynamic ranges for each metal were calculated in terms of free ion concentrations. The ranges of detection varied from 11 to 72 pM for Hg2+ (the ion to which the bioreporter was most sensitive to 1.54-5.35 µM for Cd2+ with an order of decreasing sensitivity as follows: Hg2+ >> Cu2+ >> Ag+ > Co2+ ≥ Zn2+ > Cd2+. However, the maximum induction factor reached 75-fold in the case of Zn2+ and 56-fold in the case of Cd2+, implying that Zn2+ is the preferred metal in vivo for the SmtB sensor, followed by Cd2+, Ag+ and Cu2+ (around 45-50-fold induction, Hg2+ (30-fold and finally Co2+ (20-fold. The bioreporter performance was tested in real environmental samples with different water matrix complexity artificially contaminated with increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ag and Cu, confirming its validity as a sensor of free heavy metal cations bioavailability in aquatic environments.

  2. A multi-array competitive immunoassay for the detection of broad-range molecular size organic compounds relevant for astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Näke, Christian; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Parro, Víctor

    2006-12-01

    We have developed antibodies and a multi-array competitive immunoassay (MACIA) for the detection of a wide range of molecular size compounds, from single aromatic ring derivatives or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), through small peptides, proteins or whole cells (spores). Multiple microarrays containing target molecules are used simultaneously to run several competitive immunoassays. The sensitivity of the MACIA for small organic compounds like naphthalene, 4-phenilphenol or 4-tertbutilphenol is in the range of 100-500 ppb (ng ml -1), for others like the insecticide terbutryn it is at the ppt (ng l -1) level, while for small peptides, as well as for more complex molecules like the protein thioredoxin, the sensitivity is approximately 1-2 ppb, or 10 4-10 5 spores of Bacillus subtilis per milliliter. For organic compounds, a water-methanol solution was used in order to achieve a better dissolution of the organics without compromising the antibody-antigen interaction. The above-mentioned compounds were detected by MACIA in water-(10%) methanol extracts from spiked pyrite and hematite-containing rock powder samples, as well as from a spiked-sand sample subjected to organic extraction with dichloromethane-methanol (1/1).

  3. Diversity of Bacillus cereus group strains is reflected in their broad range of pathogenicity and diverse ecological lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises a highly versatile group of bacteria, which are of particular interest because of their capacity to cause disease. Emetic food poisoning is caused by the toxin cereulide produced during the growth of emetic B. cereus in food, while diarrhoeal food poisoning is the result of enterotoxin production by viable vegetative B. cereus cells in the small intestine, probably in the mucus layer and/or attached to the host's intestinal epithelium. The numbers of B. cereus causing disease are highly variable, depending on diverse factors linked to the host (age, diet, physiology and immunology), bacteria (cellular form, toxin genes and expression) and food (nutritional composition and meal characteristics). Bacillus cereus group strains show impressive ecological diversity, ranging from their saprophytic life cycle in soil to symbiotic (commensal and mutualistic) lifestyles near plant roots and in guts of insects and mammals to various pathogenic ones in diverse insect and mammalian hosts. During all these different ecological lifestyles, their toxins play important roles ranging from providing competitive advantages within microbial communities to inhibition of specific pathogenic organisms for their host and accomplishment of infections by damaging their host's tissues.

  4. Tandem photonic-crystal thin films surpassing Lambertian light-trapping limit over broad bandwidth and angular range

    CERN Document Server

    Oskooi, Ardavan; Noda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The maximum absorption of solar radiation over the broadest range of frequencies and incident angles using the thinnest material possible has important applications for renewable-energy generation. Complete random texturing of an optically-thick film's surface to increase the path length of scattered light rays, first proposed nearly thirty years ago, has thus far remained the most effective approach for photon absorption over the widest set of conditions. Recent thin-film nanostructured designs involving resonant wave effects of photons have explored the possibility of superior performance though as of yet no proposal satisfying the dual requirements of enhanced and robust absorption over a large fraction of the solar spectrum has been made. Here using recent advances in computational electrodynamics we describe a general strategy for the design of a silicon thin film applicable to photovoltaic cells based on a quasi-resonant approach to light trapping where two partially-disordered photonic-crystal slabs, s...

  5. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron–photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an “in-field” calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H⁎(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  6. Simultaneous, specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered food-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woubit, Abdela Salah; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Samuel, Temesgen

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia and Francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents causing food-related and other human illnesses worldwide. We aimed to develop rapid methods with the capability to simultaneously and differentially detect all six pathogens in one run. Our initial experiments to use previously reported sets of primers revealed non-specificity of some of the sequences when tested against a broader array of pathogens, or proved not optimal for simultaneous detection parameters. By extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified unique genome regions, which we utilized to develop a detection platform. Twelve of the specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in F. tularensis ssp. tularensis, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, S. dysentriae, S. typhimurium, V. cholera, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis contained either hypothetical or putative proteins, the functions of which have not been clearly defined. Corresponding primer sets were designed from the target regions for use in real-time PCR assays to detect specific biothreat pathogens at species or strain levels. The primer sets were first tested by in-silico PCR against whole genome sequences of different species, sub-species, or strains and then by in vitro PCR against genomic DNA preparations from 23 strains representing six biothreat agents (E.coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhi, Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia pestis) and six foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella saintpaul, Shigella sonnei, Francisella novicida, Vibrio parahemolytica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis). Each pathogen was specifically identifiable at the genus and species levels. Sensitivity assays performed using purified DNA showed the lowest detection limit of 640 fg

  7. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious. PMID:27111996

  8. Broad host range ProUSER vectors enable fast characterization of inducible promoters and optimization of p-coumaric acid production in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calero Valdayo, Patricia; Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 has gained increasing interest as a host for the production of biochemicals. Because of the lack of a systematic characterization of inducible promoters in this strain, we generated ProUSER broad-host-expression plasmids that facilitate fast uracil-based cloning. A set...... of ProUSER-reporter vectors was further created to characterize different inducible promoters. The PrhaB and Pm promoters were orthogonal and showed titratable, high, and homogeneous expression. To optimize the production of p-coumaric acid, P. putida was engineered to prevent degradation of tyrosine...... achieved in Pseudomonads under comparable conditions. With broad-host-range compatibility, the ProUSER vectors will serve as useful tools for optimizing gene expression in a variety of bacteria....

  9. Hierarchical MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunction electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction over a broad pH range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aiping; Tian, Chungui; Yan, Haijing; Jiao, Yanqing; Yan, Qing; Yang, Guoyu; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized condition, HF-MoSP exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with a low onset overpotential of 29 mV and η of 108 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and retains its good activity for 30 h. In addition, the catalyst shows excellent activity in 1 M KOH with an onset overpotential of 42 mV and η of 119 mV at 10 mA cm-2. The catalysts also exhibit obvious activity in neutral, weak acid and weak alkaline conditions. The good performance is relative to the synergy of the MoP shell and MoS2 core and the high WF of HF-MoSP close to Pt, and the large SBET of HF-MoSP benefited from the hierarchical structure. This study represents the construction of the core-shell heterojunction and provides a new way to provide the low-cost and high-performance catalyst for HER.A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized

  10. Hierarchical MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunction electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction over a broad pH range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aiping; Tian, Chungui; Yan, Haijing; Jiao, Yanqing; Yan, Qing; Yang, Guoyu; Fu, Honggang

    2016-06-01

    A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized condition, HF-MoSP exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with a low onset overpotential of 29 mV and η of 108 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) in 0.5 M H2SO4 and retains its good activity for 30 h. In addition, the catalyst shows excellent activity in 1 M KOH with an onset overpotential of 42 mV and η of 119 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). The catalysts also exhibit obvious activity in neutral, weak acid and weak alkaline conditions. The good performance is relative to the synergy of the MoP shell and MoS2 core and the high WF of HF-MoSP close to Pt, and the large SBET of HF-MoSP benefited from the hierarchical structure. This study represents the construction of the core-shell heterojunction and provides a new way to provide the low-cost and high-performance catalyst for HER. PMID:27172989

  11. Nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles based fluorescent pH sensor with broad-range responding for environmental and live cells applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingfang; Su, Yubin; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Rongjun; Huang, Mengjiao; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-08-15

    A nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles (N-CNs) based fluorescent pH sensor with a broad-range responding was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal treatment of melamine and triethanolamine. The as-prepared N-CNs exhibited excellent photoluminesence properties with an absolute quantum yield (QY) of 11.0%. Furthermore, the N-CNs possessed a broad-range pH response. The linear pH response range was 3.0 to 12.0, which is much wider than that of previously reported fluorescent pH sensors. The possible mechanism for the pH-sensitive response of the N-CNs was ascribed to photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Cell toxicity experiment showed that the as-prepared N-CNs exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility with the cell viabilities of more than 87%. The proposed N-CNs-based pH sensor was used for pH monitoring of environmental water samples, and pH fluorescence imaging of live T24 cells. The N-CNs is promising as a convenient and general fluorescent pH sensor for environmental monitoring and bioimaging applications. PMID:27085956

  12. Can job redesign interventions influence a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics? A quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, David

    2015-01-01

    Many job redesign interventions are based on a ‘multiple mediator/multiple outcome’ model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a ‘multiple mediator/multiple outcome’ model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call centre confirmed the hypothesized model an...

  13. Photodetectors: Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine (PPh3 ) and (3-amino-propyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by J.-H. Park and co-workers on page 6711 in comparison with a conventional MoS2 device. A very high performance ReSe2 photodetector is demonstrated, which has a broad photodetection range, high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), and fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms).

  14. Thermodynamical features of Verlinde's approach for a non-commutative Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in a broad range of scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    2014-01-01

    We try to study the thermodynamical features of a non-commutative inspired Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in the context of entropic gravity model, particularly for the model that is employed in a broad range of scales, from the short distances to the large distances. At small length scales, the Newtonian force is failed because one finds a linear relation between the entropic force and the distance. In addition, there are some deviations from the standard Newtonian gravity at large l...

  15. Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the parCBA operon of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberl, Leo; Sternberg, Claus; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    1994-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RP4 encodes a highly efficient partitioning function, termed par, that is capable of stabilizing plasmids in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria independently of the nature of the replicon. The mechanism responsible for plasmid stabilization by this locus appears to be...... a complex system which includes a site-specific recombination system mediating resolution of plasmid multimers. In this report we present a detailed study on this multimer resolution system (mrs). The parA gene encodes two forms of a resolvase capable of catalysing site-specific recombination...

  16. Plasmid Evolution and Interaction between the Plasmid Addiction Stability Systems of Two Related Broad-Host-Range IncQ-Like Plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Shelly M.; Rawlings, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pTC-F14 contains a plasmid stability system called pas (plasmid addiction system), which consists of two proteins, a PasA antitoxin and a PasB toxin. This system is closely related to the pas of plasmid pTF-FC2 (81 and 72% amino acid identity for PasA and PasB, respectively) except that the pas of pTF-FC2 contains a third protein, PasC. As both pTC-F14 and pTF-FC2 are highly promiscuous broad-host-range plasmids isolated from bacteria that share a similar ecological niche, the plasmid...

  17. Functional difference between the two oppositely oriented priming signals essential for the initiation of the broad host-range plasmid RSF1010 DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, K.; Kino, K.; TAGUCHI, Y.; Miao, D M; Honda, Y; Sakai, H.; Komano, T; Bagdasarian, M

    1994-01-01

    The broad host-range plasmid RSF1010 contains two oppositely oriented priming signals, ssiA and ssiB, for DNA synthesis dependent on the origin of vegetative DNA replication (oriV). If either ssiA or ssiB was deleted or inverted, the RSF1010 miniplasmids containing engineered oriVs were maintained at low copy numbers, replicated abnormally as dimers, and accumulated specific single strands in the Escherichia coli strain supplying the three RSF1010-encoded RepA, RepB', and RepC proteins. Inter...

  18. A base-paired hairpin structure essential for the functional priming signal for DNA replication of the broad host range plasmid RSF1010.

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, D M; Honda, Y; Tanaka, K.; Higashi, A.; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); TAGUCHI, Y.; Sakai, H.; Komano, T; Bagdasarian, M

    1993-01-01

    The two single-strand DNA initiation signals, ssiA(RSF1010) and ssiB(RSF1010) of the broad host-range plasmid RSF1010 contain proposed stem-loop structures. Nine single base-change mutations in the stem of the ssiA structure, each of which destroyed a relevant base pairing, damaged the ssiA activity. A second single-base change was introduced into each of the nine ssiA mutants in such a way that the base pairing was restored. Only three out of nine second base changes that restored the base p...

  19. DnaG-dependent priming signals can substitute for the two essential DNA initiation signals in oriV of the broad host-range plasmid RSF1010.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Y; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Tanaka, K.; Higashi, A.; Sakai, H.; Komano, T; Bagdasarian, M

    1992-01-01

    Broad host-range plasmid RSF1010 contains in the oriV region two DNA initiation signals, ssiA(RSF1010) and ssiB(RSF1010), which are essential for plasmid replication. Each of ssiA and ssiB could be substituted functionally by either of the two G4-type (DnaG-dependent) priming signals, the oric of bacteriophage G4 and an ssi signal from plasmid pSY343 (an R1 plasmid derivative). Functions of the chimeric oriVs of RSF1010 thus constructed were dependent on the RSF1010-specific replication prote...

  20. Novel genus-specific broad range primers for the detection of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses and their application in field surveys in South-East Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linda; Tang, Joe; Clover, Gerard R G; Spackman, Merrin E; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C

    2015-03-01

    A number of viruses from the genera Furovirus, Hordeivirus and Rymovirus are known to infect and damage the four major temperate cereal crops, wheat, barley, sorghum and oats. Currently, there is no active testing in Australia for any of these viruses, which pose a significant biosecurity threat to the phytosanitary status of Australia's grains industry. To address this, broad spectrum PCR assays were developed to target virus species within the genera Furovirus, Hordeivirus and Rymovirus. Five sets of novel genus-specific primers were designed and tested in reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays against a range of virus isolates in plant virus diagnostic laboratories in both Australia and New Zealand. Three of these assays were then chosen to screen samples in a three-year survey of cereal crops in western Victoria, Australia. Of the 8900 cereal plants screened in the survey, all were tested free of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses. To date, there were no published genus-specific primers available for the detection of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses. This study shows for the first time a broad-spectrum molecular test being used in a survey for exotic grain viruses in Australia. Results from this survey provide important evidence of the use of this method to demonstrate the absence of these viruses in Victoria, Australia. The primer pairs reported here are expected to detect a wide range of virus species within the three genera.

  1. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanping, E-mail: yx2132@cumc.columbia.edu; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n){sup 3}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the {sup 9}Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  2. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  3. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eWalker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving human welfare is a global concern, but not always easy to achieve. In this regard, challenges have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU, where socialist institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow. Economic adjustments have been difficult in the new nations of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by a lack of infrastructure, human capital, and financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asia is mostly landlocked, far from market centers. Despite these barriers, development potential exists, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, a significant impediment to realizing the market potential of the region’s animal products. It next provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD and Brucellosis. Included is a success story involving FMD eradication in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers how wildlife might act as a disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify pathways to developing the economic potential of central Asia, as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves.

  4. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Klonowska, Agnieszka [UMR, France; Caroline, Bournaud [UMR, France; Booth, Kristina [University of Massachusetts; Vriezen, Jan A.C. [University of Massachusetts; Melkonian, Remy [UMR, France; James, Euan [James Hutton Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom; Young, Peter W. [University of York, United Kingdom; Bena, Gilles [UMR, France; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle [University of Massachusetts; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  5. Quest for a broad-range vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B: implications of genetic variations of the surface-exposed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippis, Ivano

    2009-09-01

    Despite the development of new vaccine formulations using new biotechnology resources to combat emerging and re-emerging diseases, serogroup B meningococcal disease is still a worldwide burden, accounting for many deaths and disabilities every year. The successful approach of coupling a polysaccharide (PS) with a carrier protein in order to increase long-lasting immunity could not be exploited against Neisseria meningitidis B because of the limitations of using the capsular PS of serogroup B meningococci. Tailor-made vaccines based on exposed proteins were shown to be a promising approach to overcome these flaws. However, the continuous adaptation of surface meningococcal structures to the external environment has led to genetic shifts of potential vaccine-target epitopes, hampering the quest for a broad-range vaccine that could be used against all serogroups, especially against serogroup B.

  6. Characterization of 6H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits Over A Broad Temperature Range from -150 C to +500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Prokop, Norman F.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has previously reported prolonged stable operation of simple prototype 6H-SiC JFET integrated circuits (logic gates and amplifier stages) for thousands of hours at +500 C. This paper experimentally investigates the ability of these 6H-SiC JFET devices and integrated circuits to also function at cold temperatures expected to arise in some envisioned applications. Prototype logic gate ICs experimentally demonstrated good functionality down to -125 C without changing circuit input voltages. Cascaded operation of gates at cold temperatures was verified by externally wiring gates together to form a 3-stage ring oscillator. While logic gate output voltages exhibited little change across the broad temperature range from -125 C to +500 C, the change in operating frequency and power consumption of these non-optimized logic gates as a function of temperature was much larger and tracked JFET channel conduction properties.

  7. Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, J M; Brautaset, T; Winther-Larsen, H C; Haugan, K; Valla, S

    1997-01-01

    The plasmid vectors described in this report are derived from the broad-host-range RK2 replicon and can be maintained in many gram-negative bacterial species. The complete nucleotide sequences of all of the cloning and expression vectors are known. Important characteristics of the cloning vectors are as follows: a size range of 4.8 to 7.1 kb, unique cloning sites, different antibiotic resistance markers for selection of plasmid-containing cells, oriT-mediated conjugative plasmid transfer, plasmid stabilization functions, and a means for a simple method for modification of plasmid copy number. Expression vectors were constructed by insertion of the inducible Pu or Pm promoter together with its regulatory gene xylR or xylS, respectively, from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida. One of these vectors was used in an analysis of the correlation between phosphoglucomutase activity and amylose accumulation in Escherichia coli. The experiments showed that amylose synthesis was only marginally affected by the level of basal expression from the Pm promoter of the Acetobacter xylinum phosphoglucomutase gene (celB). In contrast, amylose accumulation was strongly reduced when transcription from Pm was induced. CelB was also expressed with a very high induction ratio in Xanthomonas campestris. These experiments showed that the A. xylinum celB gene could not complement the role of the bifunctional X. campestris phosphoglucomutase-phosphomannomutase gene in xanthan biosynthesis. We believe that the vectors described here are useful for cloning experiments, gene expression, and physiological studies with a wide range of bacteria and presumably also for analysis of gene transfer in the environment. PMID:9023917

  8. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1–2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>1011 photons/second/cm2). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>1010 photons/second/cm2) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5–125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  9. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1-2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>10(11) photons/second/cm(2)). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>10(10) photons/second/cm(2)) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5-125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  10. Evaluation of viral extraction methods on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat foods with conventional and real-time RT-PCR for Norovirus GII detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In spite of that, no standard viral detection method is available for food products. Therefore, three viral elution-concentration methods and one direct RNA isolation method were evaluated on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) food products (mixed lettuce, fruit salad, raspberries and two RTE dishes) artificially seeded with a diluted stool sample contaminated with NoV genogroup II. These seeding experiments revealed two categories of RTE products, fruits and vegetables grouped together and RTE dishes (penne and tagliatelle salads) which are rich in proteins and fat formed another category. The RNA extracts were amplified and detected with two conventional RT-PCR systems (Booster and Semi-nested GII) and one real-time RT-PCR (Real-time GII) assay. A fast direct RNA isolation method detected 10(2) RT-PCRU on 10 g penne and tagliatelle salads with the conventional RT-PCR assays. However real-time RT-PCR was less sensitive for penne salad. A viral elution-concentration method, including a buffer solution for the elution step and one polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation step, was able to detect 10(2) RT-PCRU on 50 g frozen raspberries with conventional and real-time RT-PCR assays. Moreover the latter extraction method used no environmental hazardous chemical reagents and was easy to perform.

  11. Isolation and characterization of insertion sequence elements from gram-negative bacteria by using new broad-host-range, positive selection vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R; Hötte, B; Klauke, B; Kosier, B

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of an RSF1010-derived broad-host-range vector, three different systems which enable positive detection and isolation of insertion sequence (IS) elements from gram-negative bacteria were constructed. Vectors pSUP104-pheS, pSUP104-rpsL, and pSUP104-sac were used successfully in a number of Rhizobium strains and in Xanthomonas campestris. More than 20 different IS elements were isolated and characterized. The 16 IS elements from Rhizobium meliloti were further used to characterize various R. meliloti strains by hybridization. The resulting hybridization patterns were different for every strain and gave a clear and definite IS fingerprint of each strain. These IS fingerprints can be used to identify and characterize R. meliloti strains rapidly and unequivocally, as they proved to be relatively stable. Some of the IS elements were found to be identical when the IS fingerprints from a given strain were compared. This method of IS fingerprinting can also establish whether IS elements are the same, related, or different. Images PMID:1847366

  12. Isolation and characterization of insertion sequence elements from gram-negative bacteria by using new broad-host-range, positive selection vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R; Hötte, B; Klauke, B; Kosier, B

    1991-02-01

    On the basis of an RSF1010-derived broad-host-range vector, three different systems which enable positive detection and isolation of insertion sequence (IS) elements from gram-negative bacteria were constructed. Vectors pSUP104-pheS, pSUP104-rpsL, and pSUP104-sac were used successfully in a number of Rhizobium strains and in Xanthomonas campestris. More than 20 different IS elements were isolated and characterized. The 16 IS elements from Rhizobium meliloti were further used to characterize various R. meliloti strains by hybridization. The resulting hybridization patterns were different for every strain and gave a clear and definite IS fingerprint of each strain. These IS fingerprints can be used to identify and characterize R. meliloti strains rapidly and unequivocally, as they proved to be relatively stable. Some of the IS elements were found to be identical when the IS fingerprints from a given strain were compared. This method of IS fingerprinting can also establish whether IS elements are the same, related, or different.

  13. A cross-sectional study on trans-fatty acids and risk markers of CHD among middle-aged men representing a broad range of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M.; Nielsen, Marie M.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.;

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA), especially industrially produced TFA (I-TFA), has been associated with the risk of CHD through influence on serum lipid levels. Other causal pathways remain less investigated. In the present cross-sectional study of middle-aged men representing a broad range...... of interest (waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, percentage of truncal fat, C-reactive protein, IL-6, blood lipids, blood pressure, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index) were obtained through clinical examination. The associations were assessed by linear regression analysis. The median intake...... of total TFA among the 393 men was 1·3 g/d, covering a daily I-TFA intake of 0·4 g (10–90th percentile 0·0–1·0) and R-TFA intake of 0·9 g (10–90th percentile 0·4–1·8). Intake of these amounts of TFA showed no significant associations with abdominal fatness, inflammatory markers, blood lipids, blood...

  14. Antimicrobial properties of zeolite-X and zeolite-A ion-exchanged with silver, copper, and zinc against a broad range of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Ustaoğlu, Zeynep; Yılmazer, Gonca Altın; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baç, Nurcan

    2014-02-01

    Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates composed of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in a framework with cations, water within pores. Their cation contents can be exchanged with monovalent or divalent ions. In the present study, the antimicrobial (antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal) properties of zeolite type X and A, with different Al/Si ratio, ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions were investigated individually. The study presents the synthesis and manufacture of four different zeolite types characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ion loading capacity of the zeolites was examined and compared with the antimicrobial characteristics against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and mold. It was observed that Ag(+) ion-loaded zeolites exhibited more antibacterial activity with respect to other metal ion-embedded zeolite samples. The results clearly support that various synthetic zeolites can be ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions to acquire antimicrobial properties or ion-releasing characteristics to provide prolonged or stronger activity. The current study suggested that zeolite formulations could be combined with various materials used in manufacturing medical devices, surfaces, textiles, or household items where antimicrobial properties are required.

  15. Radiometric calibration of optical microscopy and microspectroscopy apparata over a broad spectral range using a special thin-film luminescence standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valenta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Application capabilities of optical microscopes and microspectroscopes can be considerably enhanced by a proper calibration of their spectral sensitivity. We propose and demonstrate a method of relative and absolute calibration of a microspectroscope over an extraordinary broad spectral range covered by two (parallel detection branches in visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The key point of the absolute calibration of a relative spectral sensitivity is application of the standard sample formed by a thin layer of Si nanocrystals with stable and efficient photoluminescence. The spectral PL quantum yield and the PL spatial distribution of the standard sample must be characterized by separate experiments. The absolutely calibrated microspectroscope enables to characterize spectral photon emittance of a studied object or even its luminescence quantum yield (QY if additional knowledge about spatial distribution of emission and about excitance is available. Capabilities of the calibrated microspectroscope are demonstrated by measuring external QY of electroluminescence from a standard poly-Si solar-cell and of photoluminescence of Er-doped Si nanocrystals.

  16. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  17. Design of Thermostable Beta-Propeller Phytases with Activity over a Broad Range of pHs and Their Overproduction by Pichia pastoris▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viader-Salvadó, José M.; Gallegos-López, Juan A.; Carreón-Treviño, J. Gerardo; Castillo-Galván, Miguel; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Thermostable phytases, which are active over broad pH ranges, may be useful as feed additives, since they can resist the temperatures used in the feed-pelleting process. We designed new beta-propeller phytases, using a structure-guided consensus approach, from a set of amino acid sequences from Bacillus phytases and engineered Pichia pastoris strains to overproduce the enzymes. The recombinant phytases were N-glycosylated, had the correct amino-terminal sequence, showed activity over a pH range of 2.5 to 9, showed a high residual activity after 10 min of heat treatment at 80°C and pH 5.5 or 7.5, and were more thermostable at pH 7.5 than a recombinant form of phytase C from Bacillus subtilis (GenBank accession no. AAC31775). A structural analysis suggested that the higher thermostability may be due to a larger number of hydrogen bonds and to the presence of P257 in a surface loop. In addition, D336 likely plays an important role in the thermostability of the phytases at pH 7.5. The recombinant phytases showed higher thermostability at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.5. This difference was likely due to a different protein total charge at pH 5.5 from that at pH 7.5. The recombinant beta-propeller phytases described here may have potential as feed additives and in the pretreatment of vegetable flours used as ingredients in animal diets. PMID:20693453

  18. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  19. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  20. Comparative Analysis of Two Broad-Range PCR Assays for Pathogen Detection in Positive-Blood-Culture Bottles: PCR–High-Resolution Melting Analysis versus PCR-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Kevin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Yang, Samuel; Won, Helen; Matthews, Heather; Toleno, Donna; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Carroll, Karen C.; Hardick, Justin; Masek, Billy; Kecojevic, Alexander; Sampath, Rangarajan; Peterson, Stephen; Rothman, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in bloodstream infections is important for directing antimicrobial treatment, but current culture-based approaches can be problematic. Broad-range PCR assays which target conserved genomic motifs for postamplification amplicon analysis permit detection of sepsis-causing pathogens. Comparison of different broad-range assays is important for informing future implementation strategies. In this study, we compared positive-blood-culture bottles processed by PCR coupled to hi...

  1. Comparison of Two Suspension Arrays for Simultaneous Detection of Five Biothreat Bacterial in Powder Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel Bio-Plex assays for simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Universal primers were used to amplify highly conserved region located within the 16S rRNA amplicon, followed by hybridized to pathogen-specific probes for identification of these five organisms. The other assay is based on multiplex PCR to simultaneously amplify five species-specific pathogen identification-targeted regions unique to individual pathogen. Both of the two arrays are validated to be flexible and sensitive for simultaneous detection of bioterrorism bacteria. However, universal primer PCR-based array could not identify Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. at the species level because of the high conservation of 16S rDNA of the same genus. The two suspension arrays can be utilized to detect Bacillus anthracis sterne spore and Yersinia pestis EV76 from mimic “write powder” samples, they also proved that the suspension array system will be valuable tools for diagnosis of bacterial biothreat agents in environmental samples.

  2. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki on a broad range of viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Ueda

    Full Text Available Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus. We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

  3. Spectral Modulation Effect in Teleseismic P-waves from North Korean Nuclear Tests Recorded in Broad Azimuthal Range and Possible Source Depth Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S. G.; Hofstetter, R.

    2016-04-01

    Three underground nuclear explosions, conducted by North Korea in 2006, 2009 and 2013, are analyzed. The last two tests were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P -waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth, this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. This effect was also observed at ISN stations for a Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz and the PNE Rubin-2 in West Siberia at 1 Hz, indicating a source-effect and not a site-effect. Similar spectral minima having essentially the same frequency, as at ISN, were observed in teleseismic P-waves for all the three North Korean explosions recorded at networks and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NNSN), Australia (ASAR, WRA) and Canada (YKA), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of 2009 and 2013 tests at WRA and KURK arrays showed harmonic spectral modulation with three multiple minima frequencies, evidencing the clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korean tests was estimated about 2.0-2.1 km. It was shown that the observed null frequencies and the obtained source depth estimates correspond to P- pP interference phenomena in both cases of a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift in a mountain. This unusual depth estimation needs additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  4. Macroscopic force experienced by extended objects in granular flows over a very broad Froude-number range : Macroscopic granular force on extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faug, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    This paper revisits a great number of data from previous studies about the macroscopic force experienced by either objects moving at constant speed and depth inside static granular materials or motionless objects subject to steady granular flows. It focuses on extended objects whose immersed height is equal or close to the thickness of the surrounding granular medium. A simple scaling argument allows demarcating quasi-static from speed-squared force contributions for all the data from different geometries over a very broad range of Froude number. However, a wide scatter of the data is observed in the quasi-static regime. In the first step, a mean-field model is proposed to describe the average force. Mass and momentum balances are applied to a control volume, namely the expected volume of grains disturbed by the object, which is assumed to extend across the whole width and the entire height of the granular system. This allows defining an equivalent length scale which is computed by fitting the force predicted by the model to the available force data. In the second step, a circular shape is assumed for the effective mobilized domain and the associated diameter can be directly extracted from the computed equivalent length scale. This effective diameter is found to vary linearly with both the object width and the thickness of the granular layer moving around the extended object or the immersed depth of the object. The scaling highlights the key role played by the geometry which may enhance the force in the quasi-static regime. PMID:25957179

  5. Broad-Range PCR Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Bacteremia and Fungemia in Patients with Neutropenic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, S; Maertens, J; Bueselinck, K; Lagrou, K

    2016-10-01

    Infection is an important complication in patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors undergoing intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In only 20 to 30% of the febrile neutropenic episodes, an infectious agent is detected by conventional cultures. In this prospective study, the performance of broad-range PCR coupled with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technology was compared to conventional blood cultures (BC) in a consecutive series of samples from high-risk hematology patients. In 74 patients, BC and a whole-blood sample for PCR/ESI-MS (Iridica BAC BSI; Abbott, Carlsbad, CA, USA) were collected at the start of each febrile neutropenic episode and, in case of persistent fever, also at day 5. During 100 different febrile episodes, 105 blood samples were collected and analyzed by PCR/ESI-MS. There was evidence of a bloodstream infection (BSI) in 36/105 cases (34%), based on 14 cases with both PCR/ESI-MS and BC positivity, 17 cases with BC positivity only, and 5 cases with PCR/ESI-MS positivity only. The sensitivity of PCR/ESI-MS was 45%, specificity was 93%, and the negative predictive value was 80% compared to blood culture. PCR/ESI-MS detected definite pathogens (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus pneumoniae) missed by BC, whereas it missed both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms detected by BC. PCR/ESI-MS testing detected additional microorganisms but showed a low sensitivity (45%) compared to BC in neutropenic patients. Our results indicate a lower concordance between BC and PCR/ESI-MS in the neutropenic population than what has been previously reported in other patient groups with normal white blood cell distribution, and a lower sensitivity than other PCR-based methods.

  6. Public sector physiotherapists believe that staff supervision should be broad ranging, individualised, structured, and based on needs and goals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel A Redpath

    2015-10-01

    implementing effective physiotherapy supervision programs. [Redpath AA, Gill SD, Finlay N, Brennan F, Hakkennes S (2015 Public sector physiotherapists believe that staff supervision should be broad ranging, individualised, structured, and based on needs and goals: a qualitative study. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 210–216

  7. Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Laere, Stijn D M; Vanderhaegen, Bart M P; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-09-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Esters are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction. In order to investigate and compare the roles of the known Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1p, Atf2p and Lg-Atf1p, in volatile ester production, the respective genes were either deleted or overexpressed in a laboratory strain and a commercial brewing strain. Subsequently, the ester formation of the transformants was monitored by headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis of the fermentation products confirmed that the expression levels of ATF1 and ATF2 greatly affect the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. GC-MS analysis revealed that Atf1p and Atf2p are also responsible for the formation of a broad range of less volatile esters, such as propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate, octyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate. With respect to the esters analyzed in this study, Atf2p seemed to play only a minor role compared to Atf1p. The atf1Delta atf2Delta double deletion strain did not form any isoamyl acetate, showing that together, Atf1p and Atf2p are responsible for the total cellular isoamyl alcohol acetyltransferase activity. However, the double deletion strain still produced considerable amounts of certain other esters, such as ethyl acetate (50% of the wild-type strain), propyl acetate (50%), and isobutyl acetate (40%), which provides evidence for the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown ester synthases in the yeast proteome. Interestingly, overexpression of different alleles of ATF1 and ATF2 led to different ester production rates, indicating that differences in the aroma profiles of yeast strains may be partially due to mutations in their ATF genes. PMID:12957907

  8. Development and Validation of Broad-Range Qualitative and Clade-Specific Quantitative Molecular Probes for Assessing Mercury Methylation in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Geoff A; Wymore, Ann M; King, Andrew J; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Richard A; Santillan, Eugenio U; Soren, Ally; Brandt, Craig C; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony V; Wall, Judy D; Gilmour, Cynthia C; Elias, Dwayne A

    2016-10-01

    Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg) methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability, and biogeochemistry, are critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea genomes. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB(+) strains tested via Sanger sequencing. Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88%, and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. The resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB IMPORTANCE: The neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) poses a serious risk to human health. MeHg production in nature is associated with anaerobic microorganisms. The recent

  9. Broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing of the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Siala, Mariam; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fourati, Hela; Rihl, Markus; Jaulhac, Benoit; Younes, Mohamed; Sibilia, Jean; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Sghir, Abdelghani; Hammami, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Broad-range rDNA PCR provides an alternative, cultivation-independent approach for identifying bacterial DNA in reactive and other form of arthritis. The aim of this study was to use broad-range rDNA PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene in patients with reactive and other forms of arthritis and to screen for the presence of DNA from any given bacterial species in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Methods We examined the SF samples from a total of 27 patients consisting of patients with rea...

  10. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infectivity with a broad range of lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Vestergaard, B F

    1991-01-01

    infection in nanomolar-micromolar concentrations, but no anti-HIV effect was found with the lectin HPA, mainly reacting with O-linked oligosaccharides. HSV-1 infectivity was measured in a plaque reduction assay using Vero cells, and while both N- and O-linked oligosaccharide -specific lectins inhibited HSV......-1 infection, the most potent inhibition was found with the lectin HPA. These results indicate that lectins may have a broad antiviral effect on enveloped viruses only limited by types of oligosaccharides present on individual viruses....

  11. Broad-scale latitudinal variation in female reproductive success contributes to the maintenance of a geographic range boundary in bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rhainds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographic range limits and the factors structuring them are of great interest to biologists, in part because of concerns about how global change may shift range boundaries. However, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in empirical systems, especially in animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Across dozens of populations spread over six degrees of latitude in the American Midwest, female mating success of the evergreen bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae declines from ∼100% to ∼0% near the edge of the species range. When coupled with additional latitudinal declines in fecundity and in egg and pupal survivorship, a spatial gradient of bagworm reproductive success emerges. This gradient is associated with a progressive decline in local abundance and an increased risk of local population extinction, up to a latitudinal threshold where extremely low female fitness meshes spatially with the species' geographic range boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reduction in fitness of female bagworms near the geographic range limit, which concords with the abundant centre hypothesis from biogeography, provides a concrete, empirical example of how an Allee effect (increased pre-reproductive mortality of females in sparsely populated areas may interact with other demographic factors to induce a geographic range limit.

  12. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum.

  13. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum. PMID:21077241

  14. Influenza B-Cells Protective Epitope Characterization: A Passkey for the Rational Design of New Broad-Range Anti-Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Burioni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new influenza strains causing pandemics represents a serious threat to human health. From 1918, four influenza pandemics occurred, caused by H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2 subtypes. Moreover, in 1997 a novel influenza avian strain belonging to the H5N1 subtype infected humans. Nowadays, even if its transmission is still circumscribed to avian species, the capability of the virus to infect humans directly from avian reservoirs can result in fatalities. Moreover, the risk that this or novel avian strains could adapt to inter-human transmission, the development of resistance to anti-viral drugs and the lack of an effective prevention are all incumbent problems for the world population. In this scenario, the identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against conserved regions shared among influenza isolates has raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy and “universal” anti-influenza vaccines.

  15. Consideration on the broad quantification range of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds with the combined application of gas chromatography and thermal desorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the dynamic range of gas chromatography (GC) combined with a thermal desorber (TD) was investigated through a series of calibration experiments. To this end, standard gases of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS, CS 2 and DMDS) covering a relatively wide concentration range (2-100 nmol mol -1 (or ppb)) were analyzed by regulating sample loading range from 40 to 1200 mL (3.3-4900 pmol). It shows that the upper limits of GC-TD quantification are far higher than those of GC alone, although the cold trap unit in a TD suffers from breakthrough after a dose of RSC (e.g., 500 (DMDS) to 1600 pmol (H 2S)). Its quantification uncertainties tend to grow systematically with decreases in standard concentrations and sample loading volume, especially with H 2S. According to this study, the use of TD generally reduces the absolute detectability of GC by about one order of magnitude. Such reduction caused by TD application can be compensated efficiently with similar magnitude through the magnification of sample supply. Moreover, the TD system allows to increase sample volume (up to 3 orders of magnitude or above), it can ultimately help extend the practical range of RSC qualification in a fairly reliable manner.

  16. Broad-Host-Range Plasmids for Red Fluorescent Protein Labeling of Gram-Negative Bacteria for Use in the Zebrafish Model System▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John T.; Phennicie, Ryan T.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Porter, Laura A.; Shaffer, Valerie J.; Kim, Carol H.

    2010-01-01

    To observe real-time interactions between green fluorescent protein-labeled immune cells and invading bacteria in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a series of plasmids was constructed for the red fluorescent protein (RFP) labeling of a variety of fish and human pathogens. The aim of this study was to create a collection of plasmids that would express RFP pigments both constitutively and under tac promoter regulation and that would be nontoxic and broadly transmissible to a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. DNA fragments encoding the RFP dimeric (d), monomeric (m), and tandem dimeric (td) derivatives d-Tomato, td-Tomato, m-Orange, and m-Cherry were cloned into the IncQ-based vector pMMB66EH in Escherichia coli. Plasmids were mobilized into recipient strains by conjugal mating. Pigment production was inducible in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Edwardsiella tarda, and Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum strains by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) treatment. A spontaneous mutant exconjugant of P. aeruginosa PA14 was isolated that expressed td-Tomato constitutively. Complementation analysis revealed that the constitutive phenotype likely was due to a mutation in lacIq carried on pMMB66EH. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the presence of five transitions, four transversions, and a 2-bp addition within a 14-bp region of lacI. Vector DNA was purified from this constitutive mutant, and structural DNA sequences for RFP pigments were cloned into the constitutive vector. Exconjugants of P. aeruginosa, E. tarda, and V. anguillarum expressed all pigments in an IPTG-independent fashion. Results from zebrafish infectivity studies indicate that RFP-labeled pathogens will be useful for the study of real-time interactions between host cells of the innate immune system and the infecting pathogen. PMID:20363780

  17. Electronic band structure of highly mismatched GaN{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} alloys in a broad composition range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segercrantz, N., E-mail: natalie.segercrantz@aalto.fi [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ting, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sarney, W. L.; Svensson, S. P. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Walukiewicz, W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    In this letter, we study the optical properties of GaN{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} thin films. Films with an Sb fraction up to 42% were synthesized by alternating GaN-GaSb layers at a constant temperature of 325 °C. The measured optical absorption data of the films are interpreted using a modified band anticrossing model that is applicable to highly mismatched alloys such as GaN{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} in the entire composition range. The presented model allows us to more accurately determine the band gap as well as the band edges over the entire composition range thereby providing means for determining the composition for, e.g., efficient spontaneous photoelectrochemical cell applications.

  18. A high-frequency response and a nonlinear coherent generation in resonant-tunneling diodes within a broad frequency range with electron-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a sequential quantum mechanical model, the response and the power of a coherent generation have been obtained numerically in a resonant-tunneling diode in a wide range of frequencies with the electron-electron interaction. The quantum regime of generation is shown to be sustained under the electron-electron interaction. Thus, a high-power generation is probable under frequencies exceeding the width of the resonant level

  19. Using Informatics-, Bioinformatics- and Genomics-Based Approaches for the Molecular Surveillance and Detection of Biothreat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Donald

    The convergence and wealth of informatics, bioinformatics and genomics methods and associated resources allow a comprehensive and rapid approach for the surveillance and detection of bacterial and viral organisms. Coupled with the continuing race for the fastest, most cost-efficient and highest-quality DNA sequencing technology, that is, "next generation sequencing", the detection of biological threat agents by `cheaper and faster' means is possible. With the application of improved bioinformatic tools for the understanding of these genomes and for parsing unique pathogen genome signatures, along with `state-of-the-art' informatics which include faster computational methods, equipment and databases, it is feasible to apply new algorithms to biothreat agent detection. Two such methods are high-throughput DNA sequencing-based and resequencing microarray-based identification. These are illustrated and validated by two examples involving human adenoviruses, both from real-world test beds.

  20. Influence of CO molecular impurity on the structural and thermodynamic properties of fullerite C60, in a broad range of sorption temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshko, V. V.; Legchenkova, I. V.; Stetsenko, Y. E.; Prokhvatilov, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    An x-ray diffraction study of how sorption of CO gas at a pressure of 30 atm in the temperature range of 150-600 °C influences the structural characteristics of polycrystalline and single crystal fullerite C60. The sorption kinetics are studied by constructing a dependence of the lattice parameter on the time it takes for fullerite to be saturated by CO molecules. At temperatures Tsorb > 300 °C there is an observed dissociation of carbon monoxide, accompanied by the precipitation of carbon powder and the chemical interaction of atomic oxygen with C60 and CO molecules, and possibly with the carbon condensate. These processes have a strong influence on the structural characteristics of fullerite, thus creating, in part, a nonmonotonic dependence of the parameter and lattice matrix volume on the impurity saturation temperature. The concentrations of solid solutions C60(CO)x poly- and single crystal samples are determined in the physisorption range for two modes (150 and 250 °C). It is found that the CO impurity has a linear effect on the lattice parameter and the temperature of the orientational transition of fullerite C60.

  1. Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M. Theriot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolidases hydrolyze Xaa-Pro dipeptides and can also cleave the P-F and P-O bonds found in organophosphorus (OP compounds, including the nerve agents soman and sarin. Ph1prol (PH0974 has previously been isolated and characterized from Pyrococcus horikoshii and was shown to have higher catalytic activity over a broader pH range, higher affinity for metal, and increased thermostability compared to P. furiosus prolidase, Pfprol (PF1343. To obtain a better enzyme for OP nerve agent decontamination and to investigate the structural factors that may influence protein thermostability and thermoactivity, randomly mutated Ph1prol enzymes were prepared. Four Ph1prol mutants (A195T/G306S-, Y301C/K342N-, E127G/E252D-, and E36V-Ph1prol were isolated which had greater thermostability and improved activity over a broader range of temperatures against Xaa-Pro dipeptides and OP nerve agents compared to wild type Pyrococcus prolidases.

  2. Mechanisms of Franck-Condon breakdown over a broad energy range in the valence photoionization of N{sub 2} and CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Dominguez, J.A. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States); Hardy, David; Das, Aloke; Poliakoff, E.D. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Aguilar, Alex [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lucchese, Robert R., E-mail: lucchese@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured the vibrational branching ratios for the photoionization of N{sub 2} and CO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We computed the corresponding branching ratios for the X and B ion states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The logarithmic derivative of the cross section was used in the comparison. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-Franck-Condon effects were seen due to Cooper minima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cooper minima were related to Cohen-Fano interference effects. -- Abstract: The molecular photoionization of N{sub 2} leading to the 3{sigma}{sub g}{sup -1}, 2{sigma}{sub u}{sup -1} ion states and CO leading to the valence isoelectronic 5{sigma}{sup -1}, 4{sigma}{sup -1} ion states has been studied using both theory and experiment. Vibrational branching ratios have been obtained in the 15-200 eV photoelectron energy range. The analysis of the branching ratios for these processes shows a breakdown in the Franck-Condon approximation in the range of energies studied. Some of the deviations at lower energies are well documented as due to shape resonances, and in such cases we found good agreement between the present work and previous experimental and theoretical investigations of these photoionization channels. For both N{sub 2} and CO ionization, we also found that the partial wave cross sections have an interference pattern similar to a Young-type interference, which are related to molecular Cooper minima. Such features were also seen to induce non-Franck-Condon effects in the vibrational branching ratios at higher energies. The comparison of theory and experiment was facilitated by the introduction of an electronic factor (F) that is the logarithmic derivative of the cross section with respect to bond length and which could be directly related to the branching ratios.

  3. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens.

  4. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. PMID:27162329

  5. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Derrick E; Tyler, Heather L; DeBoy, Robert T; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Badger, Jonathan H; Durkin, Anthony S; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Dodson, Robert J; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F W; Krogfelt, Karen A; Struve, Carsten; Triplett, Eric W; Methé, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category

  6. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world, while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%, one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578. Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but

  7. Broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 and specific detection of Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses by newly developed multiple TaqMan assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Ryu; Shuto, Yozo; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Ishikura, Youji; Sakaguchi, Zenjiro; Suzuki, Moemi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    TaqMan assays were developed for the broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 in the genus Orthobunyavirus and also for the specific detection of three viruses in the lineage, Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses (AKAV, AINOV and PEAV, respectively). A primer and probe set was designed for the broad-range detection of Simbu serogroup lineage 1 (Pan-Simbu1 set) mainly targeting AKAV, AINOV, PEAV, Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses (SATV and SHAV), and the forward and reverse primers of the Pan-Simbu1 set were also used for the specific detection of AKAV with another probe (AKAV-specific set). In addition, two more primer and probe sets were designed for AINOV- and PEAV-specific detection, respectively (AINOV- and PEAV-specific sets). All of the four primer and probe sets successfully detected targeted viruses, and thus broad-range and specific detection of all the targeted viruses can be achieved by using two multiplex assays and a single assay in a dual (two-color) assay format when another primer and probe set for a bovine β-actin control is also used. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 10 copies/tube for AKAV, at least 100 copies/tube for AINOV, 100 copies/tube for PEAV, one copy/tube for SATV and at least 10 copies/tube for SHAV, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was tested with field-collected bovine samples, and the results suggested that the sensitivity was higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR. These data indicate that the newly developed TaqMan assays will be useful tools for the diagnosis and screening of field-collected samples for infections of AKAV and several other arboviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup lineage 1.

  8. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  9. Centrality evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; 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Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; 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Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends to more peripheral collisions the previous results reported by ALICE. No strong evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when the results are normalized to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the centrality evolution is likewise small. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged–particle multiplicity are limited. The broad pseudorapidity range allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from $162\\pm 22$(syst.) to $17170\\pm 770$(syst.) in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The results are compared to models which describe ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta$ at mid–rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that t...

  10. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  11. Efficacy of Modified Cognitive Interviewing, Compared to Human Judgments in Detecting Deception Related to Bio-threat Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Charles A. Morgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available National security professionals have few scientifically valid methods for detecting deception in people who deny being involved in illicit activities relevant to national security. Numerous detecting deception studies have demonstrated that the Modified Cognitive Interviewing (MCI method is one such method - yielding detecting deception rates (i.e. 80-85% that are significantly above those achieved by chance (i.e. 50% or by human judgments (i.e. 54-56%. To date, however, no MCI studies have involved dilemmas of ethological interest to national security professionals. This project begins to address this gap in the scientific literature. In it, we compared the efficacy of MCI to that of human judgments for detecting deception in scientists with expertise in biological materials. Sixty-four scientists were recruited for study; 12 met with a “terrorist” and were paid to make biological materials for illicit purposes. All 64 scientists were interviewed by investigators with law enforcement experience about the bio-threat issue. MCI elicited speech content differences in deceptive, compared to truthful scientists. This resulted in a classification accuracy of 84.4%; Accuracies for Human Judgments (interviewers/raters were 54% and 46%, respectively. MCI required little time and its efficacy suggests it is reasonable to recommend its use to national security experts.

  12. A broad angular-range measurement of elastic and inelastic scatterings in the {sup 16}O on {sup 27}Al reaction at 17.5 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuzzello, F., E-mail: cappuzzello@lns.infn.it [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Agodi, C. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Bondì, M.; Carbone, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cunsolo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Faria, P.N. de [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Linares, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Litoranea s/n, Gragoatá, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24210-340 (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 16}O ions on {sup 27}Al target nuclei were measured in a broad angular range (5°<θ{sub lab}<40°) at 280 MeV incident energy. The beam was accelerated by the K800 Superconducting Cyclotron at the INFN-LNS laboratory. The ejectiles were detected by the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer. The matching of the beam properties with the optical characteristics of the spectrometer allowed to separate the elastic from the inelastic channels in the energy spectra and measure accurate cross-section distributed over more than eight orders of magnitude down to a few tens of nb/sr.

  13. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  14. Development of a Broad-Range 23S rDNA Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Whole Blood and Plasma Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gaibani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular methods are important tools in the diagnosis of bloodstream bacterial infections, in particular in patients treated with antimicrobial therapy, due to their quick turn-around time. Here we describe a new broad-range real-time PCR targeting the 23S rDNA gene and capable to detect as low as 10 plasmid copies per reaction of targeted bacterial 23S rDNA gene. Two commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated to assess their efficiency for the extraction of plasma and whole blood samples spiked with different amount of either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, in order to find the optimal extraction method to be used. Manual QIAmp extraction method with enzyme pre-treatment resulted the most sensitive for detection of bacterial load. Sensitivity of this novel assay ranged between 10 and 103 CFU per PCR reaction for E. coli and S. aureus in human whole blood samples depending on the extraction methods used. Analysis of plasma samples showed a 10- to 100-fold reduction of bacterial 23S rDNA in comparison to the corresponding whole blood specimens, thus indicating that whole blood is the preferential sample type to be used in this real-time PCR protocol. Our results thus show that the 23S rDNA gene represents an optimal target for bacteria quantification in human whole blood.

  15. The extraction of fungal genome DNA and the establishunent of a broad-range fungal PCR%真菌基因组DNA的提取和通用PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国君; 赵缜; 彭奕冰; 季育华; 孙佳彬; 卫蓓文; 刘璐

    2011-01-01

    目的 改良真菌基因组DNA的提取方法,建立真菌通用聚合酶链反应(PCR),为目前临床真菌感染的早期诊断、预防和治疗提供有效工具.方法 参考前人报道的多种真菌基因组DNA的提取方法,作改良以确立本研究中所采纳的手段,并应用真菌核糖体DNA(rDNA)通用引物,以实验室保存的标准菌株及临床分离菌株来建立临床真菌感染检测用通用PCR.结果 白念珠菌和烟曲霉在75℃温度下分别作用60和80 min可以完全破灭活.经目前多种破壁方法的探讨,发现对于白念珠菌(单细胞真菌)选用酶消化法,破壁效率高达98.29%,而烟曲霉(多细胞真菌)则需要酶消化法与打击器振荡法联合应用,其破壁率也可达66.68%,进一步用酚氯仿法抽提其基因组DNA,能够获得相对纯度高且有一定得量.当选择真菌rDNAITS2区间的一对通用引物,通过PCR反应体系的优化,使得本研究中建立的通用PCR,对于白念珠菌和烟曲霉的检测下限分别为5个和9.7个,其PCR产物测序结果与数据库比对完全一致,同时选择临床分离的或实验室保存的其他真菌、细菌和病毒株进行验证,该方法仅针对真菌群,结合测序分析可以实现种属水平的鉴定.结论 改良真菌基因组DNA提取后所建立的针对真菌rDNA的通用PCR敏感且特异,适宜实验室操作.%Objective To improve a method for the extraction of fungal genome DNA, and establish a broad-range fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ,in order to provide the reference for early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fungal infection disease. Methods According to the former fungal genome DNA extraction methods, a method was formed and improved in this experiment. The fungal ribosome deoxyribonucleic acid ( rDNA) was applied as universal primer. A broad-range fungal PCR was established by testing the standard strains and the isolated clinical strains stored. Results Candida albicans and Aspergillus

  16. Global Transcriptional Regulation of Backbone Genes in Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RA3 from the IncU Group Involves Segregation Protein KorB (ParB Family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinska, Anna; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Wojciechowska, Anna; Ludwiczak, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-04-01

    The KorB protein of the broad-host-range conjugative plasmid RA3 from the IncU group belongs to the ParB family of plasmid and chromosomal segregation proteins. As a partitioning DNA-binding factor, KorB specifically recognizes a 16-bp palindrome which is an essential motif in the centromere-like sequence parSRA3, forms a segrosome, and together with its partner IncC (ParA family) participates in active DNA segregation ensuring stable plasmid maintenance. Here we show that by binding to this palindromic sequence, KorB also acts as a repressor for the adjacent mobC promoter driving expression of the mobC-nicoperon, which is involved in DNA processing during conjugation. Three other promoters, one buried in the conjugative transfer module and two divergent promoters located at the border between the replication and stability regions, are regulated by KorB binding to additional KorB operators (OBs). KorB acts as a repressor at a distance, binding to OBs separated from their cognate promoters by between 46 and 1,317 nucleotides. This repressor activity is facilitated by KorB spreading along DNA, since a polymerization-deficient KorB variant with its dimerization and DNA-binding abilities intact is inactive in transcriptional repression. KorB may act as a global regulator of RA3 plasmid functions in Escherichia coli, since its overexpression in transnegatively interferes with mini-RA3 replication and stable maintenance of RA3. PMID:26850301

  17. Biotech as 'Biothreat'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide...... a more comprehensive frame for explaining the function of metaphor in use, and an empirical part analysing biotech-metaphors in the Danish print press. Although not conclusive, the analysis points to metaphorical constructions in the press being both grounded in basic image schematic structures......In Denmark, as in many other European countries, biotechnology continues to be a much debated and controversial issue. The paper takes its starting point in this debate, investigating how metaphorical constructions in media discourse reproduce and promote the viewpoints of particular societal...

  18. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability.

  19. Development of a universal primers PCR-coupled liquid bead array to detect biothreat bacteria%通用型基因悬浮芯片检测生物恐怖细菌的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海燕; 王静; 刘衡川; 孙肖红; 杨宇; 胡孔新; 单麟军

    2009-01-01

    same genus. The detection sensitivity of the assay was 1.5 pg/μl (Burkholderia pseudomallei),20 pg/μl (Brucella spp.), 7 pg/μl (Bacillus anthracis), 0.1 pg/μ1 (Francisella tularensis), and 1.1 pg/μl (Yersinia pestis),respectively. The coefficient of variation for 15 test of different probes was ranged from 5.18% to 17.88%,it showed good reproducibility. The assay could correctly identify Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis strains in simulated white powder samples. Conclusion The suspension array technique could be served as an opening screening method for biothreat bacteria rapid detection.

  20. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  1. The design of log amplifier of broad band high dynamic range based on AD8306%基于AD8306的宽带大动态范围对数放大器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁乙木; 马尚昌

    2016-01-01

    Log amplifier is actually a log converter, it is a amplifying circuit that the relationship between the output signal amplitude and the input signal amplitude is a log function. In the field of electronic measurement, some signals have very high dynamic range, such as in the radar system, sonar system and so on, the signal dynamic range in the front of the receiver can be more than 120dB. Linear amplifier cannot handle such a wide dynamic range. In order to measure and analyze these signals expediently, modern measurement receiver used to adopt a design of large dynamic range log amplifier. This paper introduced a design of large dynamic range log amplifier based on AD8306, with 90 dB of dynamic range. Making use of this method, the log amplifier dynamic range is very large, and besides, this circuit is very simple and effective. If we use more than one chips, we can achieve larger dynamic range. This practical applications show that the design method is valid and practical.%对数放大器实实质上就是一种对数变换器,是指输出信号幅值与输入信号幅值呈对数函数关系的基本放大电路。在电子测量技术领域之中,某些信号的电压具有比较宽的动态范围,例如在雷达、声纳等无线电接受系统中,接收机前端信号动态范围可以达到120dB甚至更高。一般的线性放大器不能处理这样宽的动态范围,为了更加方便的测试和分析这些信号,在线代测量接收机的设计中,采用大动态范围对数放大器设计技术。本文介绍了一种核心器件为AD8306的大动态范围对数放大器的设计,实现了90dB的动态范围,宽带频率,灵敏度高。采用该方法实现的对数放大器动态范围大,电路简单易于实现,如果采用多片芯片级联还可以实现更大动态范围的对数放大器。实际应用表明,本文给出的设计方法合理有效,具有很高的使用价值。

  2. Towards broad range and highly efficient down-conversion of solar spectrum by Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped nano-structured glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V.D.; Mendez-Ramos, J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Tikhomirov, V.K.; Moshchalkov, V.V. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Yanes, A.C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The efficiency of semiconductor solar cells could be greatly increased by down-conversion processes, which efficiently split incident solar photons into couples of photons with energy over the bandgap. Here, we show new down-conversion mechanisms in Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass-ceramics, where the ions are hosted by fluoride nanoparticles embedded in silica glass. By this means, 350-550 nm photons, absorbed by Er{sup 3+} ions, generate pairs of photons at the range of 650-1550 nm, emitted by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}, with a quantum efficiency approaching the maximum of 200%. (author)

  3. Report for Development of a Census Array and Evaluation of the Array to Detect Biothreat Agents and Environmental Samples for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Jackson, P

    2011-04-14

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. This report focuses on the design, testing and results of samples on the Census Array. We designed a Census/Detection Array to detect all sequenced viruses (including phage), bacteria (eubacteria), and plasmids. Family-specific probes were selected for all sequenced viral and bacterial complete genomes, segments, and plasmids. Probes were designed to tolerate some sequence variation to enable detection of divergent species with homology to sequenced organisms, and to be unique relative to the human genome. A combination of 'detection' probes with high levels of conservation within a family plus 'census' probes targeting strain/isolate specific regions enabled detection and taxonomic classification from the level of family down to the strain. The array has wider coverage of bacterial and viral targets based on more recent sequence data and more probes per target than other microbial detection/discovery arrays in the literature. We tested the array with purified bacterial and viral DNA/RNA samples, artificial mixes of known bacterial/viral samples, spiked DNA against complex background including BW aerosol samples and soil samples, and environmental samples to evaluate the array's sensitivity and forensic capability. The data were analyzed using our novel maximum likelihood software. For most of the organisms tested, we have achieved at least species level discrimination.

  4. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  5. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    for plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes is increasingly suspected to majorly contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant pathogens. More specifically, I examined what fraction of a soil microbial community is permissive to plasmids, identified the phylogenetic identity of this fraction and studied......Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways....... Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control plasmid transfer in mixed microbial communities. The fate of plasmids in microbial communities...

  6. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200...

  7. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200...

  8. Diagnostic Utility of Broad Range Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR with Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA in Bloodstream Infection Is More Sensitive Than an In-House Developed PCR without Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rogina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared a commercial broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay (SepsiTest to an in-house developed assay (IHP. We assessed whether CD64 index, a biomarker of bacterial infection, can be used to exclude patients with a low probability of systemic bacterial infection. From January to March 2010, 23 patients with suspected sepsis were enrolled. CD64 index, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein were measured on admission. Broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from whole blood (SepsiTest or blood plasma (IHP and compared to blood culture results. Blood samples spiked with Staphylococcus aureus were used to assess sensitivity of the molecular assays in vitro. CD64 index was lower in patients where possible sepsis was excluded than in patients with microbiologically confirmed sepsis (P=0.004. SepsiTest identified more relevant pathogens than blood cultures (P=0.008; in three patients (13% results from blood culture and SepsiTest were congruent, whereas in four cases (17.4% relevant pathogens were detected by SepsiTest only. In vitro spiking experiments suggested equal sensitivity of SepsiTest and IHP. A diagnostic algorithm using CD64 index as a decision maker to perform SepsiTest shows improved detection of pathogens in patients with suspected blood stream infection and may enable earlier targeted antibiotic therapy.

  9. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  10. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  11. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  12. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  13. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  14. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  15. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  16. 宽浓度范围水碘的碱性高锰酸钾氧化光度测定方法研究%Method for the determination of broad concentration range of iodide in drinking water by spectrophotometry with alkaline potassium permanganate oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚平; 黄嫣红; 林丽卿

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立一种简单的光度比色法,测定饮用水中宽浓度范围碘化物.方法 水中碘化物在碱性条件下经高锰酸钾氧化为碘酸盐,在酸性条件下用亚硝酸钠除去过量氧化剂并以氨基磺酸加尿素除去过量亚硝酸盐后,与碘化钾作用生成I_2并与淀粉显色进行光度比色测定,测定体系中加适量本底微量碘及氯化钠,解决在水样含碘量<100 μg/L时碘-淀粉显色与水碘浓度不成线性比例的显色灵敏度问题.结果 本方法标准曲线线性范围为0~1200 μg/L(r=0.9998);水碘检测限为4μg/L;对含碘量76.6、207.8、560.4μg/L水样各重复测定6次,相对标准偏差(RSD)均<1%;8份不同含碘量水样加标回收率范围为97.0%(485.2/500.0)~102.5%(102.5/100.0);试剂中加亚铁盐消除了水中6价铬(Cr~(6+))的干扰,加溴化钾及亚硝酸钠消除了水中溴酸盐(BrO_3~-)的干扰,水中含0.2 mg/L Cr~(6+)、0.1 mg/L BrO_3~-不干扰测定.结论 本方法操作简单,检测浓度范围宽,具有良好的精密度和准确度,适于应用.%Objective To establish a simple photometric method for the determination of broad concentration range of iodide in drinking water. Methods Iodide in water was oxidized with potassium permanganate in alkaline medium to generate iodate. After excessive oxidant was eliminated with nitrite sodium in acidic medium condition and excessive nitrite was eliminated with a mixture of aminosulfonic acid and urea, iodate was used to react with potassium iodide reagent to form I_2 which further reacted with amylum to form color complex. The absorbance was determined by photometry. In determination reagent system suitable amount of iodide that acted as background and sodium chloride were added to solve the problem of the chromogenic sensitivity, i.e., when iodine concentration was < 100 μg/L in water sample the degree of iodine-starch complex color change could not be in linear proportion to the concentration of iodine in

  17. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  18. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  19. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  20. Underwater Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  1. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  2. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  3. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  4. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  5. Silicon micromachined broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric (Inventor); Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael (Inventor); Hansler, Richard (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A micro electromechanical system (MEMS) broad band incandescent light source includes three layers: a top transmission window layer; a middle filament mount layer; and a bottom reflector layer. A tungsten filament with a spiral geometry is positioned over a hole in the middle layer. A portion of the broad band light from the heated filament is reflective off the bottom layer. Light from the filament and the reflected light of the filament are transmitted through the transmission window. The light source may operate at temperatures of 2500 K or above. The light source may be incorporated into an on board calibrator (OBC) for a spectrometer.

  6. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  7. Broad Consent For Research With Biological Samples: Workshop Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Eckstein, Lisa; Berkman, Ben; Brock, Dan; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Greely, Hank; Hansson, Mats G.; Hull, Sara; Kim, Scott; Lo, Bernie; Pentz, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Laura; Weil, Carol; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wendler, David

    2016-01-01

    Different types of consent are used to obtain human biospecimens for future research. This variation has resulted in confusion regarding what research is permitted, inadvertent constraints on future research, and research proceeding without consent. The NIH Clinical Center’s Department of Bioethics held a workshop to consider the ethical acceptability of addressing these concerns by using broad consent for future research on stored biospecimens. Multiple bioethics scholars, who have written on these issues, discussed the reasons for consent, the range of consent strategies, gaps in our understanding, and concluded with a proposal for broad initial consent coupled with oversight and, when feasible, ongoing provision of information to donors. The manuscript describes areas of agreement as well as areas that need more research and dialogue. Given recent proposed changes to the Common Rule, and new guidance regarding storing and sharing data and samples, this is an important and timely topic. PMID:26305750

  8. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  9. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  10. Species identification of tephritids across a broad taxonomic range using ribosomal D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International trade and passenger travel are significant factors in the spread of economically important fruit fly species. The risk of accidental introduction via infested fruit is high, and in New Zealand the recent Medfly incursion in Auckland demonstrated the reality of this threat (Frampton, 2000). There are no economically important species of fruit fly established in New Zealand at present, but 31 are considered high risk in terms of their potential colonisation (refer to the Biosecurity (Notifiable Organisms) Amendment Order 1997). These are amongst a background of non-pest and low risk pest species that may also arrive in fruit from neighbouring countries or trading partners. Quarantine officials closely monitor fruit fly host material at the New Zealand borders (Frampton, 2000). In terms of the action to be taken should an infestation be discovered, there is significant benefit from being able to accurately identify species from the immature life stages, or at least to distinguish the high and low risk groups (Armstrong et al. 1997a). The need for this quarantine application was also highlighted by White (1996) at the previous fruit fly symposium in Sand Keys, Florida, where he summarised the advances made in larval taxonomy over the last decade. Despite this, morphological keys such as those of Steck et al. (1990) and White and Elson Harris (1992), are still only available for about a third of ca. 250 pest species. For those species, even so, identification is not easy and only possible for good quality late instar larvae; there are no morphological characters for early instars or eggs. Until recently in New Zealand, the identification of immature life stages depended entirely on rearing through to adults. This was time consuming and often unsuccessful (Armstrong et al. 1997b). A rapid molecular technique has since been described as a feasible alternative or supplementary quarantine tool (Armstrong et al. 1997a). The method is based on the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Development of this technique has continued to 'package' it for routine quarantine use. Here we present an overview of the improved method and summarise its capability as a diagnostic tool

  11. Slow-Light Propagation in a Tapered Dielectric Periodic Waveguide over Broad Frequency Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yi-Jiao; CHEN Zhuo; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ A tapered waveguide composed of a one-dimensional periodic arrangement of dielectric materialis proposed for light trapping.The equifrequency contours(EFC) of silicon-air multilayer photonic crystals within the first bandgap region are first studied.A zero-group-velocity at the first Brillouin zone boundary along the grating vector is predicted.The propagation constants and eigenfrequencies of the first-order guiding modes are numerically investigated for photonic crystal waveguide structures with a finite thickness.Different frequency components of the guiding modes are found to slov and stop at different thicknesses inside such a tapered waveguide structure.In addition,the time-evolution of a femto-second pulse propagating in the tapered waveguide is also demonstrated.%A tapered waveguide composed of a one-dimensional periodic arrangement of dielectric material is proposed for light trapping. The equifrequency contours (EFC) of silicon-air multilayer photonic crystals within the first bandgap region are first studied. A zero-group-velocity at the first Brillouin zone boundary along the grating vector is predicted. The propagation constants and eigenfrequencies of the first-order guiding modes are numerically investigated for photonic crystal waveguide structures with a finite thickness. Different frequency components of the guiding modes are found to slow and stop at different thicknesses inside such a tapered waveguide structure. In addition, the time-evolution of a femto-second pulse propagating in the tapered waveguide is also demonstrated.

  12. A lipase with broad temperature range from an alkaliphilic gamma-proteobacterium isolated in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mariane; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Stougaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A gamma-proteobacterium related to the genera Alteromonadales and Pseudomonadales , isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland, has been shown to produce a lipase active between 5 ° C and 80 ° C, with optimal activity at 55 ° C and pH 8. PCR-based screening of genomic DNA from...... the isolated bacterium, followed by genome walking, resulted in two complete open reading frames, which were predicted to encode a lipase and its helper protein, a lipase foldase. The amino acid sequence derived for the lipase showed resemblance to lipases from Pseudomonas , Rhodoferax, Aeromonas and Vibrio...

  13. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  14. Ultrathin Laminar Ir Superstructure as Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalyst in Broad pH Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yecan; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Shaojun; Guo, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-13

    Shape-controlled noble metal nanocrystals (NCs), such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Ru, and Rh are of great success due to their new and enhanced properties and applications in chemical conversion, fuel cells, and sensors, but the realization of shape control of Ir NCs for achieving enhanced electrocatalysis remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report an efficient solution method for a new class of three-dimensional (3D) Ir superstructure that consists of ultrathin Ir nanosheets as subunits. Electrochemical studies show that it delivers the excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline condition with an onset potential at 1.43 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a very low Tafel slope of 32.7 mV decade(-1). In particular, it even shows superior performance for OER in acidic solutions with the low onset overpotential of 1.45 V versus RHE and small Tafel slope of 40.8 mV decade(-1), which are much better than those of small Ir nanoparticles (NPs). The 3D Ir superstructures also exhibit good stability under acidic condition with the potential shift of less than 20 mV after 8 h i-t test. The present work highlights the importance of tuning 3D structures of Ir NCs for enhancing OER performance. PMID:27249544

  15. The genome of Botrytis cinerea, a ubiquitous broad host range necrotroph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, M.; Viaud, M.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic ascomycete, causing serious pre- and postharvest crop losses worldwide on a wide variety of plant species. Considerable research in recent years has unraveled a variety of molecular tools that enables the fungus to invade host tissue, including the secretion of tox

  16. Automated Broad-Range Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Andries E; Hoogewerf, Martine; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Molecular detection methods, such as quantitative PCR (qPCR), have found their way into clinical microbiology laboratories for the detection of an array of pathogens. Most routinely used methods, however, are directed at specific species. Thus, anything that is not explicitly searched for will be missed. This greatly limits the flexibility and universal application of these techniques. We investigated the application of a rapid universal bacterial molecular identification method, IS-pro, to routine patient samples received in a clinical microbiology laboratory. IS-pro is a eubacterial technique based on the detection and categorization of 16S-23S rRNA gene interspace regions with lengths that are specific for each microbial species. As this is an open technique, clinicians do not need to decide in advance what to look for. We compared routine culture to IS-pro using 66 samples sent in for routine bacterial diagnostic testing. The samples were obtained from patients with infections in normally sterile sites (without a resident microbiota). The results were identical in 20 (30%) samples, IS-pro detected more bacterial species than culture in 31 (47%) samples, and five of the 10 culture-negative samples were positive with IS-pro. The case histories of the five patients from whom these culture-negative/IS-pro-positive samples were obtained suggest that the IS-pro findings are highly clinically relevant. Our findings indicate that an open molecular approach, such as IS-pro, may have a high added value for clinical practice. PMID:26763956

  17. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  18. Granular Solid Hydrodynamics (GSH): a broad-ranged macroscopic theory of granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A unified continuum-mechanical theory has been until now lacking for granular media, some believe it could not exist. Derived employing the hydrodynamic approach, GSH is such a theory, though as yet a qualitative one. The behavior being accounted for includes static stress distribution, elastic wave, elasto-plastic motion, the critical state and rapid dense flow. The equations and application to a few typical experiments are presented here.

  19. Experimental estimations of viscoelastic properties of multilayer damped plates in broad-band frequency range

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Kerem; Laulagnet, Bernard; Guyader, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Regarding lightweighting structures for aeronautics, automotive or construction applications, the level of performance of solutions proposed in terms of damping and isolation is fundamental. Hence multilayered plate appears as an interesting answer if damping performances are properly optimized. In this paper, a novel modal analysis method (Ege et al, JSV 325 (4-5), 2009) is used to identify viscoelastic properties (loss factors, Young's modulus) of "polyethylene thermoplastic / aluminum" bilayer plates. The thermoplastic is chosen for its high loss factors and relative low mass. The experimental method consists in a high-resolution technique (ESPRIT algorithm) which allows precise estimations of the viscoelastic properties even in frequency domains with high modal overlap (high damping or modal density). Experimental loss factors estimated from impact hammer excitations on the free-free plates highly corresponds with two theoretical estimations. In the first model (Guyader & Lesueur, JSV 58(1), 1978) the...

  20. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies: Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Pagano; Annarita Aiello Talamanca; Giuseppe Castello; Mario D Cordero; Marco d’Ischia; Maria Nicola Gadaleta; Federico V Pallardó; Sandra Petrović; Luca Tiano; Adriana Zatterale

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver), neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) along with the occurrence of...

  1. Broad-temperature range spectroscopy of the two-centre modular redox metalloprotein Desulfovibrio desulfuricans desulfoferrodoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Højmark; Harnung, S.E.; Trabjerg, I.;

    2003-01-01

    The electronic-vibrational couplings of the two-centre non-heme iron protein Desulfovibrio desulfuricans desulfoferrodoxin (DFx) in three oxidation states, i.e. fully oxidised (grey), half-oxidised (pink), and fully reduced (colourless), have been investigated by variable temperature (VT) UV/VIS,...

  2. Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks Over a Broad Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    At extreme temperatures, cryogenic and over 300 C, few electronic components are available to support intelligent data transfer over a common, linear combining medium. This innovation allows many sensors to operate on the same wire bus (or on the same airwaves or optical channel: any linearly combining medium), transmitting simultaneously, but individually recoverable at a node in a cooler part of the test area. This innovation has been demonstrated using room-temperature silicon microcircuits as proxy. The microcircuits have analog functionality comparable to componentry designed using silicon carbide. Given a common, linearly combining medium, multiple sending units may transmit information simultaneously. A listening node, using various techniques, can pick out the signal from a single sender, if it has unique qualities, e.g. a voice. The problem being solved is commonly referred to as the cocktail party problem. The human brain uses the cocktail party effect when it is able to recognize and follow a single conversation in a party full of talkers and other noise sources. High-temperature sensors have been used in silicon carbide electronic oscillator circuits. The frequency of the oscillator changes as a function of the changes in the sensed parameter, such as pressure. This change is analogous to changes in the pitch of a person s voice. The output of this oscillator and many others may be superimposed onto a single medium. This medium may be the power lines supplying current to the sensors, a third wire dedicated to data transmission, the airwaves through radio transmission, an optical medium, etc. However, with nothing to distinguish the identities of each source that is, the source separation this system is useless. Using digital electronic functions, unique codes or patterns are created and used to modulate the output of the sensor.

  3. Properties of R1162, a broad-host-range, high-copy-number plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    R. MEYER; Hinds, M; Brasch, M.

    1982-01-01

    Regions of plasmid DNA encoding characteristic properties of the IncQ (P-4) group plasmid R1162 were identified by mutagenesis and in vitro cloning. Coding sequences sufficient for expression of incompatibility and efficient conjugal mobilization by plasmid R751 were found to be linked to the origin of DNA replication. In contrast, there was a region remote from the origin, and active in trans, that was required for plasmid maintenance. A derivative that was temperature sensitive for stabilit...

  4. Study on Dihydrated Praseodymium Acetylacetonate by Photoacoustic Spectra with Broad Wavelength Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于锡娟; 伍荣护; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德

    2003-01-01

    The UV-Vis, NIR and MIR photoacoustic spectra of Pr(aa)3*2H2O were measured and most f-f transition peaks of Pr3+ are detected. The peak split and peak shift are studied also. The covalency parameter is calculated and it turns out that the covalent bonds between Pr(Ⅲ) ions and ligands exist. The results conclude that photoacoustic spectroscopy offers a unique and complementary method in analysis of solid rare earth complexes. Compared with conventional FT-IR transmission and absorption approaches, PAS has the advantages of fast, nondestructive analysis and high resolution.

  5. Leptospirosis in animals and human contacts in Egypt: broad range surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Samir; Rafik Soliman; Mahmoud El-Hariri; Khaled Abdel-Moein; Mahmoud Essam Hatem

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of humans and animals worldwide. The disease is caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. These organisms are maintained in nature via chronic renal infection of carrier animals, which excrete the organisms in their urine. Humans become infected through direct or indirect exposure to infected animals and their urine or through contact with contaminated water and soil. This study was conducted to investigate Leptospira i...

  6. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  7. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  8. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  9. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  10. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  11. Identification of the Broad Solar Emission Features Near 117 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Avrett, E H; Loeser, R; Avrett, Eugene H.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Loeser, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    Wilhelm et al. have recently called attention to the unidentified broad emission features near 117 nm in the solar spectrum. They discuss the observed properties of these features in detail but do not identify the source of this emission. We show that the broad autoionizing transitions of neutral sulfur are responsible for these emission features. Autoionizing lines of \\ion{S}{i} occur throughout the spectrum between Lyman alpha and the Lyman limit. Sulfur is a normal contributor to stellar spectra. We use non-LTE chromospheric model calculations with line data from the Kurucz 2004 \\ion{S}{i} line list to simulate the solar spectrum in the range 116 to 118 nm. We compare the results with SUMER disk-center observations from Curdt et al. and limb observations from Wilhelm et al. Our calculations generally agree with the SUMER observations of the broad autoionizing \\ion{S}{i} emission features, the narrow \\ion{S}{i} emission lines, and the continuum in this wavelength region, and agree with basic characteristics...

  12. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  13. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  14. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  15. Design of broad angular phase retarders for the complete polarization analysis of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林承友; 陈淑静; 陈朝阳; 丁迎春

    2015-01-01

    A method of designing broad angular phase retarders in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region is presented. The design is based on a standard Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm combined with a common merit function. Using this method, a series of broad angular EUV phase retarders were designed using aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers. At photon energy of 90 eV, broad angular phase retarders with 30◦, 60◦, and 90◦phase retardations have been realized in the angular range of 39◦–51◦. By analyzing and comparing the performances of the designed broad angular phase retarders, we found that the Mo/Si multilayer with more layers could obtain higher phase retardation in broader angular range when used to design the broad angular phase retarder. Broad angular phase retarders possess lower sensitivity toward changing incident angle compared with the traditional phase retarders designed with transmission periodic multilayers, and can be used for the polarization control of broad angular EUV sources.

  16. Against a Broad Definition of "Empathy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Songhorian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to provide some arguments against a broad definition of “empathy”. Firstly, I will deal with attempts to define empathy as an umbrella concept. Then, I will try to point out the four main elements which contribute to the confusion that researchers in both the social and political as well as the scientific and philosophical domains face when dealing with empathy. In order to resolve this confusion, I suggest applying David Marr’s distinction to the field of empathy. Instead of providing an umbrella definition for empathy, which tries to account for all the data coming from different disciplines, I believe understanding that there are different levels of explanations and that different disciplines can contribute to each of them will provide a more detailed and less confused definition of empathy.

  17. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  18. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  20. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéra, A.-C.; Riquier, H.; Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  1. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wera, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catharine.wera@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Riquier, H., E-mail: helene.riquier@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Heuskin, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catherine.heuskin@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Michiels, C., E-mail: carine.michiels@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, S., E-mail: stephane.lucas@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  2. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  3. Broad band acoustic spectroscopy in disordered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Battistoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The present work of thesis is situated within the framework of the study of disordered systems as liquids and glasses. A liquid is a system characterized by long range translational invariance and by a short range ordered structure. In the liquid state, contrarily to the crystalline one, there is not structural periodicity and all we learnt from solid state physics (Block’s theorem, phonons, Brillouin’s zones, eigen-states of plane waves, etc.) must be fully revised. The mac...

  4. Modeling of optical wireless scattering communication channels over broad spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihao; Zou, Difan; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2015-03-01

    The air molecules and suspended aerosols help to build non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical scattering communication links using carriers from near infrared to visible light and ultraviolet bands. This paper proposes channel models over such broad spectra. Wavelength dependent Rayleigh and Mie scattering and absorption coefficients of particles are analytically obtained first. They are applied to the ray tracing based Monte Carlo method, which models the photon scattering angle from the scatterer and propagation distance between two consecutive scatterers. Communication link path loss is studied under different operation conditions, including visibility, particle density, wavelength, and communication range. It is observed that optimum communication performances exist across the wavelength under specific atmospheric conditions. Infrared, visible light and ultraviolet bands show their respective features as conditions vary. PMID:26366662

  5. Mucin biopolymers as broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieleg, Oliver; Lieleg, Corinna; Bloom, Jesse; Buck, Christopher B.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Mucus is a porous biopolymer matrix that coats all wet epithelia in the human body and serves as the first line of defense against many pathogenic bacteria and viruses. However, under certain conditions viruses are able to penetrate this infection barrier, which compromises the protective function of native mucus. Here, we find that isolated porcine gastric mucin polymers, key structural components of native mucus, can protect an underlying cell layer from infection by small viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), or a strain of influenza A virus. Single particle analysis of virus mobility inside the mucin barrier reveals that this shielding effect is in part based on a retardation of virus diffusion inside the biopolymer matrix. Our findings suggest that purified mucins may be used as a broad-range antiviral supplement to personal hygiene products, baby formula or lubricants to support our immune system. PMID:22475261

  6. Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khatib, E E; Podgorsak, E B; Pla, C

    1987-01-01

    Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. PMID:3104738

  7. Broad activation of latent HIV-1 in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Kirston; Hiener, Bonnie; Winckelmann, Anni;

    2016-01-01

    The 'shock and kill' approach to cure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) includes transcriptional induction of latent HIV-1 proviruses using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) with targeted immunotherapy to purge infected cells. The administration of LRAs (panobinostat or vorinostat) to HIV-1-infected...... individuals on antiretroviral therapy induces a significant increase in cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV-1 RNA from CD4(+) T cells. However, it is important to discern whether the increases in CA-US HIV-1 RNA are due to limited or broad activation of HIV-1 proviruses. Here we use single-genome sequencing...... to find that the RNA transcripts observed following LRA administration are genetically diverse, indicating activation of transcription from an extensive range of proviruses. Defective sequences are more frequently found in CA HIV-1 RNA than in HIV-1 DNA, which has implications for developing an accurate...

  8. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  9. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  10. Gravitational microlensing of quasar Broad Line Regions: the influence of fractal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent models for the emission clouds within the Broad Line Region of quasars suggest that they are due to transient overdensities within an overall turbulent medium. If this were the case, the broad line emission would spatially appear fractal, possessing structure on a range of scales. This paper examines the influence of such fractal structure when a quasar is microlensed by a population of intervening masses. It is found that while the highest fractal levels can undergo significant microlensing magnification, when these light curves are superimposed to create an emission line profile, the resultant emission line profile remains relatively constant for physical models of the Broad Line Region. It is concluded that the detection of the possible fractal structure of Broad Line Regions via gravitational microlensing is not practical.

  11. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  12. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  13. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus sp. Strain MSt1 with Broad Antimicrobial Activity, Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Peat Swamp Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Aw, Yoong Kit; Ong, Kuan Shion; Catherine M Yule; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain MSt1, which has broad-range antimicrobial activity, isolated from tropical peat swamp soil. Genes involved in antimicrobial biosynthesis are found to be present in this genome.

  15. Broad band spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.A.; Horner, G.S.; Coutts, T.J.; Wanlass, M.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The availability of commercial spectroscopic ellipsometers (SE) has been restricted to the UV-visible range from 250-900 nm. Although this is useful for many applications, it must be extended to the near IR region (up to 1700 nm) for the study of the optical behavior of most photovoltaic materials. This paper discusses the development of a broad band (300-1700 nm) SE which has been used to measure the optical characteristics of various materials. Among these are the polycrystalline thin film materials, CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe (for which single crystal samples have also been investigated), and materials for high efficiency cascade solar cells including InP, InGaAs and InGaAsP. Most of these data are not presently available over such a wide spectral range. Experimentally, a rotating polarizer-fixed analyzer ellipsometer with an a.c. detection system has been developed for accurate measurement of psi and {Delta}, the relevant ellipsometric parameters, in the near IR. This approach has certain advantages over the rotating analyzer-fixed polarizer systems including reduced sensitivity to room light. The analytical methods include the use of a specially developed computer modeling program which gives psi and {Delta} for a given set of values related to the film thickness (which may be finite or zero) and to the optical properties of the substrate. (orig.).

  16. The Nature of Partial Covering in Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Ejected gas is seen as broad absorption lines in 20% of quasars. It has been known for 15 years that prominent lines such as CIV are usually saturated but not black because the absorbing gas only partially covers the continuum emission region. Therefore, column densities estimated from these lines are only lower limits. Accurate column densities can be obtained from rare ions that have two or more transitions from the same lower level, so that the optical depth and covering fraction can be solved for simultanously. Suitable lines are hard to find, so such measurements are rare. We have found that metastable helium is particularly useful for these measurements. Yet despite these advances, partial covering remains a just a parameter and its physical nature is not understood.We propose a unique experiment to constrain the physical nature of partial covering. We will compare the covering fraction measured from PV {a doublet in the far UV} with that measured from metastable HeI {optical and IR}. The ions creating these lines are relatively rare, and they present similar opacity over a wide range of gas parameters. But due to their wide wavelength separation, these lines probe dramatically different regions of the continuum source, the temperature-dependent accretion disk. So we expect different covering fraction behavior for different partial covering scenarios. This experiment is relevant for understanding the geometry and clumpiness of the outflow, and the results may impact our understanding of the global covering fraction, a parameter critical for determining the outflow kinetic luminosity, and thereby estimating feedback efficiency for broad absorption line outflows.

  17. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  18. Broad-band study with Suzaku of the magnetar class

    CERN Document Server

    Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Rea, Nanda; Hurley, Kevein; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band (0.8-70 keV) spectra of the persistent X-ray emission from 9 magnetars were obtained with Suzaku, including 3 objects in apparent outburst. The soft X-ray component was detected from all of them, with a typical blackbody temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV, while the hard-tail component, dominating above ~10 keV, was detected at ~1 mCrab intensity from 7 of them. Therefore, the spectrum composed of a soft emission and a hard-tail component may be considered to be a common property of magnetars, both in their active and quiescent states. Wide-band spectral analyses revealed that the hard-tail component has a 1-60 keV flux, Fh, comparable to or even higher than that carried by the 1-60 keV soft component, Fs. The hardness ratio of these objects, defined as xi=Fh/Fs, was found to be tightly anti-correlated with their characteristic age tau as xi=(3.3+/-0.3)x(tau/1 kyr)^(-0.67+/-0.04) with a correlation coefficient of -0.989, over the range from xi~10 to xi~0.1. Magnetars in outburst states were found to lie o...

  19. Broad Iron Emission from Gravitationally Lensed Quasars Observed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Miller, J M; Reis, R C; Stern, D; Harrison, F A

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gravitationally lensed quasars to extend measurements of black hole spin out to high-redshift with the current generation of X-ray observatories. Here we present an analysis of a large sample of 27 lensed quasars in the redshift range 1.0broad component from the inner accretion disk, with a clear red wing to the emission profile. Based on simulations, we find the detection of this broader component to be significant at greater than the 3-sigma level. This implies that iron emission...

  20. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  1. A broad area electrospray generated by a piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshani, Zeinab; Johnson, Michael J.; Atashbar, Massood Z.; Go, David B.

    2016-07-01

    Electrosprays are typically formed by the application of a high (kilovolt) voltage to the flow exiting a small diameter capillary, and they have been used in applications ranging from material synthesis to spray coating because of the finely controlled plume of micron-sized droplets they produce. In this work, we report a similar but distinct spray directly off the surface of a piezoelectric transformer. Using a paper wick to deliver liquid to the surface of the piezoelectric crystal, a continuous, broad area spray is generated from the wick in contact with the transformer surface, only requiring input voltages on the order of 20 Vamp. Systematic variation of critical parameters indicate that this piezoelectric transformer-generated spray is similar to a conventional electrospray, with the spray current exhibiting a non-linear dependence on the solution conductivity, but distinct, as the spray exhibits little dependence on the solution surface tension. This innovative spray could potentially lead to uniform, large area spray coverage from a single device for a wide variety of applications.

  2. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  3. Density Functionals with Broad Applicability in Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2008-02-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Although density functional theory is widely used in the computational chemistry community, the most popular density functional, B3LYP, has some serious shortcomings: (i) it is better for main-group chemistry than for transition metals; (ii) it systematically underestimates reaction barrier heights; (iii) it is inaccurate for interactions dominated by mediumrange correlation energy, such as van der Waals attraction, aromatic-aromatic stacking, and alkane isomerization energies. We have developed a variety of databases for testing and designing new density functionals. We used these data to design new density functionals, called M06-class (and, earlier, M05-class) functionals, for which we enforced some fundamental exact constraints such as the uniform-electron-gas limit and the absence of self-correlation energy. Our M06-class functionals depend on spin-up and spin-down electron densities (i.e., spin densities), spin density gradients, spin kinetic energy densities, and, for nonlocal (also called hybrid) functionals, Hartree-Fock exchange. We have developed four new functionals that overcome the above-mentioned difficulties: (a) M06, a hybrid meta functional, is a functional with good accuracy “across-theboard” for transition metals, main group thermochemistry, medium-range correlation energy, and barrier heights; (b) M06- 2X, another hybrid meta functional, is not good for transition metals but has excellent performance for main group chemistry, predicts accurate valence and Rydberg electronic excitation energies, and is an excellent functional for aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions; (c) M06-L is not as accurate as M06 for barrier heights but is the most accurate

  4. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  5. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  6. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  7. Code-regenerative clean-up loop for a ranging transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Digital processing system phase locks on received ranging signal and creates clean replica of received ranging code. System is broadly applicable to variety of terrestrial ranging problems, including oceanic navigation.

  8. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bhatia; Sharma, K.; Namdeo, Ajay G.; B B Chaugule; Kavale, M.; Nanda, S

    2010-01-01

    There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of ...

  9. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification.

  10. Broad Ligament Pregnancy - Success Story of a Laparoscopically Managed Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Jayashree; Nair, Sobha S

    2016-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancies constitute 1% of ectopic pregnancies, among which broad ligament pregnancy is a rare form. The maternal mortality rate has been reported to be as high as 20%. The diagnosis is seldom established before surgery. Laparoscopic management of broad ligament ectopic pregnancy is the ideal form of treatment in appropriately selected patients. We present the case report of successful laparoscopic treatment of a 3x3.5cm broad ligament pregnancy. A search of literature shows that ours is the 6(th) case report of such a rare ectopic pregnancy managed endoscopically successfully. PMID:27630914

  11. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  12. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  13. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  14. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola R. Polizzotto; Tetsuya Takahashi; Walker, Christopher P.; Cho, Raymond Y

    2015-01-01

    How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE), a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD) and standard spectral analyses o...

  15. Gain ranging amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gain ranging amplifier system is provided for use in the acquisition of data. Voltage offset compensation is utilized to correct errors in the gain ranging amplifier system caused by thermal drift and temperature dependent voltage offsets, both of which are associated with amplifiers in the gain ranging amplifier system

  16. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  17. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  18. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  19. A low-temperature external cavity diode laser for broad wavelength tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, William G.; Rosenberg, Jason S.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64{\\deg}C, more than ...

  20. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypo...

  1. Efficient, designable, and broad-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    OpenAIRE

    Anquillare, E. L.; Miller, O D; Hsu, C. W.; DeLacy, B. G.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Johnson, S. G.; Soljacic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength resonators, ranging from single atoms to metallic nanoparticles, typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad and varied frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two-to-ten-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures, and can approach fundamental limits to broadband scattering fo...

  2. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  3. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  4. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  5. Laser Range Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Bahuguna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design aspects of laser range finders and proximity sensors being developed at IRDE for different applications. The principle used in most of the laser range finders is pulse echo or time-of-flight measurement. Optical triangulation is used in proximity sensors while techniques like phase detection and interferometry are employed in instruments for surveying and motion controllers where high accuracy is desired. Most of the laser range finders are designed for ranging non-cooperative targets.

  6. Vacuum UV broad-band absorption spectroscopy: a powerful diagnostic tool for reactive plasma monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Cunge, G; Fouchier, M; Brihoum, M; Bodart, P.; Touzeau, M.; N. Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Broad band UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is widely used to measure the concentration of radicals in reactive plasmas. We extended the applicability of this technique to the VUV (115 nm to 200 nm), the spectral range in which the electronic transitions from the ground state to the Rydberg or pre-dissociated states of many closed shell molecules are located. This gives access to the absolute densities of species which do not, or weakly absorb in the UV/visible range. The techni...

  7. Efficient, designable, and broad-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    CERN Document Server

    Anquillare, E L; Hsu, C W; DeLacy, B G; Joannopoulos, J D; Johnson, S G; Soljacic, M

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength resonators, ranging from single atoms to metallic nanoparticles, typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad and varied frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two-to-ten-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures, and can approach fundamental limits to broadband scattering for subwavelength particles. We measure broadband extinction per volume that closely approaches theoretical predictions over three representative visible-range wavelength windows, confirming the high efficiency of nanodisks and demonstrating the collective power of computational design and experimental precision for developing new photonics technologies.

  8. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  9. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straigh...

  10. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  11. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. Modifying ultrafast optical response of sputtered VOX nanostructures in a broad spectral range by altering post annealing atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürüm, U.; Yaglioglu, H. G.; Küçüköz, B.; Oksuzoglu, R. M.; Yıldırım, M.; Yağcı, A. M.; Yavru, C.; Özgün, S.; Tıraş, T.; Elmali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured VOX thin films were grown in a dc magnetron sputter system under two different Ar:O2 gas flow ratios. The films were annealed under vacuum and various ratios of O2/N2 atmospheres. The insulator-to-metal transition properties of the thin films were investigated by temperature dependent resistance measurement. Photo induced insulator-to-metal transition properties were investigated by Z-scan and ultrafast white light continuum pump probe spectroscopy measurements. Experiments showed that not only insulator-to-metal transition, but also wavelength dependence (from NIR to VIS) and time scale (from ns to ultrafast) of nonlinear optical response of the VOX thin films could be fine tuned by carefully adjusting post annealing atmosphere despite different initial oxygen content in the production. Fabricated VO2 thin films showed reflection change in the visible region due to photo induced phase transition. The results have general implications for easy and more effective fabrication of the nanostructured oxide systems with controllable electrical, optical, and ultrafast optical responses.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of two conjugative broad host range plasmids from a marine microbial biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Norberg

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 was determined and analyzed. pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 form a novel clade within the IncP-1 plasmid family designated IncP-1 ς. The plasmids were exogenously isolated earlier from a marine biofilm. pMCBF1 (62 689 base pairs; bp and pMCBF6 (66 729 bp have identical backbones, but differ in their mercury resistance transposons. pMCBF1 carries Tn5053 and pMCBF6 carries Tn5058. Both are flanked by 5 bp direct repeats, typical of replicative transposition. Both insertions are in the vicinity of a resolvase gene in the backbone, supporting the idea that both transposons are "res-site hunters" that preferably insert close to and use external resolvase functions. The similarity of the backbones indicates recent insertion of the two transposons and the ongoing dynamics of plasmid evolution in marine biofilms. Both plasmids also carry the insertion sequence ISPst1, albeit without flanking repeats. ISPs1is located in an unusual site within the control region of the plasmid. In contrast to most known IncP-1 plasmids the pMCBF1/pMCBF6 backbone has no insert between the replication initiation gene (trfA and the vegetative replication origin (oriV. One pMCBF1/pMCBF6 block of about 2.5 kilo bases (kb has no similarity with known sequences in the databases. Furthermore, insertion of three genes with similarity to the multidrug efflux pump operon mexEF and a gene from the NodT family of the tripartite multi-drug resistance-nodulation-division (RND system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found. They do not seem to confer antibiotic resistance to the hosts of pMCBF1/pMCBF6, but the presence of RND on promiscuous plasmids may have serious implications for the spread of antibiotic multi-resistance.

  15. Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range of Biology Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Preszler, Ralph W.; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B.; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought t...

  16. Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought that the technology improved their interest in the course, attendance, and understanding of course content. Students in lower-division courses had more strongly positive overall impressions than did students in upper-division courses. To assess the effects of the response systems on student learning, the number of in-class questions was varied within each course throughout the semester. Students' performance was compared on exam questions derived from lectures with low, medium, or high numbers of in-class questions. Increased use of the response systems in lecture had a positive influence on students' performance on exam questions across all six biology courses. Students not only have favorable opinions about the use of student response systems, increased use of these systems increases student learning. PMID:17339392

  17. Anti-herpesviral effects of a novel broad range anti-microbial quaternary ammonium silane, K21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulve, Nitish; Kimmerling, Kirk; Johnston, Allen D; Krueger, Gerhard R; Ablashi, Dharam V; Prusty, Bhupesh K

    2016-07-01

    We have created a novel quaternary ammonium silane, K21 through sol-gel chemistry, using an ethoxylated version of an organosilane quaternary ammonium compound and TetraEthyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) as precursors. Previous studies using the precursor molecule quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and a methacryloxy version of K21, primarily designed for use in dental healthcare, have shown inhibited growth properties against several types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Candida albicans etc. Here we tested the effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 in in vitro cell culture infection models. Our results show growth inhibitory effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 infection. PMID:27181377

  18. Using Quantum Mechanics to Facilitate the Introduction of a Broad Range of Chemical Concepts to First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSouza, Romualdo T.; Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    2013-01-01

    A first-year undergraduate course that introduces students to chemistry through a conceptually detailed description of quantum mechanics is outlined. Quantization as arising from the confinement of a particle is presented and these ideas are used to introduce the reasons behind resonance, molecular orbital theory, degeneracy of electronic states,…

  19. Identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. These intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. We used...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a Micelle-Based pH Nanosensor with an Unprecedented Broad Measurement Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Feldborg, Lise N.; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2013-01-01

    A new cross-linked micelle pH nanosensor design was investigated. The nanosensor synthesis was based on self-assembly of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-amino ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(coumarin methacrylate) (PEG-b-PAEMA-b-PCMA), which was synthesized by isolated...... macroinitiator atom transfer radical polymerization. Micelles were formed by PEG-b-PAEMA-b-PCMA self-assembly in water, giving micelles with an average diameter of 45 nm. The PCMA core was employed to utilize coumarin-based photoinduced cross-linking in the core of the micelles, which was performed by UV...

  1. Broad-range and binary-range acyl-acyl-carrier protein thioesterases suggest an alternative mechanism for medium-chain production in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, T A; Jones, A; Cranmer, A M; Davies, H M; Knutzon, D S

    1997-06-01

    In the current model of medium-chain (C8-14) fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds, specialized FatB acyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) thioesterases are responsible for the production of medium chains. We have isolated and characterized FatB cDNAs from the maturing seeds of elm (Ulmus americana) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), which accumulate predominantly caprate (10:0)- and myristate (14:0)-containing oils, respectively. In neither species were we able to find cDNAs encoding enzymes specialized for these chain lengths. Nutmeg FatB hydrolyses C14-18 substrates in vitro and expression in Brassica napus seeds leads to an oil enriched in C14-18 saturates. Elm FatB1 displays a binary specificity: one activity is centered on 10:0-ACP, and a second is centered on palmitate (16:0)-ACP. After expression in B. napus seeds the oil is enriched in C10-18 saturates, predominantly 16:0, 14:0, and 10:0. The composition of free fatty acids produced by elm FatB1 in Escherichia coli shifts from C14-16 to mostly C8-10 by increasing the rate of chain termination by this enzyme. These results suggest the existence of an alternative mechanism used in the evolution of medium-chain production, a model of which is presented. PMID:9193098

  2. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  3. Broad ligament pregnancy a diagnostic dilemma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy with high risk of maternal mortality. Although ultrasonography is usually helpful in making the diagnosis but it is mostly established during laparotomy. 34 year old G2P1 with previous caesarean section reported at 8th month of pregnancy with inability to perceive foetal movements. Ultrasonography confirmed intrauterine fetal demise. Patient was taken for caesarean section after failed induction. Intraoperative diagnosis of broad ligament pregnancy was made and broad ligament along with fetus, sac, fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Post-operative period was uneventful. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2478-2480

  4. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  5. Analysis of fuel system technology for broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broad property fuels. Significant results, with emphasis on design practicality from the engine manufacturer' standpoint, are highlighted. Several advanced fuel systems were modeled to determine as accurately as possible the relative merits of each system from the standpoint of compatibility with broad property fuel. Freezing point, thermal stability, and lubricity were key property issues. A computer model was formulated to determine the investment incentive for each system. Results are given.

  6. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  9. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  10. Improved spectral characteristics of 980 nm broad area slotted Fabry-Perot diode lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhuo; Wang Jun; Xiong Cong; Liu Yuanyuan; Liu Suping; Ma Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    A novel broad area slotted Fabry-Perot diode laser is designed and fabricated.Using a new semianalytical method,we introduce effective refractive index perturbations in the form of etched slot features into a conventional 980 nm broad area Fabry-Perot cavity,and the spectral characteristics of the device are expected to be noticeably improved.A low density of slot features is formed by using standard optical lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching.The experimental results show that the full spectral width at half-maximum is less than 0.4 nm,meanwhile,the thermal shift of the emission spectrum is decreased from 0.26 to 0.07 nm/℃ over a temperature range of 10 to 60 ℃.The improved spectral characteristics of the device are proved to be attributed to such slotted Fabry-Perot laser structures.

  11. Requirements, needs, and concepts for a new broad-application test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a variety of reasons, including (a) the increasing demands of the 1990s regulatory environment, (b) limited existing test capactiy and capability to satisfy projected future testing missions, and (c) an expected increasing need for nuclear information to support development of advanced reactors, there is a need for requirements and preliminary concepts for a new broad-application test reactor (BATR). These requirements must include consideration not only for a broad range of projected testing missions but also for current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements. The requirements will form the basis for development and assessment of preconceptual reactor designs and lead to the identification of key technologies to support the government's long-term strategic and programmatic planning. This paper outlines the need for a new BATR and suggests a few preliminary reactor concepts that can meet that need

  12. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  13. Model Invariance across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates…

  14. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They fil

  15. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these infor

  16. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of ...

  17. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  18. PRINCIPAR An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D

    1994-01-01

    We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

  19. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...... for range selection, prex selection and range median, stating that any data structure that uses S words of space needs (log n= log(Sw=n)) time to answer a query. In particular, any data structure that uses n logO(1) n space needs (log n= log log n) time to answer a query, and any data structure...

  20. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  1. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  2. LONG RANGE HEALTH PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ST. Motameni

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, health planning in Iran has been carried out in the context of short-range economic plans. Although this mechanism has helped a great deal in the achievement of certain health plans however, the said scheme has been short in meeting the health objectives on a comprehensive basis. Most often, the heath programs have lost their values to the priority and cost effectiveness of economic plans. A brief review of heath planning in the past shows that the second development plan has been devoted to the establishment of new hospitals on a scattered pattern. The development of a coordinated hospital and health center system has been accepted and partly implemented during the third plan period. In the fourth plan the whole direction has changed towards the de­velopment of private hospitals on profit making basis, and now the fifth plan calls for the regionalized hospital system. Thus, one can say that the past twenty years have been spent to the experimentation of different schemes with­out a real long-range goal. In the past decade the World Health Organization has ventured in the development of health planning principles, but most of the efforts have been devoted to the short-range planning. The long-range health planning is not only a new look to the prin­ciples of planning, but a thorough examination of the time factor in health planning.

  3. Agriculture, forest, and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  4. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark;

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries in ...

  5. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  6. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  7. The broad base columellar strut for correction of retracted columella and under rotated tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the technique and to detect the efficacy of the broad base columellar strut in correcting retracted columella and under rotated nasal tip. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Methods: The charts and photographs of patients suffering from columellar retraction with acute columellar-labial angle were reviewed. The columellar-labial angle and the nasal tip projection were measured and calculated from the photos and the columellar show was measured using a fine caliper. Results: The study included 17 patients, 12 females and 5 males with a mean age of 30.2 years ranging from 19 to 49 years, 14 patients had primary surgery while 3 were revision cases, Preoperative columellar-labial angle ranged from 75° to 86° with a mean 82.06 ± 4.08458 SD, while postoperatively it ranged from 92° to 105° with a mean 97.12° ± 3.9825 SD. Columellar show ranged preoperatively from 0.4 to 1.7 mm with a mean 0.94 mm ± 0.38739 SD while postoperatively it ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 mm with a mean of 2.65 mm ± 0.38098 SD. Nasal tip projection preoperatively ranged from 0.45 to 0.58 and postoperatively from 0.51 to 0.59. Conclusions: The broad base columellar strut technique is simple, easy, does not cause excessive tip stiffness and reduces the need to use the plumbing graft in conjunction with the columellar strut, and should help in increasing tip rotation and columellar show reliably and may add to tip projection as required.

  8. Quasar Cartography: from Black Hole to Broad Line Region Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, Doron

    2013-01-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrow-band photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectrosc...

  9. Experimental evaluation of combustor concepts for burning broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. M.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Dodds, W. J.; Shayeson, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    A baseline CF6-50 combustor and three advanced combustor designs were evaluated to determine the effects of combustor design on operational characteristics using broad property fuels. Three fuels were used in each test: Jet A, a broad property 13% hydrogen fuel, and a 12% hydrogen fuel blend. Testing was performed in a sector rig at true cruise and simulated takeoff conditions for the CF6-50 engine cycle. The advanced combustors (all double annular, lean dome designs) generally exhibited lower metal temperatures, exhaust emissions, and carbon buildup than the baseline CF6-50 combustor. The sensitivities of emissions and metal temperatures to fuel hydrogen content were also generally lower for the advanced designs. The most promising advanced design used premixing tubes in the main stage. This design was chosen for additional testing in which fuel/air ratio, reference velocity, and fuel flow split were varied.

  10. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  11. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner maximization. Broad stakeholder maximization is the sum of the returns to all stake-holders also...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...

  12. Radiation Pressure Confinement -- III. The origin of the broad ionization distribution in AGN outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan; Laor, Ari; Baskin, Alexei; Holczer, Tomer

    2014-01-01

    The winds of ionized gas driven by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) can be studied through absorption features in their X-ray spectra. A recurring feature of these outflows is their broad ionization distribution, including essentially all ionization levels (e.g., Fe^0+ to Fe^25+). The absorption measure distribution (AMD) is defined as the distribution of column density with ionization parameter |dN / dlog xi|. The AMD extends over a wide range of 0.1 < xi < 10^4 (cgs), and is remarkably similar in different objects. Power-law fits to the observed AMDs (|dN / dlog xi| ~ N_1 xi^a) yield N_1 = 3x10^21 cm^-2 +- 0.4 dex and a = 0 -- 0.4. What is the source of this broad ionization distribution, and what sets the small range of observed $N_1$ and $a$ values? A common interpretation is a multiphase outflow, with a wide range of gas densities in a uniform pressure medium. However, it has already been shown that the incident radiation pressure leads to a gas pressure gradient in the photoionized gas, and therefore ...

  13. Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection

    OpenAIRE

    Luz J.; Griggio M.A.; Fagundes D.J.; Araújo R.M.; Marcondes W.

    2000-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate possible alterations in oxygen consumption in an animal model with broad intestinal resection. Oxygen consumption and the thermal effect of a short meal were measured in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome. Four groups of rats were used. Group I was the control group, group II was sham operated, group III was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection, and group IV was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection with colon interposition. Ninety days after ...

  14. Mapping plant functional types over broad mountainous regions

    OpenAIRE

    Danlu Cai; Yanning Guan; Shan Guo; Chunyan Zhang; Klaus Fraedrich

    2014-01-01

    Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT) products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical s...

  15. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  16. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  17. Series of broad resonances in atomic three-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, D; Hu, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine the series of resonances found earlier in atomic three-body systems by solving the Faddeev-Merkuriev integral equations. These resonances are rather broad and line-up at each threshold with gradually increasing gaps, the same way for all thresholds and irrespective of the spatial symmetry. We relate these resonances to the Gailitis mechanism, which is a consequence of the polarization potential.

  18. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  19. The Interplay of Biology and the Environment Broadly Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This special section of Developmental Psychology contains articles on the interplay of biology and the environment, broadly defined, that have the potential to change or challenge how developmental psychologists think. Topics include how experience affects gene expression; how genes affect how the environment is experienced and what effect the environment has; interactions between the environment and the presence or absence of early brain damage; motor neurons and the understanding of others’...

  20. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties

  1. Overview of the Illumina Sequencing Platform at the Broad Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, K.

    2011-01-01

    The constant increase in quality and quantity of Next-Generation sequencing data necessitates a parallel growth in sample preparation and a scalable tracking system. The Broad Institute's Illumina Sequencing Platform handles a variety of applications and comprises Illumina's latest hardware, software and kit releases, and a high-throughput sample preparation process. With our automated sample preparation and QC processes, we have been able to meet our increased capacity goals of up to 3,840 l...

  2. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the...

  3. Does the light and broad $\\sigma$(500) exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1999-01-01

    The lightest scalar and pseudoscalar nonets are discussed within the framework of the broken U3$\\times$U3 linear sigma model, and it is shown that already at the tree level this model works remarkably well predicting scalar masses and couplings not far from present experimental values, when all parameters are fixed from the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants. It is argued that this strongly suggests that the light and very broad $\\sigma$ resonance exists near 500 MeV.

  4. Constraints on the Broad Line Region Properties and Extinction in Local Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Korista, K T; Burtscher, L; Rosario, D; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Graciá-Carpio, J; Hicks, E K S; Janssen, A; Koss, M; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Maciejewski, W; Müller-Sánchez, F; de Xivry, G Orban; Riffel, R; Riffel, R A; Schartmann, M; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Veilleux, S; Ulrich, O A

    2016-01-01

    We use high spectral resolution (R > 8000) data covering 3800-13000\\r{A} to study the physical conditions of the broad line region (BLR) of nine nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies. Up to six broad HI lines are present in each spectrum. A comparison - for the first time using simultaneous optical to near-infrared observations - to photoionisation calculations with our devised simple scheme yields the extinction to the BLR at the same time as determining the density and photon flux, and hence distance from the nucleus, of the emitting gas. This points to a typical density for the HI emitting gas of 10$^{11}$cm$^{-3}$ and shows that a significant amount of this gas lies at regions near the dust sublimation radius, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also confirm that in many objects the line ratios are far from case B, the best-fit intrinsic broad-line H$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratios being in the range 2.5-6.6 as derived with our photoionization modeling scheme. The extinction to the BLR, based on independent estimates...

  5. Broad surveys of DNA viral diversity obtained through viral metagenomics of mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.

  6. An electron beam-heater with a broad-area plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron-beam heater with a broad-area plasma cathode was designed for thermal treatment of large surfaces in vacuum. Using the plasma electron source of broad cross-section beams instead of a hot-cathode gun generating thin scanning beams allows simultaneous heating all the surface as well as lengthening the service life and raising the reliability of the heater. A broad-area emitting plasma surface is produced in a special electrode cavity by injection into it, through a small hole, of charged particles from a reflex discharge with cold electrodes. Such a principle of design of the plasma cathode allows to obtain an electron beam of the required current density in the pressure range of 10-2 to 1 Pa. The heater can be operated with He, Ar, air and other gases. Using a multiaperture accelerating system comprising emitting and accelerating electrodes, an electron beam up to 150 mm in diameter with an energy up to 15 keV, a current up to 0.5 A, and a nonuniformity of the cross-sectional distribution of the current density not more than +- 6% on the area of 100 cm2 could be generated. The efficiency of the heater at the accelerating voltage of 11 to 13 kV equals to about 90%. (author)

  7. Lunar Laser Ranging Science

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides science results: gravitational physics and ephemeris information from the orbit, lunar science from rotation and solid-body tides, and Earth science. Sensitive tests of gravitational physics include the Equivalence Principle, limits on the time variation of the gravitational constant G, and geodetic precession. The equivalence principle test is used for an accurate determination of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter \\beta. Lunar...

  8. Experimental demonstration of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat high absorption band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Ramani, Suchitra; Reiten, Matthew T; Luo, Sheng-Nian; Taylor, Antoinette J; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2012-01-15

    We present the design, numerical simulations and experimental measurements of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat absorption top over a wide incidence angle range for either transverse electric or transverse magnetic polarization depending on the incident direction. The metamaterial absorber unit cell consists of two sets of structures resonating at different but close frequencies. The overall absorption spectrum is the superposition of individual components and becomes flat at the top over a significant bandwidth. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  9. Efficient broad- and tunable-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    CERN Document Server

    Anquillare, Emma L; Hsu, Chia Wei; DeLacy, Brendan G; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength resonators typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad, tunable frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two- to twenty-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures. Per-volume efficiency increases away from the plasma frequency of the underlying metal. We measure broadband extinction per volume that closely approaches theoretical predictions over three representative visible-range wavelength windows, confirming the high efficiency of nanodisks and demonstrating the collective power of computational design and experimental precision for developing new photonics technologies.

  10. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  11. Enlargement of the inversionless lasing domain by using broad-area cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate analytically and numerically the role of diffraction in the operation of a broad-area inversionless laser in a cascade three-level configuration. Through a linear stability analysis of the trivial non-lasing solution and numerical integration of the corresponding Maxwell-Schroedinger equations, we show that off-axis emission allows stationary inversionless lasing over a cavity detuning range much larger than in small-aspect-ratio cavities and in conventionally inverted three-level lasers. In addition, we investigate inversionless lasing in a self-pulsing regime in the presence of diffraction, which leads to rich spatiotemporal dynamics

  12. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadman, W.W. III; Andrews, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs.

  13. Enlargement of the inversionless lasing domain by using broad-area cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mompart, J; Ahufinger, V; García-Ojalvo, J; Corbalán, R; Vilaseca, R

    2003-01-01

    We investigate analytically and numerically the role of diffraction in the operation of a broad-area inversionless laser in a cascade three-level configuration. Through a linear stability analysis of the trivial non-lasing solution and numerical integration of the corresponding Maxwell-Schroedinger equations, we show that off-axis emission allows stationary inversionless lasing over a cavity detuning range much larger than in small-aspect-ratio cavities and in conventionally inverted three-level lasers. In addition, we investigate inversionless lasing in a self-pulsing regime in the presence of diffraction, which leads to rich spatiotemporal dynamics.

  14. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  15. Back to the range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    It is now over 100 years since the ''discovery'' of the livestock-supporting properties of the vegetation on what had been considered worthless, unclaimed land. And the 1.2 billion acres of range in the United States--more than half of the country's land mass--is currently being discovered all over again--this time to be a major, underutilized resource in the struggle to erase the world's food deficits and, at the same time, conserve energy and other resources. Agronomists and range scientists are developing energy data which suggest that, if consumer habits and tastes and the habits and practices to which the industry is geared are adaptable, beef can continue to provide the major portion of U.S. protein needs without draining grain supplies from the hungry abroad. The key to their strategy is obtaining greater productivity from the range. This generally appears to offer the advantage of reducing man-made energy inputs per pound of beef sharply below those required by the alternative: grain feeding. The strategy may entail changes, however, in the whole beef system--from the preferred slaughter size of an animal to the preferred marbling pattern in a roast. Such changes may be dictated by costs.

  16. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  17. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund;

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following problem: Given an unsorted array of n elements, and a sequence of intervals in the array, compute the median in each of the subarrays defined by the intervals. We describe a simple algorithm which needs O(nlog k + klog n) time to answer k such median queries. This improves...... where the time per query is reduced to O(log n / log log n). We also give efficient dynamic variants of both data structures, achieving O(log2 n) query time using O(nlog n) space in the comparison model and O((log n/loglog n)2) query time using O(nlog n/log log n) space in the RAM model, and show...... that in the cell-probe model, any data structure which supports updates in O(logO(1)n) time must have Ω(log n/loglog n) query time. Our approach naturally generalizes to higher-dimensional range median problems, where element positions and query ranges are multidimensional - it reduces a range median query...

  18. Multi-epoch Spectroscopy of Dwarf Galaxies with AGN Signatures: Identifying Sources with Persistent Broad Hα Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Reines, Amy E.; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E.; Graur, Or; Geha, Marla; Hainline, Kevin; Carroll, Christopher M.; Hickox, Ryan C.

    2016-09-01

    We use time-domain optical spectroscopy to distinguish between broad emission lines powered by accreting black holes (BHs) and stellar processes (i.e., supernovae) for 16 galaxies identified as active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates by Reines et al (2013). Our study is primarily focused on those objects with narrow emission line ratios dominated by star formation, for which the origin of the broad Hα emission was unclear. Based on follow-up spectroscopy, we find that the broad Hα emission has faded or was ambiguous for all of the star-forming objects (14/16), over baselines ranging from 5-14 years, suggesting a transient stellar process was responsible for the broad emission in previous Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations. For the two objects in our follow-up sample with narrow-line AGN signatures (RGG 9 and RGG 119), we find persistent broad Hα emission consistent with an AGN origin. Additionally, we use high spectral resolution observations to measure stellar velocity dispersions for 15 objects in the Reines et al. (2013) sample, all with narrow-line ratios indicating the presence of an AGN. Stellar masses range from ˜ 5× {10}8 to 3× {10}9 M ⊙, and we measure {σ }* in the range of 28{--}71 {km} {{{s}}}-1. These {σ }* correspond to some of the lowest-mass galaxies with optical signatures of AGN activity. We show that RGG 119, the one object that has both a measured {σ }* and persistent broad Hα emission, falls near the extrapolation of the {\\text{}}{M}{BH}-{σ }\\star relation to the low-mass end.

  19. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  20. Monocular visual ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  1. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  2. Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-06-01

    In recent work Baldwin et al. proposed that in the geometrically extended broad-line regions (BLRs) of quasars and active galactic nuclei, a range in line-emitting gas properties (e.g., density, column density) might exist at each radius and showed that under these conditions the broad emission line spectra of these objects may be dominated by selection effects introduced by the atomic physics and general radiative transfer within the large pool of line-emitting entities. In this picture, the light we see originates in a vast amalgam of emitters but is dominated by those emitters best able to reprocess the incident continuum into a particular emission line. We test this ``locally optimally emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic database of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) monitoring campaign is reproduced via the optimization of three global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an ad hoc selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission-line light curves for the 1989 IUE and 1993 HST campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags-a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture, which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those presented here, using the constraints provided by a high-quality, temporally well-sampled spectroscopic data set.

  3. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  4. Lunar Laser Ranging Science

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J G; Turyshev, S G; Ratcliff, J T; Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides science results: gravitational physics and ephemeris information from the orbit, lunar science from rotation and solid-body tides, and Earth science. Sensitive tests of gravitational physics include the Equivalence Principle, limits on the time variation of the gravitational constant G, and geodetic precession. The equivalence principle test is used for an accurate determination of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter \\beta. Lunar ephemerides are a product of the LLR analysis used by current and future spacecraft missions. The analysis is sensitive to astronomical parameters such as orbit, masses and obliquity. The dissipation-caused semimajor axis rate is 37.9 mm/yr and the associated acceleration in orbital longitude is -25.7 ''/cent^2, dominated by tides on Earth with a 1% lunar contribution. Lunar rotational variation has sensitivity to interior structure, physical properties, and energy dissipation. The second-degree lunar Love numbers are de...

  5. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  6. VLBA imaging of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Montenegro-Montes, F M; Benn, C R; Carballo, R; Dallacasa, D; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2009-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) have been found to be associated with extremely compact radio sources. These reduced dimensions can be either due to projection effects or these objects might actually be intrinsically small. Exploring these two hypotheses is important to understand the nature and origin of the BAL phenomenon because orientation effects are an important discriminant between the different models proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this work we present VLBA observations of 5 BAL QSOs and discuss their pc-scale morphology.

  7. Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over 100%.

  8. Broad-spectrum micronutrient treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rationale and evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic psychiatric illness, which often co-occurs with other common psychiatric problems. Although empirical evidence supports the short-term efficacy of pharmacological and behavioural treatments, families often search for alternative treatment methods because of concerns about side effects and safety, cost and access, as well as fears about long-term exposure to psychotropic medications. This review presents the published evidence on use of broad-spectrum micronutrients to treat ADHD symptoms. This approach makes physiological sense in that nutrients are required for many critical biochemical reactions to occur, ranging from manufacturing neurotransmitters, to providing the mitochondria with essential nutrients for energy production, to assisting the gut to heal from inflammation. Multi-nutrient treatment approaches are an intriguing yet under-researched area; all but one of the trials conducted in the last decade have shown benefit for the treatment of ADHD symptoms, and the one negative trial likely used doses too low to effect change. However, the methodologies have varied widely from case-controlled studies to open-label trials to one randomized controlled trial. Sample sizes have typically been modest, although the effect sizes have tended to be medium to large. What is required now is replication, as well as investigation into the optimal ingredient range and optimal doses of nutrients. We discuss the proven and potential benefits of the broad-spectrum nutrient approach, considering the heterogeneous nature of ADHD. PMID:25056569

  9. Niclosamide is a proton carrier and targets acidic endosomes with broad antiviral effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jurgeit

    Full Text Available Viruses use a limited set of host pathways for infection. These pathways represent bona fide antiviral targets with low likelihood of viral resistance. We identified the salicylanilide niclosamide as a broad range antiviral agent targeting acidified endosomes. Niclosamide is approved for human use against helminthic infections, and has anti-neoplastic and antiviral effects. Its mode of action is unknown. Here, we show that niclosamide, which is a weak lipophilic acid inhibited infection with pH-dependent human rhinoviruses (HRV and influenza virus. Structure-activity studies showed that antiviral efficacy and endolysosomal pH neutralization co-tracked, and acidification of the extracellular medium bypassed the virus entry block. Niclosamide did not affect the vacuolar H(+-ATPase, but neutralized coated vesicles or synthetic liposomes, indicating a proton carrier mode-of-action independent of any protein target. This report demonstrates that physico-chemical interference with host pathways has broad range antiviral effects, and provides a proof of concept for the development of host-directed antivirals.

  10. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with the broad-band X-ray spectroscopy experiment, HEAO 1 A-2, in the energy range 0.4-18 keV for four intervals of approximately 31 s over the course of 5 days in 1977. The spectra can be adequately represented by single-temperature thermal bremmstrahlung continua with temperatures ranging from 3.7 x 10 to the 7th K to 6.4 x 10 to the 7th K. An examination of the spectra and the spectra-luminosity relationship effectively rules out one degenerate dwarf model for the X-ray emission. The far-UV continuum emission could be dominated by this continuum component during X-ray high states, an effect which would be detected in optical UV line observations. A Comptonized X-ray cloud around a neutron star remains a viable model for the observed X-ray spectra.

  11. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. PMID:26652842

  12. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2003jd

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, S; Cappellaro, E; Patat, F; Mazzali, P; Turatto, M; Hurley, K; Maeda, K; Gal-Yam, A; Foley, R J; Filippenko, A V; Pastorello, A; Challis, P; Frontera, F; Harutyunyan, A; Iye, M; Kawabata, K; Kirshner, R P; Li, W; Lipkin, Y M; Matheson, T; Nomoto, K; Ofek, E O; Ohyama, Y; Pian, E; Salvo, M; Sauer, D N; Schmidt, B P; Soderberg, A; Zampieri, L

    2007-01-01

    The results of a world-wide coordinated observational campaign on the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2003jd are presented. In total, 74 photometric data points and 26 spectra were collected using 11 different telescopes. SN 2003jd is one of the most luminous SN Ic ever observed. A comparison with other Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) confirms that SN 2003jd represents an intermediate case between broad-line events (2002ap, 2006aj), and highly energetic SNe (1997ef, 1998bw, 2003dh, 2003lw), with an ejected mass of M_{ej} = 3.0 +/- 1 Mo and a kinetic energy of E_{k}(tot) = 7_{-2}^{+3} 10^{51} erg. SN 2003jd is similar to SN 1998bw in terms of overall luminosity, but it is closer to SNe 2006aj and 2002ap in terms of light-curve shape and spectral evolution. The comparison with other SNe Ic, suggests that the V-band light curves of SNe Ic can be partially homogenized by introducing a time stretch factor. Finally, due to the similarity of SN 2003jd to the SN 2006aj/XRF 060218 event, we discuss the possible connection of SN 20...

  13. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels with fast degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ana; Tan, Jeremy P K; Yuen, Alex; Chan, Julian M W; Coady, Daniel J; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz

    2015-04-13

    In this study, a new family of broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels has been successfully synthesized and characterized. Tertiary amine-containing eight-membered monofunctional and difunctional cyclic carbonates were synthesized, and chemically cross-linked polycarbonate hydrogels were obtained by copolymerizing these monomers with a poly(ethylene glycol)-based bifunctional initiator via organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene catalyst. The gels were quaternized using methyl iodide to confer antimicrobial properties. Stable hydrogels were obtained only when the bifunctional monomer concentration was equal to or higher than 12 mol %. In vitro antimicrobial studies revealed that all quaternized hydrogels exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Candida albicans (fungus), while the antimicrobial activity of the nonquaternized hydrogels was negligible. Moreover, the gels showed fast degradation at room temperature (4-6 days), which makes them ideal candidates for wound healing and implantable biomaterials.

  14. Peculiar Broad Absorption Line Quasars found in DPOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Djorgovski, S G; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Lopes, P A A; De Carvalho, R R; Odewahn, S C; Castro, S; Thompson, D; Chaffee, F; Darling, J; Desai, V; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.

    2003-01-01

    With the recent release of large (i.e., > hundred million objects), well-calibrated photometric surveys, such as DPOSS, 2MASS, and SDSS, spectroscopic identification of important targets is no longer a simple issue. In order to enhance the returns from a spectroscopic survey, candidate sources are often preferentially selected to be of interest, such as brown dwarfs or high redshift quasars. This approach, while useful for targeted projects, risks missing new or unusual species. We have, as a result, taken the alternative path of spectroscopically identifying interesting sources with the sole criterion being that they are in low density areas of the g - r and r - i color-space defined by the DPOSS survey. In this paper, we present three peculiar broad absorption line quasars that were discovered during this spectroscopic survey, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. PSS J0052+2405 is an Iron LoBAL quasar at a redshift z = 2.4512 with very broad absorption from many species. PSS J0141+3334 is a reddened...

  15. Antibiofilm Peptides: Potential as Broad-Spectrum Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Daniel; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of bacterial diseases is facing twin threats, with increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and relatively few novel compounds or strategies under development or entering the clinic. Bacteria frequently grow on surfaces as biofilm communities encased in a polymeric matrix. The biofilm mode of growth is associated with 65 to 80% of all clinical infections. It causes broad adaptive changes; biofilm bacteria are especially (10- to 1,000-fold) resistant to conventional antibiotics and to date no antimicrobials have been developed specifically to treat biofilms. Small synthetic peptides with broad-spectrum antibiofilm activity represent a novel approach to treat biofilm-related infections. Recent developments have provided evidence that these peptides can inhibit even developed biofilms, kill multiple bacterial species in biofilms (including the ESKAPE [Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species] pathogens), show strong synergy with several antibiotics, and act by targeting a universal stress response in bacteria. Thus, these peptides represent a promising alternative treatment to conventional antibiotics and work effectively in animal models of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:27068589

  16. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  19. Characterisation of a Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos, D., E-mail: diego_barrientos@usal.es [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, University of Salamanca (Spain); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Quintana, B.; Sagrado, I.C. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, University of Salamanca (Spain); Unsworth, C.; Moon, S.; Cresswell, J.R. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    Characterisation of Germanium detectors used for gamma-ray tracking or medical imaging is one of the current goals in the Nuclear physics community. Good knowledge of detector response to different gamma radiations is needed for this purpose. In order to develop this task, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques have been developed for different detector geometries or setups. In this work, we present the results of the application of PSA for a Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector. This detector was scanned across its front and bottom face using a fully digital data acquisition system; allowing to record detector charge pulse shapes from well defined positions with collimated sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 22}Na and {sup 137}Cs. With the study of the data acquired, characteristics of the inner detector geometry like crystal limits or positions of contact and isolate can be found, as well as the direction of the axes for the Germanium crystal.

  20. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  1. Naked eye visibility of Sirius in broad daylight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Tinbergen, Jaap; Stammes, Piet

    2015-02-01

    Sirius was spotted with the naked eye at broad daylight by looking along the finder of a 1 m telescope on La Palma Observatory at a 2370 m height. Sun elevation was 73°; Sirius was nearly straight under the Sun at 37° elevation. The sky radiance, although not recorded directly, could be determined from the simultaneously obtained high-precision wavelength-dependent sky polarization data near Sirius. This was done by fitting the polarization data with the doubling-adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model, which provided the values of the surface albedo and of the aerosol optical thickness required for determining the absolute sky radiance. Our analysis implies that Sirius, when positioned overhead, can be a daytime naked eye object from sea level even if its culmination occurs at solar noon. It also suggests that the second-brightest star (Canopus), if positioned overhead, could be perceptible even at solar noon.

  2. Evidence for Photoionization Driven Broad Absorption Line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Ferland, Gary

    2015-01-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic dataset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C IV, Si IV and N V. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption line equivalent width, when the well established intrinsic Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanying with dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption line component with brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C IV absorption component is only the extreme case, when the i...

  3. Assessing Ground-Water Contamination Across Broad Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Ground-water quality is measured at discrete locations, and often interpreted at local scales. However, regional patterns in ground-water quality can be used to: 1) Assess relations between water quality and broad patterns of human activities or geochemical variation; 2) Reduce monitoring costs by sampling more frequently in areas of highest concentration or vulnerability; 3) Prioritize locations for prevention efforts such as for nitrate reduction, to obtain maximum benefits for lower costs; and 4) Project water-quality conditions to unsampled locations based on a regional understanding or "model". Examples of methods for modeling and interpreting ground-water quality at regional scales are presented along with their utility for cost reduction and contamination prevention purposes.

  4. Optimization of the geometry of broad energy germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors are employed in many different scientific experiments and widely used in industrial applications. A circular contact is implanted on a base of the cylindrical shaped detector. This circular contact is used as a read out electrode and is surrounded by a passivated groove that separates it from the high voltage electrode, which spans over the remaining surface. The size of the read out electrode and the groove geometry are assumed to have a major impact onto the energy resolution, pulse shape discrimination and energy threshold. To quantify the impact of the detectors geometry on its performance, the read out contacts size of two BEGe detectors was modified several times. The geometry of the detector was optimized prior to each reprocessing step through the use of simulations. For each configuration, the detectors performance was analysed through distinct measurements. Some general consideration about analysis tools, simulation libraries and first results of this study are presented in this talk.

  5. METALLOCENE POLYETHYLENES WITH BROAD OR BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Seven new binuclear titanocenes with different linking bridges, unsubstituted or substituted on the Cp rings, were synthesized and tested for their effect on ethylene polymerization in the presence of MAO. The polyethylenes thus obtained had broad MWD or even bimodal GPC curves, as compared with that from two reference mononuclear titanocenes. This is explained by the difference in degree of steric hindrance around the active center sites imposed by the bulky substituted ligands assuming different configurations in the rotation of the catalyst molecules. Lower polymerization temperatures alleviate the effect of these configuration differences, as reflected in change in MW and -Mw/-Mn. This effect is not caused by decomposition or disproportionation of the binuclear titanocenes as evidenced by the stability of the catalyst.

  6. Broad spectrum moderators and advanced reflector filters using 208Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönfeldt, Troels; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt;

    2015-01-01

    thermalizing property of 208Pb to design a broad spectrum moderator, i.e. a moderator which emits thermal and cold neutrons from the same position. Using 208Pb as a reflector filter material is shown to be slightly less efficient than a conventional beryllium reflector filter. However, when surrounding......Cold and thermal neutrons used in neutrons scattering experiments are produced in nuclear reactors and spallation sources. The neutrons are cooled to thermal or cold temperatures in thermal and cold moderators, respectively. The present study shows that it is possible to exploit the poor...... the reflector filter by a cold moderator it is possible to regain the neutrons with wavelengths below the Bragg edge, which are suppressed in the beryllium reflector filter. In both the beryllium and lead case surrounding the reflector filter with a cold moderator increases the cold brightness significantly...

  7. The Broad Line Radio Galaxy J2114+820

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, W D; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G; Marcaide, J M; Venturi, T

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the study of a new sample of large angular size radio galaxies selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, we have made radio observations of J2114+820, a low power radio galaxy with an angular size of 6'. Its radio structure basically consists of a prominent core, a jet directed in north-west direction and two extended S-shaped lobes. We have also observed the optical counterpart of J2114+820, a bright elliptical galaxy with a strong unresolved central component. The optical spectrum shows broad emission lines. This fact, together with its low radio power and FR-I type morphology, renders J2114+820 a non-trivial object from the point of view of the current unification schemes of radio loud active galactic nuclei.

  8. Engineering broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Casey K; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    A combination of advances spanning from isolation to delivery of potent HIV-specific antibodies has begun to revolutionize understandings of antibody-mediated antiviral activity. As a result, the set of broadly neutralizing and highly protective antibodies has grown in number, diversity, potency, and breadth of viral recognition and neutralization. These antibodies are now being further enhanced by rational engineering of their anti-HIV activities and coupled to cutting edge gene delivery and strategies to optimize their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. As a result, the prospects for clinical use of HIV-specific antibodies to treat, clear, and prevent HIV infection are gaining momentum. Here we discuss the diverse methods whereby antibodies are being optimized for neutralization potency and breadth, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and effector function with the aim of revolutionizing HIV treatment and prevention options. PMID:26827912

  9. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  10. Genetically Engineered Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1998-08-01

    Resistance in tomato to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato requires Pto and Prf. Mutations that eliminate Prf show a loss of both Pto resistance and sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion, suggesting that Prf controls both phenotypes. Herein, we report that the overexpression of Prf leads to enhanced resistance to a number of normally virulent bacterial and viral pathogens and leads to increased sensitivity to fenthion. These plants express levels of salicylic acid comparable to plants induced for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and constitutively express pathogenesis related genes. These results suggest that the overexpression of Prf activates the Pto and Fen pathways in a pathogen-independent manner and leads to the activation of SAR. Transgene-induced SAR has implications for the generation of broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crop plants.

  11. Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter

  12. Correlation between degradation and broadness of the transition in CICC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2013-10-01

    Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) performance is characterized in terms of relationships involving the electric field (E), voltage (V), temperature (T), current (I), magnetic field (B) and strain. Development of the electrical field in the V-T or V-I transitions in CICCs is exponential. These transitions plotted in the coordinates log E versus T or log E versus I look like straight lines. ITER Nb3Sn CICCs show degradation of properties versus load cycles that could be attributed to plastic deformation of the Nb3Sn strands or fracture of the superconducting filaments. The degradation is expressed in terms of the reduction of the current sharing temperature Tcs or critical current Ic, respectively. It was noticed long ago that degradation is accompanied by a significant broadening of the V-T or V-I transition, that looks like a change in the slope in the semi-log coordinate plot. This paper presents some systematic observations of correlations between the critical parameters and broadness of the transition in many CICCs. In most cases, the broadness of the transition seems to be a more sensitive indicator of the conductor damage even in cases where Tcs degradation is not clearly seen. Tcs degradation typically becomes obvious later in the cycling, especially after warm-up and following cool-down and more cycling. In some cases, a CICC manifests temporary or even a permanent growth of Tcs with load cycles, especially in the latest measurements of the CS conductors with short twist pitches. A possible mechanism of degradation that allows qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is discussed and is supported by the voltage measurements on the cable in the TFUS1 sample with the voltage taps penetrating the jacket to the cable.

  13. Virilization of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei - connection between shifts and widths of broad emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Jonic, Sanja; Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the virilization of the emission lines Hbeta and Mg II in the sample of 287 Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore the connections between the intrinsic line shifts and full widths at different levels of maximal intensity. We found that: (i) Hbeta seems to be a good virial estimator of black hole masses, and an intrinsic redshift of Hbeta is dominantly caused by the gravitational effect, (ii) there is an anti-correlation between the redshift and width of the wings of the Mg II line, (iii) the broad Mg II line can be used as virial estimator only at 50% of the maximal intensity, while the widths and intrinsic shifts of the line wings can not be used for this purpose.

  14. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele; Behar, Ehud; O'Brien, Paul; Tombesi, Francesco; Turner, Tracey Jane; Costa, Michele

    2016-01-01

    High resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton RGS spectra are analyzed from the large 2013-2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of 5 observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (hereafter OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level and broad absorption line profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of $\\sigma_{\\rm v}\\sim 10,000$ km s$^{-1}$. During a period of higher flux in the 3rd and 4th observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range $\\sim 0.1-0.2c$. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. Comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 20...

  15. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation.

  16. Design of wide bandwidth pyramidal microwave absorbers using ferrite composites with broad magnetic loss spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung-Jun; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Wide bandwidth microwave absorbers with a pyramidal shape and a significantly reduced thickness can be designed using high lossy ferrite materials with broad magnetic loss spectra. The microwave absorbing properties of pyramidal cone absorbers are analyzed using the transmission line approximation, which provides the reflection loss as a function of the material parameters and absorber geometry. Three types of ferrite materials (NiZn spinel ferrite, Co2Z hexaferrite, and RuCoM hexaferrite) are used as the absorbent fillers in a rubber matrix. Among these, Co2Z ferrite is the most suitable material for wide bandwidth pyramidal absorbers, due to its broad magnetic loss spectrum in the GHz frequency range. The optimal geometry of the pyramidal absorber is also determined using the transmission line theory. With the reduced total height of the pyramidal absorber (approximately 60 mm), a wide bandwidth (1.5-18 GHz with respect to the -20 dB reflection loss) can be realized. The proposed absorbers have a thickness advantage over the classical pyramidal ohmic absorbers; thus, they are suitable for small and semi-anechoic chambers.

  17. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  18. Nocturnal Low-level Jet Evolution in a Broad Valley Observed by Dual Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Damian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of a nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ in the 40km$40\\,\\text{km}$ broad Rhine Valley near Karlsruhe is studied, in the framework of a case study, with two heterodyne detection Doppler lidars using the new scan concept of “virtual towers”. For validation of this measuring technique, we performed comparative case studies with a tethered balloon and the highly instrumented 200m$200\\,\\text{m}$ KIT tower. The findings show capabilities of the virtual tower technique for wind measurements. Virtual towers can be placed at all locations within the range of Lidar measurements. Associated with nocturnal stable stratification, the LLJ, a wind speed maximum of about 9ms-1$9\\,\\text{m}\\,\\text{s}^{-1}$, develops at 100m$100\\,\\text{m}$ to 150m$150\\,\\text{m}$ agl, but the wind does not show the typical clockwise wind direction change that is reported in many other studies. This is attributed to the channeling effect occurring in broad valleys like the Rhine Valley when the boundary layer is stably stratified. Such channeling means a significant deviation of the wind direction from the Ekman spiral so that low-altitude winds turn into valley-parallel direction.

  19. Suzaku broad band observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk 509 and Mrk 841

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Boisson, C; Costantini, E; Longinotti, A L; Matt, G; Mouchet, M; Petrucci, P O

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis and modelling of new Suzaku observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk509 and Mrk841, taken between April and November 2006, for Mrk509, and January and July 2007, for Mrk841, for a total exposure time of ~100 ks each. Data from XIS and HXD/PIN instruments, going from 0.5 to 60 keV, represent the best resolution simultaneous broad band X-ray spectrum for these objects. We fitted the broad band spectrum of both sources with a double Comptonisation model, adding a neutral reflection from distant material and a two-phase warm absorber. We then studied the two competitive models aimed to explain the soft excess with atomic processes: a blurred ionised disc reflection and an ionised absorption by a high velocity material. When fitting the data in the 3-10 keV range with a power law spectrum, and extrapolating this result to low energies, a soft excess is clearly observed below 2 keV: its strength is however weak compared to past observations of both sources. A moderate hard excess is seen at ...

  20. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a broad computational accelerator physics initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Cary; P. Spentzouris; J. Amundson; L. McInnes; M. Borland; B. Mustapha; B. Norris; P. Ostroumov; Y. Wang; W. Fischer; A. Fedotov; I. Ben-Zvi; R. Ryne; E. Esarey; C. Geddes; J. Qiang; E. Ng; S. Li; C. Ng; R. Lee; L. Merminga; H. Wang; D.L. Bruhwiler; D. Dechow; P. Mullowney; P. Messmer; C. Nieter; S. Ovtchinnikov; K. Paul; P. Stoltz; D. Wade-Stein; W.B. Mori; V. Decyk; C.K. Huang; W. Lu; M. Tzoufras; F. Tsung; M. Zhou; G.R. Werner; T. Antonsen; T. Katsouleas

    2007-06-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  1. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation, a Broad Computational Accelerator Physics Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.R.; /Tech-X, Boulder /Colorado U.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; /Fermilab; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Norris, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; /Argonne; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; /Brookhaven; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; /SLAC; Merminga, L.; /Jefferson Lab /Tech-X, Boulder /UCLA /Colorado U. /Maryland U. /Southern California U.

    2007-11-09

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  2. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. PMID:26551316

  3. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. PMID:25740888

  4. A Catalog of Broad Absorption Line Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, J R; Brinkman, J; Fan, X; Hall, P B; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Nitta, A; Reichard, T A; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Anderson, Scott F.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Nitta, Atsuko; Reichard, Timothy A.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a total of 4784 unique broad absorption line quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release. An automated algorithm was used to match a continuum to each quasar and to identify regions of flux at least 10% below the continuum over a velocity range of at least 1000 km/s in the CIV and MgII absorption regions. The model continuum was selected as the best-fit match from a set of template quasar spectra binned in luminosity, emission line width, and redshift, with the power-law spectral index and amount of dust reddening as additional free parameters. We characterize our sample through the traditional ``balnicity'' index and a revised absorption index, as well as through parameters such as the width, outflow velocity, fractional depth and number of troughs. From a sample of 16883 quasars at 1.7 \\le z \\le 4.38, we identify 4386 (26.0%) quasars with broad CIV absorption, of which 1756 (10.4%) satisfy traditional selection criteria. From a sample of 34973 quasars at 0.5 \\le z \\le 2.15, we id...

  5. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society.

  6. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J.; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas E.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists—it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or ‘moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. PMID:25740888

  7. Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaramasamy Elayaraja; Neelamegam Annamalai; Packiyam Mayavu; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin fromLactobacillus murinus against fish pathogens.Methods:AU06 isolated from marine sediments and its broad spectrum of inhibition bacteriocin. In addition, purified bacteriocin was tested for its antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens.Results:In the present study, the bacteriocin production was found to be higher at 35 °C, pH The selected strain was used in production, purification and characterized of 6.0 and was purified to 4.74 fold with 55. 38 U/mg of specific activity with the yield of 28.92%. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin was estimated as 21 kDa. The purified bacteriocin exhibited complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity when treated with proteinase K, pronase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin and papain. The purified bacteriocin exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.Conclusions:It is concluded that the ability of bacteriocin in inhibiting a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria is of potential interest for food safety and may have future applications in food preservative.

  8. ON NARROW AND BROAD P-THEME PARAGRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Pípalová, Renata

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows in principle the paragraph typology pioneered by Mathesius (1942/1982) and Daneš (1995). In this study the original paragraph types are established on a wider range of tentative criteria which include at least the relationship between the Paragraph Theme and the (FSP) themes, (i.e., the degree of in/stability of choices from the Thematic area, affecting the range of the thematic Discourse Subjects and their variability across the paragraph); the types, arrangement and hiera...

  9. Broader range of skills distinguishes successful CFOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, M F

    2000-09-01

    In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships. PMID:11066389

  10. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Noto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at

  11. Broadly tunable (440-670 nm) solid-state organic laser with disposable capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Mhibik, Oussama; Siove, Alain; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    An innovative concept of thin-film organic solid-state laser is proposed, with diffraction-limited output and a broad tuning range covering the visible spectrum under UV optical pumping. The laser beam is tunable over 230 nm, from 440 to 670 nm, with a 3 nm full width at half maximum typical spectral width. The structure consists of a compact fixed bulk optical cavity, a polymeric intracavity etalon for wavelength tuning, as well as five different disposable glass slides coated with a dye-doped polymer film, forming a very simple and low-cost gain medium. The use of interchangeable/disposable "gain capsules" is an alternative solution to photodegradation issues, since gain chips can be replaced without realignment of the cavity. The laser lifetime of a single chip in ambient conditions and without encapsulation was extrapolated to be around 107 pulses at a microjoule energy-per-pulse level.

  12. Characteristics of spatial modulation in nonlinear propagation of broad-band lasers stacked by chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the potential risks of spatial modulation of broad-band laser beams stacked by chirped pulses on the safety of optics, this paper numerically investigated the effect of temporal modulation on the generation and growth of spatial modulation during its nonlinear propagation. When there is no additional spatial modulation and the B integral is limited in the practical working range(usually less than 2.0 rad), no spatial modulation will be generated for both normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion;while with the B integral further increasing, spatial modulation will emerge with a rapid growth. When there is additional spatial modulation for anomalous dispersion, the spatial modulation with additional temporal modulation will grow more quickly than that without additional temporal modulation. However, for normal dispersion,the growth of spatial modulation for both cases is similar. (authors)

  13. Michael-type addition of azoles of broad-scale acidity to methyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Z. Walczak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimisation of Michael-type addition of azole derivatives of broad-scale acidity – ranging from 5.20 to 15.00 pKa units – namely 4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 4(5-nitroimidazole, 4,5-diphenylimidazole, 4,5-dicyanoimidazole, 2-methyl-4(5-nitroimidazole, 5(4-bromo-2-methyl-4(5-nitroimidazole and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole to methyl acrylate as an acceptor was carried out. The optimisation process involved the use of an appropriate basic catalyst (DBU, DIPEA, NaOH, NaH, TEDA, a donor/base/acceptor ratio and the reaction temperature. The reactions were performed in DMF as solvent. Target Michael adducts were obtained in medium to excellent yields. Importantly, for imidazole and 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, no corresponding regioisomers were obtained.

  14. Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to investigate possible alterations in oxygen consumption in an animal model with broad intestinal resection. Oxygen consumption and the thermal effect of a short meal were measured in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome. Four groups of rats were used. Group I was the control group, group II was sham operated, group III was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection, and group IV was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection with colon interposition. Ninety days after surgery, oxygen consumption was measured over a period of 6 h with the animals fasted overnight. The thermal effect of feeding was determined in another session of oxygen consumption measurement in animals fasted for 12 h. A 12-kcal meal was then introduced into the animal chamber and oxygen consumption was measured for a further 4 h. No differences in fasting oxygen consumption or in the thermal effect of the meal were detected among the groups studied. It is concluded that short bowel syndrome does not affect the overall energy expenditure of rats.

  15. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. PMID:26791618

  16. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, Mirko; Coil, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN/galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews the large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss re...

  17. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  18. Defining Key Features of the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Childress, Debra; Lam, Kristen; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of personality, language, and social-behavioral characteristics believed to comprise the broad autism phenotype (BAP), across families differing in genetic liability to autism. We hypothesized that within this unique sample comprised of multiple-incidence autism families (MIAF), single-incidence autism families (SIAF), and control Down syndrome families (DWNS), a graded expression would be observed for the principal characteristics conferring genetic susceptibility to autism, in which such features would express most profoundly among parents from MIAFs, less strongly among SIAFs, and least of all among comparison parents from DWNS families, who should display population base rates. Analyses detected linear expression of traits in line with hypotheses, and further suggested differential intrafamilial expression across family types. In the vast majority of MIAFs both parents displayed BAP characteristics, whereas within SIAFs, it was equally likely that one, both, or neither parent show BAP features. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to etiologic mechanisms in autism and relevance to molecular genetic studies. PMID:17948871

  19. A study of tachyon dynamics for broad classes of potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros, Israel [Division de Ciencias e Ingenieria de la Universidad de Guanajuato, AP 150, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); Gonzalez, Dania; Napoles, Yunelsy [Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); GarcIa-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria del IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: iquiros@Fisica.ugto.m, E-mail: tame@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: dgm@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: yna@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.m, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.m [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e IngenierIas, Av. Revolucion 1500 SR, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2010-11-07

    We investigate in detail the asymptotic properties of tachyon cosmology for a broad class of self-interaction potentials. The present approach relies on an appropriate re-definition of the tachyon field, which, in conjunction with a method formerly applied in the bibliography in a different context allows us to generalize the dynamical systems study of tachyon cosmology to a wider class of self-interaction potentials beyond the (inverse) square-law one. It is revealed that independent of the functional form of the potential, the matter-dominated solution and the ultra-relativistic (also matter-dominated) solution are always associated with equilibrium points in the phase space of the tachyon models. The latter is always the past attractor, while the former is a saddle critical point. For inverse power-law potentials V{proportional_to}{phi}{sup -2{lambda}} the late-time attractor is always the de Sitter solution, while for sinh-like potentials V{proportional_to}sinh {sup -{alpha}}({lambda}{sup {phi}}), depending on the region of parameter space, the late-time attractor can be either the inflationary tachyon-dominated solution or the matter-scaling (also inflationary) phase. In general, for most part of known quintessential potentials, the late-time dynamics will be associated either with de Sitter inflation, or with matter-scaling, or with scalar field-dominated solutions.

  20. Transient Broad Specular Reflections from Titan's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, Cassini observed rough patches or transient broad specular reflections on one of Titan's seas, Punga Mare. These observations were made by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The rough patches were interpreted to be waves on the surface of the hydrocarbon sea with slopes of 60 ± 10. Although long anticipated, this was an important observation since there was no detection of waves in the initial flybys of north polar lakes and seas until the northern summer approached.We have analyzed several recent VIMS flybys of Titan's north pole looking for these rough surfaces. Our observations are classified as clouds, mudflats, specular reflections, or waves based on VIMS color composites. We observe waves in at least two seas at the north pole, Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare. In addition, we also observe specular reflections from the shoreline or land, indicating the wet sidewalk effect or mudflat in other flybys. Wet sidewalk observations indicate a recent rainfall event causing diffuse specular reflection.These new observations help us understand more about the weather conditions and sea-wind interaction generating waves on the seas.

  1. Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100μm-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

  2. A Variable PV Broad Absorption Line and Quasar Outflow Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Barlow, Tom A

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift $z_e = 2.56$), aided by the first detection of PV $\\lambda\\lambda$1118,1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, PV absorption at velocities where the CIV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the CIV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size 22.3 (cm^-2). Variability in the PV and saturated CIV BALs strongly disfavors changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high-column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of ...

  3. Discovery of a fast, broad, transient outflow in NGC 985

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrero, J; Kaastra, J S; Ely, J C

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 985 on multiple occasions to search for variability in its UV and X-ray absorption features in order to establish their location and physical properties. We use XMM-Newton to obtain X-ray spectra using the EPIC-pn camera, and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain UV spectra. Our observations are simultaneous and span timescales of days to years. We find that the soft X-ray obscuration that absorbed the low energy continuum of NGC 985 in August 2013 diminished greatly by January 2015. The total X-ray column density decreased from 2.1 x 10^22 cm^-2 to ~6 x 10^21 cm^-2. We also detect broad, fast UV absorption lines in COS spectra obtained during the 2013 obscuration event. Lines of C III*, Ly alpha, Si IV and C IV with outflow velocities of -5970 km/s and a full-width at half-maximum of 1420 km/s are prominent in the 2013 spectrum, but have disappeared in all but Ly alpha in the 2015 spectra. The ionization state and the column d...

  4. Transient C IV Broad Absorption Lines in radio detected QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Vivek, M; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient (i.e. emerging or disappearing) C IV broad absorption line (BAL) components in 50 radio detected QSOs using multi-epoch spectra available in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10. We report the detectionof 6 BALQSOs having at least one distinct transient C IV absorption component. Based on the structure function analysis of optical light curves, we suggest that the transient absorption is unlikely to be triggered by continuum variations. Transient absorption components usually have low C IV equivalent widths ( 10000 \\kms) and typically occur over rest-frame timescales > 800 days. The detection rate of transient C IV absorption seen in our sample is higher than that reported in the literature. Using a control sample of QSOs, we show that this difference is most likely due to the longer monitoring time-scale of sources in our sample while the effect of small number statistics cannot be ignored. Thus, in order to establish the role played by radio jets in driving the BAL outflows, we need a larger...

  5. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitello, David J; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A; Ortega, C Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-07-14

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant-herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production.

  6. Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Mobley, Kenyon B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Sagebakken, Gry; Jones, Adam G; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-05-22

    The differential allocation hypothesis assumes that animals should weigh costs and benefits of investing into reproduction with a current mate against the expected quality of future mates, and predicts that they should invest more into reproduction when pairing with a high-quality mate. In the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males care for the embryos in a brood pouch and females compete for access to male mating partners. Both sexes prefer mating with large partners. In the present study, we show that the same female provides both large and small mating partners with eggs of similar size, weight and lipid content when mated to two males in succession. Importantly, however, eggs provided to small males (less preferred) had higher egg protein content (11% more) than those provided to large males (preferred). Thus, contrary to the differential allocation hypothesis, eggs did not contain more resources when females mated with a larger male. Instead, the pattern observed in our results is consistent with a compensatory reproductive strategy. PMID:20106851

  7. More Evidence for the Intermediate Broad Line Region of the Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2013-01-01

    In the manuscript, the properties of the proposed intermediate BLR are checked for the mapped AGN PG 0052+251. With the considerations of the apparent effects of the broad He {\\sc ii} line on the observed broad H$\\beta$ profile, the line parameters (especially the line width and the line flux) of the observed broad H$\\alpha$ and the broad H$\\beta$ are carefully determined. Based on the measured line parameters, the model with two broad components applied for each observed broad balmer line is preferred, and then confirmed by the calculated much different time lags for the inner/intermediate broad components and the corresponding virial BH masses ratio determined by the properties of the inner and the intermediate broad components. Then, the correlation between the broad line width and the broad line flux is checked for the two broad components: one clearly strong negative correlation for the inner broad component, but one positive correlation for the intermediate broad component. The different correlations fo...

  8. Plasmonic coupling with most of the transition metals: a new family of broad band and near infrared nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchon, Delphine; Lermé, Jean; Zhang, Taiping; Mosset, Alexis; Jamois, Cécile; Bonnet, Christophe; Rye, Jan-Michael; Belarouci, Ali; Broyer, Michel; Pellarin, Michel; Cottancin, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we show for the first time, both theoretically and empirically, that plasmonic coupling can be used to generate Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) in transition metal dimeric nano-antennas (NAs) over a broad spectral range (from the visible to the near infrared) and that the spectral position of the resonance can be controlled through morphological variation of the NAs (size, shape, interparticle distance). First, accurate calculations using the generalized Mie theory on spherical dimers demonstrate that we can take advantage of the plasmonic coupling to enhance LSPRs over a broad spectral range for many transition metals (Pt, Pd, Cr, Ni etc.). The LSPR remains broad for low interparticle distances and masks the various hybridized modes within the overall resonance. However, an analysis of the charge distribution on the surface of the nanoparticles reveals these modes and their respective contributions to the observed LSPR. In the case of spherical dimers, the transfer of the oscillator strengths from the ``dipolar'' mode to higher orders involves a maximum extinction cross-section for intermediate interparticle distances of a few nanometers. The emergence of the LSPR has been then experimentally illustrated with parallelepipedal NAs (monomers and dimers) made of various transition metals (Pt, Pd and Cr) and elaborated by nanolithography. Absolute extinction cross-sections have been measured with the spatial modulation spectroscopy technique over a broad spectral range (300-900 nm) for individual NAs, the morphology of which has been independently characterized by electron microscopy imaging. A clear enhancement of the LSPR has been revealed for a longitudinal excitation and plasmonic coupling has been clearly evidenced in dimers by an induced redshift and broadening of the LSPR compared to monomers. Furthermore, the LSPR has been shown to be highly sensitive to slight modifications of the interparticle distance. All the experimental

  9. Multi-epoch Spectroscopy of Dwarf Galaxies with AGN Signatures: Identifying Sources with Persistent Broad H-alpha Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E; Graur, Or; Geha, Marla; Hainline, Kevin; Carroll, Christopher M; Hickox, Ryan C

    2016-01-01

    We use time-domain optical spectroscopy to distinguish between broad emission lines powered by accreting black holes (BHs) or stellar processes (i.e., supernovae) for 16 galaxies identified as AGN candidates by Reines et al. (2013). 14 of these have star-formation--dominated narrow-line emission ratios, one is a narrow-line AGN, and the last is a star-forming--AGN composite. We find that broad H$\\alpha$ emission has faded for 11/16 targets, based on spectra taken with the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE), the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, and the Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph with baselines ranging from 5 to 14 years. The 11 faded systems all have narrow-line ratios consistent with recent star formation, suggesting the broad emission for those targets was produced by a transient stellar process. The two objects with narrow-line AGN signatures (RGG 9 and RGG 119) have persistent broad H$\\alpha$ emission consistent with previous SDSS observations. The final three star-forming objects are classified a...

  10. Leapfrog diagnostics: Demonstration of a broad spectrum pathogen identification platform in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leski Tomasz A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resource-limited tropical countries are home to numerous infectious pathogens of both human and zoonotic origin. A capability for early detection to allow rapid outbreak containment and prevent spread to non-endemic regions is severely impaired by inadequate diagnostic laboratory capacity, the absence of a “cold chain” and the lack of highly trained personnel. Building up detection capacity in these countries by direct replication of the systems existing in developed countries is not a feasible approach and instead requires “leapfrogging” to the deployment of the newest diagnostic systems that do not have the infrastructure requirements of systems used in developed countries. Methods A laboratory for molecular diagnostics of infectious agents was established in Bo, Sierra Leone with a hybrid solar/diesel/battery system to ensure stable power supply and a satellite modem to enable efficient communication. An array of room temperature stabilization and refrigeration technologies for reliable transport and storage of reagents and biological samples were also tested to ensure sustainable laboratory supplies for diagnostic assays. Results The laboratory demonstrated its operational proficiency by conducting an investigation of a suspected avian influenza outbreak at a commercial poultry farm at Bo using broad range resequencing microarrays and real time RT-PCR. The results of the investigation excluded influenza viruses as a possible cause of the outbreak and indicated a link between the outbreak and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrated that by application of a carefully selected set of technologies and sufficient personnel training, it is feasible to deploy and effectively use a broad-range infectious pathogen detection technology in a severely resource-limited setting.

  11. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmasov, Pavel; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-09-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Lyα and He II Lyα. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher-order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of the gamma-ray source. We show that when the gamma-ray source moves further from the central source, all the absorption details move to higher energies and the overall level of absorption drops because of decreasing incidence angles between the gamma-rays and BLR photons. The observed positions of the spectral breaks can be used to measure the geometry and the location of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR. Strong dependence on geometry means that the soft photons dominating the pair-production opacity may be actually produced by a different population of BLR clouds than the bulk of the observed broad line emission.

  12. Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Claire; Geh, Catherine; Williams, Victoria; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Menon, Roopika; Schneider, Petra; Al-Kadhimi, Katherine; Dymond, Michael; Smith, Neil R; Baker, Dawn; French, Tim; Smith, Paul D; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Barrett, J Carl; Kilgour, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90) were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1) in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples. PMID:26905262

  13. Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rooney

    Full Text Available FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90 were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1 in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples.

  14. Broadly speaking: vocabulary in semantic dementia shifts towards general, semantically diverse words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-06-01

    One of the cardinal features of semantic dementia (SD) is a steady reduction in expressive vocabulary. We investigated the nature of this breakdown by assessing the psycholinguistic characteristics of words produced spontaneously by SD patients during an autobiographical memory interview. Speech was analysed with respect to frequency and imageability, and a recently-developed measure called semantic diversity. This measure quantifies the degree to which a word can be used in a broad range of different linguistic contexts. We used this measure in a formal exploration of the tendency for SD patients to replace specific terms with more vague and general words, on the assumption that more specific words are used in a more constrained set of contexts. Relative to healthy controls, patients were less likely to produce low-frequency, high-imageability words, and more likely to produce highly frequent, abstract words. These changes in the lexical-semantic landscape were related to semantic diversity: the highly frequent and abstract words most prevalent in the patients' speech were also the most semantically diverse. In fact, when the speech samples of healthy controls were artificially engineered such that low semantic diversity words (e.g., garage, spanner) were replaced with broader terms (e.g., place, thing), the characteristics of their speech production came to closely resemble that of SD patients. A similar simulation in which low-frequency words were replaced was less successful in replicating the patient data. These findings indicate systematic biases in the deterioration of lexical-semantic space in SD. As conceptual knowledge degrades, speech increasingly consists of general terms that can be applied in a broad range of linguistic contexts and convey less specific information.

  15. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of macro-algae which synthesize varied amount of mycosporine amino acids, "sun-protective compounds" by shikmic acid pathway. In the present study, we have evaluated the sunscreen protection provided by Porphyra-334, a mycosporine amino acid isolated from Indian sp. of Porphyra. Furthermore, the isolated compound was detected by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet (UV, whereas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and infrared spectrometry were used for its structural characterization. Stability studies were performed under different storage and pH conditions. Ultimately a sunscreen formulation was developed and its potential against marketed Aloe vera gel was evaluated by in vitro sunscreen protection method. It was observed that sunscreen potential of Porphyra-334 was 5.11-fold greater than that of the marketed Aloe vera gel preparation.

  16. Epoxy adhesives offer broad choice for challenging applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Stevens, P

    2006-01-01

    "While they do not offer quite the same fascination as the "instant" adhesives that deliver great strenght from a single drop, exposy adhesives are now available with a remarkably wide range of material properties. As such, grades can be specified for use on almost any material type in most industries"

  17. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature--is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding "the most important target" may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the "Halifax Project" within the "Getting to know cancer" framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the

  18. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature--is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding "the most important target" may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the "Halifax Project" within the "Getting to know cancer" framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the

  19. Galactose as Broad Ligand for Multiple Tumor Imaging and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxiang; Chen, Haiyan; Su, Shanyuhan; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Congying; Fida, Guissi; Cui, Sisi; Zhao, Juan; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Galactose residues could be specifically recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) which is highly exhibited on liver tissues. However, ASGPR has not been widely investigated on different tumor cell lines except for hepatoma carcinoma cells, which motivates us to investigate the possibility of galactose serving as a board tumor ligand. In this study, a galactose (Gal)-based probe conjugated with fluorescence dye MPA (Gal-MPA) was constructed for the evaluation of tumor affinities/targeted ability on different tumor cell lines. In the vitro cell study, it was indicated that the fluorescence probe Gal-MPA displayed higher cell affinity to tumor cells (HepG2, MCF-7 and A549) than that of the normal liver cells l02. In the vivo dynamic study of Gal-MPA in tumor-bearing mice (HepG2, MCF-7, A549, HCT116, U87, MDA-MB-231 and S180), it was shown that its high tumor targeted ability with the maximal tumor/normal tissue ratio reached up to 6.8. Meanwhile, the fast tumor-targeted ability within 2 hours and long retention on tumor site up to 120 hours were observed. Our results demonstrated that galactose should be a promising broad ligand for multiple tumor imaging and targeted therapy. Subsequently, Gal was covalently conjugated to doxorubicin (DOX) to form prodrug Gal-DOX for tumor targeted therapy. The therapeutic results of Gal-DOX than DOX being better suggested that galactosylated prodrugs might have the prospective potential in tumor targeted therapy.

  20. Directed abstraction: Encouraging broad, personal generalizations following a success experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique. PMID:25984786

  1. Characteristics of doripenem: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alvarez-Lerma

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Alvarez-Lerma1, Santiago Grau2, Olivia Ferrández21Intensive Care Unit, 2Pharmacy Department, Hospital Del Mar, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Doripenem (S-4661 is a new parenteral antibiotic from the carbapenem class; similarly to imipenem and meropenem, it has a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. It is active against multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli including some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are resistant to other carbapenems. Doripenem’s chemical structure is similar to that of meropenem (substitution of one sulfamoxil-aminomethyl chain for the dimethyl-carboxyl chain, and has one 1-beta-methyl chain which provides resistance to dehydropeptidase-I enzyme. The clinical trials conducted so far have focused on the treatment of severe infections such as complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, nosocomial pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Given its activity profile and the results from the clinical trials, this antibiotic may be used for empirical treatment of multibacterial infections produced by potentially multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of doripenem for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. The European Medicines Agency has approved the use of doripenem for the same indications in addition to nosocomial pneumonia regardless of whether it is ventilator-associated or not.Keywords: doripenem, antimicrobial activity, clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tolerability

  2. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of AGN winds using Broad and mini-Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.

    2015-07-01

    BAL/mini-BALs are observed in the UV spectra of ˜ 20-30% of optically selected AGN as broad absorption troughs blueshifted by several thousands km/s, indicative of powerful nuclear winds. They could be representative of the average AGN if their winds cover only 20-30% of the continuum source, and/or represent an evolutionary state analogous to the high-soft state of BHB, when the jet emission is quenched and strong X-ray absorbing equatorial disk winds are virtually ubiquitous. High-quality, possibly time-resolved X-ray/UV studies are crucial to assess the global amount and 'character' of absorption in BAL/mini-BAL QSOs and to constrain the physical mechanism responsible for the launch and acceleration of their winds, therefore placing them in the broader context of AGN geometry and evolution. I will review here the known X-ray properties of BAL/mini-BAL QSOs, and present new results from a comprehensive X-ray spectral analysis of all the Palomar-Green BAL/mini-BAL QSOs with available XMM-Newton observations, for a total of 51 pointings of 14 different sources. These will include the most recent results from a high-quality simultaneous XMM/HST observational campaign on the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041, that unveiled with stunning details the X-ray/UV connection in action in an AGN disk wind through correlated X-ray/UV absorption variability.

  3. Anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line in the magnetospheric device RT-1

    CERN Document Server

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Nishiura, Masaki; Nogami, Tomoaki; Kashyap, Ankur; Yano, Yoshihisa; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yamasaki, Miyuri; Mushiake, Toshiki; Nakatsuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Temperature anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line was found in the ring trap 1 (RT-1) device by Doppler spectroscopy. Since hot hydrogen neutrals emitting a broad component are mainly produced by charge exchange between neutrals and protons, the anisotropy in the broad component is the evidence of proton temperature anisotropy generated by betatron acceleration.

  4. Cobalt catalyzed hydroesterification of a wide range of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, H.; Hanton, M.; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Petrochemical raw materials are an essential raw material for the production of detergents with a substantial portion of synthetic fatty alcohols being produced via hydroformylation of oil or coal derived olefins. Carbonylation processes other than hydroformylation have to date not been commercially employed for the production of fatty esters or alcohols. In this document we highlight the opportunities of converting olefins to esters using cobalt catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation. This process is highly versatile and applicable to a wide range of olefins, linear or branched, alpha or internal in combination with virtually any chain length primary or secondary alcohol allowing the synthesis of a diverse array of compounds such as ester ethoxylated surfactants, methyl branched detergents, lubricants and alkyl propanoates. Furthermore, alkoxycarbonylation of a broad olefin/paraffin hydrocarbon range could be used to produce the corresponding broad cut detergent alcohols. (orig.)

  5. Eddington ratio Distribution of X-ray selected broad-line AGNs at 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Hyewon; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range 1.0broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find that a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z~2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the "AGN cosmic downsizing" phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the co-moving number density at the b...

  6. Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang B.; Mikkelsen, Maiken H.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of electrical tuning of plasmon resonances of optical nanopatch antennas over a wide wavelength range. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes separated from a gold film by a thin 8 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer. By using ionic liquid and indium tin oxide coated glass as a top electrode, we demonstrate dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmon resonance over 100 nm in the visible wavelength range using low applied voltages between -3.0 V and 2.8 V. The electrical potential is applied across the nanoscale gap causing changes in the gap thickness and dielectric environment which, in turn, modifies the plasmon resonance. The observed tuning range is greater than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the plasmon resonance, resulting in a tuning figure of merit of 1.05 and a tuning contrast greater than 50%. Our results provide an avenue to create active and reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic components for applications in optoelectronics and sensing.

  7. Subsampling in Smoothed Range Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jeff M.; Zheng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider smoothed versions of geometric range spaces, so an element of the ground set (e.g. a point) can be contained in a range with a non-binary value in $[0,1]$. Similar notions have been considered for kernels; we extend them to more general types of ranges. We then consider approximations of these range spaces through $\\varepsilon $-nets and $\\varepsilon $-samples (aka $\\varepsilon$-approximations). We characterize when size bounds for $\\varepsilon $-samples on kernels can be extended...

  8. Detecting Topological Defect Dark Matter Using Coherent Laser Ranging System

    OpenAIRE

    Wanpeng Yang; Jianxiao Leng; Shuangyou Zhang; Jianye Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, optical frequency combs with high intensity, broad optical bandwidth, and directly traceable discrete wavelengths have triggered rapid developments in distance metrology. However, optical frequency combs to date have been limited to determine the absolute distance to an object (such as satellite missions). We propose a scheme for the detection of topological defect dark matter using a coherent laser ranging system composed of dual-combs and an optical clock via nongra...

  9. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  10. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Numerous low temperature thermochronology studies have defined regional cooling episodes which imply removal of several km of section over areas of several 104 km2. The origin of such events has long been the subject of debate, while their reality has sometimes been questioned because of the lack of a viable mechanism. Kilometre-scale denudation at rifted margins has traditionally been interpreted as related to rifting and breakup, magnified by the flexural response to denudation of the uplifted rift flanks. But it is now clear that at many margins the post-breakup history is more complex, with km-scale uplift and erosion commonly post-dating breakup by 10s of Myr and often affecting regions many 100s of kilometres inland of the margins (Green et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2014). Numerous examples around the world of km-scale exhumation affecting regions distant from continental margins, including cratonic regions traditionally regarded as stable over Phanerozoic time (e.g. Ault et al., 2009; Flowers & Kelley, 2011), cannot be explained by margin-related mechanisms. It has also become clear that periods of exhumation are separated by episodes of burial, defining a series of positive and negative vertical movements. Previous studies have defined a broad synchroneity of Early, Middle and Late Cenozoic exhumation events in regions from Alaska to Greenland, Norway and Svalbard (Green and Duddy, 2010). New results from SE Australia define a series of exhumation episodes ranging in time from Carboniferous to Cenozoic which are broadly synchronous with similar events previously defined in Brazil and South Africa (Green et al. 2013). While estimates of the timing of exhumation in different areas are subject to some uncertainty, data across three southern hemisphere continents show a broad synchronicity in similar fashion to the northern hemisphere examples cited above. Dynamic topography has been invoked as a possible mechanism for producing uplift, the effects of which

  11. Studies on broad spectrum corrosion resistant oxide coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Someswar Datta

    2001-12-01

    The corrosion resistant oxide coatings, developed and applied by the conventional vitreous enamelling techniques, showed superior resistance to a range of mineral acids at various strengths and temperatures, alkaline solutions, boiling water and chrome plating solutions. These coatings possess considerable abrasion and impact resistance as well as high thermal shock resistance. The properties of the coating system have been studied in detail and found to be strongly dependent on composition and processing parameters. These coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM studies. Some of the coating materials have been found to be biocompatible.

  12. FungiQuant: A broad-coverage fungal quantitative real-time PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cindy M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal load quantification is a critical component of fungal community analyses. Limitation of current approaches for quantifying the fungal component in the human microbiome suggests the need for new broad-coverage techniques. Methods We analyzed 2,085 18S rRNA gene sequences from the SILVA database for assay design. We generated and quantified plasmid standards using a qPCR-based approach. We evaluated assay coverage against 4,968 sequences and performed assay validation following the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines. Results We designed FungiQuant, a TaqMan® qPCR assay targeting a 351 bp region in the fungal 18S rRNA gene. Our in silico analysis showed that FungiQuant is a perfect sequence match to 90.0% of the 2,617 fungal species analyzed. We showed that FungiQuant’s is 100% sensitive and its amplification efficiencies ranged from 76.3% to 114.5%, with r2-values of >0.99 against the 69 fungal species tested. Additionally, FungiQuant inter- and intra-run coefficients of variance ranged from Conclusions FungiQuant has comprehensive coverage against diverse fungi and is a robust quantification and detection tool for delineating between true fungal detection and non-target human DNA.

  13. Myxozoan infections of caecilians demonstrate broad host specificity and indicate a link with human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Holzer, Astrid S; Okamura, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans are parasitic cnidarians that infect a wide variety of hosts. Vertebrates typically serve as intermediate hosts whereas definitive hosts are invertebrates, including annelids and bryozoans. Myxozoans are known to exploit species in two of the three extant amphibian orders (Anura: frogs and toads; Caudata: newts and salamanders). Here we use museum collections to determine, to our knowledge for the first time, whether myxozoans also exploit the third amphibian order (Gymnophiona: caecilians). Caecilians are a poorly known group of limbless amphibians, the ecologies of which range from aquatic to fully terrestrial. We examined 12 caecilian species in seven families (148 individuals total) characterised by a diversity of ecologies and life histories. Using morphological and molecular surveys, we discovered the presence of the myxozoan Cystodiscus axonis in two South American species (one of seven examined families) of aquatic caecilians - Typhlonectes natans and Typhlonectes compressicauda. All infected caecilians had been maintained in captivity in the United Kingdom prior to their preservation. Cystodiscus axonis is known from several Australian frog species and its presence in caecilians indicates a capacity for infecting highly divergent amphibian hosts. This first known report of myxozoan infections in caecilians provides evidence of a broad geographic and host range. However, the source of these infections remains unknown and could be related to exposure in South America, the U.K. or to conditions in captivity. PMID:26945641

  14. Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-25

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  15. [Molecular identification and sequence analysis of broad bean wilt virus 2 isolates from atractylodes macrocephala Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanbing; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ximei; Zhao, Huiqi; Zhao, Baojia

    2015-01-01

    To identity the pathogen that causes the mosaic and yellowing symptoms on Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz in Jiangxian, Shanxi province, biological inoculation, sequence-independent amplification (SIA),RT-PCR and other identification methods were used. The results showed that the chlorotic and necrosis symptoms occurred in the indicator plant Chenopodium quinoa after it was infected with the pathogen,and the same symptoms appeared after the reinoculation of healthy Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; this reflected that the disease was likely to be caused by a virus. The results of SIA and sequencing showed that Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) was present in severely mosaic Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz leaves. To further characterize the BBWV2 isolate from Atractylodes macrocephala (BBWV2-Am), the polyprotein partial gene encoded by BBWV2-Am RNA2 was cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed that the nucleotide sequence identity of BBWV2-Am SCP and LCP genes ranged from 79.3% to 87.2% and from 80.1% to 89.2% compared to other BBWV2 strains,respectively; the deduced amino acid sequence similarities of the two gene products ranged from 91.2% to 95.7% and from 89.44 to 95.5%, respectively,compared to those of other BBWV2 strains. Phylogenetic comparisons showed that BBWV2-Am was most likely to be related to BBWV2-Rg,but formed an independent branch. This is the first report of BBWV2 in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. PMID:25997332

  16. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  17. A Catalog of Broad Absorption Line Quasars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Robert R; Brandt, W N; Hall, Patrick B; Shen, Yue; Wu, Jianfeng; Anderson, Scott F; Schneider, Donald P; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Gallagher, S C; Fan, Xiaohui; York, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5039 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars (QSOs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5) QSO catalog that have absorption troughs covering a continuous velocity range >= 2000 km/s. We have fit ultraviolet (UV) continua and line emission in each case, enabling us to report common diagnostics of BAL strengths and velocities in the range -25,000 to 0 km/s for SiIV $\\lambda$1400, CIV $\\lambda$1549, AlIII $\\lambda$1857, and MgII $\\lambda$2799. We calculate these diagnostics using the spectrum listed in the DR5 QSO catalog, and also for spectra from additional SDSS observing epochs when available. In cases where BAL QSOs have been observed with Chandra or XMM-Newton, we report the X-ray monochromatic luminosities of these sources. We confirm and extend previous findings that BAL QSOs are more strongly reddened in the rest-frame UV than non-BAL QSOs and that BAL QSOs are relatively X-ray weak compared to non-BAL QSOs. The observed BAL fraction is dependent on the spectral s...

  18. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  19. Measurement of broad absorption features using a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm -1range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 2-4.5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm -1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  20. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly$\\alpha$ and HeII Ly$\\alpha$. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher-order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of ...

  1. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiac bypass surgery in infants with broad band spatially resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soschinski, Jan; Ben Mine, Lofti; Geraskin, Dmitri; Bennink, Gerardus; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Neurological impairments following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) during open heart surgery can result from microembolism and ischaemia. Here we present results from monitoring cerebral haemodynamics during CPB with near infrared spatially resolved broadband spectroscopy. In particular, the study has the objective (a) to monitor oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations (oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb) and their changes as well as oxygen saturation during CPB surgery and (b) to develop and test algorithms for the calculation of these parameters from broad band spectroscopy. For this purpose a detection system was developed based on an especially designed lens imaging spectrograph with optimised sensitivity of recorded reflectance spectra for wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm. The high f/#-number of 1:1.2 of the system results in about a factor of 10 higher light throughput combined with a lower astigmatism and crosstalk between channels when compared with a commercial mirror spectrometers (f/# = 1:4). For both hemispheres two independent channels each with three source-detector distances (ρ = 25 . 35 mm) were used resulting in six spectra. The broad band approach allows to investigate the influence of the wavelength range on the calculated haemoglobin concentrations and their changes and oxygen saturation when the attenuation A(λ) and its slope ΔA(λ)/Δρ are evaluated. Furthermore, the different depth sensitivities of these measurement parameters are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations and exploited for an optimization of the cerebral signals. It is demonstrated that the system does record cerebral oxygenation parameters during CPB in infants. In particular, the correlation of haemoglobin concentrations with blood supply (flow, pressure) by the heart-lung machine and the significant decreases in oxygen saturation during cardiac arrest is discussed.

  2. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  3. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans. PMID:26963515

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  5. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - a broad-scale national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Stæhr, Peter Anton;

    2007-01-01

    Most studies documenting the importance of alien macroalgae relative to native species are based on smaller-scale sampling programmes. Between 1989 and 2003, a Danish monitoring programme collected data on the percentage cover of macroalgae at more than 600 locations throughout the country. We...... examined this data set to estimate the relative abundance of alien species in the algal flora on large spatiotemporal scales, i.e. across depth ranges, regions and years. Of the 10 alien macroalgal species known to inhabit Danish coastal waters, nine were found in the survey. Most of the alien species were...... only present in low quantities (alien species, Sargassum muticum and Bonnemaisonia hamifera, constituted 2-7% of the assemblages, depending on depth, region and year. Sargassum muticum was abundant from 0 to 5 m in the northwestern region...

  6. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  7. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  8. ß-defensin-2 in breast milk displays a broad antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Baricelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of ß-defensin-2 produced in the mammary gland and secreted in human breast milk. METHODS: The peptide production was performed by DNA cloning. ß-defensin-2 levels were quantified in 61 colostrum samples and 39 mature milk samples from healthy donors, by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using halo inhibition assay, this study assessed activity against seven clinical isolates from diarrheal feces of children between 0 and 2 years of age. The activity of ß-defensin-2 against three opportunistic pathogens that can cause nosocomial infections was determined by microdilution test. RESULTS: The peptide levels were higher in colostrum (n = 61 than in mature milk samples (n = 39, as follows: median and range, 8.52 (2.6-16.3 µg/ml versus 0.97 (0.22-3.78, p < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test. The recombinant peptide obtained showed high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria. Its antibacterial activity was demonstrated in a disk containing between 1-4 µg, which produced inhibition zones ranging from 18 to 30 mm against three isolates of Salmonella spp. and four of E. coli. ß-defensin-2 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL for S. marcescen and P. aeruginosa, respectively, while a higher MIC (4 µg/mL was obtained against an isolated of multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report ß-defensin-2 levels in Latin American women. The production and the activity of ß-defensin-2 in breast milk prove its importance as a defense molecule for intestinal health in pediatric patients.

  9. Long Range Planning for Higher Education. Studies in the Future of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    This report examines current trends in long range planning for colleges and universities and projects the broad outlines of American higher education of 1980. Chapters cover evaluation of coordination and long range planning; the structure of state-wide planning and coordination; master plans for higher education; voluntary coordination and long…

  10. A normal paediatric amylase range.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Taylor, F.(Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America)

    1980-01-01

    A normal paediatric range of plasma alpha-amylase activity was determined using the Phadebas blue starch method. The range for children over one year was 98--405 IU/l. Plasma amylase activity increased throughout infancy. Mature levels of activity were observed in some children by age 2 months and in most of them by 9 months.

  11. PN ranging/telemetry transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    System can transmit range-indicating pseudonoise (PN) codes and simultaneously transmit auxiliary information as binary data at a rate at least on order of pseudonoise chipping rate. PN code is modulated by data stream with relatively low bit rate. Data stream with high bit rate can be transmitted in same frequency band as PN ranging code.

  12. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  13. Learning from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: prospects for more broadly effective influenza vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ethan C. Settembre; Philip R. Dormitzer; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic. This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.%@@ Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic.This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies.Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.

  14. Identification of Ebsulfur Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Huy X; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-07-19

    Invasive fungal infections are on the rise due to an increased population of critically ill patients as a result of HIV infections, chemotherapies, and organ transplantations. Current antifungal drugs are helpful, but are insufficient in addressing the problem of drug-resistant fungal infections. Thus, there is a growing need for novel antimycotics that are safe and effective. The ebselen scaffold has been evaluated in clinical trials and has been shown to be safe in humans. This makes ebselen an attractive scaffold for facile translation from bench to bedside. We recently reported a library of ebselen-inspired ebsulfur analogues with antibacterial properties, but their antifungal activity has not been characterized. In this study, we repurposed ebselen, ebsulfur, and 32 additional ebsulfur analogues as antifungal agents by evaluating their antifungal activity against a panel of 13 clinically relevant fungal strains. The effect of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by three of these compounds was evaluated. Their hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities were also determined using mouse erythrocytes and mammalian cells. The MIC values of these compounds were found to be in the range of 0.02-12.5 μg mL(-1) against the fungal strains tested. Notably, yeast cells treated with our compounds showed an accumulation of ROS, which may further contribute to the growth-inhibitory effect against fungi. This study provides new lead compounds for the development of antimycotic agents. PMID:27334363

  15. Silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixtepan-Turrent Liliana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advance in nanotechnology has enabled us to utilize particles in the size of the nanoscale. This has created new therapeutic horizons, and in the case of silver, the currently available data only reveals the surface of the potential benefits and the wide range of applications. Interactions between viral biomolecules and silver nanoparticles suggest that the use of nanosystems may contribute importantly for the enhancement of current prevention of infection and antiviral therapies. Recently, it has been suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs bind with external membrane of lipid enveloped virus to prevent the infection. Nevertheless, the interaction of AgNPs with viruses is a largely unexplored field. AgNPs has been studied particularly on HIV where it was demonstrated the mechanism of antiviral action of the nanoparticles as well as the inhibition the transmission of HIV-1 infection in human cervix organ culture. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the biocidal mechanisms of action of silver Nanoparticles.

  16. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  17. Range free Localization Mechanism using Beacon node Range Level

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Sirothia; Rakesh Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for finding the position of sensor node is crucialfor many sensor network applications. Most sensor networkswhich can tolerate coarse accuracy look range free localizationmechanism as its solution. We have proposed a novel algorithmwhere beacon nodes are randomly distributed and sensor nodesestimates the beacon nodes at different levels according tosignal strength. We determine the location of sensor nodes byusing this information. We assume the communication range ofsensor and ...

  18. The RSC Chromatin Remodeling Complex Bears an Essential Fungal-Specific Protein Module With Broad Functional Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Boris; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Bradley R Cairns

    2006-01-01

    RSC is an essential and abundant ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we show that the RSC components Rsc7/Npl6 and Rsc14/Ldb7 interact physically and/or functionally with Rsc3, Rsc30, and Htl1 to form a module important for a broad range of RSC functions. A strain lacking Rsc7 fails to properly assemble RSC, which confers sensitivity to temperature and to agents that cause DNA damage, microtubule depolymerization, or cell wall stress (likely via tran...

  19. Millisecond solar radio bursts in the metric wavelength range

    CERN Document Server

    Magdalenić, J; Zlobec, P; Vršnak, B; 10.1063/1.2347982

    2010-01-01

    A study and classification of super-short structures (SSSs) recorded during metric type IV bursts is presented. The most important property of SSSs is their duration, at half power ranging from 4-50 ms, what is up to 10 times shorter than spikes at corresponding frequencies. The solar origin of the SSSs is confirmed by one-to-one correspondence between spectral recordings of Artemis-IV1 and high time resolution single frequency measurements of the TSRS2. We have divided the SSSs in the following categories: 1. Broad-Band SSSs: They were partitioned in two subcategories, the SSS-Pulses and Drifting SSSs; 2. Narrow-band: They appear either as Spike-Like SSSs or as Patch-Like SSSs; 3. Complex SSS: They consist of the absorption-emission segments and were morphologically subdivided into Rain-drop Bursts (narrow-band emission head and a broad-band absorption tail) and Blinkers.

  20. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  1. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  2. The dynamic range of LZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in multi-tonne time-projection chambers, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined to accommodate the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines

  3. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  4. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung-Gil; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Guo, Xugang; Song, Charles; Jin, Hosub; Chen, Zhihua; Yoon, Seok Min; Freeman, Arthur J; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-06-30

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor-inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactive materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance.

  5. Mode-size converter with high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-10-24

    An ultralow coupling loss and broad bandwidth fiber-to-waveguide mode-size converter is demonstrated for nano-scale waveguides on SOI platform using CMOS technology in this paper. The mode-size converter consists of a cantilevered PECVD SiO(2) waveguide and a-Si nano-tapers by removing the adjacent SiO(2) layer and underlying substrate Si. The a-Si waveguide is located at the center of the cantilevered SiO(2) waveguide. We characterized the cantilevered mode-size converter using cleaved optical single mode fiber with 10.5 µm mode field diameter. With refractive index (1.375) matching oil, the measured coupling efficiencies between the cleaved optical fiber and this converter are higher than 80% per facet and 70% per facet for TE and TM modes at 1600 nm, respectively. The polarization dependent loss and the coupling loss variation of this converter are less than 1.0 dB at the wavelength range of 1520~1640 nm. The 1-dB bandwidths for both TE and TM modes are more than 120 nm. The alignment tolerances for TE and TM modes are ± 2.8 µm and ± 2.1 µm at 1-dB excess loss in horizontal direction and vertical direction, respectively. PMID:22109007

  6. Spectrum of broad resonances in anti pp → π-π+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amplitude analysis has been made of data on anti p p → π-π+ imposing crossing symmetry, and analyticity as a function of energy. The technique was to generate solutions for the invariant amplitudes along a sequence of hyperbolas in st space specified by a parameter 'a'. (These curves form a generalisation of that considered in backward dispersion relations.) The partial wave amplitudes, obtained by projection, thus only emerge at the end of the analysis, and consequently their energy dependence is not prejudged. On individual 'a-sections' more than one solution is obtained. However, as yet, only one acceptable family of solutions continuous in 'a' has been generated. For this solution the partial wave amplitudes exhibit smooth yet structured energy dependencies in which clear resonance signals may be discerned: firstly, states with J = 0, 1, 2 and 3, with well -defined masses in the range 2.1 to 2.3 GeV, and widths about 200 MeV; additional broad states with J = 0, 2 and 4, having masses around 2.43 GeV and widths about 400 MeV; and finally, a possible state with J = 5 at a mass of about 2.4 GeV, but whose width is poorly defined. Alternative solutions are being sought. (author)

  7. The Compact Structure of Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y; Wang, T G; Xie, F G

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN VLBI polarization observations of 8 Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including 4 LoBALs and 4 HiBALs with either steep or flat spectra on VLA scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than three hundred parsecs. In all cases the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 percent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2*10^9-5*10^10 K), suggest a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio orphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL QSOs nor between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider...

  8. The compact structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Wang, T. G.; Xie, F. G.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) polarization observations of eight broad absorption line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including four low-ionization BAL quasars (LoBALs) and four high-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs) with either steep or flat spectra on Very Large Array (VLA) scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than 300 pc. In all cases, the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 per cent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2 × 109 to 5 × 1010K), suggests a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio morphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably a young population of radio sources that are compact steep spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analogues at the low end of radio power.

  9. [Optimization of broad-band flat-field holographic concave grating without astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Li, Wen-hao; Cui, Jin-jiang

    2012-02-01

    The desirable imaging locations of the flat-field holographic concave gratings should be in a plane. And the object can be imaged perfectly by the grating when the tangential focal curve and sagittal focal curve both superpose the intersection of the image plane and dispersion plane. But actually, the defocus can not be eliminated over the entire wavelength range, while the astigmatism vanishes when the grating parameters satisfy some conditions. An optimization method for broad-band flat-field holographic concave gratings with absolute astigmatism correction was proposed. The ray tracing software ZEMAX was used for investigating the imaging properties of the grating. And we made a comparison between spectral performance of gratings designed by this new method and that by conventional method, respectively. The results indicated that the spectral performance of gratings designed by using the absolute astigmatism correction method can be as good as gratings designed with the conventional method. And the focusing performance in the sagittal direction is much better, so that the S/N ratio can be greatly improved.

  10. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250-450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl- negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Coaxially electrospun fiber-based microbicides facilitate broadly tunable release of maraviroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Cameron; Chou, Shih-Feng; Jiang, Yonghou; Woodrow, Kim A

    2016-06-01

    Electrospun fibers show potential as a topical delivery system for vaginal microbicides. Previous reports have demonstrated delivery of anti-HIV and anti-STI (sexually transmitted infection) agents from fibers formulated using hydrophilic, hydrophobic, or pH-responsive polymers that result in rapid, prolonged, or stimuli-responsive release, respectively. However, coaxial electrospun fibers have yet to be evaluated as a highly tunable microbicide delivery vehicle. In this research, we explored the opportunities and limitations of a model coaxial electrospun fiber system to provide broad and tunable release rates for the HIV entry inhibitor maraviroc. Specifically, we prepared ethyl cellulose (EC)-shell and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-core fibers that were capable of releasing actives over a range of hours to several days. We further demonstrated simple and effective methods for combining core-shell fibers with rapid-release formulations to provide combined instantaneous and sustained maraviroc release. In addition, we investigated the effect of varying release media on maraviroc release from core-shell fibers, and found that release was strongly influenced by media surface tension and drug ionization. Finally, in vitro cell culture studies show that our fiber formulations were not cytotoxic and that electrospun maraviroc maintained similar antiviral activity compared to neat maraviroc. PMID:27040202

  12. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  13. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypothesis, crude lysates of different organs of Naja naja karachiensis (black cobra) were tested for antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were tested against selected bacterial pathogens (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumonia), protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii), and filamentous fungus (Fusarium solani). The findings revealed that plasma and various organ extracts of N. n. karachiensis exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli K1, MRSA, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, A. castellanii, and F. solani in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of this study are promising for the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:24625321

  14. Recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III stimulates broad immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jen; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Yu; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Chen, I-Hua; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2016-02-17

    The linkage of an immunogen with a toll-like receptor ligand has great potential to induce highly potent immune responses with the initial features of antigen-presenting cell activation. In the current study, we expressed recombinant dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (D3ED III) in lipidated form using an Escherichia coli-based system. The recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (LD3ED III) augments the expression levels of IL-12 family cytokines. LD3ED III-immunized mice enhance wide ranges of T cell responses as indicated by IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-21 production. Additionally, LD3ED III-immunized mice increase the frequencies of anti-D3ED III antibody producing cells. The boosted antibody titers cover various IgG isotypes, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3. Importantly, LD3ED III-immunized mice induce neutralizing antibody capacity associated with a reduction of viremia levels after challenges. In contrast, mice that are immunized with D3ED III formulated with aluminum phosphate (D3ED III/Alum) only enhance Th2 responses and boost IgG1 antibody titers. Neither neutralizing antibody responses nor the inhibition of viremia levels after challenge is observed in mice that are immunized with D3ED III/Alum. These results suggest that LD3ED III can induce broad profiles of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  15. Classifying Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Metrics, Issues and a New Catalogue Constructed from SDSS DR5

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Knigge, C; Goad, M R

    2009-01-01

    We apply a recently developed method for classifying broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) to the latest QSO catalogue constructed from Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new hybrid classification scheme combines the power of simple metrics, supervised neural networks and visual inspection. In our view the resulting BALQSO catalogue is both more complete and more robust than all previous BALQSO catalogues, containing 3552 sources selected from a parent sample of 28,421 QSOs in the redshift range 1.7

  16. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Hamann, F; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0.3$. Assuming a chemical evolution time scale of $\\tau_{evol} \\simeq 0.5 - 0.8$ Gyrs, we derive a redshift of $z_f \\simeq 6 {\\rm to} 8$ for the onset of the first major star formation episode (H$_o = 65$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_M = 0.3$, $\\Omega_\\Lambda = 0.7$), corresponding to an age of the universe of several $10^8$ yrs at this epoch. We note that this epoch is also supposed to be the era of re-ionization of the universe...

  17. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  18. Restarting radio activity and dust emission in radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Brienza, M; González-Serrano, J I

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) are objects showing absorption from relativistic outflows, with velocities up to 0.2c. These manifest, in about 15% of quasars, as absorption troughs on the blue side of UV emission lines, such as C iv and Mg ii. In this work, we complement the information collected in the cm band for our previously presented sample of radio loud BAL QSOs with new observations at m and mm bands. Our aim is to verify the presence of old, extended radio components in the MHz range, and probe the emission of dust (linked to star formation) in the mm domain. We observed 5 sources from our sample, already presenting hints of low-frequency emission, with the GMRT at 235 and 610 MHz. Other 17 sources (more than half the sample) were observed with bolometer cameras at IRAM-30m and APEX. All sources observed with the GMRT present extended emission at a scale of tens of kpc. In some cases these measurements allow us to identify a second component in the SED, at frequencies below 1.4 GHz, beyond ...

  19. Bloated stars as agn broad line clouds the emission line spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Tal Alexander; Hagai Netzer

    1994-01-01

    The `Bloated Stars Scenario' proposes that AGN broad line emission originates in the winds or envelopes of bloated stars (BS). Its main advantage over BLR cloud models is the gravitational confinement of the gas and its major difficulty the large estimated number of BSs and resulting high mass loss rate. We calculate the emission line spectrum by a detailed numerical photoionization code for a wide range of wind structures and a detailed QSO nucleus model with L(ion)=7E45 erg/s, M(bh)=8E7 Mo. The size and boundary density of the BS wind are determined by various processes: Comptonization by the central continuum source, calculated self consistently, tidal disruption by the black hole and the limit set by the wind's finite mass. We find that the emission spectrum is mainly determined by the conditions at the boundary of the line emitting fraction of the wind rather than by its internal structure. Comptonization results in very high ionization parameters at the boundary which produces an excess of unobserved br...

  20. Simulation of broad spectral bandwidth emitters at 1060 nm for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, I. G.; Childs, D. T. D.; Stevens, B. J.; Groom, K. M.; Hogg, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    The simulation of broad spectral bandwidth light sources (semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and superluminescent diodes (SLD)) for application in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography is reported. The device requirements and origin of key device parameters are outlined, and a range of single and double InGaAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) active elements are simulated with a view to application in different OCT embodiments. We confirm that utilising higher order optical transitions is beneficial for single QW SOAs, but may introduce deleterious spectral modulation in SLDs. We show how an addition QW may be introduced to eliminate this spectral modulation, but that this results in a reduction of the gain spectrum width. We go on to explore double QW structures where the roles of the two QWs are reversed, with the narrow QW providing long wavelength emission and gain. We show how this modification in the density of states results in a significant increase in gain-spectrum width for a given current.

  1. The Tully-Fisher Relation and Its Residuals for a Broadly Selected Sample of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pizagno, J; Weinberg, D H; Rix, H W; Pogge, R W; Grebel, E K; Harbeck, D; Blanton, M; Brinkmann, J; Gunn, J E; Pizagno, James; Prada, Francisco; Weinberg, David H.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pogge, Richard W.; Grebel, Eva K.; Harbeck, Daniel; Blanton, Michael; Gunn, James E.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the relation between galaxy luminosity and disk circular velocity (the Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), in the g, r, i, and z-bands, for a broadly selected sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with the goal of providing well defined observational constraints for theoretical models of galaxy formation. The input sample of 234 galaxies has a roughly flat distribution of absolute magnitudes in the range -18.5 > Mr > -22, and our only morphological selection is an axis-ratio cut b/a < 0.6 to allow accurate inclination corrections. Long-slit spectroscopy yields usable H-alpha rotation curves for 170 galaxies. Observational errors, including distance errors due to peculiar velocities, are small compared to the intrinsic scatter of the TF relation. The slope of the forward TF relation steepens from -5.4 +/- 0.2 mag/log(km/s) in the g-band to -6.4 +/- 0.2 mag/log(km/s) in the z-band. The intrinsic scatter is approximately 0.4 mag in all bands. The scatter is not dominated by rare outliers o...

  2. Locally Optimally-Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-01-01

    [abridged] We test the ``locally optimally-emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic data base of the Seyfert~1, NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an {\\em ad~hoc} selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission line light curves for the 1989 {\\em IUE} and 1993 {\\em HST} campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags --- a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those pre...

  3. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function. PMID:25898606

  4. L-carnitine esters as "soft", broad-spectrum antimicrobial amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, M; Critelli, L; Gallo, G; Giorgi, F; Gramiccioli, G; Santaniello, M; Scafetta, N; Tinti, M O; De Angelis, F

    1998-06-18

    A new class of antimicrobial, "soft", quaternary ammonium l-carnitine esters, of the type (CH3)3N+-CH2-CHOCO(R1)-CH2-COO(R2) Cl-, has been designed, with R1 and R2 being in general long-chain alkyl substituents. The series shows good activity against a wide range of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Lipophilicity has been measured by RP-HPLC method to give the logarithm of the experimental capacity factor (log k'), and a quantitative relationship has been determined between log k' and the theoretical partition coefficient (CLOGP); also, bond-dipole descriptors have been introduced into calculations by accounting for polar moieties present within the apolar cores of the molecules, giving a more refined calculated capacity factor (log k'calcd). Finally the latter has been related to the antimicrobial activity (MIC values). The proposed models are predictive for the best broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound within the series. PMID:9632355

  5. Broad-beam three-dimensional irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy at HIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Futami, Y; Fujita, M; Tomura, H; Higashi, A; Matsufuji, N; Miyahara, N; Endo, M; Kawachi, K

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional irradiation system using a broad beam has been installed for heavy-ion cancer therapy at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility. Only the target region is irradiated at the 100% dose level; the dose level at other parts of irradiated tissues is less, using a range shifter, a multileaf collimator and a compensator. The devices are the same as those used in two-dimensional irradiation, except that the setting values of the devices can be dynamically changed during the treatment. The thickness of the absorber and the aperture of the multileaf collimator are dynamically controlled during irradiation, so that the Bragg peak is swept in the depth direction and the Bragg peak outside of the target volume is blocked by the multileaf collimator. The performance of this system was checked by irradiation of a phantom using a 290 MeV/nucleon carbon beam. The dose distribution realized by this three-dimensional irradiation agreed satisfactorily with the planned one.

  6. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  7. Endovascular Broad-Neck Aneurysm Creation in a Porcine Model Using a Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms require prompt treatment by either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Training for these sophisticated endovascular procedures is essential and ideally performed in animals before their use in humans. Simulators and established animal models have shown drawbacks with respect to degree of reality, size of the animal model and aneurysm, or time and effort needed for aneurysm creation. We therefore aimed to establish a realistic and readily available aneurysm model. Five anticoagulated domestic pigs underwent endovascular intervention through right femoral access. A total of 12 broad-neck aneurysms were created in the carotid, subclavian, and renal arteries using the Amplatzer vascular plug. With dedicated vessel selection, cubic, tubular, and side-branch aneurysms could be created. Three of the 12 implanted occluders, two of them implanted over a side branch of the main vessel, did not induce complete vessel occlusion. However, all aneurysms remained free of intraluminal thrombus formation and were available for embolization training during a surveillance period of 6 h. Two aneurysms underwent successful exemplary treatment: one was stent-assisted, and one was performed with conventional endovascular coil embolization. The new porcine aneurysm model proved to be a straightforward approach that offers a wide range of training and scientific applications that might help further improve endovascular coil embolization therapy in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

  8. MoS2-InGaZnO Heterojunction Phototransistors with Broad Spectral Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaehyun; Kwak, Hyena; Lee, Youngbin; Kang, Yu-Seon; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor consisting of solution-based synthetic molybdenum disulfide (few-layered MoS2, with a band gap of ∼1.7 eV) and sputter-deposited a-IGZO (with a band gap of ∼3.0 eV) films as a novel sensing element with a broad spectral responsivity. The MoS2 and a-IGZO films serve as a visible light-absorbing layer and a high mobility channel layer, respectively. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that appropriate band alignment at the heterojunction provides effective transfer of the visible light-induced electrons generated in the few-layered MoS2 film to the underlying a-IGZO channel layer with a high carrier mobility. The photoresponse characteristics of the a-IGZO transistor are extended to cover most of the visible range by forming a heterojunction phototransistor that harnesses a visible light responding MoS2 film with a small band gap prepared through a large-area synthetic route. The MoS2-IGZO heterojunction phototransistors exhibit a photoresponsivity of approximately 1.7 A/W at a wavelength of 520 nm (an optical power of 1 μW) with excellent time-dependent photoresponse dynamics. PMID:26989951

  9. A low-temperature external cavity diode laser for broad wavelength tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, William G; Hutzler, Nicholas R; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64{\\deg}C, more than 85{\\deg}C below the ambient temperature. The laser system integrates temperature and diffraction grating feedback tunability for coarse and fine wavelength adjustments, respectively. For two different diode models, single-mode operation was achieved with 38 mW output power at 616.8 nm and 69 mW at 622.6 nm, more than 15 nm below their ambient temperature free-running wavelengths. The ECDL design can be used for diodes of any available wavelength, allowing individual diodes to be tuned continuously over tens of nanometers ...

  10. Kinematics and structure of clumps in broad-line regions in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayuri, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We use the Jeans equations for an ensemble of collisionless particles to describe the distribution of broad-line region (BLR) cloud in three classes: (A) non-disc (B) disc-wind (C) pure disc structure. We propose that clumpy structures in the brightest quasars belong to class A, fainter quasars and brighter Seyferts belong to class B, and dimmer Seyfert galaxies and all low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) belong to class C. We derive the virial factor, f, for disc-like structures and find a negative correlation between the inclination angle, θ0, and f. We find similar behaviour for f as a function of the FWHM and σz, the z component of velocity dispersion. For different values of θ0 we find that 1.0 ≲ f ≲ 9.0 in type1 AGNs and 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 1.0 in type2 AGNs. Moreover we have 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 6.5 for different values of FWHM and 1.4 ≲ f ≲ 1.8 for different values of σz. We also find that f is relatively insensitive to the variations of bolometric luminosity and column density of each cloud and the range of variation of f is in order of 0.01. Considering wide range of f we see the use of average virial factor is not very safe. Therefore we propose AGN community to divide a sample into a few subsamples based on the value of θ0 and FWHM of members and calculate for each group separately to reduce uncertainty in black hole mass estimation.

  11. Harvesting Broad Frequency Band Blue Energy by a Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Zi, Yunlong; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jianan; Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Ocean wave associated energy is huge, but it has little use toward world energy. Although such blue energy is capable of meeting all of our energy needs, there is no effective way to harvest it due to its low frequency and irregular amplitude, which may restrict the application of traditional power generators. In this work, we report a hybrid nanogenerator that consists of a spiral-interdigitated-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) and a wrap-around electromagnetic generator (W-EMG) for harvesting ocean energy. In this design, the S-TENG can be fully isolated from the external environment through packaging and indirectly driven by the noncontact attractive forces between pairs of magnets, and W-EMG can be easily hybridized. Notably, the hybrid nanogenerator could generate electricity under either rotation mode or fluctuation mode to collect energy in ocean tide, current, and wave energy due to the unique structural design. In addition, the characteristics and advantages of outputs indicate that the S-TENG is irreplaceable for harvesting low rotation speeds (energy, which fits the frequency range for most of the water wave based blue energy, while W-EMG is able to produce larger output at high frequencies (>10 Hz). The complementary output can be maximized and hybridized for harvesting energy in a broad frequency range. Finally, a single hybrid nanogenerator unit was demonstrated to harvest blue energy as a practical power source to drive several LEDs under different simulated water wave conditions. We also proposed a blue energy harvesting system floating on the ocean surface that could simultaneously harvest wind, solar, and wave energy. The proposed hybrid nanogenerator renders an effective and sustainable progress in practical applications of the hybrid nanogenerator toward harvesting water wave energy offered by nature. PMID:27267558

  12. Broadly tunable OPGaAs OPO pumped by Cr:ZnSe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rita D.; Cook, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Coherent sources that are broadly and continuously tunable in the mid- and longwave infrared are of interest for a variety of scientific, commercial, and military applications. The advantages in an OPO of quasi-phasematched materials like orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) come at the cost of the angle tuning possible in birefringent nonlinear crystals. Temperature tuning is limited by the material's dn/dT value, and lacks speed and stability. A better alternative is to tune the OPO by tuning the pump laser. Here we report an OPGaAs OPO pumped by a gain-switched Cr:ZnSe laser which was continuously tuned by an intracavity etalon. The etalon also narrowed the output linewidth to around 4 nm. The Cr:ZnSe laser operated at a repetition rate of 500 Hz with a 45 ns pulsewidth. The pump was focused to a spot size (1/e2) of 100 μm at the center of a simple linear resonator formed by two 5-cm ROC mirrors. The OPGaAs crystal was 14 mm long, with a period of 97 μm, and was mounted with no active cooling. Tuning the pump laser over a range of 90 nm (2385-2475 nm) produced OPO output over a range of almost 4.5 μm (3500-7450 nm). OPO tuning was ultimately limited by coatings on the crystals and the resonator mirrors, as the Cr:ZnSe laser is capable of much broader tuning as a pump source. A maximum slope efficiency of 21% was obtained, with a pulse energy threshold of 84 μJ.

  13. Dynamic Range Size Analysis of Territorial Animals: An Optimality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Börger, Luca; Hastings, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Home range sizes of territorial animals are often observed to vary periodically in response to seasonal changes in foraging opportunities. Here we develop the first mechanistic model focused on the temporal dynamics of home range expansion and contraction in territorial animals. We demonstrate how simple movement principles can lead to a rich suite of range size dynamics, by balancing foraging activity with defensive requirements and incorporating optimal behavioral rules into mechanistic home range analysis. Our heuristic model predicts three general temporal patterns that have been observed in empirical studies across multiple taxa. First, a positive correlation between age and territory quality promotes shrinking home ranges over an individual's lifetime, with maximal range size variability shortly before the adult stage. Second, poor sensory information, low population density, and large resource heterogeneity may all independently facilitate range size instability. Finally, aggregation behavior toward forage-rich areas helps produce divergent home range responses between individuals from different age classes. This model has broad applications for addressing important unknowns in animal space use, with potential applications also in conservation and health management strategies. PMID:27622879

  14. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  15. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  16. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North...

  17. Development of a freshwater lens in the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, Laurien; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2003-01-01

    The Mesozoic Broad Fourteens Basin is a northwest-southeast trending structural element, situated in the southern North-Sea,Netherlands offshore. Biodegraded and water-washed oils in the southern Broad Fourteens Basin indicate topography-driven meteoric water flow during Late Cretaceous inversion. D

  18. 78 FR 38311 - Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy... Intervene On June 18, 2013, Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates (transferors) and Aquenergy Systems, Inc. (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Cherokee...

  19. Sex Differences and Within-Family Associations in the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a strong sex bias in the presentation of autism, it is unknown whether this bias is also present in subclinical manifestations of autism among relatives, or the broad autism phenotype. This study examined this question and investigated patterns of co-occurrence of broad autism phenotype traits within families of individuals with…

  20. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt.html... outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals for broadly applicable... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...