WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad anthropological perspective

  1. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Verkaaik

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buil

  2. What is Mathematics? Perspectives inspired by anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    The paper discusses the question “what is mathematics” from a point of view inspired by anthropology. In this perspective, the character of mathematical thinking and argument is strongly affected – almost essentially determined, indeed – by the dynamics of the specific social, mostly professional...

  3. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001) has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  4. An Anthropological Perspective: Another Dimension to Modern Dental Wear Concepts

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    John A. Kaidonis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, research on tooth wear by dental academics has been diametrically opposite to that of anthropological research, with each discipline having a different understanding as to the nature of the wear processes. Dental focus revolved around preventive and restorative considerations while the anthropological focus was a biological understanding related to human evolution, diet, environment, form, and function and included all the craniofacial structures. Introducing the anthropological perspective into modern dentistry gives an insight into the “bigger picture” of the nature and extent of tooth wear. By combining anthropological evidence with clinical knowledge and experience, it is most likely to provide the best-informed and biologically based approach to the management of tooth wear in modern societies.

  5. Minority Education: Anthropological Perspectives. Social and Policy Issues in Education: The University of Cincinnati Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Evelyn, Ed.; Jordan, Cathie, Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of current anthropological thinking on the education of minority students, bringing the perspectives of educational anthropology to bear on understanding minority education and resolving its inequities. At the core of the book are some papers from an invited session of the American Anthropological Association in…

  6. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: an anthropological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, I; Greenwald, C; Rothschild, B M; Latimer, B; Dutour, O; Jellema, L M; Wish-Baratz, S

    1999-07-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is manifested by the accretion of bone on the inner table of the frontal bone. Despite the vast literature on HFI, ambiguity exists as to its etiology, osteogenesis, demography, and history. This stimulated the present broad-scale study of HFI which included the evaluation of 1,706 early 20th century skulls (1,007 males and 699 females) from the Hamann-Todd and Terry human osteological collections, as well as 2,019 pre-19th century East-Mediterranean, Amerindian, and Central European skulls. In addition, 72 cadavers were dissected for gross inspection and histology. Special attention was paid to the relationship of the brain and meninges to endocranial lesions. HFI is an independent condition, not a symptom of a more generalized syndrome as suggested in the past. It can appear in a variety of forms but each is the result of the same process and probably of the same etiology. Investigators' previous failure to recognize the mild stages of HFI (types A and B) as an early form of the general HFI process led to erroneous statistics and interpretations of observations. HFI should also be considered a phenomenon separate from HCI, hyperostosis cranialis diffusa (HCD), and other endostoses, even when it appears in association with them. To avoid ambiguity and facilitate the description of cranial hyperostoses, uniform nomenclature (HFI, HCD) has been recommended. HFI is rarely seen in historic populations, regardless of geographical origin. It is most commonly found among females and is believed to be associated with prolonged estrogen stimulation. While its magnitude of manifestation and frequency are much higher in females, HFI is not a purely female phenomenon. Males with hormonal disturbances such as atrophic testis were found to manifest HFI type D. HFI is associated with age insofar as it is much less frequent in females under 40 years of age. Although advanced cases of HFI (types C and D) have been observed in individuals as

  7. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors.

  8. Deaf Epistemologies as a Critique and Alternative to the Practice of Science: An Anthropological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Goedele A. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, and responding to the criticism of orientalism, anthropology has engaged in a self-critical practice, working toward a postcolonial perspective on science and an epistemological stance of partial and situated knowledge (Pinxten, 2006; Pinxten & Note, 2005). In deaf studies, anthropological and sociological studies employing…

  9. The Anthropological Perspective on Disaster and the Key Concept of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanna Hoffman; Chen Mei; Peng Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Like Professor Anthony Oliver -Smith, I wish to speak to the theories and analyses of disaster from an anthropological perspective. While Professor Oliver -Smith's paper covers the history of the anthropological concern, the ecologi-cal paradigm, reconstruction, and other positions, the intent of mine is to zero in on what anthropolo-gists consider the foremost factor in the creation, the unfolding, prevention and mitigation of disas-ter, and that is culture.

  10. Recent Trend and Perspectives in Forensic Anthropology: A Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Fonti, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates research in Forensic Anthropology (FA) in order to report on the state of this field of science. In particular, we carried out a review of all PubMed-listed scientific studies in the past decades using »forensic anthropology « as the keyword. In our »meta-analysis«, we observed variation in the number of publications per 2-year interval throughout the study period. In total, 1589 studies were found in the database and 1292 of them were published in the period 2000–2009...

  11. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  12. Anthropological perspectives on democratic citizenship education and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Cervinkova, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The author draws on recent North American scholarship in the anthropology of education to show emerging trends in research on school-based democratic citizenship education. She gives examples of research, both at the level of national policies and individual schools, which addresses ways in which global and local infl uences interact in the creation and implementation of programs on democratic citizenship.

  13. [Urban culture and mental health: an anthropological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrès, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    This article is an anthropological reflection on the trans-cultural issues specific to large urban centers. The author questions how can a person develop and create an identity in this context. He then examines how proximity and isolation relative to urban settings contribute to the mental health of urban populations. Finally, he examines how characteristics of city life conditions assistance to people with mental disorders in urban settings.

  14. The Sanctity of human life. A perspective from New Testament anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C. van Zyl

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sanctity of life issues such as abortion, euthanasia, treatment of the disabled, war, and capital punishment. These matters are not treated individually but collectively from the perspective of New Testament anthropology. Having taken care of a few methodological considerations, the main focus falls on a discussion of man as sinner, man in Christ, and the category of the least.

  15. Death in the Vision of Doctors. An Anthropological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona DAMIAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research fits a cultural anthropology context, pursuing, at this level, the identification of particular views on death, as reported by doctors from various specialties. The current research took into consideration the meaning of death from the point of view of such doctors, without worrying that the way in which death is regarded will reflect upon the medical practice itself. This topic may be the object of further research. The research was conducted through means of a constructive methodology, using the semi-structured individual interview as the main technique, the questions being asked in an non-specific order. The data interpretation was realized through the successive induction method, correlated with the explorative generative character of the research. The chosen methodology implies a systematic generation process with regard to concepts and theories based on the collected data. The role of data management theory in the research is emphasized in order to provide ways of conceptualizing explanations and descriptions. Respondents usually have a spiritual orientation and don’t accept the idea of death as an ending. The continuity of life after death gives sense to the entire existence and the idea of moral life. The human dimension of medical practice makes the respondents adhere to the need for humanizing existence through the guarantee of a post-existence dimension. Classification-JEL: A23, I18

  16. Space and Anthropology of Limit: A Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirni, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    In no other living species does technology (or more precisely the need for technological development) play such an important role as it does in the human species. Almost every animal species is able to implement “techniques” in order to improve its living conditions, that is to produce tools or structures capable of enhancing its ability to procure food and defend itself. No animal, however, to the same extent as the human being, seems unable to do without the constant innovation of its own capacities and their outcomes. This is a constant factor, which unequivocally connotes our being human. It is a constant that we can say is expression of an essentially dual nature: fear of inadequacy, on the one hand, anxiety for perfection, on the other. This rationale remains surely a matter of fact regarding the “traditional” or “common” condition of the man, understood as a being living on the Earth with a specific biological structure. However, any possible understanding of the same issue requires new efforts if and as far we try to maintain it open in a totally different context: “the space”, namely, a not-specific place outside Earth in which the man is trying to give shape to a new path of its own surviving (§ 1). Here rises what we would like to call the "anthropology of limit". In order to grasp a provisional content for such expression, we must proceed “analytically”, first, by reconsidering briefly the two conceptual sides implied in that expression, namely “What is a man?” and “What do we mean with limit?” (§ 2). Secondly, we should try to reconsider the twofold results under a “synthetical” or comprehensive point of view, trying to gather a common area of questioning that opens up if and as far we shift and reconsider both conceptual sides of that expression within the “space-context” (§ 3).

  17. Ubuntu and the body: A perspective from theological anthropology as embodied sensing

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    Jacob J.S. Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author asks whether the notion of ubuntu truly exists within contemporary South African society and how the experiencing of South Africans� embodiment can be connected to ubuntu � especially amongst black people. The notion of ubuntu is briefly explored within law and theology. The author has recently proposed a model for a contemporary theological anthropology as �embodied sensing� which functions within the intimate relationship of the lived body, experiencing in a concrete life-world, language, and the �more than�. It is from this perspective that the notion of ubuntu is explored.

  18. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  19. Anthropology and the humanization of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Ben R.

    Because of its broad evolutionary perspective, and its focus on both technology and culture, anthropology offers a unique perspective on why we are going into space and what leaving Earth will mean for humanity. In addition, anthropology could help in the humanization of space through: (1) overcoming socio-cultural barriers to working and living in space; (2) designing societies appropriate for permanent space settlement; (3) promoting understanding among differentiated branches of humankind scattered through space; (4) deciphering the cultural systems of any extraterrestrial civilizations contacted.

  20. Some issues of shaping thanatology as a discipline: Ethnological and anthropological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of death studies, choice of topics and aspects of their interpretations were influenced by many factors, both global and local. The former were related to universal processes of medicalization, bureaucratization and professionalization of death and dying, as well as to processes of general secularization of society and culture. The latter were connected with specific and dominant local social and cultural praxes, politics and academic traditions. In this paper we will point out specificities of death studies development in different academic communities. We will also open the question and offer some answers on disciplinary identity of thanatology and, at the end, we will consider possibilities and needs for introducing the discipline in curriculum at different education levels. The aim of the paper is to settle preliminary frames for future investigation; the emphasis is placed on ethnological and anthropological perspective and on English and Serbian language bibliography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028

  1. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate.

  2. Psychological Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module traces the history of psychological anthropology, introducing various schools and perspectives within the field of psychology. First, a discussion is provided of biological determinism, examining its historical development and the…

  3. Cultural Models of Domestic Violence: Perspectives of Social Work and Anthropology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cyleste C.; Dressler, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a unique theoretical approach and a series of participant-based ethnographic interviewing techniques that are traditionally used in cognitive anthropology to examine and compare social work and anthropology students' cultural models of the causes of domestic violence. The study findings indicate that although social work…

  4. TAWA IN MINANGKABAU TRADITIONAL THERAPY IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ANTHROPOLOGIC LINGUISTICS STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajri Usman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research on Tawa in Minangkabau Traditional Therapy: in the Perspective ofAnthropologic Linguistics is a research that is focused on the study of linguistic forms,functions of meaning, and the values contained in it. Qualitative approach was employedin this study. Such an approach was based on the naturalistic and interpretative paradigmwith the principles that the data were natural and interpretative in nature. To investigatethe linguistic forms, the functions, the meaning and the values, the methods employedwere “listen, get involved and talk” (simak libat cakap = SLC, “listen, not get involvedand talk” (simak bebas libat cakap = SBLC and “talk face to face” (cakap semuka =CS. That was done by recording and taking down the narrative of tawa uttered by thedukun (healer. In order to obtain such a narration, the method of talk not face to face(cakap tak semuka = CTS, which was done by seeking for information from theinformants, was employed.The results of the thematic and schematic structure analysis show that the themeof TPTM (Tawa dalam Pengobatan Traditional Minangkabau = Tawa in MinangkabauTraditional Therapy is related to the history of invisible creatures, the history of humanbeings, the history of animals, the history of plants, and the history of diseases. Theschematic structure of TPTM consists of introduction, content and closing. The linguistic(phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic forms of TPTM are related tothe use of the prosodic elements (stress, intonation and length. The morphologicalaspects of repetitions in TPTM are found in the beginning, in the beginning and centre, inthe end, and in the beginning and end of the sentences. The verbs in TPTM can be stateverbs and action verbs to which affixes are added, without and with the markers(conjunction and preposition. In syntactical level, the sentence structure in TPTM is notgenerally the same as that in Minangfkabau language. Statements, imperatives

  5. Ontology and anthropology of interanimality: Merleau-Ponty from Tim ingold's perspective

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    Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Tim Ingold’s anthropological theory following his references to Merleau-Ponty and the concept of interanimality/interagentivity. It poses some ideas of Ingold’s “poetics of dwelling”, which he highlights from ethnographies of hunter-gatherer peoples, and how these ideas are linked to an ontological consideration which does not dissociate body and person, body and mind, nature and culture, animality and humanity. The paper reviews animal literature in Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy, and Ingold’s critique of “Anthropology of the senses”. It also gives critical clues for the ethical and political implications of this ontology.

  6. The Inventiveness of a tradition : Structural anthropology in the Netherlands from an outsider’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Leiden structural anthropology achieved international renown through the work of J. P. B. and P. E. de Josselin de Jong and their colleagues and students. In the 1980s, especially after the retirement of P E. de Josselin de Jong in 1988, it grew quiet around this school. This article investigates th

  7. Social housing, multi-ethnic environments and the training of social educators: combined anthropological and educational perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Virgilio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents part of a broader project that explores the role played by informal citizenship learning in social housing urban environments (SHe and the related educational challenges for social educators, NGO practitioners and also researchers. In this article, in particular, I focus on issues related with social educators’ and NGO practitioners’ professional training. The aim of the paper, in this perspective, is to offer some introductory theoretical and methodological remarks for the training of NGO practitioners working in SHe. The basis for this reflection is the idea of informal learning (Schugurensky, 2000, the concepts of learning for reflexive citizenship and learning for active citizenship (Johnston, 2005 and anthropology of citizenship (Ong, 1999, 2003. In the research process, we have intersected instruments and methodologies coming from the different fields of anthropology and educational sciences. Our hypothesis consists in considering the possibility that exploring the professional field of social educators in SHe with an ethnographic approach could contribute to improve reflexive attitudes of social educators and shape their educational attitudes.

  8. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Järpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  9. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Design anthropology is a call for a different way of involving anthropology and participatory observation within practices of designing technologies, services, policies and infrastructure that does not aim towards changing human behavior. Here design is considered the process and not the object...... of inquiry. The paper presents a short history of design anthropology, its theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Theoretically, the emerging field is influenced by processual, critical and action orientated approaches in anthropology. I argue that by combining anthropological methodology and knowledge...... with the future orientated imaginative praxis of design skill and collaborative design processes, anthropology and design could learn from each other. I conclude by referring to what theories, methods, and approaches are in use by practitioners of design anthropology....

  10. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  11. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  12. Applied anthropology in Colombia. Perspectives and purposes on the basis of an experience in childhood and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Duque-Páramo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a notion of applied anthropology incorporating both a critical analysis of cultural diversity and intervention and policy formulation, which help to solve the problems communities we work with face. In order to do this, at a first time we revise several concepts and purposes on applied anthropology in the North American and Colombian contexts. Then, an experience on migrations and childhood is reported, including research, intervention and networking. Finally, a third moment articulates the elements discussed in a final reflection on the relationship between theory and practice in the field of applied anthropology

  13. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume provides an introduction to the emerging field of design anthropology from the point of view of anthropologists engaging in its development. Contributors include young anthropologists with experience in the field and leading theoreticians, who combine to articulate the specific...... style of knowing involved in doing design anthropology. So far design anthropology has been developed mostly in the practice of industry and the public sector, in particular in Scandinavia and the US, and the sustained academic reflection to support this practice is still in its early stages. This book...... will contribute to this theoretical reflection and provide a reference for practitioners, teachers and students of anthropology, as well as design and innovation....

  14. Second nature: on Gramsci's anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to convey the relevance of a Gramscian perspective in medical anthropology, stressing his anti-essentialist way of reasoning about 'nature'. The author claims that Gramsci's understandings of the bodily life of the state can deconstruct naturalized realities in ways that are helpful for the ethnographer engaged in the political anthropology of embodiment and the management of health, persons, and life itself. The paper is presented in three parts. An attempt is made, first, to frame the relevance of Gramsci for Italian medical anthropology and second, to explore the components of the Gramscian concept of 'second nature' within the perspective that he himself calls 'an anthropology'. Third, an example is given of how the proposed Gramscian insights could inform an ethnography on the biopolitical aspects for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently being carried out in Perugia.

  15. Applied anthropology in Colombia. Perspectives and purposes on the basis of an experience in childhood and migrations

    OpenAIRE

    María Claudia Duque-Páramo

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward a notion of applied anthropology incorporating both a critical analysis of cultural diversity and intervention and policy formulation, which help to solve the problems communities we work with face. In order to do this, at a first time we revise several concepts and purposes on applied anthropology in the North American and Colombian contexts. Then, an experience on migrations and childhood is reported, including research, intervention and networking. Finally, a thir...

  16. Looking at public spaces in contemporary Rome: an anthropological perspective on the study of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Postiglione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the diverse ways in which their different practices are seen and tolerated, the aim of this paper is to reflect on public spaces. Observing how city users practice public spaces, and analysing the way in which these practices are considered, are particularly exciting perspectives that can offer an interesting vision of the spatial and social reality of the city and of hegemonic relations which govern it.

  17. 人类学视野中的高校基层工会工作%College grassroots trade union work from the perspective of anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳佳; 谭一红; 李步军

    2014-01-01

    Trade union is an organization which deals with people every day .Since researching human is the mission of anthropology , trade union should learn from anthropology .Because of differences,grassroots trade union organizations in colleges and universities should understand the characteristics of human nature and practice humanity in order to perform its functional and bridge -linking roles. Humanity means to acknowledge ,respect and serve for differences .The case restates the importance of humanity from the perspectives of anthropology.%人类学的任务是研究人,工会是与人打交道的组织,工会工作要得到人类学的指导。由于差异性问题,高校基层工会开展工作时应当明白人性的特点,践行人性化,切实发挥工会的职能作用和桥梁纽带作用。人性化即承认差异,尊重差异,服务差异。结合实际案例重申人类学视野中人性化的重要性。

  18. Business Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay outlines the overall scope and location of business anthropology within the overall field of the discipline. It outlines its foundations as an applied form of anthropology in early developments in the United States (in particular, in Western Electric's Hawthorne Project and the Human...... Relations School at Harvard University), as well as in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, before turning to five areas of research and practice: academic ethnographies of business practices, regional studies, case studies developed by practitioners, theoretical applications, and methods. The essay then asks...... what a future program for business anthropology might look like and suggests four areas for theoretical development against a background of education, engagement, and comparative work. These are an examination of structures of power in, between, and dependent on business organizations of all kinds...

  19. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  20. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....

  1. Water as Life, Death, and Power: Building an Integrated Interdisciplinary Course Combining Perspectives from Anthropology, Biology, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willermet, Cathy; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power", brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  2. Perspectives in Business Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on extensive fieldwork in a wide range of creative industries to argue that creativity itself is under-theorized, and should be considered as both enabled and inhibited by numerous constraints guiding the choices made by creative personnel during the course of their work. Six sets...

  3. Medical anthropology as an antidote for ethnocentrism in Jesus research? Putting the illness–disease distinction into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicine often has side-effects or unintended consequences that are more harmful than the original disease. Medical anthropology in general and the illness–disease distinction in particular has been introduced into historical Jesus research with the intent to protect it from medicocentrism and thus to offer ways of comprehending sickness and healing in the world of Jesus and his first followers without distorting these phenomena by imposing the biomedical framework onto the texts. In particular the illness–disease distinction is used for making sense of healing accounts whilst claiming to cross the cultural gap. Based on an analysis of the illness–disease distinction in medical anthropology and its use in historical Jesus research this article suggests that instead of protecting from ethnocentrism this distinction actually increases the risk of ethnocentrism and consequently distorts in many instances the healing accounts of the New Testament.

  4. Interpreting Hani Manggu Dance from the Perspective of Artistic Anthropology%哈尼族铓鼓舞的艺术人类学阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology of art is an interdisciplinary academic field of vision, and a kind of human culture and methodology of the human race. The author attempt to take Manggu dance as breakthrough point, by using methods and perspective of anthropology of art research, and putting Hani folk art and its existence in human ecological environment, the natural ecological environment, in an attempt to construct a field of Hani culture and explore Hani Manggu inspiration behind the profound historical and cultural connotation.%艺术人类学是一种认识人类文化和人类的方法论。文章企图以铓鼓舞为切入点,运用艺术人类学的方法和视角进行研究,将这门哈尼族民间艺术置于其存在和发生的人文生态环境、自然生态环境下,企图构建哈尼族文化的一种场域,窥探哈尼族铓鼓舞背后深邃的历史文化内涵。

  5. [Narratives in the study of mental health care practices: contributions of the perspectives of Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin and of medical anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Palombini, Analice de Lima; Leal, Erotildes; de Serpa, Octavio Domont; Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Ferrer, Ana Luiza; Diaz, Alberto Giovanello; Xavier, Maria Angélica Zamora

    2013-10-01

    Narratives are ever more frequent in qualitative studies seeking to interpret experiences and the different viewpoints of individuals in a given context. Starting from this concept, the tradition that addresses narrative is reexamined, including the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, the historical perspective of Walter Benjamin and the field of medical anthropology grounded in phenomenology. In Ricoeur, with hermeneutics as a variation derived from phenomenology, narrative is linked to temporality. In Benjamin, narrative comprised of bits and pieces, always inconclusive, emerges in spite of the official stories. If Ricoeur retrieves tradition from Gadamer as a fundamental component for the construction of the world of a text that makes imitation of life possible, Benjamin, faced with the collapse of tradition, suggests the invention of narrative forms outside the traditional canons, making it possible to hark to the past in order to change the present. Assumptions of medical anthropology are also presented, as they consider narrative a dimension of life and not its abstraction, namely an embodied and situated narrative. Lastly, three distinct research projects in mental health that use narrative linked to the theoretical concepts cited with their differences and similarities are presented.

  6. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  7. The Interpretation of Lahu Gourd Culture From the Perspective of Anthropology%从人类学视角解读拉祜族葫芦文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云燕

    2012-01-01

    拉祜族有着丰富的葫芦文化,试从现有的拉祜族史诗中的葫芦神话出发,从人类学的视角来解读拉祜族源远流长的原始葫芦文化在拉祜族的生殖文化、农耕文化和宇宙哲学方面的内涵和意义。%Since the Lahu nationality has rich gourd culture,the paper tries to interpret the meaning and significance of primitive gourd culture with a long history in reproductive,farming and the universe philosophy from an anthropological perspective based on the existing gourd myth of Lahu nationality.

  8. Why all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as an invitation to think in ambitious terms about what techno- anthropology might be(come). The main contribution of the chapter is to introduce Bruno Latour and John Dewey as techno-anthropologists. While these two thinkers are known for many other engagements, and wrote in different times, they share...... turn to Dewey’s understanding of technology as inquiry, a concept that deliberately ignores the physical/psychological dichotomy. The chapter concludes with a couple of empirical examples of how the pragmatist perspective might guide techno-anthropological analysis....

  9. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  10. INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenuddin Hudi Prasojo; Reviewed by: Aspari Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Anthropology is the study of mankind (anthropos). Etymologically, anthropology comes from the word anthropos meaning man and logos meaning knowledge. Anthropology looks at humans as something complex in terms of physical, emotional, social, and cultural complexity. Anthropology also refers to the science of humans and their culture.

  11. 文化人类学视野下的周作人%The Perspective of Cultural Anthropology Zhou Zuoren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖晓春

    2011-01-01

    “五四”新文化运动从实质上说是一场“人的解放”运动,正是出于这一精神的要求,周作人对西方文化人类学充满了浓厚的兴趣.并以此为中心构建了他独特的知识体系。他对中国国民性的富于穿透力的认知在很大程度上取决于他所受到的文化人类学的学科滋养,正是文化人类学使周作人突破了中国传统文化中的“家族本位主义”,跟整个20世纪的“人”的觉醒与解放运动完成了精神呼应,它同时也垫高了周作人对中国文化和中国国民性的观照视点,使他在中国现代文化史和文学史上占有非常重要的位置。%"May 4th' new culture movement from essentially is a "people's" liberation movement, it is out of the spiritual requirements, Zhou zuo-ren on western culture anthropology is full of interest. And for this center constructs his unique knowledge system. His nationality of China in the cognitive penetrating abound depends largely on him by the cultural anthropology discipline and nourishing. It is the cultural anthropology that traditional Chinese culture Zhou zuo-ren breakthrough the "family selfish departmentalism" with the entire 20th century, the "people's" awakening and liberation movement finished spirit appeal, it also mat high Zhou zuoren on Chinese culture and Chinese nationality made his point of view, a witness in modem Chinese history and literature history of occupied a very important position.

  12. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  13. Anthropologi Untuk Fakultas Kedokteran

    OpenAIRE

    T. Jacob, T. Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of and justification for teaching anthropology in the medical school. It delineates the aspects and orientation of anthropology for the medical profession by distinguishing and explaining anthropology of medicine, anthropology in medicine and an• thropological medicine. Subsequently, a bioculturai account of the contents of those three subjects pertinent to medicine are presented, with special consideration on anthropology as basic, background knowledge in...

  14. PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The rise of anthropology in Portugal is examined within the framework of several cycles of development. The chapter discusses how the consolidation of anthropology at university level was the main focus until the 90’s. Applied anthropology, as distinctive from academic anthropology received very little attention. Consequently, there was an absence of an institutionalization of applied anthropology in the country. Nowadays, however, two main trends converge that supports the gro...

  15. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  16. Teaching anthropology in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrese, J A; Marshall, P A

    2000-05-01

    Practicing medicine well requires recognizing the breadth of human experience and attending to the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of patients as well as their physical needs. Central to the concerns of anthropology are the shared beliefs and values expressed in social practices and traditions that give meaning to everyday life. The relevance of anthropology for biomedical practice and research is grounded in the discipline's emphasis on contextual meaning and its unique strategies for data gathering. In this article, we briefly review the field of anthropology and the discipline of medical anthropology. We argue for incorporating anthropological concepts and methods in medical training, and summarize anthropology's role in medical education over the past century. Finally, we present ideas for including anthropology in the medical curriculum, proposing curricular goals and content, and teaching settings and techniques. An anthropological orientation can foster trainee self-awareness, help trainees prepare for the diverse perspectives they will encounter in our pluralistic society, and facilitate critical analysis of biomedicine and its systems of care.

  17. How to Present Anthropological Disaster Research-Review on Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan; LAN Jie

    2013-01-01

    fieldwork together with theories from academic thinking .Using the format of “ethnography”, the book gives very practical answers to these questions .It reflects on the au-thor ’ s efforts involving these discussions and knowledge with practical experience in the re-search, and has highly theoretical ambitions as well as pays deep realistic attention to the defini-tion of disaster and the research orientation of an-thropology in disaster research .Li’ s anthropolog-ical disaster research pays attention to the holistic interaction of the ecological surroundings , social structure , cultural conception and historical process .It investigates systematically the associa-tive processes regarding the causes and prevention measures of actual disasters; rescue and coping measures in disasters , and post -disaster recon-struction and restoration .At the same time , the book is also a theoretical practice of ecology , poli-tics, economics, and cultural perspective of an-thropology from the angle of research .It could be said that what the ethnography of Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters tries to present is the three basic features and academic requirements in anthropological study on disasters .These are:a holistic view;a discussion of process , and a com-prehensive analysis . Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters by Li Yongxiang , no matter if viewed from the methodology or from the theoretical aspect , reflects a mature trend of anthropology in disaster research .As the first chapter of the book emphasizes , the formation marker of the theory re-lated to anthropological disaster research lies in in-tegrating disasters with society , culture, politics, power, and economics, and, as a result, making disasters as a part of social culture .Hence , an-thropological disaster research aims to investigate comprehensively peoples ’ life experiences , and to reflect on human being ’ s living environment , so-cial structure, values, concepts, and

  18. 人类学视野中的地域武术文化研究%Regional Wushu Culture Studies:A Perspective of Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振勇

    2016-01-01

    Taking anthropology as a perspective, this paper aims to explore regional Wushu culture studies including its research methods and perspectives, practical operation and application, cultural construction and its signifi-cance. The author proposes that the holistic view of anthropological ethnography can help redefine culture and this culture should be the logical starting point of regional Wushu culture studies;The“logic in fields” and the“fields in logic” illustrate that the learning of“local knowledge” and the interpretation of“the other” cultures are the practical basis of regional Wushu culture studies; Overcoming the regional and national boundaries to seek the universal principles of human culture and its meaning system is the ultimate goal of regional Wushu culture studies;Exploring the meaning of human practice through culture studies and highlighting cultural re-construction are the orientation of regional Wushu culture studies. On this basis, this paper puts forward that re-gional Wushu studies in the future should pay more attention to the microcosmic field investigation and case a-nalysis so as to promote the integration of Wuhsu skills and cultural studies on the academic level, and deepen the anthropological ethnographic insights into Wushu studies. These will provide theoretical enlightenments and practical guidance for conducting regional Wushu culture studies in a comprehensive way.%文章以人类学为视角,对地域武术文化在研究方法与视角、实践操作与运用、文化建构与意义等几个方面进行了探索与思考。认为人类学民族志的整体观让我们重新思考何为文化,以及逐步理解“文化”应成为地域武术文化研究的逻辑起点;“田野中的逻辑”和“逻辑中的田野”告诉我们,学习“地方性知识”以及“他者”文化解读是地域武术文化研究的实践基础;如何突破地域民族的局限,去寻求人类文化的普遍法则

  19. Participant observation and change of perspectives: medical anthropology and the encounter with socially marginalised groups. First experiences with a new teaching concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Berit; Hovermann, Peter; Roelcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the new teaching concept "Providing medical care on the fringe of society: Participant observation and change in perspectives" in the context of the interdisciplinary field of Querschnittsbereich 2/Q 2 (the transdisciplinary section under AOÄ, the German Regulations for licensed physicians) that explores the history, theory and ethics of medicine. The disciplinary approach usually adopted in Q 2 is supplemented with concepts from medical anthropology; in addition students will be exposed to people in extreme social situations. The aim is to make students aware of and invite them to reflect upon: the importance of participant observation in the specific on-site setting of medical thinking and acting; the importance of the subjectivity of all those involved in doctor/patient interaction; and the fact that key medical terms (such as the "need" as seen by the physician vs. the need as seen by the patient) are essentially context-dependent in their interpretation. At a more general level students will learn how to put themselves in the position of different protagonists in a range of medical settings, and practice the skill of reflecting critically upon putative conceptual/theoretical and normative-ethical assumptions in medicine.

  20. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    an education. There is a close connection between: 1) The dream and the desire for education; 2) Mobility (away from the family, home and friends in a very young age for getting an education; 3) Transforming a new and unknown site and space into a known place, where one can make one-self at home ('home one......Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...... transformation work into the young people and their families. In this presentation I want to screen two sequences from the film, in order to show and clarify how mobility and transformation are made and dealt with both from the youngsters’ and their parents’ perspectives, but in asynchronous loups. I want...

  1. A multi-disciplinary approach to the origins of music: perspectives from anthropology, archaeology, cognition and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence for musical activities pre-dates even the earliest-known cave art and it remains the case that no human culture has yet been encountered that does not practise some recognisably musical activity. Yet the human abilities to make and appreciate music have been described as "amongst the most mysterious with which [we are] endowed" (Charles Darwin, 1872) and music itself as "the supreme mystery of the science of man" (Claude Levi-Strauss, 1970). Like language, music has been the subject of keen investigation across a great diversity of fields, from neuroscience and psychology, to ethnography, to studies of its structures in its own dedicated field, musicology; unlike the evolution of human language abilities, it is only recently that the origins of musical capacities have begun to receive dedicated attention. It is increasingly clear that human musical abilities are fundamentally related to other important human abilities, yet much remains mysterious about this ubiquitous human phenomenon, not least its prehistoric origins. It is evident that no single field of investigation can address the wide range of issues relevant to answering the question of music's origins. This review brings together evidence from a wide range of anthropological and human sciences, including palaeoanthropology, archaeology, neuroscience, primatology and developmental psychology, in an attempt to elucidate the nature of the foundations of music, how they have evolved, and how they are related to capabilities underlying other important human behaviours. It is proposed that at their most fundamental level musical behaviours (including both vocalisation and dance) are forms of deliberate metrically-organised gesture, and constitute a specialised use of systems dedicated to the expression and comprehension of social and emotional information between individuals. The abilities underlying these behaviours are selectively advantageous themselves; in addition, various mechanisms

  2. Discussion about Dongba culture under the perspective of tourism anthropology%论旅游人类学视野下的东巴文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四玉

    2014-01-01

    在文献参考的基础上,首先简要回顾了旅游人类学理论,然后介绍了东巴文化的概念与内容,进而从文化涵化、舞台真实性、历史文化再建构与族群认同三个旅游人类学的视角探讨了旅游对东巴文化的影响。面对旅游业发展中的各种影响,旅游目的地社会如何保持自身文化的独特性,最大限度地保存和发扬民族文化,关键是提升少数民族内部的文化自觉和增强文化自信。在推进社会主义文化强国建设的新政策下,纳西族作为中华民族大家庭中的一员,应该保留发挥东巴文化的特质,吸纳外来文化,与旅游发展机制进行有效对接,促进纳西文化传承与旅游发展的双赢。%Based on literature references, this article first briefly reviews theories of tourism anthropology, after that introduces the concept and content of Dongba culture, and then explores tourism made a great impact on Dongba culture from three tourism anthropological perspectives, namely, culture acculturation, staged authenticity, historical culture re-construct and ethnic identity. Facing to various impacts of the tourism development, how to keep unique culture of tourist destination society, preserve and carry forward ethnic culture most, and the key is cultural consciousness and cultural confidence within ethnic minority. In the policy of promoting socialist cultural power construction, Naxi ethnic minority, as a member of Chinese nation family, should reserve the uniqueness of Dongba culture, absorb other culture, butt joint tourism development mechanism effectively, in order to promote win-win between Naxi culture inheritance and tourism development.

  3. Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself. The presen......Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself....... The presentation therefore inserts itself within the history of a long conversation between anthropology and social theory. This discussion goes back at least to the Durkhemian school which saw the study of modern and "archaic" cultures as part and parcel of the same project. However, the disciplines of sociology...... with anthropology via the "cultural turn". Yet this elevated status of anthropology and its method has involved almost no engagement with the theoretical luggage found within the discipline of anthropology.Our premise is that the modern world may indeed not be so unique in all its features, and that it therefore...

  4. 从文学人类学视角解析《白鲸》中的圣经原型%Analysis of Biblical archetypes in Moby Dick from the perspective of literary anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵攀

    2013-01-01

    Literary anthropology as an interdisciplinary research has been in existence for a long time ,but as a criticism just emerging in domestic study in recent years .Critics recognized Herman Melville using a lot of Biblical archetypes in Moby Dick ,but it is a new entry point for analysis from the perspective of literary anthropology .Melville’s in pursuit of local culture ,concerning on minority culture and his great humanist complex will be seen through by an analysis of biblical character and theme archetypes in Moby Dick from the perspective of literary anthropology .%  评论界公认赫尔曼・麦尔维尔在《白鲸》中使用了大量的圣经原型,但是从文学人类学角度来分析还是一个新的切入点。通过文学人类学的视角分析《白鲸》中使用的《圣经》人物原型和主题原型,透视了麦尔维尔追溯本土文化、关注少数族群文化和伟大的人文主义情结。

  5. Anthropology Beyond the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Alden, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to attempt to illustrate some of the interrelationships between anthropology and other fields, offering students the opportunity to discover inductively some of the core ideas in anthropology. Furthermore, the potential job market for people with training in anthropology, whether consisting of a few courses or a…

  6. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  7. Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea; Medin, Douglas L

    2012-07-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive science (CS) subdisciplines currently maintain a troubled relationship. With a debate in topiCS we aim at exploring the prospects for improving this relationship, and our introduction is intended as a catalyst for this debate. In order to encourage a frank sharing of perspectives, our comments will be deliberately provocative. Several challenges for a successful rapprochement are identified, encompassing the diverging paths that CS and anthropology have taken in the past, the degree of compatibility between (1) CS and (2) anthropology with regard to methodology and (3) research strategies, (4) the importance of anthropology for CS, and (5) the need for disciplinary diversity. Given this set of challenges, a reconciliation seems unlikely to follow on the heels of good intentions alone.

  8. [Medical anthropology evidences on the Pishtaco origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pribyl, Rosario

    2010-03-01

    This paper will contribute to the scientific development of a new approach on the pishtaco in Peru by means of medical anthropological analysis. The model emphasizes presentation and analysis of historical, pharmaceutical, and anthropological evidence supporting use of human tissues with specific medical goals in Peruvian and European regions. We can find the origin of this phenomenon around the sixteen and seventeen centuries in Europe: The pishtaco has no an Andean origin. The methodology and main conclusions of this paper could provide to the scientific community an alternative perspective to the conventional anthropological and ethnological research, as an example of a medical anthropological analysis of the pishtaco character. Professionals involved in intercultural health projects could have a new insight on this issue thanks to these results. They will obtain an adequate historical-cultural context for the interpretation and understanding of people and native communities' beliefs about health, body and medical systems.

  9. Is there really such a thing as "one health"? Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Meike

    2015-03-01

    Today's era of globalization is characterized by intensified interspecies encounters, growing ecological concerns and the (re-)emergence of infectious diseases, manifesting themselves in the interplay of medical and biological, but also social, cultural and political processes. One health approaches - which combine multidisciplinary efforts to stimulate collaborations between different health professionals such as veterinarians, medical practitioners, biologists, and public health professionals - can be understood as a response to this complex interconnectedness. Integrating a social science perspective might prove beneficial to this endeavor. This essay locates the one health discussion on disease ecologies in a more than human world within recent developments in cultural and medical anthropology that focus on the entanglements between health and a multitude of animals, plants or microbes, as they are characteristic of a globalized modernity. The paper aims to examine the social dimensions of human-animal-disease-interactions, claiming that disease is a biocultural phenomenon and that social factors generally play a crucial role in the emergence, spread and management of (infectious) disease. Consequently, it will be argued that there is a need to rethink our objects of inquiry and any given assumptions of human health, the human body or the constitution of "the global" as such. Incorporating the social sciences into one health approaches can help address topics such as consumption patterns, human-animal behavior or environmental conflicts in a novel way and on a grander scale than ever before. Yet, a greater sensitivity to context may entail some skepticism about the idea of one health - not in spite of the complex entanglements between humans, environments, animals and pathogens, but precisely because of them.

  10. [Psychoanalysis and social anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisted, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore some subjects originated in the work of psychoanalysts and social anthropologists that generated an interesting discussion about the transmission of cultural trends along generations, as well as psychological family features from one generation to the other: we refer to the Oedipus complex model, as it was introduced by S. Freud, and to Malinowski's work on children's sexuality and incest. This text examines the emergency of fieldwork methodology (ethnography), that is, living in the place in which the research is conducted, sharing native languages and listening to the meanings attributed by the people to aspects of their lives. We also show another perspective, in which the researchers share place, language and customs but study for their own sake in order to justify a theoretical concept: resilience. This is one of the results of the transdisciplinary works -carried out by the UBA anthropology and education teams- to which we refer, together with the discussion about the category "educability" and some issues related to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity. This article proposes a critical approach on the ontological premises of racionalism, idealism and empiricism that preceded the researches mentioned. Finally it presents a perspective in which the imaginary institution of society and the emergency of psychism in singular subjects merge.

  11. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis

    2012-01-01

    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  12. Anthropology and Education: A General Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Edward, Comp.

    This bibliography of books, articles, and papers reflects a broad coverage of both anthropology within the school curriculum, and as it is applied to the study of education. A few titles will serve to illustrate the scope: The Status of American Indian Education; Schools and Systems of Stratification; Field Anthropologists and Classroom Teachers;…

  13. Ensuring a broad and inclusive approach: a provincial perspective on pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Rodney; Stuart, Allison J; Bontovics, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The SARS crisis revealed critical gaps in Ontario's health emergency response capacity, and identified, in the starkest terms possible, the need for improved emergency response planning. This article reviews the development of the Ontario Health Plan for an Influenza Pandemic (OHPIP), released in June 2005. Some key points arising from the provincial planning process include the necessity to: ensure a broad and inclusive development process; ensure the pandemic plan identifies: 1) clear roles and responsibilities of federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels of government, 2) the approach to occupational health and safety issues and ethical decision-making, 3) a communications strategy linking all affected sectors and levels of government and health sector; 4) any commitments to antiviral stockpiling, vaccine and antiviral allocation and use, and an approach for drug delivery from provincial stockpiles to local public health units; 5) health human resource management and supplementation; and 6) key programs/services to be scaled back to maximize surge capacity; address best practices (e.g., involve all sectors of the health care system at the outset, acquire strategic expertise, coordinate/advocate with broader emergency response system, etc); and, outline future stages that include strengthening the delivery of clinical care to influenza cases; clarifying the role of primary care practitioners during a pandemic; leveraging Ontario's significant e-Health investments.

  14. Some anthropological aspects of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about the role of anthropological perspective places each anthropological research within the context of globalization, pointing at the need for making the difference between concepts of globalization as the description and as the political project. This differentiation represents a frame of the research of globalization phenomena in order to understand their influence on concrete people in a concrete situation. The importance of the role of concepts in ubiquitous transformation of human lives is also confirmed in the paper. This is the way the influence of one culture unfolds through the dominant concepts, the culture which symbolically and normatively imposes itself as 'global' in spite of the fact that it is 'local' not only (and/or not any more in territorial sense but in its materialistic approach to the values. Hence, horizontal communication (globally available via the internet could serve to the communication of values as crucial spiritual points. It could contribute not only to the widening of cultural circles, but to the evolution of consciousness about the generalization of values up to the universal. This requires transcending of particular interests, which prevent effective conceptualization of the global anthropological meaning.

  15. Veterinary anthropology explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Veterinary and social scientists came together at the Centre for Medical Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in April to discuss areas of common interest and the possibility of defining a new interdisciplinary field of 'veterinary anthropology'. Andrew Gardiner, one of the organisers of the international meeting, reports.

  16. Disciplining anthropological demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study furthers the epistemological development of anthropological demography, and its role in understanding the demography of Europe. Firstly we situate anthropological demography against the context of an evolving world of research in which boundaries between academic disciplines have become much more permeable. This is achieved via an overview of recent theoretical debates about the role and nature of disciplinarity, including interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Secondly, in order to understand the current state of the art, we sketch out the evolution of anthropological demography, paying particular attention to the different knowledge claims of anthropology and demography. Finally, we flesh out some of the epistemological and theoretical debates about anthropological demography by sketching out the formative research process of our own work on low fertility in the UK.

  17. Medical design anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, Jonathan; Gunn, Wendy

    Barnard and Spencer define medical anthropology in the Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology as "Medical anthropology is, as the phrase implies, unavoidably concerned with the paradigm of modern Western medicine, whether implicitly or explicitly" (2002: 541). Recently there is a new...... focus in medical sociology and anthropology, which is patient's practices and influence on wider global health environment (see for example vol. 36(2) of Sociology of Health & Illness). While various social science theoreticians have written about agentic abilities of objects, there is a gap...... in literature concerning various levels of socio-cultural influence of the medical environment through medical products. In our research we have outlined the importance of medical design anthropology (MDA) to the practice and theory of design (Ventura and Gunn, 2016). In this paper, we study the ways in which...

  18. Engaged anthropology and corporate volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Blahová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.

  19. Cyber anthropology or anthropology in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-03-01

    As a variety of anthropology, cyber anthropology is considered to be the fastest growing sub branch in the science. It is based on synergic effects of multimedia systems and hypermedia, using their comparative advantages. One of the least researched fields of cyber anthropology is the relationship of individuals and social groups with a multimedia document in terms of their perception of such subject. This is because the foundation of social-informatics perception in the society is created based on the evidence of a real life, whereas here the perception is established at the level of virtual, i.e. online life. The rhetorical question here is whether an identical content causes the same or different user reactions, depending on whether it was perceived offline or online, i.e. to what extend does the medium (and not the information content) dictate the user perception. In this respect the research titled "Perception of online museum content creators and actual habits of Croatian online museum visitors" can be a "case study" for the impact of "cyber potential" on the classic anthropological paradigm.

  20. Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Jobling, Mark A; Rocha, Jorge; Novembre, John; Richards, Martin B; Mulligan, Connie; Batini, Chiara; Manni, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Anthropology is a relatively young field of research. In fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium "Classification and Human Evolution" (1962, Burg Wartenstein, Austria), where the term was formally introduced by Emil Zuckerkandl. In this time, Molecular Anthropology has developed both methodologically and theoretically and extended its applications, so covering key aspects of human evolution such as the reconstruction of the history of human populations and peopling processes, the characterization of DNA in extinct humans and the role of adaptive processes in shaping the genetic diversity of our species. In the current scientific panorama, molecular anthropologists have to face a double challenge. As members of the anthropological community, we are strongly committed to the integration of biological findings and other lines of evidence (e.g. linguistic and archaeological), while keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level. In this framework, the meeting "DNA Polymorphisms in Human Populations: Molecular Anthropology in the Genomic Era" (Rome, December 3-5, 2009) offered an opportunity for discussion among scholars from different disciplines, while paying attention to the impact of recent methodological innovations. Here we present an overview of the meeting and discuss perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era.

  1. Cognitive anthropological fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    In their introduction, Beller et al. point to important issues regarding the problematic interaction of anthropology and cognitive sciences (CS). I address some of these issues in stressing first some limitations of the current state of the fields of anthropology and CS. In the second half of this article, using data from studies I have been conducting among the Yucatec Mayas (Mexico), I present some concrete cases where anthropological and CS methods and approaches are complementary. Finally, I propose some solutions to find common ground and ways to improve cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  2. Toward a Negative Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Johannssen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Can philosophy say what man is? What is gained or lost by making theoretical assumptions about the human being? This essay examines the “negative anthropology” of the early Frankfurt School by asking how Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno and Ulrich Sonnemann engage with the question “What is man?” Negative anthropology turns out to be more than the critique of philosophical anthropology: By understanding the human being as the ensemble of what it is not, negative anthropology avoids the predi...

  3. On Not Liking What One Sees: Anthropology and the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that an anthropological perspective offers exciting possibilities for developing intercultural understanding in the visual arts. Examines the problems encountered when applying this perspective to the visual art of radically different cultures. (JDH)

  4. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner.

  5. Teaching Anthropology through Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Rachel A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three uses of folklore in teaching college-level anthropology courses: (1) collecting folklore through interviewing; (2) analyzing folklore themes; and (3) using folklore in puppetry and plays. (KH)

  6. Introduction to Practice What You Teach: Activist Anthropology at the Sites of Cross-Talk and Cross-Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Anderson-Lazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as a consciously transnational and interdisciplinary dialogue among eight anthropologists, this group of essays compares methods, strategies and outcomes of expressly political research, collaborative networks, participatory projects, and activist teaching. Here, projected against the backdrop of the 2007 Society for Applied Anthropology meetings’ theme which focused on Global Insecurities, each contributor revisits and updates an ongoing conversation about anthropology as an agent of social transformation. Our written collaboration holds up teaching as a central practice of activist anthropology; and thus our essays taken as a whole reveal how we imagine, construct and inhabit relationships of thinking and learning collectively, across and outside of mainstream political orthodoxies, disciplinary epistemologies, cultural registers, as well as physical, sexual and civil normativities. The moments of convergence, overlap and disjuncture among our various projects, then, offer a broad description of an engaged anthropology that draws on an historical approach, situated perspectives, decolonizing critiques, and embodied practices that include everything from empathetic listening to social disruption. Thus, looking at ourselves through this lens, this collection of essays which might be compared to a reflexive, group ethnography reconsiders and refashions our best practices over time.

  7. Tracking Porters: Learning the Craft of Techno-Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The anthropological perspective is grounded in socio-cultural theory and forged by a distinct relativist or contextualist epistemological stance. The point is to understand events, concepts and phenomena from the insiders' point of view and to show how this view relates to the particular social and cultural context. In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology - including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories - it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific 'anthropological sensibility' that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital.

  8. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  9. A study on the origin and development of Samba from the sports anthropology perspective%探析体育人类学视阈下桑巴舞的起源与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧亚男; 刘秀

    2015-01-01

    从体育人类学角度出发,对桑巴舞的起源与发展进行人类学思辨,旨在为体育舞蹈专业学生及桑巴舞爱好者在学习过程中更加准确的把握其文化内在精髓提供参考。%This paper study the origin and development of Samba from the sports anthropology perspective, in order to make sports dance majors and Samba lovers know more about its inner essence of health, joy and freedom when they were in the process of learning.

  10. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethard, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise.

  11. Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Audrey; Smedley, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    Racialized science seeks to explain human population differences in health, intelligence, education, and wealth as the consequence of immutable, biologically based differences between "racial" groups. Recent advances in the sequencing of the human genome and in an understanding of biological correlates of behavior have fueled racialized science, despite evidence that racial groups are not genetically discrete, reliably measured, or scientifically meaningful. Yet even these counterarguments often fail to take into account the origin and history of the idea of race. This article reviews the origins of the concept of race, placing the contemporary discussion of racial differences in an anthropological and historical context.

  12. Subdisciplines of Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the idea that anthropology is composed of a number of subdisciplines and that cultural anthropology has numerous subfields which are the specialty areas for many practicing anthropologists. Beginning with a general discussion…

  13. Towards an Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    their overlaps and collaboration. However, there are also challenging differences to take into account regarding disciplinary traditions of, for example, communication, temporality, and normativity. This article explores the potentials and challenges of architectural anthropology as a distinct sub......Architecture and anthropology have always had overlapping interests regarding issues such as spatial organisation, forms of human dwellings, and the interplay between social life and physical surroundings. Recent developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore and evolve......-discipline and outlines its possible theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions. It is proposed that the ambition to understand people in a different way than they understand themselves is key in both disciplines, and that architectural anthropology is consequently not only relevant in studies of vernacular...

  14. Towards an Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Architecture and anthropology have always had overlapping interests regarding issues such as spatial organisation, forms of human dwellings, and the interplay between social life and physical surroundings. Recent developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore and evolve...... their overlaps and collaboration. However, there are also challenging differences to take into account regarding disciplinary traditions of, for example, communication, temporality, and normativity. This article explores the potentials and challenges of architectural anthropology as a distinct sub......-discipline and outlines its possible theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions. It is proposed that the ambition to understand people in a different way than they understand themselves is key in both disciplines, and that architectural anthropology is consequently not only relevant in studies of vernacular...

  15. Contemporary Food Uses and Meanings from the Anthropology of Food in Latin-America and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Julián López García; Lorenzo Mariano Juárez; F. Xavier Medina

    2017-01-01

    In this article we propose a review of the anthropology of food in Spain and Latin America from a recent historical perspective. The article analyzes the origin of the anthropology of food in Spain and in Latin America and the difficulties for the establishment of this specialty in the context of the sociocultural anthropology to the present day, and includes an overview of current and emerging subjects. The article is organized mainly around three axes that group the subjects and trends of p...

  16. 浅谈文学人类学视野下的外国文学教学%Teaching of Foreign Literature from Literary Anthropology Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段祥贵

    2012-01-01

    Globalization of knowledge causes significant changes to the concept of world literature, which,actually,lead to a liter- ary anthropology. Cross--subjects in essence, comparative literature as methodology, and value of human being and humanity as its pursuit,literary anthropology requires foreign literature teaching to understand foreign literature in its great cultural context and stick to comparative methodology and humanity pursuit; in practice, teaching contents of foreign literature should include some marginal literature,ecological literature,oriental literature and culture related to foreign literature.%知识全球化背景下的世界文学观念发生重大变化,在本质上指向一种以跨学科为精髓,以比较文学为方法,追求人的价值和人文精神的文学人类学。从文学人类学视野出发,外国文学教学应坚持在文化大语境下把握外国文学,坚持比较文学观念,坚持人文精神等教学理念;应重视一些边缘性的文学、生态文学、东方文学以及与文学相关的国外文化等方面内容的教学。

  17. Curriculum Studies and Methodological Innovations:a Cultural Anthropology Perspective%文化人类学视域中的课程研究内涵及其方法论变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑国元

    2014-01-01

    文化人类学家强调,人是文化的生物,人生活在文化情境之中。借助文化人类学的理论和方法,可以对课程研究做出新的诠释:课程研究具有文化本土性、文化主体性和文化多样性的特征。基于这种文化的解释,文化人类学为课程研究带来了新的方法论意义:1)课程研究的主题关注个人实践知识和地方性知识;2)课程研究的方法主张文化人类学范式,基于田野工作方法,开展民族志研究;3)课程研究的叙事方式转向文化解释;4)课程研究的交互主体开始显现。%Cultural anthropologists argue that human beings culturally live in cultural contexts. Using theories and meth-ods of cultural anthropology, characteristics of curriculum studies can be redefined:cultural nativism, cultural subjectivity and cultural diversity. From perspective of methodology,cultural anthropology still has its meanings to curriculum studies:(1)concerns on individuals’practical knowledge and local knowledge;(2)fieldwork and ethnography;(3)cultural expla-nation;and (4) interaction subjectivity.

  18. What is Business Anthropology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Larsen, Frederik; Sigurdarson, Hallur

    2013-01-01

    The anthropology of organizations is always political; it might take place over shorter, as well as longer, time spans and in singular, pluralistic, or even virtual, settings. This paper addresses such issues by describing and analyzing fieldwork experiences of an academic workshop, which took pl...

  19. Neuroanthropology or simply Anthropology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanthropology is a new kid on the academic block. It seems to offer a methodological and conceptual synthesis, which bridges current fault lines within anthropology, both as discipline and as departments. We are not convinced that it will deliver on these grounds. However, it has the potential...

  20. The Anthropology of Nepotism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Nepotism is widespread in organizations in developing countries but has so far received scant attention in cross-cultural management research. The paper seeks to contribute to the underdeveloped research topic suggesting an anthropological explanation of nepotism. It is argued that nepotism...

  1. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed to be un......Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed...... to be unpacked and left behind. The debate was an essential part of a disciplininary reflexivity reconsidering anthropology’s epistemological and political roots in that very modernity. From the mid 1990s modernity was, somewhat surprisingly, reintroduced as a useful if not necessary conceptual tool...... better. This paper will tentatively argue that if anthropology wishes to embrace the concept of multiple modernities, it could profitably do so by taking more seriously the intellectual trajectory that paved the way for the idea of “multiple modernities”. This trajectory moves outside anthropology...

  2. An Anthropology of Luminosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2007-01-01

    of luminosity in the practice of day-to-day activities. The article surveys an array of past conceptions of light within philosophy, natural science and more recent approaches to light in the fields of anthropology and material culture studies. A number of implications are discussed, and by way of three case...

  3. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  4. Cultural Anthropology and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Carmel

    After the Second World War, the field of cultural anthropology underwent an explosive development. Sociologists, psychologists, educators, and economists all added to the increasing interest in a discipline which began by assuming that culture is the foundation of social structures and that every institution manifests itself as a system of…

  5. Knowledge Transmission and Professional Community in Higher Education: An Anthropological View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Offers an anthropological perspective by examining the role of knowledge transmission in the maintenance and transformation of professional communities in higher education, exploring the use of the ritual process at academic meetings (such as those of the American Anthropological Association). Emphasizing successful conference rituals, the article…

  6. What is anthropological about The Perfect Human?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2015-01-01

    Jørgen Leth has classified The Perfect Human as an anthropological film. But is the film anthropological at all? This article explores Leth’s connections with anthropology and finds that he is more inspired by anthropological framing than he is by anthropological research methods....

  7. Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, W W

    2001-12-01

    This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory.

  8. Anthropology that counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Politicians request clear answers, big data is becoming a big thing, and whole industries have emerged around the ambition of “summing up what we know” in systematic reviews (James and Harden 2008). In this political climate, research funding has in Denmark been given to University Colleges...... and is expected to deliver “practice oriented” research, preferably evidence based and ready to “apply” - or sometimes even in the case of action research supposedly “applied in the process”. The development opens the question of where the borders are between anthropology and consulting business, whether...... professional practices in schools, hospitals, and other welfare institutions that has to “apply research”, or could it also be the political levels, that were subject to “applications”? In any case, anthropology becomes extremely political, and has to find a position between different ideological knowledge...

  9. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves.

  10. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design......Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  11. Council on Anthropology and Education Newsletter. Volume III, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, John Ed.

    General information on format, included, materials, broad concerns, objectives, and availability of the newsletter are described in Volume I, ED 048 049. This issue focuses on ethnology, offering two papers presented at the American Anthropological Association symposiums. The lead paper presents a psycho-cultural developmental approach to the…

  12. Anthropology, Development and Modernities: Exploring discourses, counter tendencies and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Arce, A.

    2000-01-01

    This collection uses anthropological perspectives to explore the diverse interpretations of modernity and development in today's world. For some, modernity and development has brought prosperity, optimism and opportunity, but for others it has brought poverty and a falling quality of life. This book

  13. O paradigma mecanicista da medicina ocidental moderna: uma perspectiva antropológica The "mechanistic" paradigm of modem western medicine: an anthropological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar, sob um ponto de vista antropológico, o paradigma "mecanicista" dominante na medicina ocidental moderna. Faz-se comentário crítico sobre o positivismo que sustenta este paradigma. Foi mostrado também como ele desenvolveu-se historicamente a ponto de dominar a percepção médica sobre saúde, doença e terapêutica, e como essa percepção deixou modernamente de compreender um amplo espectro da realidade a que se propõe compreender. Foram analisados alguns sistemas médicos "populares" e "primitivos", mostrando como eles incorporam o social no campo da medicina. Enfatiza-se a necessidade da medicina ocidental moderna recuperar o social e o cultural (como dimensões que moldam inevitavelmente a doença, os tratamentos e a cura para sair da crise em que se encontra. Nesse sentido, recorrer à história e aos sistemas médicos "populares" e "primitivos" tem o propósito de contribuir para isso.The dominant "mechanistic" paradigm of modern western medicine was analysed from an anthropological point of view. Some critical comments on the positivistic posture which underlies this paradigm were made, as well as a historical overview of how it has developed (dominating medical perception of health, disease and therapeutics up to its present crisis. An analysis of some "primitive" and "popular" medical systems showing how they incorporated social elements into strategies of treatment and cure was also made. It was emphasised that modern western medicine needs to recover its social and cultural dimensions in order to overcome its present crisis. In this sense, looking to history as well as to "primitive" and "popular" medical systems has the aim of contributing to this search.

  14. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  15. Ethnocentric ethics in anthropological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of ethnocentric ethical rules in anthropological research. The ethnocentrism lies in the fact that North American and European definitions of right and wrong are imposed on anthropological research everywhere in the world. Apparently - and ironically - some anthro

  16. Introduction – an amphibious anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagné, Karine; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    between land and water. This constitutive relationality is the basis of what we call an amphibious anthropology. By foregrounding temporality, movement, and ways of knowing, we aim to grasp the experience of places at the confluence of land and water and to probe into the specificities of life...... in such landscapes or into various amphibious anthropologies....

  17. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity.......echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...

  18. Contribution of anthropology to the study of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica; Dove, Michael; Lahsen, Myanna; Mathews, Andrew; McElwee, Pamela; McIntosh, Roderick; Moore, Frances; O'Reilly, Jessica; Orlove, Ben; Puri, Rajindra; Weiss, Harvey; Yager, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the challenge that climate change poses and crafting appropriate adaptation and mitigation mechanisms requires input from the breadth of the natural and social sciences. Anthropology's in-depth fieldwork methodology, long engagement in questions of society-environment interactions and broad, holistic view of society yields valuable insights into the science, impacts and policy of climate change. Yet the discipline's voice in climate change debates has remained a relatively marginal one until now. Here, we identify three key ways that anthropological research can enrich and deepen contemporary understandings of climate change.

  19. [Functional somatic syndromes from the view of cultural anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Ayako; Tsujiuchi, Takuya

    2009-09-01

    The functional somatic syndromes have acquired major socio-cultural and political dimensions. Socio-cultural factors clearly affect symptoms, suffering, and disability perception and reporting. And knowledge of explanatory models of bodily distress for patients from different cultural backgrounds is useful in the establishment of a stable doctor -patient relationship. FSS may be an operational category to bridge between medical explanatory model and patient's model. According to medical anthropology, sickness has two faces; illness and disease. "Disease" is the problem from the practitioner's perspective, and "illness" is the human experience of symptoms and suffering. In this paper, the anthropological research on chronic fatigue syndrome as "not real" illness experience was described.

  20. Broad-range neutralizing anti-influenza A human monoclonal antibodies: new perspectives in therapy and prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Nicola; Criscuolo, Elena; Castelli, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against different subtypes of influenza A viruses are novel tools for the potential development of effective anti-influenza prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. In both cases, the main candidates for passive transfer and new vaccine development are represented by protective mAbs directed against influenza hemagglutinin (HA). A large number of mAbs directed against influenza HA has been developed to date. However, even if they can be useful and contribute to develop new vaccinal strategies, only few of them can be a good candidate for human administration. In this review, we will describe the most relevant human mAb directed against influenza HA able to recognize highly divergent influenza isolates and possibly useful for human therapy and prophylaxis.

  1. Perspectivas etnográficas en Chiapas, México, desde una antropología del poder Ethnographic perspectives in Chiapas, Mexico, from an anthropology of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Escalona Victoria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en una selección de textos, se ofrece un panorama de algunas de las perspectivas que predominaron en la etnografía de los pueblos mayas en Chiapas en los últimos cien años. Se analizan los cambios en la forma de estudiar la vida social desde los modelos fundados en las ideas de cultura o estructura social (como unidades relativamente homogéneas, permanentes y autocontenidas hasta llegar a un planteamiento etnográfico que pone atención en las conexiones y los flujos translocales, las contradicciones y tendencias múltiples, la producción simbólica y los lenguajes del poder (una perspectiva metodológica llamada "etnografía del poder".A selection of texts is used to provide an overview of some of the perspectives that have predominated in the ethnography of the Maya people in Chiapas over the past hundred years. The author analyzes the changes in the study of social life,starting from the models founded on the ideas of culture and social structure (as relatively homogeneous, permanent and self-contained units and finishing with an ethnographic position that focuses on translocal connections and flows, contradictions and multiple trends, symbolic production and the languages of power (a methodological perspective called "ethnography of power".

  2. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901–1982 conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that “mere survival is not enough”. He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them; thus modernity could interfere with health via “missing exposures”. With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces—financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise—that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as “grey space”; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  3. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L.; Logan, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901–1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that “mere survival is not enough”. He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via “missing exposures”. With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces—financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise—that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as “grey space”; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics. PMID:27827896

  4. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Logan, Alan C

    2016-11-03

    The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that "mere survival is not enough". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures". With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces-financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise-that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as "grey space"; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  5. 克里奥尔人的悲剧命运——《藻海无边》的人类学阐释%Creoles' Tragic Fates——On Wide Sargasso Sea from Anthropological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许佳媛; 原一川; 许汉卿

    2011-01-01

    Antoinette's family in Wide Sargasso Sea are typical representatives of Creole.They are not white;they are not black,either.They are minority group in the then society both from physiological and psychological perspectives.They are marginalized in the then society.The whole family tragically dies.Their tragic fates are identical with the archetypes of sacrifice in anthropological study.The root cause of violence and death lies in the system of scapegoat.Their tragic deaths are due to that the operation and maintain of black and white mainstream social ideology lie in not only the propaganda and commotion,but also sacrifices.%简·里斯在小说《藻海无边》中主要塑造了安托瓦内特一家人作为克里奥尔人的典型代表。,他们被赋予了不同的话语能力,然而悲剧性的结局却几近相同。文章从人类学的角度对其悲剧命运进行了阐释,认为他们的悲剧命运不是偶然的,不论从先天的生理特征还是后天的心理特征来说,他们自始至终都游离于主流权利话语之外。殖民者白人和本地土著黑人为了维持他们群体的各自意义系统的稳定,一切不满足他们神话标准的个体都会被强制驱逐与边缘化,安托瓦内特一家人正是他们献祭的替罪羊。

  6. "Qi-Huang" Culture in the context of anthropological perspective of medicine and health%医药卫生人类学视野语境中的"岐黄"文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怀林

    2011-01-01

    The survey of the two Chinese characters "岐(qi)黄(huang)" from the perspective of anthropology of medicine and health show that the words represent a variety of meanings. All the TCM related contents, such as physicians, medical works and official position of medicine etc. can be represented by the word. " Qi - huang" culture contained the relevant medical works and the physicians who handed down Chinese medicine, such as Qibo, Bogao, Shaoshi, Leigong, Rongcheng etc. , and the contents are more abundant. Previously, less study concerned the historical relics spread extensively in Xinmi City, Henan Province, such as Qibo Shan, Limu Tai, Fenghou Ding etc. " Qi - huang" culture not only remained in the history, but also are living vividly in the present medical civilization. " Qi - huang" culture is not confined within China, but has been spread to the whole world.%从医药卫生人类学的视角加以审视,可以发现"岐黄"二字代表了多种含义,"岐黄"文化所包含的内容,既有相关医籍,又有中医学传承早期的医家,如岐伯、伯高、少师、雷公、容成等.在以往的研究中,少被人关注的是遍布河南省新密市的各种遗迹,如岐伯山、力牧台、风后顶等."岐黄"文化不仅仅存留在历史中,更体现在当下的活态医药文明中."岐黄"文化也不局限于中国,而是已经传遍了四海五洲.

  7. The significance of Calvin' s anthropology for preaching on ethical themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O.K. Lategan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author highlights Calvin's anthropology. A main feature of this anthropology is his dualistic view on man. Calvin was very much influenced by the ancient Greek philosophy, which argued that man had two parts: a superior soul and an inferior body. The author argues that this perception is at odds with a Biblical image of man. According to the Bible no part of man is inferior or superior to any other part of his personhood. The article indicates that a Biblical perspective on anthropology will draw different conclusions in ethics compared to a dualistic perception of the nature of man. A correct appreciation of the anthropology of man is therefore needed to guide decisions in ethics, where the focus is constantly anthropological.

  8. [Interfaces between anthropology and the disciplines of the health area: a search for new conceptual approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaut, Claude

    2006-06-01

    In studying how societies consider and deal with the human body both as a symbolic as well as a biological entity, anthropology situates itself at the nexus of two axes. These occupy a central epistemological space in the discipline and consist of: the analysis of social facts, ranging from their manifestations in the lives of individuals, to those manifested in the collective life of groups; and the observation of reality, ranging from its material to its immaterial or ideal aspects. This singular position enriches the anthropology of health and opens up theoretical and methodological perspectives that go beyond those of medical anthropology and the anthropology of illness in their restricted focus upon the social parameters of biological disorders, the causes of suffering, and misfortune. This paper attempts to reflect upon examples which encompass the above two axes showing how the anthropology of health can improve our understanding.

  9. Techno-Anthropology for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents the principles of anthropology-driven design, explaining and examining the ideas and motivations behind basing technology design on ethnography and user participation. That is, anthropology-driven design is presented as a design process where analytical findings derived from...... ethnographic field studies are used in combination with participatory design techniques in order to promote democratic participation as well as mobilize the users knowledge as a resource in the design process. This ‘new move’ may be said to create new types of significant proximity between Anthropology......, Science and Technology Studies (STS), Moral Philosophy, Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Participatory Design (PD) and a range of technical disciplines....

  10. [ANTHROPOLOGY OF CURSES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Reyes-Rivas, José Refugio; Mobilli-Rojas, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic order offers a great number of opportunities for understanding man's greatest fears. Based on Lévi-Strauss' original concept, we can study the symbolic efficacy of curses and enrich it with the most recent contributions of neuroscience, philosophy, and the anthropology of consciousness. This is a report of qualitative research traversed by the methods of phenomenology and symbolic hermeneutics on a rarely addressed subject of unique significance to cultural psychiatry. We have worked on the empirical data of some classic religious curses of great historical value, but we have also inquired into the phenomenon of secular excommunication. Finally, we have interpreted the symbols used in curses and the areas of the psyche that they succeed in mobilizing. We suggest that the primary core of curses is dogma, without which their symbolic efficacy would not be possible.

  11. Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Ian; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    A nonsecular medical anthropology insists on the ways medicine and science have constituted 'the secular' itself through the 'secular self'-how medical knowing has been used to craft the secular political subject. As James Boon noted, too often in social theory, "religion gets safely tucked away-restricted theoretically to 'meaning' rather than power" (1998:245). The authors of the six articles in this special issue 'untuck' religiosity from within the norms and numbers of medicine itself, and examine how 'secular' medicine has relied on religious traditions to produce political secularity. These articles demonstrate that 'secular' medicine relies on religious others whose exclusion bespeaks latent religious commitments of citizenship in the modern political realm of health.

  12. A New Interpretation of“the Trick of Jacob”under the Perspective of Literary Anthropology%文学人类学视阈下“雅各诡计”的新解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晴阳

    2015-01-01

    The third patriarch of Hebrew generation Jacob is one of the important characters in the Bible. Peo-ple always criticize it as a series of actions of taking the Firstbirth right from his twin brother Esau’s in the early age. However, James Gorge Fraser gives a new interpretation on the“the Trick of Jacob”from the per-spective of anthropology in Folklore in the Old Testament:genesis is in the complex era which the system of inheritance is from the youngest son to the eldest son, as the second son of Jacob is the true heir;the disguis-ing skin is actually used for a"goat"ceremony of legal fiction. On the clarification the theological vision, pro-viding the secular interpretation, Fraser helps the readers that they could analysis the biblical figures from oth-er multivariate perspective.%希伯来第三代族长雅各是圣经中至关重要的人物之一,他早年巧取孪生兄长以扫“长子名分”的一系列行动历来为人们所诟病。然而,弗雷泽独具慧眼,在《中的民俗》一书中从人类学角度出发,对“雅各诡计”进行了全新解读:《旧约·创世纪》处于末子继承制向长子继承制过渡的复杂时代,作为次子的雅各才是真正的合法继承人;乔装打扮时所用的羔羊皮实际上是对“山羊产子”仪式的合法拟制。在澄清神学视野、提供世俗化阐释上,弗雷泽为读者从其他角度对圣经人物进行多元形象分析提供了颇有助益的启迪。

  13. TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a ref

  14. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  15. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  16. Between art of movement and science of body: Short history of anthropology of dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njaradi Dunja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper charts the development of dance anthropology from the beginner’s fascination with body techniques through the first scientific explanations of dance. The paper highlights the fact that the development of this branch of anthropology has been burdened with epistemological uncertainties and dilemmas. Hence, we could hardly talk about a consistent sub-discipline when looking at the approaches to dance in anthropology, but we always talk about mushrooming and interconnected traditions. Finaly, the paper will introduce two current and conflicting approaches to dance, textual and kinaesthetic, which open up old questions and dilemmas but which offer fresh perspectives as well.

  17. Virtual anthropology meets biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W; Bookstein, Fred L; Strait, David S

    2011-05-17

    A meeting in Vienna in October 2010 brought together researchers using Virtual Anthropology (VA) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in order to explore the benefits and problems facing a collaboration between the two fields. FEA is used to test mechanical hypotheses in functional anatomy and VA complements and augments this process by virtue of its tools for acquiring data, for segmenting and preparing virtual specimens, and for generating reconstructions and artificial forms. This represents a critical methodological advance because geometry is one of the crucial inputs of FEA and is often the variable of interest in functional anatomy. However, we currently lack tools that quantitatively relate differences in geometry to differences in stress and strain, or that evaluate the impact on FEA of variation within and between biological samples. Thus, when comparing models of different geometry, we do not currently obtain sufficiently informative answers to questions such as "How different are these models, and in what manner are they different? Are they different in some anatomical regions but not others?" New methodologies must be developed in order to maximize the potential of FEA to address questions in comparative and evolutionary biology. In this paper we review these and other important issues that were raised during our Vienna meeting.

  18. A Design Anthropology Critique of Active Aging as Ageism

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    Linda Tonolli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design anthropology critique of active aging as ageism in the design of information technologies for seniors. With ageism we refer to narratives coalesced around the label “active aging” in European policies and system design that focus on seniors as a homogeneous group of people in need of help. We discuss the findings of two empirical participatory design projects we have been dealing with: 1 a bottom­-up senior organization in a small village in a mountain area and 2 a series of workshops organized with seniors in an urban area. In both cases, the relations between the anthropologist and the people involved, prompted reflexive moments that brought anthropological relocations of the designers' perspective. In conclusion, we stress how such relocations could benefit participatory designs through the concept of design by subtraction and the adoption of a feminist perspective.

  19. Globalización, salud y cultura: aspectos emergentes. Propuestas para el análisis desde la antropología social Globalisation, health and culture: emerging issues. Proposals for an analysis from a social anthropology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Palacios Ramírez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito central de este artículo es presentar algunas reflexiones de carácter crítico sobre las relaciones entre las transformaciones en el campo de la salud y los procesos de globalización. Para ello partimos de los aportes de nuestra disciplina de origen, la Antropología social, pero también ocupan un papel central las teorías del filosofo francés M. Foucault. La idea es que estas reflexiones puedan abrir un espacio de debate con otros profesionales del campo socio-sanitario. En la primera parte el texto plantea el reto que supone pensar acerca de los nuevos procesos sociales ligados a la salud, debido a la aparición de modelos explicativos y de intervención en los cuales determinados aspectos que podríamos denominar "culturales" parecen haber pasado a ocupar un lugar central. Después pasa a sugerir, desde una perspectiva procesual las dinámicas emergentes que podrían estar tomando los procesos ahora globales de medicalización de la vida, tratando de apuntar sus paradojas, como el desbordamiento de los límites tradicionales de los saberes sanitarios y el ensamblaje de nuevas practicas que parecen traducir al campo medico realidades hasta ahora fuera de su alcance.The core proposal of this article is to present a series of reflections of a critical nature on the links between changes in the field of health care and processes of globalisation. A lot of our work is founded on our discipline of social anthropology; however, the theories of the French philosopher M. Foucault also play a central role in this paper. Our intention is that these reflections may contribute to subsequent debate among professionals in the social-health arena. The first part of this article talks about the challenge that supposes to think about the new social processes related to the health, due to the appearance of explanatory and interventional models, in which some aspects that we could denominate "cultural" seem to occupy a central place. Later

  20. Education science and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This contribution states deficits and makes proposals in order to overcome them. First there is the question as to why the Biological Anthropology--despite all its diversifications--hardly ever deals with educational aspects of its subject. Second it is the question as to why Educational Science neglects or even ignores data of Biological Anthropology which are recognizably important for its subject. It is postulated that the stated deficits are caused by several adverse influences such as, the individual identity of each of the involved single sciences; aspects of the recent history of the German Anthropology; a lack of conceptual understanding of each other; methodological differences and, last but not least, the structure of the universities. The necessity to remedy this situation was deduced from two groups of facts. First, more recent data of the Biological Anthropology (e.g. brain functions and learning, sex specificity and education) are of substantial relevance for the Educational Science. Second, the epistemological requirements of complex subjects like education need interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a few suggestions of concrete topics are given which are related to both, Educational Science and Biological Anthropology.

  1. DOSTOYEVSKY'S POETIC ANTHROPOLOGY

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    Vladimir Nikolaevich Zakharov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dostoyevsky proposed a new conception of Man in the world literature. Critics have described such psychological discoveries of the writer as irrationalism, dualism, and underground. Many aspects of his Christian anthropology remained beyond the attention of the researchers. In his conception of Man there are such essential concepts as the common pseudo-human (obshchechelovek and the panhuman (vsechelovek. The common pseudo-human is a special type of a Russian man that appeared after the reforms of Peter the Great. Unlike the British, the Germans, the French, who maintain their nationality, the Russian “common pseudo-human” strives to be anyone but Russian. Being a common pseudo-human is to be an abstract European without roots and soil. Vsechelovek is a rare word in the Russian language. Nikolai Danilevsky used this word with a capital letter to call Christ (1869. Dostoyevsky used the word pan-human without capitalization to denote a perfect Christian. It expressed the inner sense of his Pushkin Memorial speech. It was Dostoyevsky who introduced the word panhuman in Russian literature and philosophy. Konstantin Leontiev did not understand the meaning of this word. He represented “the terrible, in his opinion, pan-human” as a common pseudo-human, European, liberal, and cosmopolitan. This mistaken substitution (obshchechelovek instead of vsechelovek is typical for Russian literary and philosophical criticism of the 20th century. For Dostoevsky, each person carries the image of God. The verbs obrazit' (to restore the image and obozhit' (to divinize imply the restoration of the image of God and thereby the humanization of a person. To be Russian is to become pan-human (vsechelovek, Christian. Dostoyevsky’s hero carries all possible completeness of the Creator and the Creation.

  2. Reflections on the future of anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-12-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference's theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline.

  3. 文学人类学视角下《北方的河》及其文化价值解读%A Study of Northern Rivers from the Perspective of Literary Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭

    2015-01-01

    文学人类学是文学和人类学两个不同学科的交叉与结合,它特有的文化品质在于关注全人类的情感与命运.鲜明的文学人类学意识渗透于回族作家张承志的小说《北方的河》中,促成了张承志对"文化重建"的文学资源取向的寻求.这种文学人类学书写实现了中国少数民族文学领域上的"超越",是张承志进行的富有成效的探索,并且颇具当下意义.%Literary anthropology is in fact a combination of literature and anthropology, its unique cultural quality being the focus on emotions and fate of mankind. The Hui nationality writer Zhang Cheng-zhi's novel Northern Rivers contains vivid awareness of literary anthropology, which highlights the writer's desire to seek the resource orientation of"cultural reconstruction"in literature. Zhang's literary anthropology writing has achieved successful transcendence in the Chinese ethnic literature, thus has practical significance presently.

  4. Anthropological Studies of Popular Culture

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    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions raised at the symposium "Our World, Other Worlds. Anthropology, Science Fiction and Cultural Identity", held in Belgrade in December 2009, is how anthropology is to study contemporary art forms: how research issues are to be defined and approached; how research is to be organized in a specific semantic area, which cannot always and with absolute certainty be said not to be an anthropological construction; whether the subject of research can be said to have the shared nature of cultural communication; whether the anthropologist is to interpret the author/artist’s intention, or that which is produced as a result of that intention, etc. The aim of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions, from the point of view of a researcher focused on cultural communication.

  5. Anthropological Contributions to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Three recent annual conferences of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) have included symposia on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). This paper reviews these symposia, which dealt with themes associated with the overarching AAA conference themes for each year: in 2004, the SETI session addressed Anthropology, Archaeology, and Interstellar Communication: Science and the Knowledge of Distant Worlds; in 2005, it dealt with Historical Perspectives on Anthropology and SETI; and in 2006, the session examined Culture, Anthropology, and SETI. Among the topics considered in these symposia were analogues for contact with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), examining anthropologists’ experience in the field encountering other cultures-past and present. Similarly, the methodologies of archaeologists provide analogies for making contact with temporally distant civilizations, based on reconstructions from fragmentary information. Case studies helped make such analogies concrete in the symposia. The challenges of comprehending intelligences with different mental worlds was explored through a study of the meetings of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, for example, while the decryption of Mayan hieroglyphics provided lessons on understanding others of own species.

  6. Giovanni Battista Morgagni: facial reconstruction by virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Zaccagni, Luciana; Russo, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Multidisciplinary research was carried out on human skeletal remains to identify if they belonged to the famous pathologist Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who died at a very old age and was buried in a church in Padua. The purpose of this study was to analyze the skull, creating a virtual model necessary for facial reconstruction, so as to contribute to the identification of the skull. The skeletal remains were found buried in the Morgagni family grave. Based on preliminary anthropological evidence, that the skull might be ascribable to Giovanni Battista Morgagni, a digitized model of the skull was created and restored. From this, a virtual facial reconstruction was developed using an assumed relationship between the soft-tissues and the underlying skeletal structure. Finally, the anthropological profile and the face reconstruction were compared with historical documentation and the portrait of Morgagni by Pietro Danieletti, showing clear similarities. Virtual anthropological techniques create new perspectives for anthropological and medical studies and can be used successfully in the forensic sciences to make a positive identification, such as in this case, which has been examined by different experts with similar results.

  7. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  8. The Teaching of Visual Anthropology at Temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Jay; Chalfen, Richard

    The exploration of nonverbal forms of culture and communication has led to the development of visual anthropology courses within the anthropology department at Temple University. Visual anthropology is conceptualized as the study of human nonlinguistic forms of communication involving film making for data collecting and analysis. Several areas of…

  9. Utopian Education and Anti-Utopian Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the connection of education, utopia and anthropology, aiming to tease out some educational implications of anti-utopian anthropological essentialism and to show why these should be staved off. It will be shown how an anthropology that tarnishes human nature operates and how it affects educational intervention in the shaping…

  10. Personalizing Culture Through Anthropological and Educational Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This report is written primarily for teachers and teacher educators who, in their teaching, curricula, and relationships with students, are struggling with fundamental cultural questions: Who are my students? What kinds of cultural influences shape their lives? How do they — and I, as their teacher — shape and construct this culture on an ongoing basis? What are my own cultural assumptions and how do they influence my teaching? Much has been written about how schools should respond t...

  11. Why Rajput Practice Exogamy: Anthropological Perspective

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    D. Atifa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the exogamous nature of marriage in Rajput community of subcontinent in general. The tradition of exogamy is still being practiced in Indo–Pakistan subcontinent within this ethnic group. This paper tries to explore historically a number of possible assumptions that can be employed to define the reasons for practicing the exogamous marriage type. Exogamy is explored through its biological and socio cultural aspect in relation to the Indian subcontinent that ultimately leads to Pakistani socio-cultural context. Effort has been made to grip the diverse strands of exogamy and alliance theory to see any connection if there is any between them.

  12. People Recognition: A Historical/Anthropological Perspective

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    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Using current neurological and neuropsychological literature, and the analysis of different cultural and historical conditions, people recognition is analyzed. Different “subsystems” or “modules” could be involved in individuals' recognition: living versus non-living, own species versus other species, familiar versus non-familiar, males versus females, and individual identification versus emotional identification. Not only visual, but also auditory and even olfactory information may be involved in people recognition. Visual information involved in people recognition is proposed to include not only the perception of faces, but also the perception of whole body and gait, clothes, emotional expressions, and individual marks.

  13. Confessions of an Anthropological Poser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, David Delgado

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's confessions about being an anthropological poser. He shares a series of short fragments that evidence the ways he has drawn the line around his work. He draws some lessons about how to work collaboratively and effectively as Natives, scholars, and Native scholars. He closes this confession by admitting that he…

  14. Anthropological reading of science fiction

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    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the prevalence of the analysis of science fiction literature and science fiction in other segments of popular culture in Serbian anthropology. This overview is preceded by a consideration of science fiction as a genre while keeping in mind the fluidity of the genre and the interweaving of subgenres as well as the transformations which science fiction is undergoing in certain media (books, films, TV shows and video games. In Serbian anthropology research on science fiction is more prevalent than the study of other phenomena, as the number of anthropologists whose work is represented in the paper is fairly large compared to the size of the anthropological community as a whole. The causes for this can primarily be found in a collective focus on questions such as: who are we and who the others are, what the basis of creating and building identity is or what the role of context in recognition of species is. Anthropology gives answers to these questions through the interpretation, explanation and understanding of the world around us, while science fiction does it through the literary considerations of these same questions.

  15. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  16. Applying anthropology in the development of former colonies

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    Vladimir Ribić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available From the sixth to the eight decade of the twentieth century, horizontally integrated and sector approach intermingled, and the renewed interest for the influence of development on the poor in the second half of the seventies, brought about the larger than ever engagement of anthropologists in developmental projects. In the twenties “sustainable” became the credo for development, and for anthropologists, cultural ecologists and human rights representatives, sustainability meant the capability of the people to preserve and maintained their mode of life. The usual stance is that developmental anthropology as a profession is constituted upon the general anthropology, and that one of its perspectives in relation to the development planning arises from the understanding of the process of birocratic decision making and the use of profound knowledge of cultures, institutions and historical trends in a particular country, as well as from the insights obtained from comparative studies of comparable institutions in other countries. The objective is to arrive to an unambiguous and anticipatory assessment of decisions-consequences relating to the distribution of resources, and the foremost trait of such perspective is the focus on, in a cultural pattern based, perceptions, goals, interests, strategies and organizations of the planned clients and members of other groups, including the elite and the administrators, whose cooperation is a precondition of change. On the other hand, anthropologists who reject such understandings of developmental anthropology, rebuff an occidental view of development as a historical necessity.

  17. 兴起中的技术人类学%The Rising of Technological Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓

    2015-01-01

    技术人类学可分为微观和宏观两种,微观技术人类学以物质文化研究为基础,宏观技术人类学则关注技术与社会的交互作用。技术人类学兴起的标志是莱蒙里尔和普法芬伯格对这两种理解进行总结,提出以社会技术系统为核心的技术人类学。传统人类学危机、科学与技术的区别、技术哲学经验转向和技术人类学的参与者视角是技术人类学得以兴起的四大原因。当前的技术人类学研究存在着学科建制不健全、研究范式不完善和个案研究不足三大问题。%Technological anthropology can be divided into microscopic anthropology and macroscopic anthropology.The former takes the studies of material culture as its basis while the latter is concerned with the interaction between technology and society.The rising sign of technological anthropology is that Pierre Lemonnier and Bryan Pfaffenberger summarized the two types of understanding,and put forward a new anthropology of technology by taking the social technology system as its core. The rising of technological anthropology can be attributed to the four factors—crises of traditional anthropology, differences between science and technology, empirical turning of technological philosophy, and participants’ perspectives of technological anthropology. As to the current research of technological anthropology,such problems do exist as incomplete discipline system,imperfect research paradigm and inadequate case studies.

  18. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology.

  19. 从《圣经·创世纪》看文学人类学的必要性和可能性%Study on the Necessity and Probability of Literary Anthropology from Genesis oBible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙仙艳

    2012-01-01

    Literary anthropology, given different perspectives, is subdivided into literary anthropology and anthropology of literature. With the focus on literary anthropology and Genesis oBible as a case study, a research is carried out on the necessity and probability of literary anthropology.%文学人类学由于切入视角不同,可以分为文学人类学和文学的人类学两个平行的分支,从文学人类学出发,以《圣经·创世纪》为个案探讨文学人类学的必要性和可能性。

  20. Epistemological and Anthropological Thoughts About Neurophilosophy: An Initial Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia París Albert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE At the dawn of the twenty-first century, neurophilosophy appears as a branch of neurosciences. The aim of this article is to review critically some of the epistemological and anthropological debates which neurophilosophy is putting on question again. In this sense the philosophical research conducted by the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace will be used as the main thread of the analysis. To accomplish this critical review, the article has been organized into two parts: the first is of epistemological nature, and the second has an anthropological perspective. This analysis will lead us to question the significance of the contributions of neurophilosophy to a better understanding of the human being.

  1. Digital Visualities and Materialities: paths for an anthropological walk

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    Elisenda Ardèvol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses digital technologies from an anthropological perspective, concentrating on ways in which cultural diversity, social inequality and the possibilities of change and social transformation have been discussed. We examine the ways in which the digital domain has been conceived, categories used to describe processes of change and continuity in everyday life, and the impact of digital technology on these. this approach leads us to question up how ethnographers have explored the relationships among local practices, global transits and digital technologies, and the material and visual aspects of the digital in cultural production and media communication. Finally, we discuss how to incorporate digital technologies in ethnographic practice and anthropological knowledge.

  2. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  3. The aesthetic imaginary as an anthropological locus. Thinking an Anthropology based on Imaginary.

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    Patricia María Calvo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process by which man is capable of creating beauty not only gives us a fruitive experience but also knowledge of our human nature. Therefore we intend to understand what epistemological possibilities a work of art opens and, ultimately, what we know of man through it and why. Out of an interdisciplinary and dialogical perspective, projected by authors as Adolphe Gesché and Hans-Georg Gadamer, among others, we propose that the imaginary world opened and established by art becomes a privileged locus for human knowledge. The imagery is the symbolic area built by the artists and the community, which influences and affects every member of it, and where the community builds its identity known.Key Words: Imaginary, aesthetics, poiésis, anthropology.

  4. Medical anthropology and the physician assistant profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that investigates how culture influences people's ideas and behaviors regarding health and illness. Medical anthropology contributes to the understanding of how and why health systems operate the way they do, how different people understand and interact with these systems and cultural practices, and what assets people use and challenges they may encounter when constructing perceptions of their own health conditions. The goal of this article is to highlight the methodological tools and analytical insights that medical anthropology offers to the study of physician assistants (PAs). The article discusses the field of medical anthropology; the advantages of ethnographic and qualitative research; and how medical anthropology can explain how PAs fit into improved health delivery services by exploring three studies of PAs by medical anthropologists.

  5. Controlled Vocabulary Standards for Anthropological Datasets

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    Celia Emmelhainz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to outline the use of controlled vocabulary standards for qualitative datasets in cultural anthropology, which are increasingly held in researcher-accessible government repositories and online digital libraries. As a humanistic science that can address almost any aspect of life with meaning to humans, cultural anthropology has proven difficult for librarians and archivists to effectively organize. Yet as anthropology moves onto the web, the challenge of organizing and curating information within the field only grows. In considering the subject classification of digital information in anthropology, I ask how we might best use controlled vocabularies for indexing digital anthropological data. After a brief discussion of likely concerns, I outline thesauri which may potentially be used for vocabulary control in metadata fields for language, location, culture, researcher, and subject. The article concludes with recommendations for those existing thesauri most suitable to provide a controlled vocabulary for describing digital objects in the anthropological world.

  6. Anthropological Component of Descartes’ Ontology

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    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  7. [Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Liu, Jian-ping; Ai, Yan-ke; Li, Liu-ji

    2008-07-01

    Biological, psychological and sociological model of medicine substantializes the old model lacking the social humane attributes. The new medical model makes people take medical anthropology into research and highly evaluate traditional medical system. Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is part of medical anthropology with three major characteristics: wide research scope, specificity, and integration. It has developed its own research methods, such as field investigation, comprehensive inspection and comparison study. Cultural anthropology provides an efficient research method for TCM, and its application would further develop TCM theory and form comprehensive evaluation on TCM effects.

  8. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Housing Areas: Lessons from Oaxaca City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Arthur D.

    The anthropological study of the city's role in the evolution of human systems requires the use of both macro and micro levels of analysis. From the macro perspective, the city is viewed as part of a wider complex society, while from the micro point of view, the city provides the context for understanding specific human institutions or processes…

  9. Identity and dignity within the human rights discourse: An anthropological and praxis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theological discourse mostly focuses on the moral and ethical framework for human rights and human dignity. In order to give theological justification to the value and dignity of human beings, most theologians point to the imago Dei as theological starting point for the design of an anthropology on human dignity. Within the paradigmatic framework of democracy, human dignity and human rights have become interchangeable concepts. This article aimed to focus not on ethics but on aesthetics: man as homo aestheticus, as well as the praxis question regarding the quality of human dignity within the network of human relationships. It was argued that human dignity is more fundamental than human rights. Dignity as an anthropological construct should not reside in the first place in the imago Dei and its relationship to Christology and incarnation theology. Human dignity, human rights and human identity are embedded in the basic human quest for meaning (teleology. As such, human dignity should, in a practical theological approach to anthropology, be dealt with from the aesthetic perspective of charisma, thus the option for inhabitational theology. As an anthropological category, human dignity should be viewed from the perspective of pneumatology within the networking framework of a �spiritual humanism�. In this regard, the theology of the Dutch theologian A.A. van Ruler, and especially his seminal 1968 work Ik geloof, should be revisited by a pneumatic anthropology within the parameters of practical theology.

  10. THE DEMAND FOR A NEW CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE: THE DOCTRINE OF HUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Malivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the investigation is to outline the main points of Hume’s interpretation of the basic anthropological project of the era based on radical cultural transformations of the early modern age; to represent a modern vision of Hume's anthropology as a response to the demand of the era and necessity to complete its basic project. Methodology. The research was based on phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. Originality. Contemporary understanding of the position of anthropological project in Hume's philosophy is regarded as unsatisfactory by the author. Development of the basic project as anthropological is rooted in scientific revolution and needs to be continued and completed. Contemporary prevalence of deanthropogical versions of Hume's philosophy is the result of underestimated significance of the concept of nature in the broad sense. According to the philosopher's texts, heuristic potential of Hume's position is emphasized by the author. The modern version of the basic project in the early modern age is criticized and demands significant changes to become anthropological. Findings. Modern perception of Hume’s philosophy as an anthropological project is unsatisfactory in terms of historical and philosophical science and needs detailed analysis. In order to understand the conditions of anthropological project significance, it is advisable to focus on: a scientific revolution and the necessity to complete it; b determine the role of the concept of nature in its broad sense. Nowadays the way of Hume's rethinking of the basic project of modern philosophy as insufficiently anthropological is quite heuristic. Empiricism, dogmatism, superstition and skepticism are the manifestations of the latter. For Hume, the era was as an incomplete anthropological project and its legacy as the most complete form of explication. Today the interest in the phenomenon of a human provides a reasonable basis to define that modern period is

  11. A Sport Anthropological Perspective on Singing-Dancing and Bird Totem Worship in Jiangyong Nushu Script%体育人类学视阈下江永女书文字中歌舞鸟图腾文化解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜保

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of sport anthropology,this study examines text symbols and bird totem worship in Jiangyong nushu script( women’s writing) ,singing and dancing tradition in it and the relationship between the bird totems and the singing-dancing. The aim is to achieve a better and clearer understanding of women sport in the his-tory of Jiangyong. We have made the following findings. Characters containing bird elements bear a relationship to the bird totem worship of ancient Yue people. Nushu characters incorporate bird,man and God in one. Nushu script is characterized by being regional,communal and symbolic,an interpretation of women’s communal consciousness, social status and gender consciousness in Jiangyong and a reflection of women’s cultural consciousness and spiritual comfort in a certain historical period. The art of singing and dancing in nushu script sometimes takes the form of sports games. Characters created based on singing and dancing originated in the worship of bird totems. Nushu script has seen a two-way flow,inheritance and cultural alienation during the process of self-construction and being con-structed. We conclude that the inheritance and protection of the original singing and dancing hidden in nushu script is impossible unless modern discourse hegemony and tyranny of knowledge are overcome,the laws governing the de-velopment of the art of singing and dancing in nushu script is explored in both historical and contemporary context, and the subject status and humanistic concerns of the inheritors of nushu script are fully respected.%从体育人类学的视角对江永女书文字符号与鸟图腾崇拜艺术,江永女书文字中的歌舞文化及歌舞鸟图腾文化展开了多元的考证与思辨,旨在通过女书文字的历史考证形成对江永女子体育文化的整理。研究认为:女书字符中的“鸟型”造字现象与古越人的鸟图腾崇拜具有精神上的继承与贯通,是古越文化的孑遗和

  12. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  13. Aesthetics and Anthropology of Megacities

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the aesthetic and anthropological research on the image of the megacities in the early 21st century, focusing on the case of Mexico City. Since art history has been revised and developed towards a “science of the image” —Bildwissenschaft in German—, objects and methods of research have been widely extended, so that even a topic like “megacities”, formerly monopolized by sociology, geography and economical studies, can be accepted as a contribution to our discipline. Aest...

  14. [The anthropological approach to the "other body"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Jacques J

    2011-06-01

    Research into the anthropology of the body has tackled this wide-reaching concept of the "other body", highly relevant when applied to the field of nursing care. From the healthy biological body to the sick body, the history of anthropology shows the stages of acceptance and rejection of the "other body", male, female and animal.

  15. ANTH1010 - Cultural Anthropology, Fall 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This course covers the basic areas of anthropology including biological evolution, the prehistoric evolution of early civilizations, language, culture and social life, and the analyses of the nature and variability of human institutions. However, the components that deal with cultural anthropology are heavily emphasized.

  16. Bibliography of Methods in Cultural Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, James, Comp.

    Over 300 resources on methods in cultural anthropology are listed under the following headings: archaeological methods; visual methods, tape recordings, and technical aids; cognitive anthropology and emic methods; community studies and complex societies; cross-cultural and hologeistic methods; ethnohistory; field work techniques and participant…

  17. The Relevance of Anthropology to Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Beverly

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of anthropological theory, methodology, and literature to language teaching is discussed. It is argued that culture should be taught explicitly in the language classroom, and that the anthropological theory of cultural relativity is useful in creating a judgment-free atmosphere. (Author/RM)

  18. 人类学视野下的“乡村牧歌”——以侗寨村落为例%The "Rural Idyll" in the Perspective of Anthropology --Taking a Dong Village as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈茜

    2011-01-01

    “乡村牧歌”是文化人类学的关键概念之一。与城市生活相比,它是一种自然、和谐、简单的乡村生活方式。文章以侗寨村落为例,对以“乡村牧歌”为主要生活方式的文化作了初浅的探讨和反思。%The "rural idyll" is one of the key concepts of cultural anthropology. In comparison to the city life, it is a natural, harmonious, simple style of the country life. The present paper takes a Dong village as an example, conducting an initial exploration and rethinking of the culture with the " rural idyll" as its main life style.

  19. A Medical Anthropology Perspective on the Documentary Tiger Day: Culture Fight against Diseases%《虎日》的医学人类学解读:以文化的力量对抗疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义强

    2011-01-01

    影视人类学电影基于小凉山彝族群众举行民间仪式进行戒毒的实践.探讨了以文化的手段和力量来对抗生物性疾病的可能性,创造了中国医学人类学中著名的艾滋病防治"虎日模式".%The documentary Tiger Day attempts to demonstrate an ancient rite to fight against the abuse of drugs among the Yi people of Liangshan area.lt create The "Tiger Day" . model of fighting against HIV/ AIDS in Chinese medical anthropology successfully.

  20. Theater of "bóias-frias": rethinking anthropology of performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Dawsey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthropology of performance, as understood by Victor Turner, provides interesting perspectives for the analysis of what may be referred to as the "theater of bóias-frias". Conversely, this theater may be of special interest for purposes of rethinking some of the main propositions which have arisen on the borders between anthropology and performance. Considering the specificity of "the practice which calculates the place from which one views things" of this theater, several topics present themselves as guidelines for the text which follows: 1 social dramas, 2 relations between social and aesthetic dramas, 3 symbols and montage, and 4 theater paradigms in anthropology. In this exercise to rethink some of the "classic" contributions of Victor Turner, Erving Goffman, and Richard Schechner, "elective affinities" have been found between, on the one hand, the writings of Walter Benjamin and Brechtian theater, and, on the other, the dramaturgical principles of the bóias-frias.

  1. [Environmental history as an anthropologic topic. Contribution to "chemical anthropology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, G

    1990-06-01

    Human population history is firmly connected with temporal and regional changes of the environment. Whether natural or anthropogene, alteration of environmental features lead to changes of human life-style and to the development of adaptive strategies. The demand of resources for his subsistence has led man to diverse impacts on his environment since ever. Thus, environmental history is a scientific topic for anthropologists. The research potential of trace element studies of excavated human skeletons for the reconstruction of natural and socio-cultural environments as well as for distribution patterns of hazardous substances is outlined for the European Middle Ages. The scientific value of unravelling past man/environment-interrelationships for both the historical and applied sciences and the place of any "chemical anthropology" within this context is discussed.

  2. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  3. History and future of visual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2011-03-01

    Visual recording of communication processes between communities or individuals by means of filming of photographing is of significant importance in anthropology, as it documents on site the specific features of various social communities in their encounter with the researcher. In terms of film industry, it is a sort of ethno-documentary pursuing originality and objectivity in recording the given subject, thus fulfilling the research mission. However, the potential of visual anthropology significantly exceeds the mere audiovisual recording of ethnologic realities. Modern methods of analysing and evaluating the role of visual anthropology suggest that it is a technical research service aimed at documenting the status quo. If the direction of proactive approach were taken, then the term ,visual anthropology' could be changed to ,anthropology of the visual,. This apparently cosmetic change of name is actually significantly more accurate, suggesting the denoted proactive swift in perceiving visual anthropology, where visual methods are employed to ,provokeanthropology of the visual, is promoted to a new scientific sub-anthropological discipline.

  4. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  5. Anthropology Research Approach of Meteorological Disasters:the Cultural Connotation of Ecological Civilization Construction from the Perspective of Addressing Climate Change%气象灾害的人类学研究途径--兼论应对气候变化视角下生态文明建设的文化内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维和; 周小俊

    2014-01-01

    Anthropology research approach of meteorological disasters is an important method of disaster anthropology research and is developed on the basis of meteorological disasters�research approach of“organiza-tion-system” and “politics-society”, which is a new-type research approach using cultural response as main line. The anthropology research contents of meteorological disasters can be summarized as the three aspects:cultural interpretation of meteorological disaster typology, meteorological disaster emergency, cultural response and adaptation in disaster relief, cultural recovery, transition and construction in the process of meteorological disaster recovery, and reconstruction. Anthropology research of meteorological disasters should use a combination of methods such as tracking survey, field investigation and disaster ethnography. Carrying out eco-logical civilization construction from the perspective of addressing climate change needs to survey ecological civ-ilization under the background of addressing climate change, introduce ecological civilization on the basis of solving the climate crisis, build ecological civilization on the main line of cultural response, and develop eco-logical civilization in the interaction of theory and practice.%气象灾害的人类学研究途径是灾害人类学研究的一个重要方法,是在气象灾害的“组织-制度”研究途径和“政治-社会”研究途径基础上发展起来的以文化回应为主线的新型气象灾害研究途径。结合我国气象灾害的实际,可以将气象灾害的人类学研究内容归纳为三个方面:气象灾害类型学的文化诠释,气象灾害应急、救灾中的文化应对和适应,气象灾害恢复、重建过程中的文化恢复、变迁和构建。气象灾害的人类学研究应综合运用追踪调查、田野调查和灾害民族志等方法。在应对气候变化视角下进行生态文明建设,要在应对气候变化的背景下

  6. A sociologist's apprentice of social anthropology perplexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Humberto Lapa Caria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the systematization of Communication presented in thematic panel on "Ethnography" at the Third Congress of Portuguese Anthropology, which took place in Lisbon, ISCTE / ICS, in April 2006. Bring therefore a few critical contributions to the reflection of Sociology in Anthropology in Portugal, only wanting to limit myself to a vision that results of my journey of learning between these two disciplines and at the same time, demand respect certain principles of the method anthropological So that my short words here, a contribution may be interesting for reflection between anthropologists.

  7. [Anthropology, gender, and contemporary nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo Crespo, Manuel

    2002-12-01

    We live in an age when decisive changes occur. Social changes in the field of Genre and Work Cultures will take on a crucial role regarding the development of Nursing. New technological advances, and a higher degree of specialization in the Nursing field, as well as the increase in the number of nursing professionals coming from the male genere, enter into conflict with traditional social structures and act as intellectual tools which are necessary to acquire a critical understanding of the times in which we live, where an anthropological evaluation of the Genre factor is essential as a beginning principle in order to explain the subordination of nursing professionals as this has existed up until our times.

  8. Violência e impunidade em pauta: problemas e perspectivas sob a ótica da antropologia forense no Brasil Violence and impunity in check: problems and perspectives under the optics of the forensic anthropology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lessa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A antropologia forense tem desempenhado um importante papel no combate à violência e à impunidade em muitos países do mundo. Apesar da sua reconhecida competência para lidar com restos humanos esqueletonizados, uma pesquisa realizada em delegacias de Polícia Civil e em institutos médico-legais de seis capitais brasileiras demonstrou o quanto a sua prática tem sido negligenciada. Os principais problemas apontados pela pesquisa são a falta de capacitação específica entre os profissionais que realizam as perícias em campo e laboratório, além da necessidade de implementação de um banco de dados de pessoas desaparecidas com informações de interesse antropológico. Como resultado desta situação, um número expressivo de cadáveres sai das instituições periciais sem identificação positiva e inquéritos policiais sobre homicídios permanecem sem resolução, contribuindo para o agravamento do quadro de impunidade e violência que assola o país.Forensic anthropology is playing an increasingly important role facing violence and impunity in many countries. A research performed at police stations of Civil Police and Forensic Institutes of six Brazilian capitals demonstrated that the practice of recover and positive identification of human remains has been neglected in different levels. The main problem is the lack of specific training of the professionals that accomplish the expertise in field and laboratory, but also the fact that no anthropological database of disappeared people is available. As a result of this situation, an expressive number of human remains leave the forensic institutes without positive identification, and criminal inquiries of homicides stay without resolution, contributing to the aggravation of the violence and impunity scenery that devastates the country.

  9. Perspectivas teóricas sobre medicina e profissão médica: uma proposta de enfoque antropológico Theoretical perspectives on medicine and the medical profession: an anthropological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se teoricamente o campo da medicina e da profissão médica sob o ponto de vista das ciências sociais. Foram focalizadas as obras mais representativas que abordam este assunto. A análise aponta o positivismo conservador e o marxismo ortodoxo como os principais obstáculos para o avanço deste campo de estudos. Sugere-se a introdução do conceito de cultura e do método antropológico de investigação para superar alguns dos principais entraves e contradições que paralisam o seu progresso.The medical field and profession are studied from the theoretical point of view of the social sciences. The most representative works on this subject are presented. The analysis shows that conservative positivism and orthodox Marxism are the main obstacles to development in this field of study. At the same time it suggests the concept of culture and the anthropological method of research as the best means for the overcoming of some of the main contradictions which paralyse its progress.

  10. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  11. Between Design and Anthropology: Improvising Embodied Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    ). It is only against this background that the complex anthropological dimension of Design Culture can be understood, extending far beyond the horizon of a design science concept of design, industry-near design thinking and marketing, or a product-oriented concept of manufacture. «Design Anthropology......D.A.» represents a cultural science handbook of «Design Anthropology», providing an epistemology, phenomenology and survey of the varieties of the extended concept of design. Here the design concept is placed at the centre of the nexus of meaning of cultural production that rests on the three...... pillars Segno, Mythus and Techne. Anthropological design research is trans-disciplinary, developing in the connexion between Visual Culture (signal, in/visibility, image/void, imagination, representation), Doing Culture (act, cooperation, relation, fabrication, exchange), Material Culture (object...

  12. Anthropology and/with/as Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    the notion of ‘learning’ beyond the classroom context(s), considering approaches that intersect across various fields, but which are firmly grounded in anthropological work – understood both as a way of learning in the field, with and through other beings and things, and the work we produce after, in our...... to the world. We therefore begin from an understanding that anthropology is not a method (e.g. ethnography) that can be applied to a particular field (e.g. schooling), but rather a specific approach, one in which epistemology and methodology are entangled. We are interested in anthropological work...... education be considered an anthropological field of endeavour? Notes Collections, including individual contributions, should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. On the basis of the proposals received, the editors of HAU, in consultation with Editorial Board members, will select a shortlist...

  13. Medical anthropology enters the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan; Rees, Tobias

    2011-08-01

    Medical anthropology is the smallest and perhaps least understood of the social and behavioral sciences of medicine. In this article, we indicate what makes the field distinctive and describe significant developments during the past two decades.

  14. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  15. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  16. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors in healthcare, such engagements and interventions can take many forms: Short-term consultancy work dedicated to achieving specific goals, long-term studies of broad changes in healthcare; management support within hospitals and public healthcare administration; or technology development with vendors of healthcare IT. The opportunities would seem to be manifold. Since the healthcare sector is a heterogeneous mix of interests, political agendas, professions et cetera, there is great merit in having people knowledgeable about this heterogeneity; able to facilitate meetings and processes between the various professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause and determine social development, whereas detailed studies reveal that determinants and causes are both technical and social. The challenges include the one of making one's knowledge and skills legitimate and relevant to health informatics. Having a degree from arts or social sciences is not necessarily impressive for people with similar degrees in medicine, computer science, and business administration. Another challenge is to design an engagement with health informatics that will generate insights which often requires time, while also providing quick results for project sponsors or collaborators. The chapter points at three issues that seem to be central foundations for appropriate and quality-driven research and interventions of the 'quick and proper' kind: Modes of engagement

  17. 情感的公共与私密:一个人类学研究的新视角%The Public and Private Spaces of Feelings:A New Perspective of Chinese Anthropological Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珩

    2015-01-01

    20世纪60年代以来的人类学研究出现了一个明显的转向,也就是从社会这一结构性空间的种种制度、体系、功能的考察和研究向着结构性空间的"填充物"——个体经验、自主性以及个体间交往的情感及其构成方式的转换.本文引用三部有关中国的人类学研究作品旨在说明,传统的中国人类学除了乡土社会的社区功能研究、仪式研究、宗族组织研究、小传统或农民社会的研究、城镇与乡村的地域级序研究之外,似乎应该加上情感这一重要的维度.情感的琐碎凌乱一直干扰着人类学者理论推衍的定力,再加上它展示的空间相对私密并且往往湮没在日常生活之中,因此如何从日常的言辞和交往中去发现情感和意义生产的途径也就越发考验人类学家的洞察力,并且也应该成为衡量民族志水平的试金石.%By quoting three recently published anthropological works about Chinese society, the au-thor aims to show the significance of the shift of focus for Chinese anthropology from the traditional stud-ies of ritual systems, kinship systems and regional hierarchical relations between villages and towns of the so called rural society or peasant society to another important dimension we may call as the structure of feelings. The bricolage and fragments of feelings reflected in the private and intimate level of routine life always get buried under people's daily activities, hence it is the responsibility of the anthropologists to ex-plore the meaning and significance of feelings from their routine rhetorical and social practices, as well as the strategies they adopt to fulfill the purposes required in social performances. The capability to repre-sent the structure of feelings thus is not only the touchstone of the insights of anthropologists but also a criterion to evaluate their ethnographies.

  18. 舞蹈人类学视角下湘西土家族摆手舞的文化基因解码%Cultural Gene of Xiangxi Tujia Waving Dance under the Perspective of Dance Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元翠

    2016-01-01

    Waving Dance,which is called "oriental disco",is the spiritual wealth that created by Tujia minority for thousands of years.Waving dance is a folk dance with distinctive Tujia ethnic characteristics and can reflect the Tujia ancient custom very well.Based on the dance anthropological theory,the action rhythmic characteristics,artistic features and national culture im-plication of Xiangxi Tujia Wave Dance were analyzed in this paper.Then the author points out that the Waving Dance is the cultural imprint of Tujia's living environment,the body language writing of its national history,the artistic expression of the so-cial organization structure and the stage show of its national belief.%摆手舞是土家族人民千百年来所创造的精神财富,有“东方迪斯科”之称,是最具土家族民族特色、最能反映土家族古老风俗的民间舞蹈。本文结合舞蹈人类学的相关理论,对湘西土家族摆手舞的动作动律特点、艺术特色及民族文化意蕴进行了分析,指出摆手舞是土家族人栖居环境的文化印记、民族历史的身体语言书写,是其社会组织结构形态艺术表达与民族信仰的舞台展示。

  19. Reflections on indigenous knowledge in the new perspective of contemporary Western ecological anthropology%地方性知识及其反思--当代西方生态人类学的新视野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗意

    2015-01-01

    最近20年,西方生态人类学地方性知识的研究发生了深刻转变,包括三个方面:现代性语境中地方性知识的边缘化与再发现,生态上的“高贵野蛮人”神话之颠覆和迈向实践领域的地方性知识研究,地方性知识的限度、权利及与全球和地方政治关系之反思。文章对这一转变和地方性知识最新研究进展进行评述,重点对地方性知识的反思进行剖析,并阐明这些研究对国内相关研究的启示。%In recent 20 years,the studies of indigenous knowledge in Western ecological anthropolo-gy have experienced dramatic transformations in three aspects:the marginalization and rediscovering of indigenous knowledge in the context of modernity,the subversion of the myth of the ecologically“noble savage”and the practice-based research orientation,and the reflections on its limitations and power as well as the relationship between global and regional politics.This paper discusses the trans-formation process and recent progress in the studies of indigenous knowledge,analyzes the implica-tions of these reflections on indigenous knowledge,and expounds the inspirations for the domestic re-search in this field.

  20. Marxist theory and anthropological practice : the application of French Marxist anthropology in field-work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Geschiere, P.L.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Geschiere, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction (is there a case for a Marxist approach in anthropological fieldwork - the structure of our argument). 2. The level of production as a problem in anthropological fieldwork (data on production - the concept of 'mode of production' - variations in the 'lineage mode of product

  1. Physiologie du risque face à l’Histoire, or, Health, Culture and Society: The possibilities of anthropology and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jouanjean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review of published research (Health, Culture and Society – Rawat Publications, India, 2000 seeks to introduce the reader to the driving themes of a work establishing the link between human physiological functions and social represetations. In doing so the author articulates the topic of prevention within a broad and complex social, historical and anthropological framework.

  2. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.

  3. Transforming Cognitive and Emotional Dissonance for Physiotherapy Students Learning Medical Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s physiotherapy has shifted concerns towardscultural, economic, philosophical, political and social questions, and moreflexible ways of speaking about and practicing physiotherapy. In response to bothglobal shifts and local demands, the Physiotherapy Division at the University ofCape Town (UC T) approached their Social Anthropology colleagues to teacha broader range of perspectives to their physiotherapy students. The objectiveof this research was to explore the changes experien...

  4. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  5. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences.

  6. Business Anthropology, Family Ideology and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Japanese." Their research often relies on second than first-hand knowledge, and can therefore be misleading. The author points to the perceived connections between the traditional household system, not just family ideology, and modern economic relations. He reminds us that what distinguishes anthropology......Like those of business and management studies, methodological and theoretical contributions of anthropology to the study of family business cannot be ignored. This article elucidates three interconnected themes relating to the development and practices of business anthropology and family ideology...... in Japan. It also looks at how the family ideology in Japanese business first described and explained by anthropologists has been taken up by those with an interest in the Japanese industrial system, but working in field of management and business studies without any particular specialization in "things...

  7. The Financial World as an Anthropological Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naymé N. Gaggioli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents existing approaches in Anthropology that have paved the way for the research of a contemporary significant object of study: the field of financial markets. The paper explores some of the most salient socio-cultural research leading to the conception of Social Studies of Finance, and presents some key contributions of these anthropological and sociological studies that challenge and present an alternative to the neoclassical approach. With their attention to detail, diversity and local specificities, this paper argues that anthropological knowledge can provide a unique understanding of the complex contemporary financial world, by which drawing attention to the diversity of forms taken by institutions, actors and practices that constitute the financial markets, particularly analyzing the specificity of local conditions in which these are developed.

  8. AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF THINGS: ETHNOGRAPHY AND METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    messias basques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographic essay is based on the book that resulted from a series of discussions promoted by a group of doctoral students in the Department of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University in late 1990s. Despite the diversity of ethnographic contexts, all authors share the challenge of recasting the relationship between anthropological theory and ethnographic method in relation to the study of what is conventionally called material culture. Hence the title Thinking Through Things, besides denoting an anthropological question about what informants do, and how the authors could develop versions on the ways from which they perceive and conceive of things also includes the main character of the meetings that led to the writing of this book.

  9. Social Anthropology and Social Science History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzer, David I

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced-and shunned-history in recent years.

  10. Towards a doubly reflexive ethnography: A proposal from the anthropology of interculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Dietz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the contemporary debate on ethnographic methodology in anthropology, this paper analyses how new methodological options arise throughout processes of educational interculturality and how these can nourish, rejuvenate and decolonize classica anthropological ethnography. The contrast between a postmodern anthropology and activist ethnography reveals possibilities for fruitfully complement social and political en gagement with the classical canon of ethnography, which is here illustrated for the sphere of Intercultural Studies and the emerging field of what may be called an anthropology of interculturality. The resulting, “doubly reflexive ethnography” completes the contrast of emic and etic approaches through a emic-etic dialectical, structure-oriented perspective, which is particularly suitable for studying institutions and organizations whose actors co-reflect on the same research process as the anthropologist her/himself. This proposal is finally summed up in a three-dimensional heuristic research model, which combines semantic, pragmatic and syntactic dimensions of ethnography and which is particularly suited for “inter-cultural”, “inter-lingual” and “inter-actor” diversity contexts.

  11. Critical Medical Anthropology--a voice for just and equitable healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witeska-Młynarczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a paradigm current in contemporary medical anthropology - Critical Medical Anthropology (CMA), which merges political-economic approaches with a culturally sensitive analysis of human behaviour grounded in anthropological methods. It is characterized by a strongly applied orientation and a devotion to improving population health and promoting health equity. The beginning of CMA dates back to the 1970s when the interdisciplinary movement called the political economy of health was developed. Today, CMA has grown into one of three major perspectives used in anthropological research devoted to health, illness and wellbeing. The author discusses the origins, key concepts and CMA's usefulness for social research, and its significance for the design of effective policies in the realm of public health. Examplary interventions and ethnographic researches are introduced and wider usage is advocated of such works and methods by bureaucrats and medical staff for understanding the patients' behavior, and the influence of social, economic and political factors on the workings of particular health systems.

  12. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  13. Approaching and Attending College: Anthropological and Ethnographic Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: This review article draws on the growing body of literature at the interfaces of anthropology and education, as well as other educational studies outside anthropology that have relevance to social and cultural frames. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Drawing together and analyzing anthropological and…

  14. ASPECTS OF BIOLOGICAL NEWS IN ANTHROPOLOGY OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Peter Herm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 9th International Congress of the “Gesellschaft of Anthropology” (GfA has been held in Gottorf during September 2011.The content of lectures and posters were Palaeoanthropology, Archaeology, Pre-historic Anthropology, Humanethology, Forensic Anthropology, Prevention and Clinical Anthropology, Gender studies, Ergonomics, Pedagogic, Mathematics and patent law.

  15. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Niyazi [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Kosal, Mehmet [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kosal@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Altay Atlihan, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: atlihan@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ulku.yuce@taek.gov.tr

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until {approx}200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating.

  16. The Colonization of Space. An Anthropological Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Tiziani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of space implies an adaptation of both physical and cultural type. The human species is characterized by a great adaptive capacity that, in a basically extreme environment, reveals all its plasticity. However, this capacity must be aided by appropriate technological solutions that identify the problems related to long stays in space, and to long space voyages. Anthropology could aid future colonizers rethinking the environment of the spacecrafts, and the habitats of future colonies. Last but not least, anthropology can prepare them to a possible encounter with alien intelligences very different from human way of thinking.

  17. [Aspects of fatigue in medieval anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König-Pralong, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Psychosomatic sympton of the sinful human soul, progress of natural and progressive wear of the psychic or corporeal machinery, exclusive property of the world of bodies or place of the obligatory link between the intellect and the body, fatigue crosses the philosophical and theological medieval literature. The various treatments of fatigue can, in their turn, serve as symptoms to differentiate the medieval anthropologies. This article presents four of their figures: the anthropology of danger elaborated by Augustin, Greek and Arabe medical diagnosis which is passed on the XIth century, and the readings of Aristotle's psychology by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas in the XIIIth century.

  18. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  19. Patient Centred Systems: Techno-Anthropological reflections on the challenges of 'meaningfully engaging' patients within health informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Chao; Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Roehrer, Erin; Showell, Chris; Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how Techno-Anthropology can contribute to more explicitly professional and ethically responsible reflections on the socio-technical practices involved in meaningfully engaging patients in health informatics research. The chapter draws on insights from health informatics research projects focused on chronic disease and self-management conducted in Tasmania during the last 10 years. Through these projects the paper explores three topics of relevance to 'meaningful engagement' with patients: (i) Patient Self-Management and Chronic Disease (ii) Patients as Users in Health Informatics research, and, (iii) Evaluations of outcomes in Health and Health Informatics Interventions. Techno-Anthropological reflections are then discussed through the concepts of liminality, polyphony and power. This chapter argues that beyond its contribution to methodology, an important role for Techno-Anthropology in patient centred health informatics research may be its capacity to support new ways of conceptualising and critically reflecting on the construction and mediation of patients' needs, values and perspectives.

  20. Eight Formulas for Fieldwork:Anthropological Fieldwork Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In anthropological research,meth-odology is very important,especially the methodol-ogy of fieldwork which we discuss in this article—it has become the modern anthropologists’ skill. Re-garding the methodology of fieldwork,the author states that the best methods and tools should be created by oneself. However,there are also some common questions in methodology. Among them, one of the most important is“what is anthropologi-cal fieldwork?”Actually it is very simple—name-ly,you must be“on the spot”. This is a basic principle of anthropology, especially for modern anthropology.

  1. How to Find Out in: Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is a guide for the anthropology student. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research, and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in six categories: (1) general, including guides and literature surveys; (2) encyclopedias and…

  2. The Anthropology of Dance. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    Over 250 monographs, journal articles, and papers are cited in this selected bibliography of resources on the anthropology of dance. Most of the entries were published during the 1960s and 1970s. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author and give information on title, publisher or journal, date, and page numbers. The bibliography is presented…

  3. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  4. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  5. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  6. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  7. Letter Writing and Learning in Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Writing has special importance in anthropology. Writing fieldnotes is a central methodology for documenting and analyzing culture, and written personal reflections upon this process are viewed as providing insight into how knowledge is produced by a "situated" researcher. That said, there is little discussion in the discipline about the…

  8. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  9. Political Anthropology and Modern World System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gačanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of a book by Vladimir Ribić, Politička antropologija i moderni svetski sistem. [Political Anthropology and Modern World System]. 2011. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Beogradu, Etnološka biblioteka 54, pp. 250.

  10. The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumeich, A; Weijts, W; Reddy, P; Meijer-Weitz, A

    2001-04-01

    In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions.

  11. Anthropological demography in Europe: Methodological lessons from a comparative ethnographic study in Athens and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Georgiadis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a descriptive account of the methods used to conduct a comparative ethnographic study of below-replacement fertility in Athens, Greece and London, UK. It argues that in order for anthropology and demography to forge a closer relationship each discipline first needs to gain a deeper appreciation of the other's methodological perspectives. The following discussion presents the key anthropological approaches employed to realize a research project on low fertility in Europe, and provides justification for their use. While the practices described in this paper might be familiar to anthropologists and qualitative demographers, they are less well-known in the wider demographic community. Those convinced of the benefits of the ethnographic approach to the study of fertility are also invited to consider the specific obstacles encountered in the course of this enquiry. This paper reaches the following methodological conclusions: 1 Findings from two ethnographic studies of low fertility can be compared and generalised if such concepts as 'comparison' and 'generalisation' are understood in the anthropological sense. 2 Those investigating fertility in Europe must remain critical of their position relative to their study participants, even if they are undertaking research 'at home'. 3 Exploring attitudes towards reproduction and experiences of family-formation in an urban setting presents unique challenges as does 4 asking women about their childbearing beliefs and practices. 5 Analysing press perspectives on low fertility must involve treating media representations as 'discourse' and 6 qualitative studies are invaluable to the low fertility debate because of their thematic contributions.

  12. 仪式与功能:体育人类学视野下的宾阳舞炮龙%Ceremony and Function:Binyang Firecracker-Dragon Dance from the Perspective of Sport Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱应华

    2015-01-01

    The article makes a specific description about Binyang Firecracker-Dragon dance ritual process based on the sport anthro⁃pology perspective,the literature research and field investigation,and analyzes its emotional catharsis,adjustment function,maintaining and the identity function,fitness and entertainment,cultural,educational,economic and social function. The paper holds the view that great changes in the functions of Binyang firecracker-Dragon dance ceremony is an inevitable result of cultural change because of the mo⁃dernity.%以体育人类学的视角,在文献资料调研和田野调查的基础上,对宾阳舞炮龙仪式过程进行了具体的描述,分析了舞炮龙仪式的情绪宣泄与调适功能、维系与认同功能、健身与娱乐功能、文化传承与教育功能、经济功能等社会功能,认为宾阳舞炮龙仪式由于现代性的切入所发生的功能意义上的嬗变是文化变迁的一种必然结果。

  13. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  14. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity.

  15. 民间智慧与草根创新--一种心理人类学的分析视角%Folk Wisdom and Grassroots Innovation:A Perspective from Psychological Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗劲; 师保国

    2014-01-01

    民间的智慧和创新是社会草根阶层为了生存以及实现其自身价值的需要而做出的一种创造性适应。文章首先基于认知资源使用的节省律对智慧与创新何以能在民间产生进行了思考,其次从顿悟与试误、学习与创造、革新与创新、分析与整合等方面分析了民间智慧和创新产生的认知过程特征,最后从有用与新颖、建设与破坏、投资与投机等角度剖析了这一现象的动机特征。%Folk wisdom and innovation can be regarded as a kind of creative adaption that grass⁃roots make for their survival and self-fulfillment. Grassroots innovation generates in special cognitive and motivational context because innovation usually require extensive mental and material resources that may not be rich in the grassroots. In this paper, we discussed the cognitive features of grassroots innovation from multiple psychological perspectives including contrasts between the processes of insight and trial-and-error, learning and creation, innovation and renovation, and decomposition and integration. The moti⁃vational features of grassroots innovation, however, were considered through contrasts between the empha⁃sis on usefulness and novelty, the aim of construction and destruction, and the intention of investment and speculation.

  16. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  17. 77 FR 5837 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... the cultural items may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  18. 76 FR 80401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO. The human remains and... transferred to Fallis F. Rees, who donated them to the University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

  19. An Anthropological Move Towards Tangible Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vedel

    2005-01-01

    User interaction design has for many years been concerned with the skills required in operating computers and machines. For keyboard and mouse operated, screen-based user interfaces the main focus has been on the cognitive skills of humans. This paper takes as a basic preamble that a shift from...... keyboards to tangible interaction design requires one to study the skills built through bodily movement. The emerging field of Anthropology of Movement can help in studying and understanding human movement. With inspiration from anthropology, philosophy and sociology, I have analyzed a short video sequence...... of a plant operator operating very tangible machinery. Tangible interaction can be regarded as a series of discrete actions, but based on the analysis I will argue that the movements in between the hands-on actions are crucial to understanding skilled user interaction. Possibly designing with respect...

  20. A critique of anthropological research on homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T K

    1977-01-01

    Since the 1970 resolutions of the American Anthropological Association, encouraging more research activity among anthropologists on the topic of homosexuality, there has been less than enthusiastic response. Rather than directly attempting to provide reasons for this research failure, this paper takes a look at what actually has been done by anthropologists with an eye to assessment of their major contributions. Thus, summarized are the studies on the role of the "berdache" in primitive cultures, with a critique of the terminological problems associated; a review of some of the ethnographic accounts of homoerotic behavior among primitive folk, with comments on the weaknesses of such treatments; and, finally, a discussion of the current typological approach to the study of the homosexual community, with its multimodal rather than unimodal emphasis. In short, this is a review article that tries to assess the impact of anthropological research for the ultimate understanding of this facet of humankind.

  1. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... access in a particular geographical region of the world. The present field guide attempts to do so while entertaining (and eventually discarding) the idea that the World Wide Web has similar areal qualities and constitutes a field in which the techno-anthropologist can go to do work...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  2. 道德历史人类学视域中我国多民族道德生活的历史变迁%Historical Changes of the Ethics in the Multi-ethnic Nation of China from the Perspective of Ethical Historical Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈文江

    2016-01-01

    It is a major turn in the orientation of the academic research on ethics and morality in China to probe into the occurrence and evolution of Chinese ethics,especially the great changes of the social ethics in modern times,from the perspective of the history of the ethics of multi-nation China.The changes of the paradigm has brought about changes in the subjects,content,topics,theoretical orien-tation,framework of analysis,and the research methodology,which have made the construction of the paradigm of the history of ethics in the multi-ethnic groups necessary and possible.By combining the empirical research of Anthropology and Sociology and the value analysis of Ethics,from the perspec-tives of daily lives,spiritual life and public intercourse life,the methodology studies the occurrence and the changes in core values,ethical culture and common spiritual home,thus forming a new theoretical analysis framework with empirical analysis dimension.From the perspective of this paradigm,the a-nalysis route of the historical changes of the ethics of Chinas multi-ethic groups can be examined as follows:the ethical origin of the concept of human beings in the ethics of the multi-ethnic nation;how the dharma of the human beings have been formed in the ethnic ethics;“where”the dharma of the hu-man beings have been formed in the ethnic ethics;the space of the presentation of dharma and the process of its social construction;and how the dharma has been spread and presented.%从多民族的道德生活史入手研究我国几千年文明史中伦理道德的发生演变,特别是近代以来社会道德伦理秩序的巨大变化,是我国伦理学研究方向的一个重大转变。这种研究范式把人类学、社会学的实证分析方法和伦理学的价值分析方法结合起来,从我国多民族的人的日常生活、精神生活以及公共交往生活三个层面,对多民族道德生活中的人的核心价值观念、伦理文化形态和共有精神

  3. Porta Palazzo, Anthropology of an Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Rachel E. Black, Porta Palazzo, The Anthropology of an Italian Market, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, 221 pp. Foreword by Carlo Petrini. Markets are trading spaces of a universal nature. They are places where people buy and sell small quantities of goods – mostly food, though not exclusively. Markets are also prime, symbolic places for fresh products; displayed in an eye-catching way, the goods emanate a whole range of colours, textures, aromas and smells that captivate...

  4. Designing anthropological reflection within an energy company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Louise Buch; Gunn, Wendy; Said Mosleh, Wafa

    2013-01-01

    The move towards a more liberalized energy market and the emergent smart grid technology has forced a Scandinavian energy company to begin rethinking the relation between themselves and private energy end users. Originally a unidirectional relationship, the present and future have potential...... ethnographic methods to investigate the system effect of private households’ participation. Our paper questions why this kind of approach is reproducing the unidirectional relationship instead of creating a bidirectional relationship. We propose an extension of the ethnographic approach whereby anthropological...

  5. Dance Anthropology: a discipline in expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The anthropological approach to dance now has asserted itself as an effective means for understanding dance in its whole context. For this reason, a synthetic view over the last ten years is proposed, analysing the studies appeared on the "Dance Research Journal", a scientific magazine among the most influential in the field. The analysis has given light, for opposed reasons, to those issues as multiculturalism and ballet that, for this reason, have been given here particular attention.

  6. Globalization and the Future of Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-LoupAmselle

    2004-01-01

    As we well know, anthropology traditionally defined itself as the study of ‘primitive' or ‘exotic' societies-including such sectors of Western societies as rural communities or ethnic minorities. Ever since the Malinowskian revolution, the legitimacy of the discipline has rested on a single foundation; the technique of long-term participant-observation within a clearly-bounded field site. And although

  7. History and Future of Visual Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Sviličić, Nikša

    2011-01-01

    Visual recording of communication processes between communities or individuals by means of filming of photographing is of significant importance in anthropology, as it documents on site the specific features of various social communities in their encounter with the researcher. In terms of film industry, it is a sort of ethno-documentary pursuing originality and objectivity in recording the given subject, thus fulfilling the research mission. However, the potential of visual anthro...

  8. Creative Cultural Anthropology as a Methodology Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the essence and prospects of creative cultural anthropology in the context of education, economy, labor and social wealth. The anthropology in question can become the methodology principle for a new historical social model arrangement as it originates from the universal abilities of the human race, developed on the moral basis of joint existence; productive creative force of man’s integral subjectivity; and technological power reasonably combining the goals, means of production and creative forces of nature. The author outlines the prospective development ways for cultural anthropology guiding the educational system - the anthropological society basis - with the aim of developing a cultured, moral, socially and professionally competent personality; enforcing individual creative potentials; guaranteeing high status of teachers; and providing social communication forms giving place to self-activity of individuals and groups, and intellectual and cultural work. The author confirms the need for higher education available for everyone; otherwise, education, limited by the empirical level and primary vocational training, results in the rising portion of common labor in the national economy. The consequences lead to growing intellectual heterogeneity in the structure of aggregate activity; functional discord between the common and complex levels of labor; suspension of innovative technology implementation in production and management; aggravation of socio-cultural differences to the level of hostile opposition; abating competitiveness of Russia. The author makes the conclusion that, for the beneficial scenario of society development, the main emphasize should be on the socio-cultural expanded reproduction of man; the educational sphere should receive the A- group status, leaving the B-group status to material production. 

  9. Creative Cultural Anthropology as a Methodology Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the essence and prospects of creative cultural anthropology in the context of education, economy, labor and social wealth. The anthropology in question can become the methodology principle for a new historical social model arrangement as it originates from the universal abilities of the human race, developed on the moral basis of joint existence; productive creative force of man’s integral subjectivity; and technological power reasonably combining the goals, means of production and creative forces of nature. The author outlines the prospective development ways for cultural anthropology guiding the educational system - the anthropological society basis - with the aim of developing a cultured, moral, socially and professionally competent personality; enforcing individual creative potentials; guaranteeing high status of teachers; and providing social communication forms giving place to self-activity of individuals and groups, and intellectual and cultural work. The author confirms the need for higher education available for everyone; otherwise, education, limited by the empirical level and primary vocational training, results in the rising portion of common labor in the national economy. The consequences lead to growing intellectual heterogeneity in the structure of aggregate activity; functional discord between the common and complex levels of labor; suspension of innovative technology implementation in production and management; aggravation of socio-cultural differences to the level of hostile opposition; abating competitiveness of Russia. The author makes the conclusion that, for the beneficial scenario of society development, the main emphasize should be on the socio-cultural expanded reproduction of man; the educational sphere should receive the A- group status, leaving the B-group status to material production. 

  10. Adam Smith: Anthropology and Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro-Cantero, R. (Raquel)

    2010-01-01

    Adam Smith was a moral philosopher. His economic and legal thought can't be separated from his moral psychology which frames his anthropological and social proposal. Experimental Newtonian methodology and Hume's empirism feed his approximation to the reality of human being. In this new context the traditional categories of society are defined and combined in a new way. In this paper I try to argue that the assumed optimism which sometimes is attributed to Smith about the proper functioning of...

  11. Value Formation of Basic Anthropological Connectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    and their political value formations. In this regard, the interdisciplinary contribution of Psychology is to explore how humans as active participants can and will participate in handling such value tasks. The article presents a general, theoretical, political-psychological model, which unites precisely these two...... aspects: The political value formations of the basic anthropological conditions in human life, and the capability and will to participate in solving the subsequent value tasks....

  12. The Anthropology of Potentiality in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Hoeyer, Klaus; Helmreich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, potentiality serves as a central concept in the life sciences and in medical practices. This special issue of Current Anthropology explores how genes, cells, bodies, and populations as well as technologies, disciplines, and research areas become imbued...... and practices associated with potentiality, we must integrate an awareness of our own social scientific assumptions about potentiality with critical scrutiny of how the word and concept operate in the lives of the people we study....

  13. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  14. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  15. 从企业人类学视角看老字号的"蜂窝式"发展模式 ——以张一元茶庄为例%A Study on"Cellular"Development Model of the Time-honored Brands: From Enterprise Anthropology Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继焦; 刘佳丽

    2015-01-01

    The development of the time-honored brand has different modes, some of those present a"cellular"de-velopment of the characteristics. The"cellular"development model is a description and analysis of the economic devel-opment mode to self resource allocation in time-honored brands. With the enterprise anthropology perspective analysis of Zhang Yiyuan tea"Cellular"development and found that it has"Cellular"development employability、business、net-work attributes as well as the overall economic structure of characteristics.The"cellular"type enterprise needs to focus on the value chain of close collaboration and effective consolidation, pay great attention to leader's choice and training, constructing communitive or the regional network, strengthen the innovation system and the innovation way of manage-ment and control the brand standard strictly, so as to achieve the goal of enhancing the brand competitiveness.%老字号的发展有着不同的模式,一些老字号的发展呈现出"蜂窝式"发展的特点."蜂窝式"发展模式是对老字号自我开展资源配置的经济发展模式的一种描述和分析.以企业人类学的视角分析张一元茶庄"蜂窝式"发展,其具有"蜂窝式"发展就业性、经营性、网络性以及经济结构整体性特点."蜂窝式"发展的企业需要关注价值链各环节的密切配合和有效整合,注重领导者的选择和培养,建构群体性或地域性网络,加强制度和经营方式的创新,严格把控品牌标准,从而增强品牌竞争力.

  16. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  17. A study of physical education and the course of anthropology%人类学的历程与体育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小明

    2013-01-01

      研究涉及体育人类学理论与方法研究。通过对人类学的来龙去脉进行全景式的梳理和展现,分析从体质人类学到文化人类学、欧陆和英美的学术传统与研究方法、走向应用与本土化3个人类学发展的视角对体育研究的影响,并强调了人类学文理融通和脚踏实地的两大特征对当今体育理论探索的现实意义。%The author studied theories and methods in sports anthropology. By reviewing and revealing the where-from and whereto of anthropology panoramically, the author analyzed continental, British and American academic traditions and research methods from physical anthropology to cultural anthropology, their influence on physical education study from such three perspectives of anthropological development as application and localization, and emphasized the realistic significance of such two major characteristics of anthropology as being equally good at arts and science and being hardheaded to the exploration of physical education theories nowadays.

  18. The guide from Omelas: Action anthropology with miracle icing

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-01-01

    Literary piece by Ursula Le Guin, a science fiction author, is linked with theoretical, as well as practical anthropology, in several ways. Her life, education, prose production and reception of her work create a whole, which is in many ways related with anthropology on the one, and the changes in the modern world on the other side. Her work has, owing to its great popularity, contributed to a great extent to the adoption of some primarily anthropological thesis with the broadest population (...

  19. The Anthropology of Horror: Theoretical Challenges and Epistemological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pišev

    2016-07-01

    In this thematic issue of Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology, for the first time in Serbian anthropology an opportunity arose to publish a collection of scientific texts about the horror genre in one place. Authors who generously submitted their papers for this thematic issue have shown that horror stories can be interpreted in a number of ways which demand a degree of interdisciplinarity, but without ever leaving the familiar framework of the anthropological focus.

  20. Martial Arts Anthropology for Sport Pedagogy and Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. CYNARSKI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the subject as well as the problem of corporeality and spirituality in the anthropology of martial arts. The authors attempt to show the vision of a new psychophysical education on the way of martial arts and the taking of personal patterns here. Analysies are made in the perspective of the holistic pedagogy and humanistic theory of martial arts.Qualitative methods, such as studying literature, direct interview and long-term participant observation were used. The authors wish to begin with the concept of corporeality as it is found in the available literature on the subject.The first author has been active in an environment of martial arts for over 30 years. Interviews and discussions were conducted with 9 martial arts masters of the highest rank.Results and conclusions. Psychophysical system of self-realization is an educational programme – a way which relates to spiritual development through physical and mental exercise, according to teaching by a particular master-teacher. Within the context of martial arts being used as a psycho-educational form of education, the body fulfills, above all, the role of a tool to be used on the way towards enlightenment and wisdom. It is utilized specifically in spiritual progress. Improving one’s physical abilities is therefore an ascetic journey of physical perfectionism and technical accomplishment all towards achieving spiritual mastery. In some cases, spiritual development is described in terms of energy (qi, ki and connected with the capacity of one’s health.Traditional understanding of martial arts is often mixed with combat sports or systems of meditation are numbered among movement forms. The opportunity to avoid similar mistakes is to adopt a theoretical perspective of the anthropology of psychophysical progress. Paradigm of systematic approach and integral outlook on the human allow for understanding of the sense of being involved in ascetic and

  1. Cultural Anthropology and Chinese Hakka Studies%文化人类学与中国客家研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建新

    2012-01-01

    AbAnthropological theory and methods has been used widely by many disciplines for its uniqueness. But it has been neglected by Hakka studies since they pay more attention on history method. In fact, Hakka study is born with anthropology character. However, compared with the study in Hong Kong and Taiwan, anthropologists of the main land have neglected the anthropological perspective. So it is very important to think about the way to combine anthropology and Hakka. On the other hand, Anthropology should compare its own development when being used. In this condition, the author tried to explore the future of Hakka and anthropology by combining their development and their inter-relationship.%文化人类学因其理论与方法的独特性,受到许多学科的运用与借鉴,客家研究便是典型。传统客家研究更多注重历史学的研究取向,人类学相对来说受到忽略。事实上,客家研究生来便与人类学结缘。从人类学视角下研究客家的多是香港、台湾与海外人类学者,大陆人类学者相对较少。人类学可以在客家研究中享有更多的话语权,人类学与客家研究结合拥有广阔的未来。

  2. Hegel’s Anthropology, Christology, and Eschatology: a Contemporary View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Chepurin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to prove that anthropology, Christology, and eschatology in Hegel’s later Berlin period of thought were all inter-related. The author contends that Hegel’s triadic vision of the Christ event (Incarnation-Death-Resurrection is formative for his system of Anthropology, as well as for the structural basis of his philosophy of subjective spirit. In other words, for Hegel, his anthropology reflects his Christology. Moreover, Hegel’s anthropology and Christology lead the way to the formulation of his eschatological thought which itself is built around his interpretations of the Transfiguration and Resurrection events in the life of Christ

  3. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  4. 76 FR 36152 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department.... Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  5. 76 FR 14067 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Anthropology, Amherst, MA and Nantucket Historical Association, Nantucket, MA AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary object in the possession of the University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst... human remains was made by University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, professional staff...

  6. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department..., Anthropology Department, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department....

  7. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... may contact Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human...

  8. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... and associated funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology,...

  9. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains....

  10. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington...

  11. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National..., Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from... physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the...

  12. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  13. 78 FR 59962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Anthropology, Amherst, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... request to the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology. If no...

  14. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  15. 76 FR 28075 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit... Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI. The human remains and associated funerary objects... Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  16. [The Base of the Skull. Rudolf Virchow between Pathology and Anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his scientific career, the pathologist and anthropologist Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) examined countless skulls, gradually changing his perspective on this object of research. Initially, he was mainly concerned with pathologically deformed skulls. From the 1850s onwards, he gradually developed a more anthropological approach, and anthropology increasingly came to dominate his scientific interest. This article shows how different influences became central for the establishment of his specific and dynamic model of the human skull development and its successful application in anthropology. Crucial for this process were Virchow's collaboration with his teacher Robert Froriep (1804-1861) in the department of pathology of the Charité, his research on cretinism and rickets, as well as his description of the base of the skull as the center of skull development. His research work was attended by and showed a reciprocal interaction with the buildup of large skull collections. This article uses Virchow's original publications on skull pathology as well as his still preserved skull specimens from the collection of the Berlin Museum of Medical History at the Charité for an integrated text and object based analysis.

  17. From forest fires to fisheries management: anthropology, conservation biology, and historical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J; Rick, Torben C

    2013-01-01

    Human-environmental relationships have long been of interest to a variety of scientists, including ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and many others. In anthropology, this interest was especially prevalent among cultural ecologists of the 1970s and earlier, who tended to explain culture as the result of techno-environmental constraints. More recently researchers have used historical ecology, an approach that focuses on the long-term dialectical relationship between humans and their environments, as well as long-term prehuman ecological datasets. An important contribution of anthropology to historical ecology is that anthropological datasets dealing with ethnohistory, traditional ecological knowledge, and human skeletal analysis, as well as archeological datasets on faunal and floral remains, artifacts, geochemistry, and stratigraphic analysis, provide a deep time perspective (across decades, centuries, and millennia) on the evolution of ecosystems and the place of people in those larger systems. Historical ecological data also have an applied component that can provide important information on the relative abundances of flora and fauna, changes in biogeography, alternations in food webs, landscape evolution, and much more.

  18. Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global warming on health and human societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Hans A

    2008-01-01

    This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and environmental sustainability.

  19. A dialogue between naturopathy and critical medical anthropology: what constitutes holistic health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Hans A; Beale, Cheryl; Canaway, Rachel; Connolly, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Building on a dialogue between three trained naturopaths and a proponent of critical medical anthropology (CMA), this article highlights the relationship between health and society from the viewpoint of two fields that share this focal concern. Both naturopathy and CMA are committed to the notion of holistic health, although their approaches have historically been somewhat different. The responses of the three naturopaths to CMA exhibit both similarities and differences, particularly in terms of insights that CMA may make to naturopathy. This essay also articulates the CMA perspective of naturopathy and posits lessons that naturopathy can teach CMA.

  20. Once a mother : Relinquishment and adoption from the perspective of unmarried mothers in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.

    2007-01-01

    This research is an anthropological investigation into the decision-making processes of unmarried mothers in Tamil Nadu with regard to the relinquishment or acceptance of their children. This anthropological investigation focuses on these decision-making processes from the mothers' perspectives and

  1. Once a mother : relinquishment and adoption from the perspective of unmarried mothers in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an anthropological investigation into the decision-making processes of unmarried mothers in Tamil Nadu with regard to the relinquishment or acceptance of their children. This anthropological investigation focuses on these decision-making processes from the mothers' perspectives and

  2. 77 FR 5839 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology....

  3. The Perils of Public Anthropology? Quiescent Anthropology in Neo-Nationalist Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nordic anthropologists were remarkably absent from the news media in Scandinavia during the Muhammad Cartoon issue of 2005/6. This chapter discusses perils of public anthropology as seen in the research engagement with the lopsided and simplified representation of ethnic and religious minorities...... discrimination, intolerance, political manipulation, and inequalities....

  4. The Perils of Public Anthropology? Quiescent Anthropology in Neo-Nationalist Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nordic anthropologists were remarkably absent from the news media in Scandinavia during the Muhammad Cartoon issue of 2005/6. This chapter discusses perils of public anthropology as seen in the research engagement with the lopsided and simplified representation of ethnic and religious minorities...

  5. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  6. Globalization, differentiation and drinking cultures, an anthropological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wilson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et sa consommation ne renvoient pas simplement au domaine économique. L’alcool est devenu aujourd’hui une partie intégrale des relations sociales dans différentes cultures au point où son importance globale est souvent sous-estimée par ses plus ardents critiques. En dépit de ses conséquences directes sur la santé, sa consommation a pris une certaine ampleur dans le monde industriel développé. Certainement son rôle central dans la construction des identités individuelles explique sa position clé au sein des sociétés. Que nous dit le saké à propos du Japon ou le vin de Bourgogne sur la France? Que nous dit la consommation ou l’abstinence d’alcool sur les questions d’identité individuelle, d’ethnicité, de classe et de culture? Quelle place tient l’alcool dans la définition de soi et dans la notion de résistance? Répondre à ces questions et à d’autres est le but essentiel de cet article qui examine la consommation d’alcool à travers différentes cultures et ce que boire signifie pour ceux qui choisissent de consommer ou de s’abstenir. De l’Irlande à Hong-Kong, Mexico à l’Allemagne, l’alcool occupe un certain nombre de fonctions sociales, religieuses, politiques et familiales. Les cultures du boire définissent ces consommations dans le cadre plus large des pratiques sociales et montrent comment classes sociales, ethnicité et nationalisme peuvent s’exprimer à travers cette commodité. En partant d’approches de terrain, les contributeurs analysent l’interface entre culture et pouvoir dans les bars et pubs, la signification des images publicitaires, le rôle de ces boissons dans la vie quotidienne. Le résultat est la première publication comparative sur les questions de l’impact que la consommation d’alcool a sur l’identité nationale dans le monde aujourd’hui.Alcohol is not only big business, it has become an essential part of social relations in so many cultures that its global importance may be outdistancing its critics. Despite grim health warnings, its consumption is at an all-time high in many parts of the developed world. Perhaps because drinking has always played a key role in identity, its uses and meanings show no signs of abating. What does sake tell us about Japan or burgundy about France? How does the act of consuming or indeed abstaining from alcohol tie in with self-presentation, ethnicity, class and culture? How important is alcohol to feelings of belonging and notions of resistance? Answering these intriguing questions and many more, this article looks at alcohol consumption across cultures and what drinking means to the people who consume or, equally tellingly, refuse to consume. From Ireland to Hong Kong, Mexico to Germany, alcohol plays a key role in a wide range of functions religious, familial, social, even political. Drinking Cultures situates its consumption within the context of these wider cultural practices and reveals how class, ethnicity and nationalism are all expressed through this very popular commodity. Drawing on original fieldwork, contributors look at the interplay of culture and power in bars and pubs, the significance of advertising symbols, the role of drink in day-to-day rituals and much more. The result is the first sustained, cross-cultural study of the profound impact alcohol has on national identity throughout the world today.

  7. INTERROGATING GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURE IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Sekh

    2012-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to examine and highlight the issues of cultural globalization and globalization of cultures with particular reference to India. To deal with these, I will discuss and analyze the concepts of globalization, cultural globalization and the nature of interrelation between global and local cultures in general and of India in particular. How the non-Indian global cultural elements are spreading among the Indians and how the Indian cultural elements are diffusing ov...

  8. The Anthropological Study of “Insect Society” in Evolutionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Quanqin; Zhang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionism is the first discipline paradigm in the history of anthropology.As early as 1801, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist clearly put forward the notion of evolution.Howev-er,it was not until C.R.Darwin published his book The Origin of Species in 1859,that the theory of evo-lution became widely regarded by the world.In ad-dition to the field of biology, evolutionism also broadly and deeply influenced the fields of anthro-pology,philosophy and psychology,etc.In the study of evolutionism,a comparative investigation between insect society and human society has attracted the special interest of many scholars.In addition to Charles Robert Darwin,Aldous Leonard Huxley,Jo-ham Jakob Bochofen and Henri Bergson published special works on this aspect.These scholars not only lived during the era of evolutionism, their thinking and research were more or less connected with evo-lutionism and insect society.Their research spawned a series of new theoretical thinking on the division of labor,ethics and morality,matrilineal society,and the creation of evolution,etc.Clarifying the research on“insect society” in evolutionism is necessary and important for us to understand the construction of social theories during that time.Hence, this article seeks to review“insect society”in the eyes of these scholars and make comparisons among them.

  9. COMPLEXITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM ANTHROPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    To be sure, the most complex sciences of all are the socalled human, i.e. social sciences. This is an intuition that goes without saying. In science in general, though, intuition is not enough. We have to as it happens. It is my contention in this paper to prove the complexity of human or social sciences in the very sense that or mathematics to be complex. The analyses and reflections are based upon a revision. At the end, I focus particularly on some contributions anthropology can make in th...

  10. ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Leonidovich Karavaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article, the author envisages the anthropological problems of the modern information society. There is a new definition of information society, the main factor of which is the automatization of information processes. Different types of information technology impacts (informational and technological impacts on human being are considered. In addition, the author shows the primary transformation of human being due to modern information technologies, based on computer and telecommunication technique.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-17

  11. Medical anthropology: essays and reflections from an Amsterdam graduate programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Gerrits, T.; Challinor, J.

    2014-01-01

    This volume is a collection of twenty articles by graduates of the Amsterdam Master’s in Medical Anthropology (AMMA) at the University of Amsterdam. The university is known for outstanding and innovative work in the field of medical anthropology and teaching combines a strong ethnographic basis with

  12. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  13. The Teaching of Anthropology: Problems, Issues, and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Ed.; White, Jane J., Ed.; Furlow, Richard H., Ed.; Rice, Patricia C., Ed.

    This volume brings together the insights of more than 40 contributors who demonstrate that anthropology has timely, important, and enduring messages for students and the public. The book provides the first comprehensive examination of teaching issues across all the subfields of anthropology since the 1963 publication of "The Teaching of…

  14. Course File for "Documentary Film, Visual Anthropology, and Visual Sociology."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Keyan G.; Shepperson, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that addresses and relocates questions of representation and reconstruction in the context of reflexive explanations for ethnographic films. Examines questions of power/power relations; anthropological and media construction of the Other; and trends in visual anthropology. Contextualizes the course within the human experience of…

  15. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  16. New trends in the anthropology of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question, is there such an entity as a separate field of the anthropology of Southeast Asia? Has the crisis in anthropology in the 1970s and ‘the literary turn’ of the 1980s led to a renewed interest in area studies? A number of topics that originally belonged to the field

  17. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  18. Toward a Cultural Anthropology of Disability and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenson, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which cultural anthropology's concepts, theories, and methods have been applied to the understanding and conceptualization of disability and rehabilitation as a cultural phenomenon. Reviews the literature of anthropology and the literature of disability and rehabilitation. Results revealed that a lot of anthropologists'…

  19. Medical Anthropology in the Curriculum: A Revisit to the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Robert E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the last 15 years in the development of medical school departments with interests in the various behavioral science fields, including anthropology, based on this study only five percent of U.S. medical students had the opportunity to attend lectures in the field of medical anthropology. (Editor/JT)

  20. Ecce Homo: Science and Society Need Anthropological Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Bell, Joshua A; Rick, Torben C

    2016-08-01

    Scientific collections are crucial to understanding the biological and cultural diversity of the Earth. Anthropological collections document the human experience and the interactions between people, ecosystems, and organisms. Unfortunately, anthropological collections are often poorly known by the public and face a variety of threats to their permanent care and conservation.

  1. On Practicing Anthropology in Management Transformation and Innovation%人类学引领管理变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞青

    2012-01-01

    近几年来,以施政和解决实际问题为导向的应用研究,即应用人类学的发展更是引人注目,工商人类学作为一门重要的应用人类学在企业管理中发挥着重要作用。可以说,人类学正在引领着一场管理事务的巨大变革。文章仅从社会营销和文化差异管理的视角展开分析。%In the past few years, much attention has been attracted to the applied studies aimed at administration as well as solving practical problems. The development of applied anthropology has been a much studied subject. Business anthropology, as a branch of applied anthropology, plays an important role in business management. It is believed that anthropology will bring about a transformation in management, of which the author makes an analysis of from the perspective of social marketing and cultural differences management.

  2. Theory and the scientific basis for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Clifford; Boyd, Donna C

    2011-11-01

    Forensic anthropology has long been criticized for its lack of a strong theoretical and scientific foundation. This paper addresses this problem by examining the role of theory in forensic anthropology at different hierarchical levels (high-level, middle-range, and low-level) and the relevance of various theoretical concepts (taphonomic, agency, behavioral archaeology, nonlinear systems, and methodological theories) to the interpretation of forensic contexts. Application of these theories to a case study involving the search for the WWII Goettge Patrol illustrates the explanatory power these theories offer to the interpretation of forensic events as the end product of an often complex set of environmental constraints and behavioral interactions and choices. It also emphasizes the importance of case studies in theory building and hypothesis testing. A theoretical foundation does indeed currently exist in forensic anthropology; however, a recognition and broader implementation of anthropological (archaeological) theory is warranted and will further define forensic anthropology as a scientific endeavor.

  3. Geostatistics and spatial analysis in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, John H

    2008-05-01

    A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not often been applied in biological anthropology. Geostatistical analysis begins with the examination of a variogram, a plot showing the relationship between a biological distance measure and the geographic distance between data points and which provides information on the extent and pattern of spatial correlation. The results of variogram analysis are used for interpolating values of unknown data points in order to construct a contour map, a process known as kriging. The methods of geostatistical analysis and discussion of potential problems are applied to a large data set of anthropometric measures for 197 populations in Ireland. The geostatistical analysis reveals two major sources of spatial variation. One pattern, seen for overall body and craniofacial size, shows an east-west cline most likely reflecting the combined effects of past population dispersal and settlement. The second pattern is seen for craniofacial height and shows an isolation by distance pattern reflecting rapid spatial changes in the midlands region of Ireland, perhaps attributable to the genetic impact of the Vikings. The correspondence of these results with other analyses of these data and the additional insights generated from variogram analysis and kriging illustrate the potential utility of geostatistical analysis in biological anthropology.

  4. “Human Nature”- Oriented Explanation of Ethnic Love Literature from the Perspective of Literary Anthropology--Long Zhu and The Black Steed as An Example%少数民族爱情文学“人性观照”意蕴的文学人类学阐释--以《龙朱》、《黑骏马》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭

    2016-01-01

    Literary Anthropology uses the method of Cultural Anthropology to research literature. The content of Literary Anthropology Criticism mainly includes the Primitivism Criticism and Mythological Archetypal Criticism. The ethnic literature Long Zhu and The Black Steed are the works of love literature, which involves Primitivism,Semi Primitivism ,“Archetype”and the same theme of “Human Nature”.%文学人类学的要旨是借鉴和运用文化人类学的视野、方法研究文学。文学人类学批评的内容特征主要包括原始主义批评与神话原型批评。少数民族爱情文学作品《龙朱》和《黑骏马》具有原始主义、半原始主义的典型特征以及“原型”的深层意蕴,作家于文本中对“人性”进行了细致的观照。

  5. Social-ecological systems, social diversity, and power: insights from anthropology and political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fabinyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A social-ecological system (SES framework increasingly underpins the "resilience paradigm." As with all models, the SES comes with particular biases. We explore these key biases. We critically examine how the SES resilience literature has attempted to define and analyze the social arena. We argue that much SES literature defines people's interests and livelihoods as concerned primarily with the environment, and thereby underplays the role of other motivations and social institutions. We also highlight the SES resilience literature's focus on institutions and organized social units, which misses key aspects of social diversity and power. Our key premise is the importance of inter- and multi-disciplinary perspectives. To illustrate this, we draw attention to the critique of earlier ecological anthropology that remains relevant for current conceptualizations of SESs, focusing on the concepts of social diversity and power. And we discuss insights from social anthropology and political ecology that have responded to this critique to develop different ways of incorporating social diversity and power into human-environment relations. Finally, we discuss how these social science perspectives can help improve the understanding of the "social" in SES resilience research.

  6. 77 FR 23502 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO, has completed...

  7. 78 FR 36239 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Anthropology, Detroit, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology (hereafter WSU Museum) has completed an inventory of... Anthropology, Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology, 3056 F/AB, Detroit, MI...

  8. Serious games: Theory in anthropology since the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bošković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical overview of recent theories in anthropology, particularly following Ortner’s groundbreaking 1984 summary, as well as debates opened up by the Writing Culture symposium and the book that followed (Clifford and Marcus 1986. Beginning with Ortner’s theory of practice, the author presents basic elements of several theoretical currents that influenced anthropology’s development in the last few decades, with particular emphasis on the use of the concept of culture. Post-1980s years provided for increased visibility of other anthropologies, outside of traditional “centers” of anthropological knowledge (i.e. Anglo-American, French and German anthropologies.Some representatives of these traditions, together with certain modifications of structuralism, aided by representatives of the “deconstructionˮ movement (especially in France, additionally influenced the self-questioning in contemporary anthropology, leading gradually to what is sometimes referred to the “ontological turnˮ in contemporary anthropology, exemplified by the Brazilian anthropologist Eduardo Viveiros de Castro. Representatives of this “turn” also see themselves as successors of the theory of practice. The author points to some serious implications of this “turnˮ – including pushing anthropology into the realm of pseudo-science, and making it completely irrelevant for understanding and interpretation of the contemporary world.

  9. Anthropology and cultural neuroscience: creating productive intersections in parallel fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R A; Seligman, R

    2009-01-01

    Partly due to the failure of anthropology to productively engage the fields of psychology and neuroscience, investigations in cultural neuroscience have occurred largely without the active involvement of anthropologists or anthropological theory. Dramatic advances in the tools and findings of social neuroscience have emerged in parallel with significant advances in anthropology that connect social and political-economic processes with fine-grained descriptions of individual experience and behavior. We describe four domains of inquiry that follow from these recent developments, and provide suggestions for intersections between anthropological tools - such as social theory, ethnography, and quantitative modeling of cultural models - and cultural neuroscience. These domains are: the sociocultural construction of emotion, status and dominance, the embodiment of social information, and the dual social and biological nature of ritual. Anthropology can help locate unique or interesting populations and phenomena for cultural neuroscience research. Anthropological tools can also help "drill down" to investigate key socialization processes accountable for cross-group differences. Furthermore, anthropological research points at meaningful underlying complexity in assumed relationships between social forces and biological outcomes. Finally, ethnographic knowledge of cultural content can aid with the development of ecologically relevant stimuli for use in experimental protocols.

  10. Anthropology and business: reflections on the business applications of cultural anthropology.

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak Raj Pant; Fernando Alberti

    1997-01-01

    Today's business have international and intercultural dimensions. The complexity of market, organizational climate and culture and the management of human resources demand interdisciplinary and intercultural approach which are available in anthropological researches and methods. The consumer world has its own developments, diversifications and psycho-cultural fermentation. These changes pose new challenges for the designers and suppliers of products, services, systems and processes. Many chan...

  11. Anthropology and the peasant class: the pertinence of the persistent. Anthropological reflections on peasant internationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernán Contreras Román

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops an initial discussion on the persistence of the peasant class in anthropology as an awkward object, which since it has become asubject for the discipline has  obliged anthropologists to re-examine their disciplinary identity and re-think their theoretical  bases. We start from the idea that both the emergence and the decline of peasant studies in the discipline have corresponded with localizable social, intellectual and political contexts. For this  reason we present the current struggle of peasant internationalism, represented by the international movement Vía Campesina, for food sovereignty and international recognition of the  rights of peasant men and women. These struggles are considered to constitute a politically novel space which has the potential to generate political opportunities for peasant claims in the face of  neoliberal despoliation. Finally, we reflect on how these struggles again present the peasant class as an awkward object for anthropology and demand anthropological discussion of the subject.

  12. The guide from Omelas: Action anthropology with miracle icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Literary piece by Ursula Le Guin, a science fiction author, is linked with theoretical, as well as practical anthropology, in several ways. Her life, education, prose production and reception of her work create a whole, which is in many ways related with anthropology on the one, and the changes in the modern world on the other side. Her work has, owing to its great popularity, contributed to a great extent to the adoption of some primarily anthropological thesis with the broadest population (not only among Americans and thus significantly influenced the change of the public discourse-the shaping of the contemporary ideal picture of the world.

  13. Observing the other: reflections on anthropological fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, P

    1994-01-01

    Aspects of anthropological fieldwork are examined from a psychoanalytic viewpoint using two sources: (1) Malinowski's A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term, a fieldwork journal he kept in New Guinea and the Trobriand Islands "as a means of self-analysis"; (2) the analysis of an anthropologist both before and after she returned from the field. Malinowski's Diary, written in a virtually free-associative form, illustrates how fieldwork stimulates derivatives of significant early infantile conflicts. The patient's analysis revealed the unconscious meaning of, and motivation for, fieldwork for this particular individual. Based on these data, it is postulated that during fieldwork a new, emotionally charged object relationship, with its concomitant transference responses, may be unconsciously established by the anthropologist with the alien society being studied.

  14. Critical Medical Anthropology in Midwifery Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Newnham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the use of critical medical anthropology (CMA as a theoretical framework for research in the maternity care setting. With reference to the doctoral research of the first author, we argue for the relevance of using CMA for research into the maternity care setting, particularly as it relates to midwifery. We then give an overview of an existing analytic model within CMA that we adapted for looking specifically at childbirth practices and which was then used in both analyzing the data and structuring the thesis. There is often no clear guide to the analysis or writing up of data in ethnographic research; we therefore offer this Critical analytic model of childbirth practices for other researchers conducting ethnographic research into childbirth or maternity care.

  15. An Anthropology of Learning in Epistemic Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    I connect Karin Knorr-Cetina's concept of ‘epistemic cultures’ with an anthropological conceptualization of practice-based learning. The theory of practice-based learning I explore departs from the cultural psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s notion of word-meaning which can be seen as a basic unit...... of analysis in cultural historical activity theory. However in relation to practice-based learning it is necessary further to explore how newcomers learn to perceive ‘epistemic objects’ in a complex process where learning concerns how material artefacts and meaning are connected in actual doing as well...... as learning what not to do. If ‘epistemic cultures’ in science create and warrant knowledge we may follow in closer detail how newcomers as physics students learn to create and warrant knowledge through everyday practices, which over time teach them new words and new meanings tied to words and bodily (re...

  16. Homo religiosus : philosophical anthropology Viktor Emil Frankl 's .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius da Costa Meireles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, entitled The Homo religiosus: the philosophical anthropology of Viktor Emil Frankl, is rooted in the anthropology of Frankl and aims to understand Frankl’s anthropology and its spiritual dynamic in religious experience. Using theoretical-bibliographical research with these main works—The Ignored Presence of God (1948, The Unconditioned Man (1949, Patient Man (1950, and The Search for God and Questions about the Meaning of Life (1984—this work traverses through Frankl’s anthropology, the spiritual dimension, the search for meaning, and one’s relationship with God. The work is divided into three parts. The first part consists of contextualization and critique. The second part puts forward a proposal, and the third part discusses the experience of the Homo religiosus.

  17. Physical anthropology and the dental and medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, W M

    1976-11-01

    The rise of two sub-specialties in Physical Antrhopology traces back to the Anatomy Departments of Schools of Medicine in Germany and France during the nineteenth century. The study of human diversity in bones and bodies was largely by medically-trained anatomists. There developed Medical Antropology and Dental Anthropology, employing osteometry and craniometry on the skeleton, somatometry and cephalometry on the living body. As a result cross-sectional studies gave way to longitudinal studies and X-ray techniques were added to purely mensurational procedures. In Medical Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pediatrics, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and orthopaedics. In Dental Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pedodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery, and prosthodontics. The contributions of Physical Anthropology to each is discussed.

  18. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  19. Before Franz Boas: Pioneering Women in American Anthropology

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    Monica Tarducci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the impact of the feminist movement in anthropological theory and practice was the recovery of the life and work of women who, despite occupying a peripheral site, made significant contributions to the field. In this paper I focus on the trajectories of these pioneers who, in a time of fast socioeconomic changes (last decades or xix Century and the early xx Century and despite they were self taught, were fundamental to the professionalization of anthropology.

  20. Humans, brains, and their environment: marriage between neuroscience and anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2010-03-25

    How do we define ourselves as humans and interact with our various environments? Recently, neuroscience has extended into other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, questioning the existence of distinct disciplines like anthropology, which describes the relationship between humans and their various environments. However, rather than being incorporated into neuroscience, anthropology may be considered complementary, and a marriage of the two disciplines can provide deep insight into these fundamental questions.

  1. Focus Section on Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  2. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... with the cultural item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  3. Visualized analysis of the current status of Chinese tourism anthropology research from the perspective of knowledge map---Based on CITESPACE software and CNKI database%知识图谱视野下的中国旅游人类学研究现状的可视化分析--基于CITESPACE软件和CNKI数据库

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 张璇

    2016-01-01

    Using CITESPACE software and CNKI database,the systematic visualization emergency reveals the current status of Chinese tourism anthropology research:subjects of distribution,faction and cooperation;the theme of knowledge structure and its e-volution regularity through the map in the form of space and in a certain time range.The study finds that the domestic research of tourism anthropology on the subject concentrates in western universities,the most cooperation is based on “university relationship”;the knowledge genealogy focuses on“national culture”and concentrates on“national tourism”;the representation is in the desubjec-tivity dilemma.On the basis of this,the expectation for the future development of domestic tourism anthropology is put forward.%利用CITESPACE与CNKI数据库,通过图谱以空间形式在一定时间范围中系统的可视化显现,揭示出旅游人类学的研究现状:研究主体分布、派系与合作,研究主题的知识结构及其演化规律。研究发现,旅游人类学的国内研究主体多数集中在西部高校,合作以“学缘”为主;研究知识谱系以“民族文化”为核心,并集中于“民族旅游”;研究表述的“去主体化”困境。在此基础上,为国内旅游人类学未来的发展提出期望。

  4. Sherwood Washburn's New physical anthropology: rejecting the "religion of taxonomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikels-Carrasco, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Many physical anthropologists and nearly all of those studying primatology today can trace their academic genealogy to Sherwood Larned Washburn. His New physical anthropology, fully articulated in a 1951 paper, proposed that the study of hominid evolution must link understandings of form, function, and behavior along with the environment in order most accurately to reconstruct the evolution of our ancestors. This shift of concentration from strictly analyzing fossil remains to what Washburn termed adaptive complexes challenged not only Washburn's predecessors, but also led Washburn to critique the very system of academia within which he worked. Collaboration across multiple disciplines, linking the four fields of anthropology in order to understand humans and application of our understandings of human evolution to the betterment of society, are the hallmarks of Washburnian anthropology. In this paper I will explore how Washburn's New physical anthropology led him to not only change the research direction in physical anthropology, but also to challenge the academia within which he worked. I will conclude by reflecting on the prospects of continuing to practice Washburnian Anthropology.

  5. PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES: BASIC INTENTION AND STATUS OF ANTHROPOLOGY ABSTRACT

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    Anatolii Malivskyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasize the insufficiency of reductionist interpretation of Descartes’ heritage and to bring into focus the constitutive role of anthropology in Descartes authentic project. Scientific novelty. Substantiation of anthropology in Descartes’ philosophical structure is based upon recognition of key importance of anthropological intention in previous philosophy as well as anthropological one in philosopher’s own works. Therefore, the insufficiency of established de-anthropologised interpretation of essential intention of Descartes’ doctrine becomes evident. Methodology. The use of phenomenology and hermeneutics enables us to comprehend the key philosopher’s ideas as the manifestation of his personality. The concentration on the interpretation of Descartes ideas as the manifestation of determining influence of external factors is the shortcoming of the established reductionist methodology. Conclusions. It was proved that anthropology that should have been the conclusion of Descartes’ philosophy under conditions of domination of reductionist attitude was withdrawn by the de-anthropologised reality image. The comprehension of the authentic image of Descartes’ philosophy provides special attention to the anthropological element in his ontology.

  6. The Influence of Nietzsche’s Anthropology on the Works of George Bernard Shaw

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    Biljana Vlašković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the traces of Friedrich Nietzsche’s anthropological philosophy in the dramatic, sociological, anthropological, and philosophical writings of George Bernard Shaw. Apart from the obvious use of Nietzsche’s term “the Superman” (Übermensch to serve the purposes of his own philosophy, the analysis shows further similarities between the two writers, namely that Shaw modified Nietzsche’s expression “the will to power”, as well as Schopenhauer’s concept of will as the world’s essence, and termed it the “Life Force”, which will enable a “creative evolution” of humans into a higher being, an Overman, or a Superman. Also concerning this is the role that Shaw gives to women in this process of creative evolution, by making the female the dominant gender, and in so doing radically deconstructing the deeply rooted 19th century view of woman as a being whose natural habitat is the family home, and whose role in wooing is exclusively passive. Such an attitude led many critics to believe that Shaw was a misogynist of the same kind as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. However, Shawian discourse as a whole exhibits а vehement support of the feminist struggles for the gender equality, which made the author a favorite in feminist circles. Different perspectives in Shaw’s anthropology mirror Nietzsche’s demand for the “transvaluation of all values”, and this alone is necessary to provide a constant change, which, according to both authors, is the only thing that is certain and constant in this world.

  7. If only Derrida missed that flight... About the assessment of the "academic achievements" of the so-called "American Anthropology" by Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Folklore

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    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account recent critiques of "underdevelopment", "positivism", "methodological backwardness" and other failings attributed to socalled "American Anthropology" by some of the authors from the Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore, I analyse the context in which colleagues and students may be tempted to explain common sense political connection between polyphone ethnography, neo-romanticism and nationalism as counter-intuitive history of the discipline. I already pointed that the important transformative differences in the attitudes towards structuralism between European anthropologists, especially Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore and so called "American Anthropology", are the consequence of a pure coincidence – the fact that French structuralism and French poststructuralism were launched simultaneously at the American interdisciplinary intellectual scene ("Theory" at the same conference. This ironic concurrence would not be much more than one entertaining episode for students, historians of anthropology and historians of ideas, if there were no attempts (more and more frequent and increasingly fluently articulated to compare different intellectual traditions as they were elements of the same unilineal evolution of the discipline. Belgrade Structural-semiotic School (further called only SS and especially its spiritus movens and most prominent representative Prof. Kovačević started in recent years to criticise some "American Anthropology" measuring its academic "achievement" (the author’s term in comparative perspective and taking as an analytical unit uncritically generalized traditions marked with a single term of "postmodern anthropology" on the one hand, and "anthropology" on the other. Belgrade SS School did develop globally original, although badly promoted and never fully used, battery for the synchronic analysis of the folklore phenomena, but this was done only after

  8. Iberia: population genetics, anthropology, and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Martínez-Laso, J; Alonso-García, J

    1999-10-01

    Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians have been studied for HLA and mitochondrial DNA markers, and the data analysis suggests that pre-Neolithic gene flow into Iberia came from ancient white North Africans (Hamites). The Basque language has also been used to translate the Iberian-Tartesian language and also Etruscan and Minoan Linear A. Physical anthropometry of Iberian Mesolithic and Neolithic skeletons does not support the demic replacement in Iberia of preexisting Mesolithic people by Neolithic people bearing new farming technologies from Europe and the Middle East. Also, the presence of cardial impressed pottery in western Mediterranean Europe and across the Maghreb (North Africa) coasts at the beginning of the Neolithic provides good evidence of pre-Neolithic circum-Mediterranean contacts by sea. In addition, pre-dynastic Egyptian El-Badari culture (4,500 years ago) is similar to southern Iberian Neolithic settlements with regard to pottery and animal domestication. Taking the genetic, linguistic, anthropological, and archeological evidence together with the documented Saharan area desiccation starting about 10,000 years ago, we believe that it is possible that a genetic and cultural pre-Neolithic flow coming from southern Mediterranean coasts existed toward northern Mediterranean areas, including at least Iberia and some Mediterranean islands. This model would substitute for the demic diffusion model put forward to explain Neolithic innovations in Western Europe.

  9. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  10. Research trends in human osteology: a content analysis of papers published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Buikstra, Jane E

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores recent research trends in human osteology, based on articles published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA) during two 5-year intervals: 1980--1984 and 1996--2000. Topical "visibility" is measured in terms of article counts; "impact" is estimated through citation indices. Our results indicate that human osteologists continue to publish a range of methodological, analytical, and descriptive research papers that address a broad array of subjects. Analytical articles are cited more frequently than descriptive articles and thus have higher impact, reflecting the discipline's continued commitment to problem-oriented research. Differences in publication patterns exist between scholars during early and later stages of their careers. Articles published by students and Ph.D.s within 2 years of their doctoral degree are more frequently descriptive than analytical, when compared to people with longer career histories. Topics such as pathology, forensic anthropology, and biodistance modeling remain highly visible, while articles on the dentition have waned. An increase in functional research directed toward the postcranial skeleton is also reflected in our data. While continued visibility for morphological investigations is apparent, the impact of recently developed applications in bone chemistry and molecular anthropology is amply documented in our data, particularly during the more recent survey years.

  11. Psicopatologia, exotismo e diversidade: ensaio de antropologia da psicopatologia Psychopathology, exoticism and diversity: some remarks on the anthropology of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Holanda

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto se propõe a uma reflexão em torno de uma perspectiva antropológica da questão da psicopatologia. Partindo da análise antropológica de Tzvetan Todorov, perpassa o ensaio histórico de Theodore Zeldin, alcançando a crítica de Thomas Szasz e a abordagem histórico-antropológica de Michel Foucault, na tentativa de clarear a compreensão do fenômeno psicopatológico. Nesta perspectiva crítico-histórica, a psicopatologia é vista como um fenômeno contextualizado, inserido na construção das mentalidades específicas da cultura ocidental.The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon an anthropological approach of psychopathology. It intends to throw some light upon the phenomenon of the "psychopathologic". It begins with some remarks on the anthropological concept of Tzevan Todorov. It also analyses Theodore Zeldin’s historical essay, Thomas Szasz’s critical reflections and Michel Foucault’s historic-anthropological approach. In this historical perspective, "Psychopathology" is conceived as a rather contextualized phenomenon, part of the specific mentalities constructed by the Western culture.

  12. Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind? An anthropological-ethical framework for understanding and dealing with sexuality in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Anckaert, Luc; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary bioethics pays considerable attention to the ethical aspects of dementia care. However, ethical issues of sexuality especially as experienced by institutionalized persons with dementia are often overlooked. The relevant existing ethics literature generally applies an implicit philosophical anthropology that favors the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. In this article we will illustrate how this way of handling the issue fails in its duty to people with dementia. Our thesis is that a more inclusive philosophical anthropology is needed that also heeds the fate of this growing population. Drawing on the tradition of phenomenology, we will chalk out an anthropological framework that rests on four fundamental characteristics of human existence: the decentered self, human embodiment, being-in-the-world and being-with-others. Our aim in this article is thus to tentatively put forward a broader perspective for looking at aged sexuality in institutionalized people with dementia. Hopefully the developed framework will mark the beginning of a new and refreshed ethical reflection on the topic at hand.

  13. 人类学关于社会网络的研究%A Review of Anthropological Studies on Social Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄孔韶; 方静文

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews previous anthropological studies on Social Network Analysis.From the study on kinship at the earliest stage to Hawthorne Studies and Manchester Workshop Studies at the industrial society,the structural perspective advocated by the structural functionalism,with Alfred Radcliffe Brown as the representative,has long been accepted by anthropologists and thus becomes the theoretical basis of the anthropological studies of Social Network Analysis.Starting from anthropological studies on informal organizations,the authors try to expand the perspective from "studying organizations as cultures" to "studying social networks as cultures",adding an extra cultural perspective to the social network analysis,which has so far been neglected because current studies are laying particular stress on the studies of structures and cultures are treated as the opposite of structures.%回顾了人类学关于社会网络分析的研究,从最早的对亲属关系的研究到在工业社会的霍桑实验和曼彻斯特车间研究,拉德克利夫-布朗为代表的结构功能主义提出的结构视角一直为人类学所坚持,并成为人类学社会网络分析的理论基础。以人类学对非正式组织的研究为起点,将"作为文化的组织"的思想加以延伸,就得到"作为文化的社会网络",可以为时下偏重结构而将文化作为结构的对立面而忽视的社会网络分析增加文化的视角。

  14. The novel from up above and the Anthropology from down below. Argueda’s foxes as experimental etnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Benítez Leiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates a reading of The Fox from up above and the Fox from down below by Jose Maria Arguedas, from an anthropological perspective, making it dialogue with the genre of experimental ethnography, framed within the positivist paradigm crisis in social sciences. This book aims to describe a complex intercultural context, developing a textual formula with higher powers than the indigenous novel approach or traditional ethnographic realism. While Arguedas has no scientific pretensions, his novel opens and reflects aspects of reality using resources such as collage, myth as historical background and polyphonic perspective through the discourse of social actors within the play. This makes evidence of his training as an ethnologist who is at once literary, enrolling in the phenomenon of blurred genders and the re-figuration of social thought (Geertz 1980. It starts from the novel in its entirety and the accompanying diaries, highlighting certain passages and nourishes of theoretical perspectives relating to ethnography, demonstrating the complexity of the arguedian style, such as theoretical and epistemological questions of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century.

  15. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand.

  16. History in the gene: negotiations between molecular and organismal anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of primate phylogeny and human evolution on the molecular level, asserted its claim to the privilege of interpretation regarding hominoid, hominid, and human phylogeny and evolution vis-à-vis other historical sciences such as evolutionary biology, physical anthropology, and paleoanthropology. This process will be discussed on the basis of three key conferences on primate classification and evolution that brought together exponents of the respective fields and that were held in approximately ten-years intervals between the early 1960s and the 1980s. I show how the anthropological gene and genome gained their status as the most fundamental, clean, and direct records of historical information, and how the prioritizing of these epistemic objects was part of a complex involving the objectivity of numbers, logic, and mathematics, the objectivity of machines and instruments, and the objectivity seen to reside in the epistemic objects themselves.

  17. Notes towards an anthropology of the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hart

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available What might an anthropology of the internet look like? It require a combination of introspection, personal judgment and world history to explore the universe of cyberspace. This world is not sufficient to itself, nor is it 'the world'. People bring their offline circumstances to behaviour online. The virtual and the real constitute a dialectic in which neither can be reduced to the other and 'virtual reality' is their temporary synthesis. Heidegger's metaphysics are drawn on to illuminate this dialectic. Before this, the internet is examines in the light of the history of communications, from speech and writing to books and the radio. The digital revolution of our time is marked by the convergence of telephones, television and computing. It is the third stage in a machine revolution lasting just 200 years. The paper analyses the political economy of the internet in terms of the original three classes controlling respectively increase in the environment (land, money (capital and human creativity (labour. It ends with a consideration of Kant's great example for a future anthropology capable of placing human subjectivity in world history.Como poderia ser uma antropologia da Internet? Uma tal antropologia exigiria uma combinação de introspecção, de opiniões pessoais e de história mundial para se explorar o universo do ciberespaço. Afinal, esse mundo não é um mundo auto-suficiente, nem mesmo esse é "um mundo". As pessoas carregam consigo suas circunstâncias off-line para junto do seu comportamento on-line. Constitui-se uma dialética do virtual e do real, na qual nenhuma das duas partes pode ser reduzida à outra e na qual a "realidade virtual" é a sua síntese temporária. A metafísica heideggeriana é aqui acionada para esclarecer melhor essa dialética. Antes disso, entretanto, a Internet é examinada sob a luz da história das comunicações, desde a fala e a escrita de livros até o rádio. A revolução digital de nosso tempo est

  18. Making sense of HIV in southeastern Nigeria: fictional narratives, cultural meanings, and methodologies in medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Brown, Peter J; Patterson, Amy E; Burkot, Camilla; Mbakwem, Benjamin C

    2013-06-01

    Fictional narratives have rarely been used in medical anthropological research. This article illustrates the value of such narratives by examining how young people in southeastern Nigeria navigate the cultural resources available to them to make sense of HIV in their creative writing. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, it analyzes a sample (N = 120) from 1,849 narratives submitted by Nigerian youth to the 2005 Scenarios from Africa scriptwriting contest on the theme of HIV. The narratives are characterized by five salient themes: tragedy arising from the incompatibility of sex outside marriage and kinship obligations; female vulnerability and blame; peer pressure and moral ambivalence; conservative Christian sexual morality; and the social and family consequences of HIV. We consider the strengths and limitations of this narrative approach from a theoretical perspective and by juxtaposing our findings with those generated by Daniel Jordan Smith using standard ethnographic research methods with a similar Igbo youth population.

  19. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by...

  20. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  1. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of...

  2. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  3. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of...

  4. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    in healthcare, such engagements and interventions can take many forms: Short-term consultancy work dedicated to achieving specific goals, long-term studies of broad changes in healthcare; management support within hospitals and public healthcare administration; or technology development with vendors...

  5. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C; Throop, C Jason

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education.

  6. MORAL TECHNIQUES. FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY AND ITS ARTIFACTS FOR DOING GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GATTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many of its applications forensic anthropology is a singular discipline, midway between a bare techno-scientific exercise and a militant involvement in overcoming situations marked by human rights violations. Today, riding on an intense and transnational wave of humanitarian sensitivity, forensic anthropology has acquired a significant scientific, moral and media status, and has become a front line scientific-technical practice in the human rights field at the planetary level. This text, which analyzes some of the artifacts with which forensic anthropology represents and works on its object, aims to understand this discipline through the concept of moral technique, which, in my understanding, captures the particular tensions of this form of working for good.

  7. Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

    2012-03-01

    The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology.

  8. We Need to be Relevant : An Ethnography of Kenyan Anthropology Students

    OpenAIRE

    Grøvik, Ida Skjong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on seven months of ethnographic fieldwork among Kenyan anthropology students at the Institute of Anthropology, Gender & African Studies (IAGAS) at the University of Nairobi. I explore anthropology students 1) everyday life, interests, aspirations and motivations; 2) the relationship between their personal background and approach to anthropology; and 3) how they interpret society and assess their potential to contribute to it as social scientists. A prevalent theme of thi...

  9. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Department of Anthropology... assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of Anthropology, University of...

  10. The Fabric of a Student's Life and Thought: Practicing Cultural Anthropology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Describes an approach to college teaching in which anthropology contributes to constructing a problem-posing pedagogy. The following distinctive aspects of teaching anthropology are examined: (1) the teacher's anthropological stance; (2) ethnographic methods; (3) investigation of ethnographies; and (4) examination of interpretive theories of…

  11. 78 FR 5201 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  12. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes... of Anthropology at the address below by September 27, 2012. ADDRESSES: Dr. Jordan Kerber,...

  13. 78 FR 45962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human...

  14. 78 FR 22286 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... acting on behalf of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology. If no additional...

  15. 76 FR 80392 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park... Michigan officials and its Museum of Anthropology professional staff in consultation with representatives... accessioned into the Museum of Anthropology. Between 2007 and 2009 the remains were inventoried at...

  16. 76 FR 36151 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Museum of Anthropology, University of...

  17. 78 FR 56733 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Logan Museum of Anthropology... Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  18. 77 FR 48536 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Logan Museum of Anthropology... associated funerary objects may contact the Logan Museum of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human...

  19. 78 FR 64007 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology has corrected an inventory of...

  20. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur...

  1. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  2. 75 FR 57493 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies... ] object in the possession of the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las... assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University...

  3. 78 FR 5200 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... Burke Museum acting on behalf of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology....

  4. 78 FR 5198 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to...

  5. 77 FR 65404 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional.... ADDRESSES: Dr. Heather Edgar, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New...

  6. 77 FR 65403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology.... Heather Edgar, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM...

  7. 78 FR 11673 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  8. 77 FR 74868 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of... Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation..., Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may occur...

  9. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  10. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated...

  11. 77 FR 51563 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains...

  12. 78 FR 19298 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  13. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  14. 78 FR 19308 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that... University of Denver Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it...

  15. 77 FR 46116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, and... Museum of Anthropology at the address below by September 4, 2012. ADDRESSES: Heather Edgar,...

  16. 78 FR 19297 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... Burke Museum acting on behalf of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology....

  17. 78 FR 25471 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... Burke Museum acting on behalf of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology....

  18. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  19. 77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Anthropology, San Francisco, CA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction... Department of Anthropology). The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Marin County... San Francisco State University Department of Anthropology records. In the Federal Register (73...

  20. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit... of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit... Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  1. 77 FR 5841 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of... Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation..., Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may occur...

  2. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University... Anthropology has completed an inventory of a human remain, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes... Anthropology at the address below by September 7, 2011. ADDRESSES: Dr. Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum...

  3. 78 FR 45961 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Denver Museum of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the...

  4. 75 FR 14463 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology... Anthropology, Seattle, WA. The human remains were removed from Huckleberry Island, Skagit County, WA. This... assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology...

  5. The Review of and Reaction to Selected Anthropology Projects by Professional Anthropologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…

  6. Therapy,Divination,Necromancy,and Calamity Avoiding——Language Witchcraft in Bai Qiulian in the Book Strange Storie s from a Chinese Studio from the Perspective of Literary Anthropology%治疗·占卜·招魂·禳灾——《聊斋志异·白秋练》中语言巫术现象的文学人类学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏愔

    2015-01-01

    In terms of the human worship of language,language is endowed with huge supernatural forces,and thus it can be viewed as the communication medi-um between human and God. In this way,language,as a kind of divine tribute,has the same power with reality,which can control nature and human activity. This paper takes the story of Bai Qiulian in the Book Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio as a case study,analyzing some language witchcraft activities su-ch as reciting poetry as a treatment,divination and necromancy with poetry,and writing magic charms from the perspective of literary anthropology to show vari-ous functions of language,namely,narrative therapy,divination,necromancy,and calamity avoiding. It can be seen from those plot arrangements in the story that language is linked with several kinds of magic functions and language itself has been deified,which can help us know further about language witchcraft in an-cient times.%语言崇拜认为语言具有超自然的巨大力量,将语言视为人与神沟通的媒介,从而使语言拥有了近乎于实在的力量.本文以《聊斋志异·白秋练》为个案研究,从文学人类学这一角度对这一文本中的吟诗治病、以诗占卜和以诗招魂、以及符咒书写等由语言崇拜而产生的语言巫术现象进行了解读,探讨了语言巫术所呈现的叙事治疗、占卜、招魂以及禳灾等各种不同的神奇功能,这为我们能够进一步地了解远古社会中的语言巫术现象提供了启示.

  7. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  8. Apaches in Three Dimensions: Anthropology, History and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Leo E.

    As many disciplines as possible should be used in the teaching of Indian Studies. In particular, creative literature adds another dimension to the understanding of Indian culture and the history of Indian-white relations when it is used in conjunction with historical and anthropological material. The serious student should read historical novels…

  9. A Thematic Approach to the Undergraduate Sociology and Anthropology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzbaum, Allan; And Others

    The authors propose a new undergraduate social science curriculum which will enable sociology and anthropology majors to obtain an educational background adaptable to the changing job market. The program, which combines career education and the liberal arts, is organized by different themes which serve as the focus for learning and research within…

  10. Anthropology, Dance, and Education: Integrated Curriculum in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karli; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Vissicaro, Pegge; Fredrickson, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    The integration of dance into K-12 curriculum can help students to learn better, encouraging deeper exploration and active engagement with content knowledge. The purpose of this intervention study was to determine how the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affects student learning of content knowledge in…

  11. A Preliminary Report on the Anthropology Department Student Ratings Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. M.; Amoss, Panela

    The Department of Anthropology and the Educational Assessment Center (EAC) cooperated in a project to assess the effect of certain variables on student ratings of instruction. For this purpose, the entire teaching faculty of the department was requested by the department's Teaching Effectiveness committee to administer the EAC Student Ratings Form…

  12. Ecological anthropology of households in East Madura, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.G.

    2011-01-01

      This dissertation is the result of diachronic and comparative anthropological study of rural households in Northeast Madura, Indonesia, carried out on eight separate visits between August 1985 and March 2009. The aim is to bring time-structured data to bear on key questions regarding the evo

  13. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation.

  14. Digital technologies, dreams and disconcertment in anthropological worldmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In this article I explore dreaming and sharing of images in social media (such as Snapchat and Instagram), as future-making action. I propose to view them similarly as techniques to research the future anthropologically. Through my 14-month fieldwork among young Muslim women in Copenhagen...

  15. Guidelines for the structure of methodological processes in visual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2011-12-01

    Vast majority of visual anthropologists of the 20th century were more focused on general phenomenology of visual anthropology, i.e. the content aspect of their works and their impact on scientific knowledge, leaving behind style of directing and practical principles & processes of creating anthropological film. So far, judging by the available literature, there are no strict guidelines for directorial procedures, nor the precise definition of determining of the methodical processes in production of an anthropological film. Consequently, the goal of this study is to determine the structure and forms of methodical processes as well as to define the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. By using adequate guidelines, the researcher, i.e. the author of the anthropological film, can optimize the production and post-production processes as soon as in preparation (preproduction) period of working on the film, by the technical choice of the approach to the production (proactive/reactive/subjective/objective...) and by defining the style of directing. In other words, it ultimately means more relevant scientific research result with less time and resources.

  16. Why did Kant reject physiological explanations in his anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    One of Kant's central tenets concerning the human sciences is the claim that one need not, and should not, use a physiological vocabulary if one studies human cognitions, feelings, desires, and actions from the point of view of his 'pragmatic' anthropology. The claim is well known, but the arguments Kant advances for it have not been closely discussed. I argue against misguided interpretations of the claim, and I present his actual reasons in favor of it. Contemporary critics of a 'physiological anthropology' reject physiological explanations of mental states as more or less epistemologically dubious. Kant does not favor such ignorance claims--and this is for the good, since none of these claims was sufficiently justified at that time. Instead, he develops an original irrelevance thesis concerning the empirical knowledge of the physiological basis of the mind. His arguments for this claim derive from his original and, up to now, little understood criticism of a certain conception of pragmatic history, related to his anthropological insights concerning our ability to create new rules of action, the social dynamics of human action, and the relative inconstancy of human nature. The irrelevance thesis also changes his views of the goal and methodology of anthropology. Kant thereby argues for a distinctive approach in quest for a general 'science of man'.

  17. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal t

  18. Ethics in Anthropological Research: Responsibilities to the Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Biswas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, in anthropological research, ethics has become more relevant, more meaningful as well as structured in nature. In USA, specially after World War II, American Anthropological Association enacted code of ethics for anthropological research. However, in India, we have no such ethical guidelines from any of the association of anthropology; rather promote a space where researcher can create and evolve their own code of ethics. Ethical issues for anthropologists are manifold- their relations with research participants, with institution and colleagues, with own and host government and with society and funding agency of the project. Among these, the first one is most important, and present paper intends to identify ethical issues related with research participants; which includes informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, vulnerability, risk-benefit, deception, compensation and so on. The present work also intends to identify issues for which anthropologists criticize some components of bioethics because of their abstract principles derived from arm-chair philosophy, ethnocentric view and lack of cross-cultural analysis for that they prepare a readymade ethical code of conduct which may differ significantly from culture to culture.

  19. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  20. REALISM AND THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE IN RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobkova S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthropologism is traditionally considered the main feature of Russian philosophy. The article reviews some anthropological ideas that have received natural development in such direction of thought as philosophical realism in the 2nd part of XIX century. Philosophical realism is positioned as a trend that has emerged within the mainstream of the basic traditions of Russian philosophy. It is noted that this direction is defined as an independent, in the wake of the strengthening of Russian science as a new cognitive paradigm. Substantively, philosophical realism is presented with the theories and concepts of the natural sciences developed in the 2nd part of XIX century. The realistic outlook, ripening in the Science environment, not only supported the anthropological tradition of Russian thought but put them on a scientific basis. It was dominated by the view that only by using scientific methods can reveal the objective laws of coexistence between man, nature and society. The article deals with the anthropological theories of Russian thinkers such as A.N. Radishchev, A.I. Galich, N.G. Chernyshevsky. The anaysis shows that realistic outlook in the natural sciences in the area of human theory relies on the principles of integrity, panmoralizm, cosmism. The conclusion is that the philosophical concepts by realistic scientists are out of attention of modern scholars. In the meantime, the study of these theories can make a significant contribution to the practical experience of comprehension of reality, as well as help to discover new sides of the domestic, national philosophy

  1. The origins of American physical anthropology in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alan

    2009-01-01

    With its location on a river with easy access to the sea, its central placement between the English speaking colonies to the north and south and its trading connections with the western frontier, there were many reasons Philadelphia became one of the most important towns of prerevolutionary America. In the early 1770s, it was the site of the first meeting organized to deal with the perceived inequities of the British government toward the colonies. It was where Thomas Jefferson wrote much of the Declaration of Independence, whose soaring statements reflecting the Age of Enlightenment spoke of the equality of all men. It was to this debate, centered on just who was included in this declaration that the origins of physical anthropology in America can be traced. Notable men in the early phases of this disputation included Samuel Stanhope Smith and especially Samuel George Morton, considered the founder of American physical anthropology. The American School of Anthropology, which argued for the polygenic origins of human races was substantially founded on Morton's work. Recent accusations that Morton manipulated data to support his racist views would appear unfounded. The publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862-63 effectively ended the earlier debates. By the time of the American Civil War, 1861-65, physical anthropology was beginning to explore other topics including growth and development and anthropometry.

  2. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  3. Research Summary of Chinese Ecological Anthropology in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan

    2014-01-01

    The year 2013 was a fruitful year for the study of Ecological Anthropology in China . More than one hundred related papers were been published in 2013 . They can be roughly divided into three categories: research review; theoretical discussion; and case analysis .Among these pa-pers, the research about disaster anthropology was the most significant .However , there are also prob-lems regarding the development of Ecological An-thropology.For example, the concept of the disci-pline is still unclear and theoretical discussion as to what it means continues even today .In addition, the number of results has increased by leaps and bounds, but the areas of study are still unbal-anced.Furthermore, while localized studies have been promoted , professional exchanges with for-eign countries and scholars are still inadequate . Finally, although publishing platforms have in-creased , even one professional journal of Ecologi-cal Anthropology in China is still lacking .With the advancement of the construction of an ecological civilization in China , Ecological Anthropology will usher in a new development opportunity in future .

  4. Transforming Conflict Resolution Education: Applying Anthropology alongside Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avruch, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the role graduate students can play in transforming their education in the emergent field of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, as occurs at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR), at George Mason University, Washington, DC. It also unpacks how anthropology plays a role in the education of these students at…

  5. Beyond critique: rethinking roles for the anthropology of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The current supremacy of the 'bio-bio-bio' model within the discipline of psychiatry has progressively marginalized social science approaches to mental health. This situation begs the question, what role is there for the anthropology of mental health? In this essay, I contend that there are three essential roles for the anthropology of mental health in an era of biological psychiatry. These roles are to (i) provide a meaningful critique of practices, beliefs, and movements within current psychiatry; (ii) illuminate the socio-cultural, clinical, and familial context of suffering and healing regarding emotional distress/mental illness; and (iii) act as a catalyst for positive change regarding healing, services and provisions for people with emotional distress/mental illness. My argument is unified by my contention that a credible anthropology of mental health intending to make a societal contribution should offer no opposition without proposition. In other words, any critique must be counter-balanced by the detailing of solutions and proposals for change. This will ensure that the anthropology of mental health continues to contribute critical knowledge to the understanding of mental suffering, distress, and healing. Such social and cultural approaches are becoming especially important given the widespread disenchantment with an increasingly dominant biological psychiatry.

  6. Access to Legal Anthropology: An Approach to Teaching Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, M.E.R.

    1981-01-01

    This description of two courses of college level Legal Anthropology for senior citizens in continuing education shows how students with widely varying backgrounds examined legal dilemmas within their international cultural contexts using mystery stories and other fiction. The need for innovative teaching methods for adult learners is stressed. (AM)

  7. Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Serena

    1985-01-01

    Presents three exercises that encourage active participation in cultural anthropology classes: (1) use of a puzzle to demonstrate focal issues about culture; (2) discussion of a specific piece of fieldwork to demonstrate the relationship among fieldwork, ethics, and cultural relativity; and (3) use of study questions in ethnographic films to allow…

  8. A Man Caught Between Bad Anthropology and Good Theology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2010-01-01

    Martin Luther's view of women is as complex as his authorship is vast, encompassing a diversity of gneres and purposes. Luther seems ambivalent toward women like the tradition before and after him. In his reformation enterprise he appears as torn between his good theology and a bad anthropology...

  9. The agency of Gell in the anthropology of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Faria Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While delineating the parameters for an anthropology of art, Alfred Gell's famous book, Art and Agency, overlooked, for the most part, anthropological tradition. This raises questions as embarrassing as they are ignored: is it possible to produce good theory with no references to achieved knowledge in this particular field? Are the subjects within anthropology so differently pursued that it is not possible to refer to a common way of approaching them? What exactly do we lose with such a self-centered narrative? My point of view is that theory cannot be treated like a list of sentences that can be added to one another, according to their isolated importance. This article proposes an analysis of Alfred Gell's narrative, of how he connects its propositions. I will examine, overall, his readings, the authors he quotes like Peirce, Sally Price and others, and how he fits them along his argumentation. The objective of this exercise is to put in evidence, beyond Gell's definitions, some conceptions about art contained in his formulations, and to enlarge the range of potential references available for an anthropology of art.

  10. Broad resonances in transport theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S

    2003-01-01

    The extension of the transport theoretical framework to include states with a broad mass distribution is discussed. The proper life-time and cross sections for a state with an arbitrarily given invariant mass is discussed in detail. (author)

  11. METAPHYSICAL REVOLUTION OF DESCARTES AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to reveal and comprehend forms of influence metaphysical' revolution for a way of interpretation of the anthropological project by Descartes on the basis of investigations of modern dekartes's researchers, that is the recognition of a fundamental role of metaphysics. Methodology. As methodological base modern investigations of dekartes's researchers accenting a fundamental role of metaphysics and expediency of unbiassed judgment of heritage of the great thinker are used. The scientific novelty. The transformation of the anthropological project is outlined as manifestation of metaphysical revolution. It is about a transcendencecy of naive anthropology (as an embodiment of reductive mindset, that is interpretations of human nature as its corporality and transition to metaphysical anthropology which consists in upholding of unconditional priority of human thinking as associated with God. As result of transition concentration of attention on intense human nature, that is at tension between sensuality and intelligence, aspiration to truth and tendency to delusion, between Life and Nothing, etc. Conclusions. The appeal to the incomplete anthropological project of Descartes on the basis of innovative researches allows proving the thesis about influence of metaphysical revolution on a way of its interpretation. The main forms of oriented to science ideals of naive anthropology, trust in evidence of the senses, atheism, interpretation of science as the main form of detection rationality of human nature, which Descartes tends constructively to overcome in the text of "meditation", are highlighted. During creation of metaphysical anthropology the attention of the thinker is drawn by the fact of impossibility of comprehension of human nature by means of natural-science rationality and expediency of the appeal to metaphysics. The subject of attention of the thinker is the tension between sensuality and intelligence, need

  12. 21世纪中国音乐教育的人类学转向%The Anthropological Turn of China’s Music Education in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周钟

    2014-01-01

    人类学的发展对世界音乐教育转型产生了重大影响,21世纪的中国音乐教育也面临人类学的转向。它涉及多元文化音乐的理解、传统音乐与文化身份的认同等范畴;主张回归人的教育,即人的全面发展与人格养成;在音乐课程内容中凸显人类学成果,在音乐教学实践中建构人类学模式,提倡教师与学生作为平等的个体进行主体交往,在广阔的生活世界与全球文化背景中进行人类学意义上的音乐教育。%The development of anthropology has had a significant impact on the transformation of the world music education, and China’s music education in 21st Century also faces the anthropological turn. It involves the under-standing of multicultural music, traditional music and cultural identity, advocates the restoration of human education, i. e. the comprehensive development and character cultivation, highlights the achievements of anthropology in the music curriculum, constructs the anthropological mode in teaching practice of music, promotes the subject interaction with teachers and students as equal individuals, proceeds music education taking on anthropological meaning in the broad sense of the living world and the world’s cultural background.

  13. Millennial medical anthropology: from there to here and beyond, or the problem of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Atwood D

    2011-03-01

    While much of Medical Anthropology was and is what we can call "Normal" (following Kuhn) Medical Anthropology, I coined the term Millennial Medical Anthropology for that branch of the discipline that, in the 1990s, was departing from the Normal research paradigms and was deserving of a distinct sobriquet. This paper considers the Strong Program in Medical Anthropology's Millennial Medical Anthropology and its key subdivisions, the Cultural Studies of Science and Cultural Bioethics. Specifically it considers Medical Anthropology's movement from the past into an ethical future wherein Normal Biomedicine, Bioethics and Global Health are problematized. This provides the basis for the construction of a truly anthropological global health (i.e., Global, Global Health or Global Health 2.0).

  14. [Physical anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2008-12-01

    Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical

  15. 农业社会和农民经济的人类学分析%Anthropological Analysis of Agricultural Society and Peasant Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆德

    2001-01-01

    As a case study of the typology of social economy,the analysis of agricultural society and peasant economy has been controlled by the evolutional discourse over a long period of time. Although many concepts such as political economy, tribal economy and peasant economy do not belong in the field of anthropology, they are the theories that anthropology has to diseuss.These abstract concepts have often helped people to put forward the range and limitation of a discussion and to find accurate clues for investigation,but on the other hand these concepts have often hidden the understanding of concrete situations. If the typological analysis of social economy could find that economy expresses various types when combined with various cultural conditions,this analysis may give us an enlightened perspective to look closely at the diversified developments of human beings.

  16. Postmodern Anthropology: Reflections from Andean Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The postmodern perspective, which began its influence on studies of Prehispanic Peru in the 1980s, has resulted —as chief positive effect— in reflection and debate concerning the written sources for apprehending such cultural otherness, the so-called “Chronicles of the West Indies”: a perspective accompanied by new editions of these texts. The author of the present article expresses his own reflection on such change in theory and method. He argues that, with regard to self-reflectivity on its epistemological foundations, the new perspective is not entirely original in the long history of Andean ethnohistory; in effect, this approach is almost as old as the field itself. What is indeed original is the cognitive relativism that surfaced in some extreme forms of the discussion. It was an unfortunate development, however: when not denying, as a matter of principle, the very possibility of understanding that cultural otherness, arguments masked actual interpretations or explanations of its features that were protected, ipso facto, from a rigorous process of validation.

    La perspectiva posmoderna, que empezó a ser influyente en los estudios del Perú prehispánico en la década de 1980, ha tenido como principal efecto positivo la reflexión y el debate sobre las fuentes originales de conocimiento de esa alteridad cultural, las llamadas genéricamente “Crónicas de Indias”: una perspectiva acompañada de nuevas ediciones de tales textos. El autor del presente artículo hace aquí su propia reflexión sobre este cambio teórico y metodológico. Plantea que, en lo que tiene de discusión sobre sus bases epistemológicas, no es del todo original en la larga historia de la etnohistoria peruanista. Es, de hecho, casi tan antiguo como ella. Lo que sí ha sido original es el relativismo cognitivo que ha acompañado a algunas expresiones extremas de la discusión. Pero fue ésta una novedad desafortunada: cuando no negaba por principio la

  17. The anthropology of death or the new anthropology and the religious complex connected to death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors give a review of new anthropological work pertaining to dying, death and beliefs in life after death. Dying and the valorization of ways of dying are the subject of a paper by sociologist Todor Kuljić, while other relevant texts commented on by the authors are the results of the work done by anthropologists. Thus, the traditional belief in “prikoljiš” is analyzed in the text of Ivan Kovačević, while the folk belief in dying after death was analyzed by Dušan Bandić, and modern forms of grief in obituaries are analyzed by Ivan Čolović. The traditional belief in the vampire is the subject of analysis in papers by Dušan Bandić and Lidija Radulović, while the analysis of beliefs in immortality, present in a new religion, is the topic of a paper by Danijel Sinani.

  18. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  19. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, F; Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers.

  20. FREUD, JUNG AND BOAS: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC ENGAGEMENT WITH ANTHROPOLOGY REVISITED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Robert

    2015-06-20

    Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas.

  1. Antropologia e alimentação Anthropology and eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Canesqui

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a produção antropológica referente às práticas, hábitos e concepções de consumo alimentar de segmentos de trabalhadores rurais e urbanos. Dimensiona-se e critica-se a abordagem antropológica contida nos diferentes estudos, apontando caminhos a serem perseguidos por novas pesquisas, de maneira que a área de nutrição, alimentação e saúde não deixe de prescindir das contribuições antropológicas.The anthropological literature on the practices, habits and conceptions of eating of rural and urban workers in Brazil. Was critically analysed, suggesting theoretical paths to be pursued by further research. In this way, the anthropological method can offer a relevant contribution to the development of the health sciences as far as nutrition and eating are concerned.

  2. [Female anthropology, physiology and disease in ancient Christian writers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzivalli, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Christian sources are rich in reference to the anthropology and physiology of the female. Christianity in the first centuries had multiple positions as concerns the doctrinal thoughts as well as the social practices. Christian anthropological doctrine has been developed along two exegetical lines, hinging on Genesis 1-3: the first views the human being as a whole psycophysical entity and thereby highlights the protological inferiority of the woman; the second, spiritual and Platonic, emphasizes the inner self and thus, in theory, is more equalitarian. Ancient philosophical theories regarding human generation, in particular those ofAristotle and the Stoics, are used, along with medical notions, by Christian theologians to elaborate the dogma of incarnation. However, in certain cases, as with the post partum virginity of Maria, medical theories are totally put aside. The stories recounting the miracles offer the possibility of understanding medical practices offemale conditions and the emotive reactions of the women.

  3. Teoria da reciprocidade e sócio-antropologiado desenvolvimento Theory of reciprocity and social anthropology of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sabourin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No momento em que o ensino da sociologia do desenvolvimento está declinando nas universidades européias e, em menor grau, nas latino-americanas, afirma-se uma renovação da teoria da reciprocidade, precisamente nesse campo e no da economia social, a partir da antropologia e da sociologia econômica. O artigo trata, portanto, da contribuição da teoria da reciprocidade para a sócioantropologia do desenvolvimento. Divide-se em duas partes. A primeira apresenta brevemente os precursores e os fundamentos da teoria da reciprocidade. A segunda ilustra, a partir de alguns exemplos contemporâneos, a aplicação dessa teoria à sócio-antropologia do desenvolvimento rural. As considerações finais tratam dos limites e novas perspectivas heurísticas dessa teoria.At a time when the teaching of sociology of development is fading from European universities, and to a lesser extent in Latin America, appears a renewal of the theory of reciprocity in this field of social economy, coming from anthropology and sociological economics. The article presents the contribution of the theory of reciprocity to a socio-anthropology of development. It is divided into two parts. The first briefly presents the forerunners and foundations of the theory of reciprocity. The second illustrates, from some contemporary examples, applying this theory to socio-anthropology of rural development. The conclusion presents the limits and some new heuristic perspectives of this theory.

  4. Participatory Challenges in Urban-Environmental Planning: The Anthropological Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gravano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers reflections on the anthropological contribution to institutional processes of “community participation” in urban-environmental planning in a metropolitan setting. The case presented is of a participation imposed by law, its difficulties and opportunities, from the different and asymmetrical rationalities in the game. Faced with a concrete demand from the State, we analyze methodological possibilities for adopting a process of effective transformation, through the facilitation of organizational culture issues.

  5. Toward a medical anthropology of sensations: definitions and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Howes, David; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we outline the importance of a medical anthropology of sensations for theories of psychopathology and psychological healing. We define what is meant by ;sensation' (differentiating monomodal and polymodal sensations) and describe some of the mechanisms that generate and amplify sensations. We propose the heuristic use of the concepts of sensation schemas, sensation interpretants, and sensation scripts. We argue against the naive assumption that sensation experience is the same across cultures. Finally, we consider how healing may occur through 'sensation semiosis.'

  6. Bronisław Malinowski: Deus ex machina of anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Borš

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this, popularizing, work is to look back and present fundamental, but also some lesser known, biographical information about the one of the most famous anthropologists, Bronisław Malinowski, and do so in the context of commemorating 130 years from his birth. Therefore, this work primarily traces his education, influences, research and educational activity. The essential contributions of Malinowski to anthropology, that is, his concept of functionalism and participant observation, are briefly presented as well.

  7. [The anatomists who started anthropology in Turkey and their contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N; Başağaoğlu, J

    2002-01-01

    The Turkish Institute of Antropology was estabilished in 1925 as a unit of the Medical School of Istanbul University (Darülfünun), named the Antropology Research Center (Antropoloji Tetkikat Merkezi). It was a part of the medical faculty until 1932. After the university reform it was connected to the School of Science and in late 1935 it was transfered to the School of Languages History and Geography (Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi) in Ankara. The center started to publish "The Journal of Turkish Anthropology" with Dr. Nuretttin Ali Berkols researches in 1925. It was published in two languages, Turkish and French. The faculty members of the institute, Dr. Mouchet, Dr. Süreyya Ali and Dr. Ismail Hakki formed the editorial board of the journal. We see that from the first issue of the journal in 1925 until the special issue prepared for the XVIII. Anthropology and Prehistorical Archealogy Congress in 1939, Dr. Nurettin Ali Berkol and Dr. Mouchet were members of the administrative committee of the journal. In this article; we studied the contributions of the anatomists to the development of anthropology in Turkey.

  8. Elliptical Fourier analysis: fundamentals, applications, and value for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Byrd, John; Stephan, Carl N

    2017-02-17

    The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision. A large amount of shape information (the entire perimeter) can thereby be collected in contrast to other methods relying on sparsely located landmarks where information falling in between the landmarks fails to be acquired. First published in 1982, elliptical Fourier analysis employment in forensic anthropology from 2000 onwards reflects a slow uptake despite large computing power that makes its calculations easy to conduct. Without hurdles arising from calculation speed or quantity, the slow uptake may partly reside with the underlying mathematics that on first glance is extensive and potentially intimidating. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by pictorially illustrating how elliptical Fourier harmonics work in a simple step-by-step visual fashion to facilitate universal understanding and as geared towards increased use in forensic anthropology. We additionally provide a short review of the method's utility for osteology, a summary of past uses in forensic anthropology, and software options for calculations that largely save the user the trouble of coding customized routines.

  9. Modernizing Evolutionary Anthropology : Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Sear, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    Evolutionary anthropology has traditionally focused on the study of small-scale, largely self-sufficient societies. The increasing rarity of these societies underscores the importance of such research yet also suggests the need to understand the processes by which such societies are being lost-what we call "modernization"-and the effects of these processes on human behavior and biology. In this article, we discuss recent efforts by evolutionary anthropologists to incorporate modernization into their research and the challenges and rewards that follow. Advantages include that these studies allow for explicit testing of hypotheses that explore how behavior and biology change in conjunction with changes in social, economic, and ecological factors. In addition, modernization often provides a source of "natural experiments" since it may proceed in a piecemeal fashion through a population. Challenges arise, however, in association with reduced variability in fitness proxies such as fertility, and with the increasing use of relatively novel methodologies in evolutionary anthropology, such as the analysis of secondary data. Confronting these challenges will require careful consideration but will lead to an improved understanding of humanity. We conclude that the study of modernization offers the prospect of developing a richer evolutionary anthropology, by encompassing ultimate and proximate explanations for behavior expressed across the full range of human societies.

  10. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  11. Stigma, community, ethnography: Joan Ablon's contribution to the anthropology of impairment-disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Russell P; Kasnitz, Devva

    2004-06-01

    Joan Ablon has helped establish the anthropology of impairment-disability and significantly contributed to the role of anthropology in disability studies. In this article, we review the development of and situate Ablon's ethnographic research in the anthropology of impairment-disability. We then address various methodological issues in her work including her ethnographic approach, her grounding in action anthropology and her support for the development of the academic study of disability in anthropology and the careers of disabled anthropologists. The next section of the article examines Ablon's use of the notion of stigma, her understanding of community, and her engagement with disability rights. As examples of themes important to disability studies, we present her discussion of the implications of the ideal of the body beautiful, and gender differences in negotiating intimacy for people with physical differences. We close with a discussion of the future of an anthropology of impairment-disability.

  12. A study of the livelihood mode and changes of the Dai people in Dabinglangyuan Village of Xinping County in the perspective of eco-anthropology%云南新平傣族生计模式及其变迁的生态人类学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明昆; 杨索; 赵文娟; 周晓红

    2015-01-01

    Dabinglangyuan Village of Xinping County in Yunnan Province is a typical Dai village spe-cially selected by the local government for rural tourism.Based on the field investigation,the paper a-dopts the cultural adaptation theory of eco-anthropology to analyze the livelihood mode and changes of the Dai people in this village as well as the impacts of livelihood changes on its eco-culture.It con-cludes that their traditional livelihood mode formed in the long history was a cultural mechanism that can adapt to the local natural environment.With the development of the local society and economy, the traditional livelihood mode of these villagers has experienced dramatic changes,and they are some-what willing to adapt to the open market,a kind of adaptation to the changes in the social and cultural environment,but are also under the influence of some restrictive factors.%云南新平县戛洒镇大槟榔园是一个典型的傣族聚居村落,也是当地重点发展的特色乡村旅游村寨之一。本文在田野调查的基础上,应用生态人类学的文化适应理论分析了大槟榔园的传统生计模式及其变迁,以及生计变迁对生态文化的影响等问题。研究表明,大槟榔园村民在长期的历史进程中所形成的传统生计模式是一种适应于当地自然环境的文化机制。随着社会经济的发展,村民的生计模式正发生着深刻而剧烈的变革,村民以一种较为主动的方式融入开放的市场中,体现出对社会文化环境变化的适应性,但又不得不受限于一些限制性因素的影响。

  13. The Inter-twining of Modern Performance Studies and Current Trends in Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Carlson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between Performance, Theatre and Anthropology. We present the origins of the relations between performance and anthropology, listing the main ideas from North-American and French pioneers. We compare the connections between artists and anthropologists like Richard Schechner and Victor Turner, Eugenio Barba and Kirsten Hastrup. Finally, we discuss the movements and the different apprehensions of performance and the productive way in which the relation between performance and anthropology has been built in recent years.

  14. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  15. Anthropology from a Kantian point of view: toward a cosmopolitan conception of human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Anthropology was a new field of study when Kant first began lecturing on it in 1772, and Kant himself was the first academic to teach regular courses in this area. As is well known, his own approach to anthropology is self-described as 'pragmatic', and Kant's pragmatic anthropology differs markedly from the anthropologies that other early contributors to the new discipline were advocating. In this essay I focus on a fundamental feature of Kant's anthropology that has been under-appreciated in previous discussions; namely, the particular conception of human nature that he believes anthropology, when pursued properly, leads to. I call this conception a cosmopolitan conception of human nature. In addition to establishing the central importance of this idea for Kant's project in anthropology, I also try in this essay to unravel some of its ambiguities and tensions as well as to highlight its underlying moral motives. The cosmopolitan conception of human nature that is central to Kant's anthropology is a further indication of the significance of his anthropology for ethics.

  16. "Doctor, Why Didn't You Adopt My Baby?" Observant Participation, Care, and the Simultaneous Practice of Medicine and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles.

  17. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - a broad-scale national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Stæhr, Peter Anton

    2007-01-01

    Most studies documenting the importance of alien macroalgae relative to native species are based on smaller-scale sampling programmes. Between 1989 and 2003, a Danish monitoring programme collected data on the percentage cover of macroalgae at more than 600 locations throughout the country. We...... examined this data set to estimate the relative abundance of alien species in the algal flora on large spatiotemporal scales, i.e. across depth ranges, regions and years. Of the 10 alien macroalgal species known to inhabit Danish coastal waters, nine were found in the survey. Most of the alien species were...... only present in low quantities (alien species, Sargassum muticum and Bonnemaisonia hamifera, constituted 2-7% of the assemblages, depending on depth, region and year. Sargassum muticum was abundant from 0 to 5 m in the northwestern region...

  18. Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Rider

    Full Text Available Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.

  19. The GenoChip: a new tool for genetic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project's new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic

  20. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  1. Hermeneutyczna antropologia Wilhelma Diltheya (Wilhelm Dilthey’s hermeneutical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Przyłębski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the above text is presentation and a critical analysis of the vision of human being contained in Dilthey’s hermeneutical philosophy of life. It is well-known that Dilthey based his early epistemology of the humanities on so-called descriptive psychology that anticipated the phenomenology of Husserl. I try to show that this concept is explicitly connected with an anthropology that tries to dicover – on a basis of historical research of human culture – the universal categories describing the essence of human being as such.

  2. The anthropology of Carl Jung: Implications for pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt-Meeks, S

    1983-09-01

    This article examines the basic tenets of Carl Jung's anthropology, including intrapsychic structure, relationships, society, and the process of individuation. It then turns to his ideas about God and religion. Jung builds his understanding of God from his work in psychology, and because of that method, there are several major problems with his theologizing. Nevertheless, his insights are extremely valuable to the field of pastoral care, and ministers would do very well to appreciate his contribution, though always with a critical eye to its limitation.

  3. Anthropology in the cognitive sciences: the value of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sara J

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) offer a provocative proposal outlining several reasons why anthropology and the rest of cognitive science might consider parting ways. Among those reasons, they suggest that separation might maintain the diversity needed to address larger problems facing humanity, and that the research strategies used across the disciplines are already so diverse as to be incommensurate. The present paper challenges the view that research strategies are incommensurate and offers a multimethod approach to cultural research that can help to establish common ground while maintaining diversity.

  4. The psychiatric cultural formulation: translating medical anthropology into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation for clinical practice. The author begins by exploring the theoretical development of and assumptions involved in the Cultural Formulation. A case presentation is then used to demonstrate shortcomings in the current implementation of the Cultural Formulation based on older definitions of culture. Finally, the author recommends practical questions based on the growing anthropological literature concerning the interpersonal elements of culture and the social course of illness. A simple clear format that clinically translates social science concepts has the potential to increase use of the Cultural Formulation by all psychiatrists, not just those specializing in cultural psychiatry.

  5. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  6. Public science of the savage mind: contesting cultural anthropology in the Cold War classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    "What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so?" These three questions formed the basis of a fifth-grade social studies curriculum project developed in the 1960s called Man: A Course of Study, or MACOS. In the years between the curriculum's development in the 1960s and its controversial implementation in the 1970s, two separate sets of concerns served to problematize the use of anthropological materials in public school classrooms. On the one hand, MACOS designers were wary of the possibly racist interpretations of exploring so-called "primitive" cultures in the classroom. On the other, conservative textbook reformers objected to claims that all cultural solutions to biological problems were morally equivalent. Once MACOS earned a place in national news, it came to embody both hopes for the redemption of American democratic society and fears about the violent nature of humans, depending on one's political perspective. These mixed messages eventually undermined the long-term success of the program as public science.

  7. Stories with and about wall carpets. An anthropological account on the inhabitation of Ursari Romanian Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Racleş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which objects assist us in telling small stories about our positions in relation to our inhabited space, but also in relation to perceived dichotomised categories like us-others, the modern-the outmoded, civilized-backward. Acknowledging that narratives emerge from interactions between people, this paper is an attempt to show that an important role in the emergence of stories is played by interactions between people and objects. The wall carpets hung by Ursari Roma from a north-eastern Romanian town and the stories developed with and about these items constitute the main focus of this analysis. From an anthropological and material culture perspective, wall carpets are discussed as material presences in storytelling events and as objects of experience-centred stories that assist Roma people in negotiating and enacting their identities and belongings. Taking a cue from Georgakopoulou, who argues that narratives count on both discourses and activities (2007, home making practices and domestic activities (such as those related to the maintenance of the wall carpets are essential to this paper, as they enable an understanding of the “performative narrative of daily life” (Langellier 2004. The analysis is based on ethnographic material collected in 2014 in the aforementioned community, while the unit of analysis consists of excerpts from discussions with two Roma families, which became storytelling episodes.

  8. Islamic Pedagogy and Embodiment: An Anthropological Study of a British Madrasah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This anthropological study of a higher education British Madrasah was undertaken to increase our awareness of the spectrum of sensory experiences that shape Islamic pedagogy. We started our anthropological study from an Islamic premise of the inseparable nature of knowledge and the sacred. Pedagogy is defined as not a matter of simple methods and…

  9. A Flexible Pre-Major Model for British Columbia Departments of Anthropology. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinbest, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    The Sociology/Anthropology Articulation Committee has engaged in a project resulting in tandem reports for each of the respective disciplines, which identify flexible pre-majors for both Sociology and Anthropology and summarize the specific types of courses that must be taken by students to allow them to transfer into third year of a major. A…

  10. 77 FR 32983 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of...

  11. 77 FR 32991 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of...

  12. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts presented illustrate…

  13. Rethinking the Anthropology of Violence for the Twenty-First Century : From Practice to Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, A.C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Technological developments in the security field are calling for a new anthropological approach to the study of violence. Th e anthropology of violence shifted during the late 1980s from an emphasis on the structural and symbolic dynamics of violence to a focus on historical and social practices. Th

  14. Reflections on John Monaghan's "Computer Algebra, Instrumentation, and the Anthropological Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to John Monaghan's "Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach" focus on a variety of issues related to the ergonomic approach (instrumentation) and anthropological approach to mathematical activity and practice. These include uses of the term technique; several possibilities for integration of the two approaches;…

  15. A Non-oedipal Psychoanalysis? Clinical Anthropology of Hysteria in the works of Freud and Lacan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haute, P.I.M.M. van; Geyskens, T.A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The different psychopathologic syndromes show in an exaggerated and caricatural manner the basic structures of human existence. These structures not only characterize psychopathology, but they also determine the highest forms of culture. This is the credo of Freud's anthropology. This anthropology i

  16. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  17. Teaching Anthropology to Students and Teachers: Reaching a Wider Audience. Publication 82-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Patricia J., Ed.; Selig, Ruth O., Ed.

    These papers, presented at a 1980 American Anthropological Association seminar, address two topics: why the teaching of anthropology should be promoted, especially at the secondary level; and how anthropologists and educators might achieve this goal. Several of the papers have been substantially revised since the symposium. The papers are…

  18. Neoliberal Individualism in Dutch Universities: Teaching and Learning Anthropology in an Insecure Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ellen; Grassiani, Erella; Kirk, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on our own experiences and that of several of our colleagues teaching social and cultural anthropology in different Dutch institutions for higher learning. We focus in particular on teaching and learning in two small liberal arts and science (LAS) colleges, where anthropology makes up part of the social science curriculum…

  19. 75 FR 41883 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University... and control of the Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Museum of...

  20. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  1. 76 FR 43714 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Oregon State University Department of...

  2. Material Culture and Anthropology-An Interview with Anthropologist Michael Rowlands of the University College London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL Rowlands; BIAN Simei; ZHAO Xiuyun

    2014-01-01

    Prof.Michael Rowlands discusses how to use material culture to explore the for-mation and use of objects , the history of objects , and the relationship between objects and histo-ry .He uses examples drawn from his academic background , and his fieldwork done in Africa and China .He further gives an in-depth discussion on the relationship between material culture and anthropology as well as archaeology and anthropology .He proposes specific views on how to de-velop historical anthropology by using material culture , and the combination of archaeology with anthropology .He states that in the future , the focus of anthropology will shift or move away from America and Europe to the rest of the world , and that it is possible that the current understand-ing of anthropology that comes from European and American Anthropology will no longer be ac-cepted as being the truth .Therefore, finding new ways of thinking is necessary for the future de-velopment of anthropology .

  3. 76 FR 56468 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico has completed an inventory of human remains, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of...

  4. To Mould or to Bring Out? Human Nature, Anthropology and Educational Utopianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Against narrow understandings of educational research, this article defends the relevance of philosophical anthropology to ethico-political education and contests its lack of space in the philosophy of education. My approximation of this topic begins with comments on philosophical anthropology; proceeds with examples from the history of…

  5. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts…

  6. 76 FR 43716 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact ] the Oregon State University Department of...

  7. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV... of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of...

  8. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology, University of... affiliated with the unassociated funerary objects should contact Carla Sinopoli, Museum of...

  9. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human...

  10. Strange, incredible and impossible things: the early anthropology of Reginald Scot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-06-01

    Reginald Scot has been acclaimed as an early rationalist for his critical consideration of witchcraft in 1584. At the same time, the Discoverie of Witchcraft appears organized much as later classic anthropological monographs. This article considers whether his methods and writing might indeed correspond to what we recognise as the procedures of medical or psychiatric anthropology.

  11. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest

    2012-01-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a ‘xenophile’ character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in

  12. Cross-Cultural Literacy: An Anthropological Approach to Dealing with Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu, Steven F.; Saravia-Shore, Marietta

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of Hirsch's concept of cultural literacy and suggests that the anthropological concept of cross-cultural literacy is more appropriate. Reviews (1) the resolutions of the Council on Anthropology and Education that are concerned with cultural diversity; and (2) the controversies surrounding bilingual education. (EVL)

  13. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  14. 77 FR 19697 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology...: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined... Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a...

  15. 77 FR 46114 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of... Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico, has determined... Anthropology at the address below by September 4, 2012. ADDRESSES: David Phillips, Curator of...

  16. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology... with the sacred objects may contact the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology....

  17. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, that meets the... Humboldt County, CA. The belt was donated to the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the...

  18. 76 FR 54485 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, has completed an... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Repatriation of...

  19. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  20. 78 FR 45963 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology...: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native... the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control...

  1. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University on an unknown...

  2. Theoretical orientation and validity of observation in sociology and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ilić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses closely related issues of the theoretical orientation and the validity of the application of the method of observation in sociology and anthropology. It was preceded by a text which discussed issues of meeting the principles of objectivity, systematicity and reliability when using observation as a research method. General problem of the relationship between theory and research in the application of observation will be analyzed in the subsequent article. Introductory section shows the general framework of a hypothetical - deductive conception of science and the role of the method of observation in this context. The next section of the article analyzes the effort of finding denying cases and discusses the limits of the method of analytical induction. This section deals with the influence of data analysis in qualitative form obtained by (usually participatory observation and constructing explanations on the validity of the observation. The next section of the article shows the possibility of increasing the validity of the observation by including other sources and methods of data collection. The final section shows the impact of over-emphasizing the epistemological difference between qualitative and quantitative orientation in sociology and anthropology on the possibility of increasing the validity of the observation as a research method.

  3. Techno-Anthropological Ethics and Health Information Systems Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsen, Tom; Danborg, Pia Brandt

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important Techno-Anthropological intellectual virtues is the ability to make contextualized ethical judgments of new and emerging technologies. This Techno-Anthropological core competence is especially relevant in Health Information Systems Technologies, which is a field characterized by inherent ethical dilemmas such as the pros and cons of regulation of research databases with sensitive information, or storing and application of tissue and blood samples. In this paper we present a method to make 'proper and quick' ethical estimates in Health Information. The method guides its user to make ethical judgments by splitting the judgment process into four steps: (1) Identification of intended beneficial consequences, potential misuse, unintended side effects and long-term consequences for culture and society. (2) Linkage of intended consequences, misuse, side effects and cultural implications to appropriate ethical values. (3) Identification of ethical dilemmas related to a specific use of the Health Information Systems Technology under assessment. (4) Formulation of appropriate technological and institution design criteria that can transcend the identified ethical dilemmas. The methodology will be applied to a the discussions at a hearing on ethical challenges accompanying research involving health data organized by the Danish Council of Ethics and the case of risk reducing breast cancer surgery based on diagnosed genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  4. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline's main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of "multidisciplinarity," to the adoption of theoretically imbued "interdisciplinarity." The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other.

  5. L’histoire du malade. Croisement de deux anthropologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Labey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available L’histoire des malades peut intégrer l’anthropologie de deux manières. Tout d’abord, elle peut utiliser l’anthropologie comme source de méthode et de questionnement. En écrivant une histoire de l’homme malade, l’historien se doit de saisir une situation corporelle individuelle et ses conséquences sociales dans un quotidien. Il interroge donc une société sur son rapport au corps, lorsqu’il est atteint par le mal, et sur son rapport à la norme, lorsqu’on s’en écarte. Ensuite, l’histoire des malades peut porter sur l’anthropologie comme discours, produit dans une période donnée. L’anthropologie est dès lors abordée en tant qu’objet de recherche. En croisant pratique et discours, il est possible de saisir les conséquences individuelles de l’évènement maladie. Pour le Moyen Age central, enjeux spirituels et enjeux institutionnels peuvent s’éclairer, grâce à cette double utilisation de l’anthropologie.The history of those who suffer from illness may integrate anthropology in two ways. First, anthropology can be used as method and a mode of questioning. In writing history of the sick, the historian must grasp a particular physiological situation and its social consequences in everyday life. He must question a society about its relationship with the body when it is affected by illness, and about what happens when an individual departs from the norm of health. Second, a history of the sick can use anthropology as a discourse, the product of a given period. In this case, anthropology is used as a subject of research. Combining practice and discourse, it is possible to apprehend individual consequences of an illness-event. This dual use of anthropology may clarify the spiritual and institutional consequences of illness in the central Middle Ages.La storia dei malati può integrare l’antropologia in due modi. In primo luogo, può utilizzare l’antropologia come fonte di metodi e di interrogativi

  6. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  7. What Do Artifacts Do?-An Anthropological Approach to Materiality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Rowlands; Tang Yun; Zhang Lisheng

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology and Archaeology provide suitable avenues here –i. e. Anthropology has been dedicated to mend the break - e. g. the Anthropology of Art departure from Primitive Art. But we have to ask how does the museum/art gallery/concert hall provide a unique access to au-thenticity by addressing the form of the object or image on display without knowing any of the con-texts? What is so fascinating about “contextless-ness” – i. e. objects to look at which do not speak? Both Valery and Proust argue against return to context–and for the uniqueness of form–where objects are offered for contemplation as ends in themselves. Both are pointing to this legacy of the relic from the counter reformation – the isolation and picking out of the unique object that once iso-lated i. e. can no longer be seen or touched– the power of the object that goes beyond mere fabrica-tion – transcends the spirit. Within the setting of the impact of fetishism in West Africa,anthropologists have rightly striven to isolate the context of ritually empowered objects from the projections of a post counter reformationist fear that being rid of relics in one place – would only lead to their rediscovery as fetish somewhere else. Going Beyond Fabrication Our eponymous African hero – displaying blank misrecognition to the European colonialist or now the Pentecostal pastor–who both condemned as paradoxical that something can be made by hu-man hand and yet its power can transcend its origin as a fetish -but our hero doesn’t understand what they are on about in being supposed to have some reason for not seeing the contradiction. We can sur-mise that this must also be something to do with ac-cess to objects that are deemed to be in themselves powerful. Here I will draw on an analogous situation of conserving,preserving and displaying objects in an indigenous context of artefact creation and display in West Africa. Why do the shrines in annual ritu-als always look like a jumble of things

  8. Antropologías disidentes Antropologias dissidentes Dissdent Anthropologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Restrepo

    2012-07-01

    artigo examinam-se alguns dos autores que têm abordado essa problemática, para evidenciar como as elaborações conceituais no âmbito das antropologias do mundo inscrevem-se nesse legado. Além disso, expõem-se também algumas das elaborações conceituais das antropologias do mundo como, por exemplo, as antropologias subalternizadas. Por fim, estimulados por questões surgidas a partir da teoria queer, sugere-se o conceito de antropologias dissidentes como um complemento e aprofundamento destes tipos de abordagens.Over ten years ago, anthropologists from different countries started to dialogue about what we called world anthropologies. We were drawn by a shared dissatisfaction regarding certain disciplinary practices that invisibilize multiple traditions, authors and ways of practicing anthropology. In order to shed light on this asymmetrical situation, we engaged in inspiring readings of many colleagues that had written about this and, based on their contributions, we suggested a series of concepts and advanced some research in the interest of better understanding the characteristics and effects of these power relations in and among different anthropologies. Some of the authors that have addressed this subject are examined in this article, aiming to show how conceptualization in the framework of world anthropologies is inscribed in this legacy. Moreover, certain conceptual developments of world anthropologies will be exposed, such as that of subalternized anthropologies. Lastly, stimulated by approaches of queertheory, the concept of dissident anthropologies is suggested as a supplement and strengthening of this type of analysis.

  9. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  10. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  11. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  12. The Intradisciplinary Affinities of Postmodern Anthropology Part I. The Consequences of Merging Ethics, Politics and Methodology in 1960s Critical Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an alternative interpretation of the genesis of the literary turn in anthropology, as an "interim solution" in the context of the ideological incorrectness of radical anti-colonial theories in a liberal democracy. Critical anthropology in the 1960s and 1970s drew considerable inspiration from reformational currents in neo-Marxist sociology and social philosophy, arousing ideological opposition among the numerous participants of methodological debates. This opposition would prove crucial for their subsequent modest development. This activistic ideological ballast actually slowed down the development of potent externalist analyses of the social determination of anthropology and academe in general, leaving room for studies of ethnographic writing. Anticipating, in terms of themes and trends, "nonmethodological" solutions to methodological problems, it had a direct effect on the substitution of poetics and contextual reflection for methodological regulation. Thus, paradoxically, extremely externalistically oriented analyses, which attempted to merge ethical, political and methodological debates, reduced the methodological focus of the disciplinary community from issues of research objectivity and the reliability of ethnographic records to issues concerning style and the writing of anthropology. In this context, debates on relativism, realism, representation, authority and reflexivity, typical of 1980s postmodern anthropology, have become a socially acceptable alternative to the critical and neo-Marxist anthropology of Afro-Americans, feminists or of the otherwise oppressed/studied when they in turn become nativistic anthropologists. The "literary turn" in postmodern anthropology is generally interpreted as an externalist critique of traditional ethnographic realism, offering an ethical and political interpretation of reflexivity as per se more correct than traditional positivist ethnography.

  13. Human evolution across the disciplines: spotlights on American anthropology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    When thinking about human evolution across the disciplines, terms such as "anthropological genetics" or "genetic anthropology" that brazenly defy the existence of the two-cultures divide seem to promise important insights. They refer to the application of genetic techniques to the past of humankind and human groups, a fact emphasized most strongly by the expression "genetic history." Such daring linguistic alliances have been forming since 1962 when the name "molecular anthropology" was introduced in the American context. This was an opportune moment for biochemists and physical chemists to enter anthropology, because in the U.S. a rapprochement between the fields was aimed for. However, a belief in and a discourse of a hierarchy of disciplines structured along the lines of methodology and epistemic object worked as an obstacle to the achievement of transdisciplinarity. Especially the DNA-sequence, initially approached through the proxy of the protein, was regarded as the most informative historical document due to its distance from the environment and its amenability to rigorous scientific techniques. These notions had a particular power at a time when anthropology was confronted with its legacy of race science. For some, the perceived objectivity of the new molecular approaches and the neutrality of molecules would render anthropology more natural-scientific and by inference less culturally contaminated. Others, to the contrary, believed that this legacy demanded a holistic and ethically reflexive anthropology. The different perceptions thus went along with different understandings of such crucial terms as "anthropology" and "history." In the paper, I revisit interfaces between different anthropological fields in the U.S. context and suggest that the beliefs in a hierarchy of approaches as well as in a nature free from culture embodied in the DNA-sequence has worked as one of the primary obstacles to an integration of these fields.

  14. Visual anthropology as a discipline of words. On the importance of the verbal in visual archives

    OpenAIRE

    Thurnherr, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Paul Hockings’ Principles of Visual Anthropology opened with Margaret Mead’s article ‘Visual Anthropology in a Discipline of Words’. In her prefatory lines Mead lamented that too many research projects “insist on continuing the hopelessly inadequate note-taking of an earlier age.” Today, some forty years after the first publication of Mead’s text, the opposition of the verbal and the visual still seems to loom over the full acceptance of the visual in cultural anthropology.

  15. Anthropology, social change and the reconstruction of South African society1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jansen van Rensburg

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is argued that, since the abuse of anthropology in the colonial and apartheid eras, the responsive relationship between anthropology and society has been re-emphasised. In the reconstruction of South African society, therefore, anthropologists will not be allowed the luxury of evading their social responsibility. In their re-invention of anthropology as a humane science, and the reiteration of their commitment to accountability and relevance, these scientists ought to build their discipline upon the investigation of the major consequences of differential power and inequality. This could be helpful in creating new forms of co-existence in South Africa

  16. An anthropology of learning on nested frictions in cultural ecologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    This book has one explicit purpose: to present a new theory of cultural learning in organisations which combines practice-based learning with cultural models - a cognitive anthropological schema theory of taken-for-granted connections - tied to the everyday meaningful use of artefacts. The understanding of culture as emerging in a process of learning open up for new understandings, which is useful for researchers, practitioners and students interested in dynamic studies of culture and cultural studies of organisations. The new approach goes beyond culture as a static, essentialist entity and open for our possibility to learn in organisations across national cultures, across ethnicity and across the apparently insurmountable local educational differences which makes it difficult for people to communicate working together in an increasingly globalized world. The empirical examples are mainly drawn from organisations of education and science which are melting-pots of cultural encounters.

  17. An Anthropology of Luminosity: The Agency of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between light, material culture and social experiences. It argues that understanding light as a powerful social agent, in its relationship with people, things, colours, shininess and places, may facilitate an appreciation of the active social role...... of luminosity in the practice of day-to-day activities. The article surveys an array of past conceptions of light within philosophy, natural science and more recent approaches to light in the fields of anthropology and material culture studies. A number of implications are discussed, and by way of three case...... studies it is argued that light may be used as a tool for exercising social intimacy and inclusion, of shaping moral spaces and hospitality, and orchestrating movement, while working as a metaphor as well as a material agent in these social negotiations. The social comprehension of light is a means...

  18. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp.

  19. The search for oneself: Introductory notes on ethics and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. (Kobus Labuschagne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human beings make choices, and get caught up by their choices. One cannot escape the choices one has made. Your choices draw the picture of who you really are. Sometimes you are haunted by the dire consequences of the choices you have made. Where does the necessity of taking responsibility for yourself, and the choices you have made, take you? Ethics and moral conduct make sense only in conjunction with the moral agent – humankind. This article is an introductory reflection on ethics and anthropology. The argument develops mainly from the view of a human being as a relational being. People are inescapably relational beings – always being in relation with other human beings, and never able to sever the lifesaving ties to God as the human being’s Maker. Human beings become themselves in relation to other human beings, and ultimately in relation to the One Other, God their Creator and Re-creator.

  20. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity.