WorldWideScience

Sample records for brix content uncovers

  1. Validation of Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum immunoglobulin G content and composition in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Junnikkala, S; Valros, A; Peltoniemi, O; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    Colostrum is an essential source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for neonate piglets. However, colostrum IgG content and nutritional composition can vary considerably among sows due to age, parity, feeding regime and immunological background. Currently, there is no practical way to obtain information about colostrum IgG concentration at herd level. We evaluated sows' colostrum IgG content on-farm using a Brix refractometer and its performance was compared with that of an IgG ELISA. In addition, nutritional compositions of the colostrum samples were analyzed using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Colostrum samples (5 to 6 ml) (n=153) were obtained within 0 to 3 h of farrowing. However, to obtain a 24 h IgG profile for 11 sows, colostrum samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 24 h after farrowing. A 0.3 ml of freshly drawn colostrum sample was used for the on-farm measurement of Brix percentages using a digital refractometer shortly after collection. The remaining fractions of the samples were frozen and submitted to laboratory analysis for total IgG, using a commercially available pig IgG ELISA kit. For nutritional composition analysis, a 35 ml colostrum sample (n=34) was obtained immediately after birth of first piglet from the first three pairs of frontal teats. Colostrum concentrations of IgG averaged 52.03±30.70 mg/ml (mean±SEM) at 0 to 3 h after farrowing. Concentration of IgG decreased on average by 50% during the 1st day of lactation (P30%. Colostrum IgG concentration is highly variable among sows, Brix measurement of a sows' fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum.

  2. Determination of Total Soluble Solids Content (Brix and pH in Milk Drinks and Industrialized Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite CAVALCANTI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC - Brix refratometry and pH values of milk drinks (yogurts and chocolate drink and fruit juices ready to drink (FJRD. Method: Twenty milk drinks and ten fruit juices were evaluated by random experiment, with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analyis of TSSC were made for Brix refratometry and pH were determined. Results: The TSS content of drinks ranged from 13.26 to 26.30 for milk drinks and 10.23 to 13.53 to ready to drink juice. The maximum and lower values to pH were, respectively, 3.58 and 7.01 for milk drinks and 3.07 and 3.72 to drink juice. Conclusion: The high the concentration of TSSC verified in the milk and juice drinks, associated to a low pH can contribute to the development of decay lesions in case they be consumed in excess by the children.

  3. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...

  4. Determination of total nitrogen content, pH, density, refractive index, and brix in Thai fish sauces and their classification by near-infrared spectroscopy with searching combination moving window partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai; Thanapase, Warunee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transflectance spectra in the region of 1100-2500 nm were measured for 100 Thai fish sauces. Quantitative analyses of total nitrogen (TN) content, pH, refractive index, density and brix in the Thai fish sauces and their qualitative analyses were carried out by multivariate analyses with the aid of wavelength interval selection method named searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS). The optimized informative region for TN selected by SCMWPLS was the region of 2264-2428 nm. A PLS calibration model, which used this region, yielded the lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.100% w/v for the PLS factor of 5. This prediction result is significantly better than those obtained by using the whole spectral region or informative regions selected by moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR). As for pH, density, refractive index and brix, the 1698-1722, and 2222-2258 nm regions, the 1358-1438 nm region, the 1774-1846, and 2078-2114 nm regions, and the 1322-1442, and 2000-2076 nm regions were selected by SCMWPLS as the optimized regions. The best prediction results were always obtained by use of the optimized regions selected by SCMWPLS. The lowest RMSEP for pH, density, refractive index and brix were 0.170, 0.007 g cm(-3), 0.0079 and 0.435 degrees Brix, respectively. Qualitative models were developed by using four supervised pattern recognitions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), factor analysis-linear discriminant analysis (FA-LDA), soft independent modeling of class analog (SIMCA), and K neareat neighbors (KNN) for the optimized combination of informative regions of the NIR spectra of fish sauces to classify fish sauces into three groups based on TN. All the developed models can potentially classify the fish sauces with the correct classification rate of more than 82%, and the KNN classified model has the highest correct classification rate (95%). The present study has demonstrated that NIR

  5. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  6. Chemical composition and fermentative losses of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without the addition of 0.5% of calcium oxide (lime on the chemical composition and fermentation losses of silages. A complete random design in a 9 × 2 factorial arrangement was used. Experimental silos were used, ensilage was done every 15 days with Brix measuring, and they were opened after 30 days of fermentation. As the Brix degree of the ensiled material increased, the contents of dry matter (DM increased and contents of ash, crude protein (CP and fibers (neutral and acid detergent fiber corrected for proteins - NDFap and ADFap reduced. After fermentation, DM content of the silage presented a linear increase with the Brix degree content concentration, positively correlating with content of lime, but the contents of ash, CP, EE and NDFap were linearly reduced with the Brix increase. Content of ADFap suffered linear reduction for the treated silage whereas quadratic behavior was found in the untreated silage. Production of ethanol was presented in a quadratic manner for the silages without lime, and cubically in silages with lime, according to the Brix degree. The treated or untreated silages presented an average pH of 3.98 and 3.50, respectively. Contents of acetic acid and butyric acid were not affected by the lime content and Brix degree. Untreated silages presented reduction of contents of propionic acid as the Brix degree increased. The higher the Brix degree value, the higher the total losses of dry matter in the sugar cane silages with or without treatment. The treatment of the sugar cane with 0.5% calcium oxide on the natural matter basis is effective in reducing the undesired fermentation of the ensilage material.

  7. 27 CFR 24.177 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chaptalization (Brix... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.177 Chaptalization (Brix... juice added may not raise the original density of the juice above 25 degrees Brix. If grape juice...

  8. BriX: a database of protein building blocks for structural analysis, modeling and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, Peter; Verschueren, Erik; Baeten, Lies; Stricher, Francois; Serrano, Luis; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution structures of proteins remain the most valuable source for understanding their function in the cell and provide leads for drug design. Since the availability of sufficient protein structures to tackle complex problems such as modeling backbone moves or docking remains a problem, alternative approaches using small, recurrent protein fragments have been employed. Here we present two databases that provide a vast resource for implementing such fragment-based strategies. The BriX database contains fragments from over 7000 non-homologous proteins from the Astral collection, segmented in lengths from 4 to 14 residues and clustered according to structural similarity, summing up to a content of 2 million fragments per length. To overcome the lack of loops classified in BriX, we constructed the Loop BriX database of non-regular structure elements, clustered according to end-to-end distance between the regular residues flanking the loop. Both databases are available online (http://brix.crg.es) and can be accessed through a user-friendly web-interface. For high-throughput queries a web-based API is provided, as well as full database downloads. In addition, two exciting applications are provided as online services: (i) user-submitted structures can be covered on the fly with BriX classes, representing putative structural variation throughout the protein and (ii) gaps or low-confidence regions in these structures can be bridged with matching fragments.

  9. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  10. Brix degree and sorbitol/xylitol level of authentic pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Ilkay; Ekşi, Aziz

    2011-08-01

    With regard to 45 pomegranate fruits from different regions and several domestic varieties, fruit weight was found to be 137.1-738.2g, peel share 34.4-73.1%, aril share 26.9-65.6% and fruit juice yield 19.2-48.0%. Brix degree of pomegranate juice samples obtained from the aforementioned fruits changed from 12.2 to 17.8 and was lower than 14.0 in approximately 18% of the samples. Titratable acidity of pomegranate juice samples varied between 2.4 and 30g/L and the formol number varied between 4.0 and 20.0. The sorbitol/xylitol content ranged between 16 and 423mg/L, mostly lying between 51 and 200mg/L with a frequency of 64%. The share of samples containing sorbitol/xylitol higher than 250g/L is 7%.

  11. EFEITO DA ADUBAÇÃO FOSFATA SOBRE O ACÚMULO DE BIOMASSA E TEOR DE BRIX DE DUAS VARIEDADES DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihélio Júlio Silva Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of matter, dry matter content of Brix and two varieties of sugar cane, influenced by the phosphorus cultivated on "Zona da Mata" region, State of Alagoas. The experiment, a factorial 2 x 6, was composed of two varieties of cane; RB867515 and RB92579 and six phosphorus levels: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1, with the source of the phosphorus triple superphosphate . Was also used nitrogen and potassium in doses equivalent to 100 and 200 kg ha-1 and K, respectively. The soil of the experimental area was set to raise the base saturation to 60%. At the beginning of the first rainfall of the rainy season of 2006 was performed with micro fertilization in coverage, in doses equivalent to 6,0; 6,0 and 7,0 kg ha-1 of Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively. Was The chemical control of weeds. Every month, from August to October 2006, samples were collected in the cane plant. There was initially the number of plants m2, followed by weighing the material. It was subsequently withdrawn a subsample containing ten plants for weighing. After weighing the material was passed in horsemanship and homogenized, again drew up a sample of approximately 300g, leading them to forced ventilation oven at 65 ºC, to obtain constant weight. Resulting in the production of natural (MN and dry matter (DM. In July, we analyzed the levels of Brix% juice in the refractometer Brix. The average values of production of natural (MN, dry matter (DM and contents of Brix% were subjected to analysis of variance and regression for variables. The accumulation of dry matter and were influenced by fertilization. The contents of Brix% in two varieties did not suffer significant influence of fertilization.

  12. 27 CFR 24.304 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. 24.304 Section 24.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. (a) General. A proprietor who chaptalizes juice...

  13. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  14. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum.

  15. Protocol Development for the Carbohydrate Quantification in Black Liquor with Brix Refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Arnab; Putatunda, Sirsha; Sen, Dwaipayan; Sarkar, Ankur; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-07-01

    Present work is a proposed methodology to quantify carbohydrates even at its trace level in black liquor (BL) in the presence of lignosulphonates (LS) using brix refractometer. Primarily, the detection accuracy was validated with the simulated solutions resembling BL used in the present work. A factor, resembling the weight fraction of LS and inorganics, was multiplied with the brix degree obtained for the simulated solution to convert it into the brix reading for a sole carbohydrate present in the solution along with other chemicals. It was found that the accuracy level of measuring carbohydrate was within ±1-2 % of the actual.

  16. Reconstruction of Protein Backbones from the BriX Collection of Canonical Protein Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Lies Baeten; Joke Reumers; Vicente Tur; François Stricher; Tom Lenaerts; Luis Serrano; Frederic Rousseau; Joost Schymkowitz

    2008-01-01

    As modeling of changes in backbone conformation still lacks a computationally efficient solution, we developed a discretisation of the conformational states accessible to the protein backbone similar to the successful rotamer approach in side chains. The BriX fragment database, consisting of fragments from 4 to 14 residues long, was realized through identification of recurrent backbone fragments from a non-redundant set of high-resolution protein structures. BriX contains an alphabet of more ...

  17. Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Lago, A; Chapman, C; Erickson, P; Polo, J

    2013-02-01

    Refractometry using a Brix refractometer has been proposed as a means to estimate IgG concentration in bovine maternal colostrum (MC). The refractometer has advantages over other methods of estimating IgG concentration in that the Brix refractometer is inexpensive, readily available, less fragile, and less sensitive to variation in colostral temperature, season of the year and other factors. Samples of first-milking MC were collected from 7 dairy farms in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut (n=84) and 1 dairy farm in California (n=99). The MC was milked from the cow at 6.1 ± 5.6h postparturition and a sample was evaluated for Brix percentage by using an optical refractometer. Two additional samples (30 mL) were collected from the milk bucket, placed in vials, and frozen before analysis of total IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) using commercially available plates and by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). The second sample was analyzed for total bacterial counts and coliform counts at laboratories in New York (Northeast samples) and California (California samples). The Brix percentage (mean ± SD) was 23.8 ± 3.5, IgG concentration measured by RID was 73.4 ± 26.2g/L, and IgG concentration measured by TIA was 67.5 ± 25.0 g/L. The Brix percentage was highly correlated (r=0.75) with IgG analyzed by RID. The Brix percentage cut point to define high- or low-quality colostrum (50 g of IgG/L measured by RID) that classified more samples correctly given the proportion of high- (86%) and low-quality (14%) samples in this study was 21%, which is slightly lower than other recent estimates of Brix measurements. At this cut point, the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 92.9, 65.5, 93.5, 63.3, and 88.5%, respectively. Measurement of IgG by TIA correlated with Brix (r=0.63) and RID (r=0.87); however, TIA and RID methods of IgG measurement were not consistent throughout the range of samples tested. We conclude

  18. Research on the Brix in Juice of Sweet Sorghum Stalk under Different Storage Conditions%不同储藏条件下甜高粱茎秆汁液糖度变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海莲; 张华文; 杨延兵; 秦岭; 管延安

    2011-01-01

    The influence of centrifugation and storage temperature on juice sugar content of six sweet sorghum varieties with different brix were investigated. The results showed that the difference of juice brix between the treatment of centrifugation and non-centrifugation was not significant. After placed 6 days in the room temperature, the Brix of the non centrifugal varieties was decreased to the minimum. However, the brix of the centrifugal varieties was decreased to the minimum until to the 9 days. After placed 30 days in room temperature,4℃ and - 20℃storage conditions, the brix of each variety declined compared with the original values, but the Brix was the lowest under normal temperature storage. The difference of the brix in 4℃ and - 20℃ storage conditions was not significant. Therefore, the speed of the degradation of brix was the fast in the first week after extraction and low temperature storage of juice could reduce the degradation of sugar.%利用锤度不同的6个高粱品种,研究了离心和储藏温度对高粱茎秆汁液锤度的影响.结果表明:榨汁后离心与未离心的品种锤度差异不显著.在常温下放置6d后,未离心的品种糖度下降到最低,而离心后的品种在常温下放置到9d糖度下降到最低.在常温,4℃和-20℃的储藏条件下放置30 d后,与最初的糖度相比,每种储藏条件下的品种糖锤度都有一定程度的下降.但是常温下储藏的品种糖锤度下降最快,4℃和- 20℃的储藏条件下糖锤度差异不大.因此,高粱茎秆汁液榨出后的前一周是糖分降解最快的时期,而低温储藏可以降低汁液中糖分的降解.

  19. Vigor rating and brix for first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point Cultivar Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic variability in agronomic performance will help optimize breeding and selection strategies. Vigor ratings and Brix data were collected from the 2009 and 2010 clones in the first clonal selection stage (Stage I) of the Canal Point (CP) sugar...

  20. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmann, V; Gillan, J; Perkins, N R; Skidmore, A L; Godden, S; Leslie, K E

    2010-08-01

    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed. The aims of this study were to evaluate both optical and digital Brix refractometer instruments for the measurement of Ig concentration of colostrum as compared with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay laboratory assessment and to determine the correlation between Ig measurements taken from fresh and frozen colostrum samples for both Brix refractometer instruments. This research was completed using 288 colostrum samples from 3 different farms. It was concluded that the optical and digital Brix refractometers were highly correlated for both fresh and frozen samples (r=0.98 and r=0.97, respectively). Correlation between both refractometer instruments for fresh and frozen samples and the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay were determined to be very similar, with a correlation coefficient between 0.71 and 0.74. Both instruments exhibited excellent test characteristics, indicating an appropriate cut-off point of 22% Brix score for the identification of good quality colostrum.

  1. Phenolic compounds responsible for the superoxide dismutase-like activity in high-Brix apple vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kozo; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Endou, Kiyoshi; Fujimori, Seiji; Koyama, Masahiro; Akano, Hirofumi

    2010-09-22

    High-Brix apple vinegar (HBAV) with palatable drinking qualities has been developed using a greater amount of apple ingredients. In HBAV and in regular apple vinegar (RAV), constituents of 4 kinds of organic acids, 20 kinds of amino acids, 3 kinds of sugars, 4 kinds of minerals, and phenols were determined. These constituents, except for acetic acid, in HBAV are of higher abundance than in RAV. HBAV had a 7.1 times greater superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity compared with RAV. Those constituents, except for phenols, had very low SOD-like activity, and total phenol levels in HBAV were comparable to 181 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 mL, which was 6.0 times more abundant than in RAV. Nine kinds of phenols including two kinds of hydroxycinnamates, two kinds of hydroxybenzoates, and five kinds of hydroxycinnamoyl quinates, originating from raw material were determined, but there were no ascorbic acid and flavonoids in HBAV. Chlorogenic acid, 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and caffeic acid were the three major phenols, and their content levels were 19.6, 13.5, and 0.76 mg in 100 mL of HBAV, respectively. Sum of contents of chlorogenic acid and the isomers was 24.0 mg/100 mL, and the percentage was 56.9% in the total identified phenols in HBAV. In RAV, only chlorogenic acid was determined as phenols, and the content was 3.1 mg/100 mL. SOD-like activities of the constituents of HBAV were obtained through high-accuracy assays using vinegar reconstitutions, and each contribution to the total SOD-like activity was found. As a result, 77.2% for all SOD-like activity of HBAV was reconstituted using the determined nine phenols and other constituents. Chlorogenic acids were the most effective, and the contribution to the total activity was 41.7%. The most abundant phenols, chlorogenic acids, were the most important contributors to the SOD-like activity. These SOD-active phenols originated from raw material and remained through the acetic acid fermentation processes. In the

  2. Uncovering the Math Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often express to Marulyn Burns their worry about the need to "cover the curriculum." In response, she draws on one of her favorite quotes: "You don't want to cover a subject; you want to uncover it." This quote is from "The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning" by Eleanor…

  3. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid contentBrix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  4. [Determination of brix and POL in sugar cane juice by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with BP-ANN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ye, Hua-jun; Li, Qing-tao; Xie, Jin-chun; Lu, Jia-jiong; Xia, A-lin; Wang, Jian

    2010-07-01

    The models of quantitative analysis of brix and pol in sugar cane juice were established by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled with the back propagation-artificial neural network method (BP-ANN). The spectra of cane juice samples were obtained by the way of 2 mm optical length transmission and using the NIR spectrometer of 1,000-1,800 nm wavelength. Firstly, the data of original spectra were pretreated by Savitzky-Golay derivative and mean-centering. Secondly, the wavelength range of model was optimized by using correlation coefficient method coupled with the characteristic absorbance of the spectrum. Finally, the principal components, obtained by PLS dimension-reducing, were inputed into BP-ANN. The calibration models were established by calibration set and validated by prediction set. The results showed that the related coefficients (R2) of prediction for brix and pol were 0.982 and 0.979, respectively; and the standard errors of prediction (SEP) for brix and pol were 0.159 and 0.137, respectively. BP-ANN was more accurate in the prediction of brix and pol compared with the partial least square method (PLS). The method can be applied to fast and accurate determination of brix and pol in sugar cane juice.

  5. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG Brix % ≤ 8.5% showed optimal sensitivity (100%) and specificity (89.2%) to predict FPT. At the same IgG cut-point, an STP value of ≤ 52 g/L showed a similar sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80.4%) to predict FPT. Brix refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted.

  6. Genetic analysis for brix weight per stool and its component traits in sugarcane (Saccharum officmarum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Brix weight per stool (BW) of sugarcane is a complex trait, which is the final product of a combination of many components. Diallel cross experiments were conducted during a period of two years for BW and its five component traits, including stalk diameter (SD), stalk length (SL), stalk number (SN), stalk weight (SW), and brix scale (BS) of sugarcane. Phenotypic data of all the six traits were analyzed by mixed linear model and their phenotype variances were portioned into additive (A),dominance (D), additive×environment interaction (AE) and dominance×environment interaction (DE) effects, and the correlations of A, D, AE and DE effects between BW and its components were estimated. Conditional analysis was employed to investigate the contribution of the components traits to the variances of A, D, AE and DE effects of BW. It was observed that the heritabilities of BW were significantly attributed to A, D and DE by 23.9%, 30.9% and 28.5%, respectively. The variance of A effect for BW was significantly affected by SL, SN and BS by 25.3%, 93.7% and 17.4%, respectively. The variances of D and DE effects for BW were also significantly influenced by all the five components by 5.1%~85.5%. These determinants might be helpful in sugarcane breeding and provide valuable information for multiple-trait improvement of BW.

  7. 数字化糖度仪在初乳质量检测及犊牛被动转运评估中的应用%The Feasibility of Digital Brix Refractometer in Colostrum Quality Monitor and the Assessment of Passive Transport Failure in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲喆; 马翀; 曹杰

    2016-01-01

    本试验收集502份初乳及542份2~7日龄犊牛血清,用数字化糖度仪和白利糖度仪进行初乳质量检测,用医用折光仪和数字化糖度仪进行血清总蛋白检测,评估数字化糖度仪在初乳质量监控中的应用效果。结果表明,爱拓PAL-1型数字糖度仪可以实现同时对初乳IgG含量的间接测定和犊牛被动转运失败的评估。%To evaluate the feasibility of digital Brix refractometer in colostrum quality monitor, totally 502 colostrum samples were tested using digital Brix refractometer and refractometer to determine colostrum IgG content, and 542 serum within 2~7 days calves were tested using digital Brix refractometer and refractometer to determine serum protein. Results showed that the PAL-1 type digital Brix refractometer could be used in determining colostrum IgG content and assessing passive transport failure in calves.

  8. Densidade básica do colmo e sua correlação com os valores de brix e pol em cana-de-açúcar Correlation between brix and pol values of sugarcane and culm basic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procurou-se estabelecer as correlações entre a densidade básica do colmo e os valores de Brix e Pol em diversas variedades e "seedlings" de cana-de-açucar, visando ao estabelecimento de um método expedito e semiquantitativo de análise. Os resultados obtidos mostraram correlações significativas (p > 99% entre a densidade básica do colmo e os valores obtidos para Brix e Pol, principalmente para a região mediana do colmo. Desse modo, a densidade básica do colmo pode ser utilizada como um método expedito de análise para avaliar a concentração de sacarose em cana-de-açúcar.The correlation between the refractometric (Brix and polarimetric (Pol determinations and the culm basic density was determined. The objective was to establish a fast and semiquantitative method for sugarcane analysis, regarding sucrose determination in the culm. The results showed a significant correlation (p > 0.99 between the basic density and each of the values of Brix and Pol, mainly for the median portion of the culm. It was concluded that the culm basic density can be utilized as a speedy method to estimate the sucrose concentration of sugarcane culms.

  9. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    This dissertation is concerned with the semantics of Danish prepositions in an ontology-based information retrieval framework. In such a framework, conceptual indexing of texts is needed and, for us, the goal of this indexing process is to index texts based on the conceptual content of larger text...... of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... chunks – ideally based on the conceptual content of sentences. The conceptual content of text chunks is mapped into a so-called generative ontology, which is to be understood as a non-finite set of concepts. Basically, a generative ontology consists of a given finite ontology ordered by the ISA relation...

  10. Estimation of water activity from pH and °Brix values of some food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2008-06-01

    In this study, a predictive model for the estimation of water activity (aw(25°C)) as a function of pH (1.00-8.00) and °Brix (0-82.00) values of simulated food solutions (SFS) was developed, through response surface methodology. Response fit analyses resulted in a highly significant (pHBrix values within the defined variable ranges. The linear, quadratic and interactive influences of pH and °Brix on aw(25°C) were all significant (pH<0.0001). Model validations in SFS and in a number of actual food systems showed that the model had acceptable predictive performance, as indicated by the calculated accuracy and bias indices.

  11. Technical note: Use of a digital and an optical Brix refractometer to estimate total solids in milk replacer solutions for calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, H K; Sischo, W M; Crudo, C; Moore, D A

    2016-09-01

    The Brix refractometer is used on dairy farms and calf ranches for colostrum quality (estimation of IgG concentration), estimation of serum IgG concentration in neonatal calves, and nonsalable milk evaluation of total solids for calf nutrition. Another potential use is to estimate the total solids concentrations of milk replacer mixes as an aid in monitoring feeding consistency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of Brix refractometers to estimate total solids in milk replacer solutions and evaluate different replacer mixes for osmolality. Five different milk replacer powders (2 milk replacers with 28% crude protein and 25% fat and 3 with 22% crude protein and 20% fat) were mixed to achieve total solids concentrations from approximately 5.5 to 18%, for a total of 90 different solutions. Readings from both digital and optical Brix refractometers were compared with total solids. The 2 types of refractometers' readings correlated well with one another. The digital and optical Brix readings were highly correlated with the total solids percentage. A value of 1.08 to 1.47 would need to be added to the Brix reading to estimate the total solids in the milk replacer mixes with the optical and digital refractometers, respectively. Osmolality was correlated with total solids percentage of the mixes, but the relationship was different depending on the type of milk replacer. The Brix refractometer can be beneficial in estimating total solids concentration in milk replacer mixes to help monitor milk replacer feeding consistency.

  12. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  13. Uncovering the Hidden Decisions that Shape Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Danielle Boyd

    2010-10-01

    Developing explanatory models is a central practice to scientific inquiry. When students create and test explanatory models for scientific phenomenon, they develop content knowledge, knowledge of the nature of science, and creative thinking skills. Unfortunately, such instruction rarely occurs in K-12 science. This is, in part, because teachers do not have the opportunity to develop sophisticated understandings of the process of modeling, but also because teaching in this way requires teachers to make real-time instructional decisions that are responsive to students' ideas. This is challenging for teachers, especially because this decision process is often invisible. In this talk, I will highlight the importance of providing opportunities for sophisticated science thinking for our youngest learners and consider how uncovering the decisions that shape physics courses for teachers may benefit their future students.

  14. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometer and Brix refractometer to assess failure of passive transfer in calves: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Chigerwe, M; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-06-01

    Calves are highly dependent of colostrum (and antibody) intake because they are born agammaglobulinemic. The transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed directly by dosing immunoglobulin G (IgG) or by refractometry or Brix refractometry. The latter are easier to perform routinely in the field. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of refractometry or Brix refractometry versus dosage of IgG as a reference standard test. With this review protocol we aim to be able to report refractometer and Brix refractometer accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity as well as to quantify the impact of any study characteristic on test accuracy.

  16. NIR-LEDs lighting system for enhancing Brix distinction with saving energy to agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Ahn-Jin; Jang, Won-Geun; Park, Youngsik

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the sugar content prediction determination system in optical non-contact type based on the near infrared light emitting diode (NIR-LED) lamp is proposed. As the result NIR-LED lamp reduced 86% of the energy consumption compared to the case of Halogen lamp in the same process of sugar content determination. And the result of prediction of sugar content by NIR-LED lamp is shown to as near the same level of Halogen lamp system.

  17. Evaluation of an on-farm method to assess colostrum IgG content in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, A; Cordell, H J; Edwards, S A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the evaluation of swine colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration using the Brix refractometer. Colostrum samples were collected across all teats, from 124 sows of mixed parities. According to sampling time, three categories were created: samples available from 9 h before the onset of parturition until the first piglet was born were classified as before farrowing; samples collected after the first birth until 4 h later were classified as during farrowing; and finally samples collected from this point until 14 h after parturition, were classified as after farrowing. Samples were drawn and divided into three portions; one was immediately analyzed, a second was refrigerated and the third was frozen at -20°C. Fresh and refrigerated colostrum samples were analyzed at the farm with a Brix refractometer. IgG content of frozen samples was analyzed using a Brix refractometer, with a subset of 42 samples also tested with a commercially available radial immune diffusion (RID) kit. The Brix percentage ranged from 18.3% to 33.2%. Brix percentage repeatability, assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was very strong (fresh ICC=0.98, refrigerated ICC=0.88 and frozen ICC=0.99). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed that storage temperature did not affect BRIX percentage of colostrum IgG (P>0.05). ANOVA results show a significant effect of sampling time on colostrum immunoglobulin concentration, measured with both Brix and RID (Brix: Pcolostrum IgG in sows.

  18. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  19. The Effects of Different Habitats on the Growth、Brix Degree and Yield of Sorghum bicolor L.%不同生态环境对甜高粱生长、糖锤度及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈展宇; 邓川; 边鸣镝; 白忠义; 杨振明

    2013-01-01

    The eight sweet sorghum varieties were used as experimental materials,which to research on growing at seedling stage and agronomic characters,, biological yields stalk brix degree of sweet sorghum at maturation stage under different habitats condition. The experimental results were as followed: the growth speed of sweet sorghum were all higher than to the control (normal habitats) and content water were all lower under semi-arid habitats at seedling stage. At maturation stage,the biomass、 plant height and stalk diameter of sweet sorghum were all lower than to the control,the grain weight slightly increased,the stalk brix degree were all obviously higher than to the control under semi-arid habitats,which showed to decrease the biological yield of sweet sorghum and increase the stalk brix degree under semi-arid habitats. The experiments will offer theoretical bases to select the sweet sorghum varieties which were suitable for planting in west of Jilin province.%试验选择8个代表性的甜高粱品种分别在半干旱地区、半湿润地区种植,研究两种生境对不同甜高梁品种苗期生长及成熟期农艺性状、生物产量、糖锤度的影响.结果表明:半干旱地区种植的甜高粱苗期生长速度高于半湿润地区,植株含水量低于半湿润地区;在成熟收获期,半干旱地区种植的甜高粱品种株高、茎粗均低于半湿润地区,生物产量均低于半湿润地区,茎秆含水量略有下降,茎秆糖锤度均高于半湿润地区,半干旱条件降低甜高粱的生物产量,增加茎秆汁液锤度.本试验为筛选适宜吉林省西部半干旱地区种植的甜高梁品种提供理论依据.

  20. MSW-28 a full flavor crisp watermelon line with high lycopene and medium brix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  1. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  2. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  3. Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mejía Reátiga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no había podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía?

  4. 折射仪法快速检测卷烟的白利糖度%Rapid Determination of Brix in Cigarettes Using Refractometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光莉

    2012-01-01

    白利糖度的检测被广泛的应用于水果、蔬菜等食品行业,本文首次将其应用于烟草行业的检测。建立采用折射仪法快速测定卷烟白利糖度的方法,并对不同样品的白利糖度进行了比较。结果表明:烤烟型卷烟的白利糖度最高,混合型卷烟次之,最低的为雪茄型卷烟。真伪卷烟的白利糖度具有显著性差异,真品卷烟的白利糖度均高于假冒伪劣卷烟。因此,白利糖度检测可以作为卷烟真伪鉴别的一种辅助手段。%Determination of soluble solids(Brix) is popularly used in food service industry such as fruit,vegetable;in this paper,it is used in tobacco industry firstly.Refractometric method was explored and used in rapid determination of Brix of cigarettes.In this article,comparison test was done over Brix among different samples.The results showed that the Brix of Virginian type cigarette is highest than Blended type cigarette and cigar type cigarette.The Brix of genuine cigarettes are higher than that of counterfeit cigarettes;the differences are significant in statistic.Therefore,this distinct difference can be used as one of important evidences in cigarette identity discrimination.

  5. Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-20

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0091 Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data Keith Bowman ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 04/20/2015...COVERED (From - To)      01-05-2012 to 30-04-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...scanned point-cloud data . It has two stages. In the first stage, we analyzed scan data and extracted topologically critical points. We used these critical

  6. Variação da concentração de vitamina C, ºBrix e acidez em néctar de laranja em embalagens cartonadas = Modification of vitamin C concentration, Brix and acidity in orange nectar in aseptic packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Lucia de Oliveira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de néctar de laranja, acondicionadas em embalagens cartonadas, foram armazenadas em local climatizado (25°C e em refrigerador (4°C. Durante oito semanas, análises de vitamina C, Brix e acidez foram realizadas no momento da abertura daembalagem, e seu produto residual foi ainda analisado durante quatro dias de estocagem em refrigerador. Analisando-se os resultados das variáveis por métodos estatísticos, observou-se que a temperatura de armazenagem influencia a quantidade de vitamina C do néctar delaranja. Ocorre decréscimo significativo na concentração de vitamina C, mas não há influência da temperatura de armazenagem no Brix e acidez do produto. O tempo de armazenamento influencia vitamina C, Brix e acidez. Constata-se, ainda, que após oito semanas de estocagem e quatro dias de abertura da embalagem a quantidade de vitamina C,em um copo de 200 mL do néctar de laranja estudado, supre a necessidade média diária de um adulto (60 mg.Samples of orange nectar in aseptic packaging were stored incontrolled room temperature (25°C and in a refrigerator (4°C. For eight weeks, analyses of vitamin C, Brix and acidity were conducted as the packages were opened, and their residual products were further analyzed during a period of four days stored in a refrigerator.By using statistical models from the results found, it was concluded that storage temperature influences the quantity of vitamin C in orange nectar. There was a significant decrease in vitamin C concentration in nectar, but storage temperature does not influenceacidity or Brix. Storage time does influence vitamin C, Brix and acidity. It was concluded that after eight weeks of storage and four days of opening the package, the amount of vitamin C in a 200 mL glass of orange nectar is enough to supply the average needed dailyintake (60 mg of vitamin C for an adult.

  7. Modeling the growth/no growth interface of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice as a function of pH, temperature, Brix and nisin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Luera Peña

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth probability of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice was studied in different product conditions. The microorganism response was monitored until 47 days of storage in different conditions of pH (3 to 5.8, soluble solids (11 to 19°Brix, temperature (20 to 54°C and nisin concentration (0 to 70 IU/ml. Growth/no growth data were modeled by the polynomial logistics regression model. The concordance of the obtained model was 96.3% indicating good fitting of observed data. The results showed fast growth in the conditions 0 IU nisin/ml juice, pH 4.4 and 15ºBrix, at 35ºC. For 70 IU nisin/ml there was no growth, pH 4.4, at 37ºC, up to 47 days of storage. Simple juices (11°Brix with pHs between 3.5 to 3.7 can keep stable and withstand abuse temperatures up to 36°C, since added in 70IU nisin/ml, extending its shelf life. With 0.05 growth probability and using the logistics model, high pH critical values can be obtained when 50 IU nisin/ml, at 25ºC, are present in the juice, however increases in temperature and decreases in soluble solids concentration make the pH critical values decrease. It is then concluded that nisin incorporation is an alternative for controlling A. acidoterrestris growth in orange juice, as well as the logistics regression model proved to be an important tool for determining the microbial response under critical values of the variables, besides predicting growth probabilities for the different studied conditions.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from shallow uncovered coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses a method of quantifying emissions from surface coal mining that has been trialled in Australia. The method is based on direct measurement of surface emissions from uncovered coal seams in mine pits, concurrent measurement of residual gas content of blasted coal in mine pits, and measurement of pre-mining gas content of the same seam from cores retrieved from exploration boreholes drilled away from active mining. The results from one of the mines studied are presented in this paper. In this mine, the pre-mining gas content of the target seam was measured using cores from an exploration borehole away from active mining. Gas content varied from 0.7 to 0.8 m3/t and gas composition varied from 16% to 21% CH4 (84-79% CO2). In-pit measurements included seam surface emissions and residual gas content of blasted and ripped coal. Residual gas content varied from 0.09 to 0.15 m3/t, less than twofold across the mine pit. Composition of the residual gas was in general 90%CO2 and 10%CH4, with slight var-iation between samples. Coal seam surface emissions varied from 1.03 to 7.50 mL of CO2-e per minute and per square meter of the coal seam surface, a sevenfold variation across the mine pit.

  9. Uncovering student ideas in physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    If you and your students can't get enough of a good thing, Volume 2 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Physical Science is just what you need. The book offers 39 new formative assessment probes, this time with a focus on electric charge, electric current, and magnets and electromagnetism. It can help you do everything from demystify electromagnetic fields to explain the real reason balloons stick to the wall after you rub them on your hair.

  10. Hepatitis C virus host cell interactions uncovered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

      Insights into virus-host cell interactions as uncovered by Randall et al. (1) in a recent issue of PNAS further our understanding of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, persistence, and pathogenesis and might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. HCV persistently infects 180...... million individuals worldwide, causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The only approved treatment, combination therapy with IFN- and ribavirin, targets cellular pathways (2); however, a sustained virologic response is achieved only in approximately half of the patients...... treated. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the identification of novel drugs against hepatitis C. Although most research focuses on the development of HCV-specific antivirals, such as protease and polymerase inhibitors (3), cellular targets could be pursued and might allow the development of broad...

  11. Uncovering the architecture of action semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-10-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the "architecture" of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated "use" actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action "semantic space." In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools.

  12. Caracterização bioquímica de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.: isoenzimas, proteína solúvel e valor brix Biochemical characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. cultivars: isoenzymes, solubre protein and brix value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Almeida

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram determinados o perfil isoenzimático diferencial de esterase e peroxidase, a proteína total solúvel e os sólidos solúveis (sacarose em graus brix, de 10 cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. atualmente cultivados no Brasil. Os cultivares estudados foram: NA 56-79, IAC 52-150, IAC 64-257, SP 70-1143, SP 71-3146, SP 71-3149, SP 71-1406, SP 71-6163, SP 71-61-68 e SP 71-799. Com os dados obtidos foi possível comprovar o valor taxonômico das características bioquímicas que representam uma inovação em taxonomia de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil. As isoenzimas de esterase apresentaram um padrão eletroforético específico para cada cultivar estudado, enquanto que as isoenzimas de peroxidase só permitiram agrupar os cultivares por apresentarem o mesmo padrão eletroforético para cada grupo formado. Tanto as isoenzimas de esterase como peroxidase apresentaram-se constantes em um mesmo cultivar. Os sólidos solúveis (sacarose em Graus Brix e a determinação da proteína solúvel, mesmo sendo pouco variáveis, apresentaram-se úteis para a caracterização dos cultivares estudados.In the present work the isoenzyme profiles of the enzymes esterase and peroxidase, the level of total soluble protein and the soluble solids (sucrose were determined of the following sugarcane (Saccharum spp. cultivare: NA 56-79; IAC 52-150; IAC 64-257; SP 70-1143; SP 71-3146; SP 71-3149; SP 71-1406; SP 71-6163; SP 71-61-68 and SP 71-799. Esterase isoenzymes showed a specific electrophoretic pattern for each one of the cultivare, while the peroxidase allowed to arrange the cultivare in groups, each one with a specific electrophoretic pattern. The isoenzymes of both esterase and peroxidase were constant in a given cultivar. Total soluble protein levels and soluble solids (sucrose, Brix value varied among the cultivare. Statistical analysis showed that these biochemical parameters are useful for the characterization of the cultivare

  13. Uncovering Wolbachia diversity upon artificial host transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Schneider

    Full Text Available The common endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria influence arthropod hosts in multiple ways. They are mostly recognized for their manipulations of host reproduction, yet, more recent studies demonstrate that Wolbachia also impact host behavior, metabolic pathways and immunity. Besides their biological and evolutionary roles, Wolbachia are new potential biological control agents for pest and vector management. Importantly, Wolbachia-based control strategies require controlled symbiont transfer between host species and predictable outcomes of novel Wolbachia-host associations. Theoretically, this artificial horizontal transfer could inflict genetic changes within transferred Wolbachia populations. This could be facilitated through de novo mutations in the novel recipient host or changes of haplotype frequencies of polymorphic Wolbachia populations when transferred from donor to recipient hosts. Here we show that Wolbachia resident in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi, exhibit ancestral and cryptic sequence polymorphism in three symbiont genes, which are exposed upon microinjection into the new hosts Drosophila simulans and Ceratitis capitata. Our analyses of Wolbachia in microinjected D. simulans over 150 generations after microinjection uncovered infections with multiple Wolbachia strains in trans-infected lines that had previously been typed as single infections. This confirms the persistence of low-titer Wolbachia strains in microinjection experiments that had previously escaped standard detection techniques. Our study demonstrates that infections by multiple Wolbachia strains can shift in prevalence after artificial host transfer driven by either stochastic or selective processes. Trans-infection of Wolbachia can claim fitness costs in new hosts and we speculate that these costs may have driven the shifts of Wolbachia strains that we saw in our model system.

  14. 不同肥料配施处理对甜高粱产量及锤度的影响%The Effects of Different Fertilization Modes on Sweet Sorghum's Yield and Sugar Brix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 叶凯; 再吐尼古丽·库尔班; 涂振东; 冯国郡; 郭建富

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同肥料配施处理对新疆灰漠土种植甜高粱的影响,以期找到最佳施肥方式.[方法]通过对不同品种甜高粱在不同施肥方式下的产量和锤度的研究.[结果]不同品种对甜高粱产量的影响达极显著水平,对锤度影响不明显;不同施肥方式对甜高粱产量影响不显著,对甜高粱锤度的影响达极显著水平;品种-施肥不同方式互作对甜高粱产量和锤度的影响均达到极显著水平.[结论]无论从产量还是锤度结果来看,等量化施肥处理都取得更好的效果.%[ Objective ] The purpose of this program was to confirm the best fertilization modes to plant sweet sorghum in gray desert soil in Xinjiang. [Method]The different fertilization modes to the yield and sugar brix were studied. [Result]The result showed that the different varieties made the yield of sweet sorghum at significant level, but sugar brix inconspicuous; and that the influence of fertilization modes made the sugar brix of sweet sorghum at significant level, but yields inconspicuous. Variety - fertilizer interaction made the yields and sugar birx all at significant level. [ Conclusion ] Equal fertilization received better effect for the yield and brix of sugar sorghum.

  15. NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... courtesy of NLM NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving force behind the ongoing Disneyland measles outbreak, according to calculations by a research team ...

  16. Macroscopic model for biological fixation and its uncover-ing idea in Chinese Mongolian traditional osteopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Namula; LI Xue-en; WANG Mei; HU Da-lai

    2009-01-01

    Splintage external fixation in Chinese Mongolian oste-opathy is a biological macroscopic model. In this model, the ideas of self-life "unity of mind and body" and vital natural "correspondence of nature and human" combine the physi-ological and psychological self-fixation with supplementary external fixation of fracture using small splints. This model implies macroscopic ideas of uncovering fixation and healing: structural stability integrating geometrical "dy-namic" stability with mechanical "dynamic" equilibrium and the stability of state integrating statics with dynamics, and osteoblasts with osteoclasts, and psychological stability in-tegrating closed and open systems of human and nature. These ideas indicate a trend of development in modem osteopathy.

  17. Tracing lineages to uncover neuronal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlmann Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many previous studies have focused on understanding how midbrain dopamine neurons, which are implicated in many neurological conditions, are generated during embryogenesis. One of the remaining questions concerns how different dopamine neuron subtypes are specified. A recent paper in Neural Development has revealed features of a spatial and temporal lineage map that, together with other studies, begins to elucidate the developmental origin of distinct neuronal subtypes within the developing midbrain. See research article http://www.neuraldevelopment.com/content/6/1/29

  18. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC) and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC) by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 c...

  19. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  20. Scratching below the surface to uncover HRM practices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2010-01-01

    firms. The empirical part of this research stems from an ongoing in-depth study aimed at uncovering and describing the relationship between HRM and innovation, highlighting possible areas for misinterpretations that have contributed to the assumption that Danish firms do not prioritize HRM....

  1. Weaving Social Foundations through Dance Pedagogy: A Pedagogy of Uncovering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Today's dance educators enter classrooms populated by increasingly diverse students in which teachers' pedagogical knowledge necessitates heightened understandings of race, ethnicity, social class, gender, and sexuality. Uncovering taken-for-granted assumptions, dominant stereotypes, and educational structures that reproduce social…

  2. Uncovering Students' Thinking about Thinking Using Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchhart, Ron; Turner, Terri; Hadar, Linor

    2009-01-01

    A method for uncovering students' thinking about thinking, specifically their meta-strategic knowledge, is explored within the context of an ongoing, multi-year intervention designed to promote the development of students' thinking dispositions. The development of a concept-map instrument that classroom teachers can use and an analytic framework…

  3. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids contentBrix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  4. Uncovering introductory astronomy students' conceptual modules of lunar phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Rebecca; Traxler, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Brewe, Bruun and Bearden developed Module Analysis of Multiple Choice Responses (MAMCR) methodology for using network analysis to uncover the underlying conceptual modules of student performance on multiple-choice assessments. The Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) assesses students understanding of lunar phases across 8 separate dimensions of understanding based on the results of a detailed qualitative phenomenology of college students' understanding of lunar phases. Unlike many concept inventories, the LPCI has multiple items for each dimension of understanding and each response corresponds to either the scientifically correct answer or to an alternative idea uncovered from the qualitative investigation. In this study, we have combined MAMCR with the database of nearly 2000 LPCI pre-test results. We will report on the preliminary different conceptual modules of lunar phases and the relationship of these modules to previous qualitative research.

  5. Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy 45 Formative Assessment Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    What do your students know-or think they know-about what causes night and day, why days are shorter in winter, and how to tell a planet from a star? Find out with this book on astronomy, the latest in NSTA's popular Uncovering Student Ideas in Science series. The 45 astronomy probes provide situations that will pique your students' interest while helping you understand how your students think about key ideas related to the universe and how it operates.

  6. Modelamiento de la interfaz de crecimiento/no crecimiento del Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 en jugo de naranja como función del pH, temperatura, Brix y concentración de nisina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Luera Peña

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la probabilidad de crecimiento del Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 en jugo de naranja en diferentes condiciones de producto. La respuesta del microorganismo fue monitoreado hasta 47 días de almacenamiento bajo diferentes condiciones de pH (3 a 5.8, sólidos solubles (11 a 19 °Brix, temperatura (20 a 54 ° C y concentración de nisina (0 a 70 UI / ml. Los datos de crecimiento/no crecimiento fueron modelados por el modelo de regresión logística. La concordancia del modelo obtenido fue de 96.3% indicando buen ajuste de los datos observados. Los resultados mostraron un rápido crecimiento en condiciones de 0 UI de nisina /ml de jugo, pH 4.4 y 15ºBrix, a 35ºC. Para 70 UI de nisina / ml, pH 4.4 y 37 °C, hasta 47 días de almacenamiento no hubo crecimiento. Jugos simples (11 °Brix con pH entre 3.5 a 3.7 puede mantenerse microbiológicamente estable hasta 36 °C, desde que adicionado 70 IU de nisina/ml, extendiendo su vida útil. Con 0.05 de probabilidad de crecimiento y usando el modelo logístico, se puede obtenerse altos valores de pH crítico cuando 50 UI de nisina/ml, a 25 ºC, están presentes en el jugo, sin embargo, los incrementos en temperatura y descenso en la concentración de sólidos solubles hace que los valores de pH crítico disminuyan. Se concluye que la incorporación de nisina es una alternativa para controlar el crecimiento de A. acidoterrestris en jugo de naranja, así como el modelo de regresión logístico demostró ser una herramienta importante para determinar la respuesta microbiana en los valores críticos de las variables, además de predecir las probabilidades de crecimiento para las diferentes condiciones estudiadas.

  7. Three-dimensional image of sugar content visualization in a melon by spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Junichi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2000-05-01

    In order to visualize sugar content of a melon, the relationship between sugar content and absorption spectra was investigated using a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The absorbance at 676 nm, which is close to the chlorophyll absorption band, had a high inverse correlation with sugar content. A high-resolution cooled CCD imaging camera with the band-pass filter of 676 nm was used to capture the spectral absorption image. The calibration method for converting the absorbance on the image into Brix sugar content was developed in accordance with NIR techniques. Applying this method to each pixel of the absorption image, a color distribution map of the sugar content was constructed. In addition, a special slicing device that can cut a melon in each 5 mm thickness was developed in order to create a 3D image of sugar content distribution.

  8. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  9. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each...... transgenic line (designated as ED-1 and ED-2 cells, respectively). Each highlighted miRNA was independently transfected into these cells. Growth-suppressive mechanisms were explored. Expression of a computationally predicted miRNA target was examined. These miRNAs were studied in a paired normal...

  10. Uncovering Transcriptional Regulatory Networks by Sparse Bayesian Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan(Alan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of uncovering transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs based on microarray data is considered. A novel Bayesian sparse correlated rectified factor model (BSCRFM is proposed that models the unknown TF protein level activity, the correlated regulations between TFs, and the sparse nature of TF-regulated genes. The model admits prior knowledge from existing database regarding TF-regulated target genes based on a sparse prior and through a developed Gibbs sampling algorithm, a context-specific transcriptional regulatory network specific to the experimental condition of the microarray data can be obtained. The proposed model and the Gibbs sampling algorithm were evaluated on the simulated systems, and results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed model was then applied to the breast cancer microarray data of patients with Estrogen Receptor positive ( status and Estrogen Receptor negative ( status, respectively.

  11. DOES UNCOVERED INTEREST RATE PARITY HOLD IN TURKEY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Karahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries failed to give evidence in favor of the Uncovered Interest Rate Parity (UIP. After intensive financial liberalization processes and mostly preferred free exchange rate regimes, a new area of research starts to involve the investigation whether UIP holds for developing economies differently. Accordingly, we tested the UIP for Turkey’s monthly interest rate and exchange rate data between 2002 and 2011. We run conventional regressions in the form of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and used a simple Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH analysis. The empirical results of both methods do not support the validity of UIP for Turkey. Thus, together with most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries and detecting the invalidity of UIP, we can argue that the experience of Turkey and developed economies are not different.

  12. Laughing It Off: Uncovering the Everyday Work Experience of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie M. Adams

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During research towards her doctoral dissertation, the author noticed that nurses understated the conditions in which they worked. Seeking to understand how nursing culture shapes how nurses describe their work, she developed a “toolbox” of reflexive methods. She used metaphors of nursing and emotion expressed as laughter to identify aspects of nursing culture in semistructured interviews with nurses working in Australian residential aged care facilities. She also incorporated autoethnography, as she had worked as a registered nurse while studying economics. The inclusion of her voice in the data illustrates the difference between nursing culture and another worldview. These pluralist methods made explicit some of the effects of gendered socialization, such as understatement and self-consciousness, and demonstrate how they are embedded in nursing culture. Awareness of such norms is important for understanding marketized caring labor. This combination of methods has significance for uncovering workplace culture in other forms of marketized caring.

  13. Charge uncovering effects on flute instabilities in hot electron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spong, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements and concurrent theoretical equilibrium models of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) edge plasma region (as described by E. F. Jaeger et al. in Magnetic Well Depth in EBT and Sensitivity to Hot Electron Ring Geometry, ORNL/TM-9185 (1984)) have indicated that the hot electron ring beta ..beta../sub hot/ at the C-T transition may not always be sufficient to produce the local minimum in the magnetic field thought to be necessary for MHD stability. This has led to the examination of other mechanisms that could account for the observed stability of the T-mode. In this report, an effect known as charge uncovering, which depends not on the value of ..beta../sub hot/ but rather on the ratio n/sub hot//n/sub core/, is studied.

  14. Uncover the Ideology Behind News Reports Through Transitivity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亚男

    2015-01-01

    When people read the reports relating to Occupy Central from different news papers, they get completely different feelings towards the event. To find out how this phenomenon happened, this paper is going to apply transitivity analysis to the news reports. The reports are selected from China Daily, CNN and BBC respectively. To have a deep application of this method, only verbal process wil be taken into consideration. This paper wil discuss the proportion of verbal process from the two sides (Occupy Central people as one side and people against them as the other), the message delivered by the verbal process, the sequence and the transformation of verbal process. The purpose is to uncover the ideology hidden behind the seemingly objective news reports through transitivity analysis.

  15. Uncovering Transcriptional Regulatory Networks by Sparse Bayesian Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Zhang, Jianqiu(Michelle); Qi, Yuan(Alan); Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2010-12-01

    The problem of uncovering transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs) based on microarray data is considered. A novel Bayesian sparse correlated rectified factor model (BSCRFM) is proposed that models the unknown TF protein level activity, the correlated regulations between TFs, and the sparse nature of TF-regulated genes. The model admits prior knowledge from existing database regarding TF-regulated target genes based on a sparse prior and through a developed Gibbs sampling algorithm, a context-specific transcriptional regulatory network specific to the experimental condition of the microarray data can be obtained. The proposed model and the Gibbs sampling algorithm were evaluated on the simulated systems, and results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed model was then applied to the breast cancer microarray data of patients with Estrogen Receptor positive ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) status and Estrogen Receptor negative ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) status, respectively.

  16. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of metabolism by using metabolic network topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    therefore developed an algorithm that is based on hypothesis-driven data analysis to uncover the transcriptional regulatory architecture of metabolic networks. By using information on the metabolic network topology from genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, we show that it is possible to reveal patterns...... in the metabolic network that follow a common transcriptional response. Thus, the algorithm enables identification of so-called reporter metabolites (metabolites around which the most significant transcriptional changes occur) and a set of connected genes with significant and coordinated response to genetic...... changes induced by complex regulatory mechanisms coordinating the activity of different metabolic pathways. It is difficult to map such global transcriptional responses by using traditional methods, because many genes in the metabolic network have relatively small changes at their transcription level. We...

  17. TIME HORIZON AND UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to re-examine the well-known empirical puzzle of uncovered interest parity (UIP for emerging market economies with different prediction time horizons. The empirical results obtained using dynamic panel and time series techniques for monthly data from January 1995 to December 2009 eventually show that the panel data estimates are more powerful than those obtained by applying individual time series estimations and the significant contribution of the exchange rate prediction horizons in determining the status of UIP. This finding reveals that at the longer time horizon, the model has better econometric specification and thus more predictive power for exchange rate movements compared to the shorter time period. The findings can also be a signalling of well-integrated currency markets and a reliable guide to international investors as well as for the orderly conduct of monetary authorities.

  18. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentz Michel GA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and

  19. [Evaluation of Sugar Content of Huanghua Pear on Trees by Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jun; Ying, Yi-bin

    2015-11-01

    A method of ambient light correction was proposed to evaluate the sugar content of Huanghua pears on tree by visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Due to strong interference of ambient light, it was difficult to collect the efficient spectral of pears on tree. In the field, covering the fruits with a bag blocking ambient light can get better results, but the efficiency is fairly low, the instrument corrections of dark and reference spectra may help to reduce the error of the model, however, the interference of the ambient light cannot be eliminated effectively. In order to reduce the effect of ambient light, a shutter was attached to the front of probe. When opening shutter, the spot spectrum were obtained, on which instrument light and ambient light acted at the same time. While closing shutter, background spectra were obtained, on which only ambient light acted, then the ambient light spectra was subtracted from spot spectra. Prediction models were built using data on tree (before and after ambient light correction) and after harvesting by partial least square (PLS). The results of the correlation coefficient (R) are 0.1, 0.69, 0.924; the root mean square error of prediction (SEP) are 0. 89°Brix, 0.42°Brix, 0.27°Brix; ratio of standard deviation (SD) to SEP (RPD) are 0.79, 1.69, 2.58, respectively. The results indicate that, method of background correction used in the experiment can reduce the effect of ambient lighting on spectral acquisition of Huanghua pears in field, efficiently. This method can be used to collect the visible/near infrared spectrum of fruits in field, and may give full play to visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in preharvest management and maturity testing of fruits in the field.

  20. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  1. Uncovering transcriptional interactions via an adaptive fuzzy logic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chung-Ming

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, only a limited number of transcriptional regulatory interactions have been uncovered. In a pilot study integrating sequence data with microarray data, a position weight matrix (PWM performed poorly in inferring transcriptional interactions (TIs, which represent physical interactions between transcription factors (TF and upstream sequences of target genes. Inferring a TI means that the promoter sequence of a target is inferred to match the consensus sequence motifs of a potential TF, and their interaction type such as AT or RT is also predicted. Thus, a robust PWM (rPWM was developed to search for consensus sequence motifs. In addition to rPWM, one feature extracted from ChIP-chip data was incorporated to identify potential TIs under specific conditions. An interaction type classifier was assembled to predict activation/repression of potential TIs using microarray data. This approach, combining an adaptive (learning fuzzy inference system and an interaction type classifier to predict transcriptional regulatory networks, was named AdaFuzzy. Results AdaFuzzy was applied to predict TIs using real genomics data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following one of the latest advances in predicting TIs, constrained probabilistic sparse matrix factorization (cPSMF, and using 19 transcription factors (TFs, we compared AdaFuzzy to four well-known approaches using over-representation analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. AdaFuzzy outperformed these four algorithms. Furthermore, AdaFuzzy was shown to perform comparably to 'ChIP-experimental method' in inferring TIs identified by two sets of large scale ChIP-chip data, respectively. AdaFuzzy was also able to classify all predicted TIs into one or more of the four promoter architectures. The results coincided with known promoter architectures in yeast and provided insights into transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion AdaFuzzy successfully integrates multiple types of

  2. 高茎糖玉米自交系不同生育时期茎糖含量与子粒产量的关系研究%Relationship of High Stem Sugar Maize Inbred Lines at Different Growth Stages and Grain Yield of Stem Sugar Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 马骏; 杨立国; 姜敏; 王金艳

    2012-01-01

    The high stem sugar maize inbred lines 7801, 25098, 7208, 25074 and W08 as test materials, measured at different times after pollination maize stalk of sugar juice brix, total sugar content in stem, leaf photosynthetic rate and the corresponding grain economic output, analysis of the relationship between them and change the law. The results showed that stalk sugar content of the main play a decisive role for the brix and yield, which stem brix sugar content with a very significant correlation of the level of sugar production and stem had positive correlation. Partial correlation analysis showed that grain weight per plant and showed a positive correlation between brix, indicating increased stem sugar content to promote the role of maize production.%以高茎糖玉米自交系7801、25098、7208,25074、W08作为试验材料,测定玉米自交系授粉后不同时期茎秆汁液的糖锤度、茎秆总含糖量、叶片光合速率及对应的子粒经济产量,分析其相互之间的关系及变化规律.结果表明,对茎秆含糖量起决定作用的主要为锤度和产量2个性状,其中,锤度与茎秆含糖量相关性达极显著水平,产量与茎秆含糖量呈负相关关系.偏相关分析表明,单株粒重与锤度呈正相关关系,说明茎秆含糖量的提高对玉米产量有促进作用.

  3. Urban association rules: uncovering linked trips for shopping behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Hobin, Juan N Bautista; Ratti, Carlo; Blat, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the method of urban association rules and its uses for extracting frequently appearing combinations of stores that are visited together to characterize shoppers' behaviors. The Apriori algorithm is used to extract the association rules (i.e., if -> result) from customer transaction datasets in a market-basket analysis. An application to our large-scale and anonymized bank card transaction dataset enables us to output linked trips for shopping all over the city: the method enables us to predict the other shops most likely to be visited by a customer given a particular shop that was already visited as an input. In addition, our methodology can consider all transaction activities conducted by customers for a whole city in addition to the location of stores dispersed in the city. This approach enables us to uncover not only simple linked trips such as transition movements between stores but also the edge weight for each linked trip in the specific district. Thus, the proposed methodo...

  4. Uncovering Aberrant Mutant PKA Function with Flow Cytometric FRET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Rong Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biology has been revolutionized by tools that allow the detection and characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based methods have become particularly attractive as they allow quantitative studies of PPIs within the convenient and relevant context of living cells. We describe here an approach that allows the rapid construction of live-cell FRET-based binding curves using a commercially available flow cytometer. We illustrate a simple method for absolutely calibrating the cytometer, validating our binding assay against the gold standard isothermal calorimetry (ITC, and using flow cytometric FRET to uncover the structural and functional effects of the Cushing-syndrome-causing mutation (L206R on PKA’s catalytic subunit. We discover that this mutation not only differentially affects PKAcat’s binding to its multiple partners but also impacts its rate of catalysis. These findings improve our mechanistic understanding of this disease-causing mutation, while illustrating the simplicity, general applicability, and power of flow cytometric FRET.

  5. Uncovering disassortativity in large scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Nelly; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2013-02-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social and biological networks, are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In this paper, we propose a new way of measuring degree-degree dependencies. One of the problems with the commonly used assortativity coefficient is that in disassortative networks its magnitude decreases with the network size. We mathematically explain this phenomenon and validate the results on synthetic graphs and real-world network data. As an alternative, we suggest to use rank correlation measures such as Spearman's ρ. Our experiments convincingly show that Spearman's ρ produces consistent values in graphs of different sizes but similar structure, and it is able to reveal strong (positive or negative) dependencies in large graphs. In particular, we discover much stronger negative degree-degree dependencies in Web graphs than was previously thought. Rank correlations allow us to compare the assortativity of networks of different sizes, which is impossible with the assortativity coefficient due to its genuine dependence on the network size. We conclude that rank correlations provide a suitable and informative method for uncovering network mixing patterns.

  6. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  7. Charting the Vasculome: Uncovering the Principles of Vascular Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jacob; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2014-03-01

    The efficient distribution of resources in any system requires a carefully designed architecture that is both space filling and efficient. While the principles of such networks are beginning to be uncovered in plants, they remain poorly elucidated in the case of higher animals. We have developed a high-throughput, easily implemented method of mapping vascular networks in mammalian tissue. By combining high resolution, rapid fluorescence blockface imaging with serial sectioning, we are able to map the vasculature of the rat liver at a resolution of 10 microns, revealing the structure above the level of the capillaries, constituting the largest vascular dataset yet assembled. We have developed algorithms for the efficient three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional images, allowing skeletonization and investigation of its geometry and topology. We are able to calculate the scaling properties of these networks as well as the frequency of loops at each level. Using sophisticated topological tools, we are beginning to elucidate the principles of their organization. Ultimately, a greater understanding of vasculature is necessary for the success of efforts in synthetic and regenerative biology along with the better understanding of the growth and development of cancers.

  8. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Tang, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption.

  9. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-03-09

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we "wordify" the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases.

  10. Uncovering Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters with Washington Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Douglas; Cummings, Jeff; Villanova, Sandro; Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Simple Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. Multiple populations (MP) are being found in a growing number of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) via both photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Indeed, it has been suggested that a GC is an object that possesses MP. A definitive investigation of MP in GCs will undoubtedly provide a profound improvement in our understanding of their formation and evolution.However, most studies employ either high resolution VLT spectroscopy, HST photometry or inefficient filters from the ground. A ground-based photometric system which is both efficient and effective would be especially excellent for uncovering MP. We demonstrate that the Washington system meets these goals. The Washington C filter, in addition to being specifically designed for the purpose of detecting MPs, is both much broader and redder than competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction.Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 shows indeed that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB, using relatively little telescope time on only a 1-meter telescope. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. Detailed analysis shows that the MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB. This is the first time MPs in a MS have been discovered from the ground, and just as strikingly, using only a 1-meter telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  11. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  12. Uncovering labially impacted teeth: apically positioned flap and closed-eruption techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, M E; Kokich, V G; Kennedy, D B

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the esthetic and periodontal differences between two methods of uncovering labially impacted maxillary anterior teeth: the apically positioned flap and closed-eruption techniques. The sample consisted of 30 patients who were recalled a minimum of three months after orthodontic treatment of a unilateral labially impacted maxillary anterior tooth. Eighteen of the patients had undergone an apically positioned flap (APF) procedure, and the remaining twelve had undergone the closed-eruption (CE) technique. In the CE group, clinical examination showed less width of attached gingiva on the distal surface and increased probing bone level on the facial surface of the uncovered teeth relative to their contralateral controls. Uncovered teeth in the APF group showed more apical gingival margins on the mesial and facial surfaces; greater crown length on the midfacial surface; increased probing attachment level on the facial surface; increased width of attached gingiva on the facial surface; increased probing bone level on mesial, facial, and distal surfaces; and gingival scarring. Radiographic examination showed shorter roots on the uncovered teeth in both groups. Photographic examination revealed vertical relapse of the uncovered teeth in the APF group. We conclude that labially impacted maxillary anterior teeth uncovered with an apically positioned flap technique have more unesthetic sequalae than those uncovered with a closed-eruption technique.

  13. Water Balance Components in Covered and Uncovered Soil Growing Irrigated Muskmelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Leonel Libardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of the terms (or processes of the soil water balance equation or simply the components of the soil water balance over the cycle of an agricultural crop is essential for soil and water management. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze these components in a Cambissolo Háplico (Haplocambids growing muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. under drip irrigation, with covered and uncovered soil, in the municipality of Baraúna, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (05º 04’ 48” S, 37º 37’ 00” W. Muskmelon, variety AF-646, was cultivated in a flat experimental area (20 × 50 m. The crop was spaced at 2.00 m between rows and 0.35 m between plants, in a total of ten 50-m-long plant rows. At points corresponding to ⅓ and ⅔ of each plant row, four tensiometers (at a distance of 0.1 m from each other were set up at the depths of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 m, adjacent to the irrigation line (0.1 m from the plant row, between two selected plants. Five random plant rows were mulched using dry leaves of banana (Musa sp. along the drip line, forming a 0.5-m-wide strip, which covered an area of 25 m2 per of plant row with covered soil. In the other five rows, there was no covering. Thus, the experiment consisted of two treatments, with 10 replicates, in four phenological stages: initial (7-22 DAS - days after sowing, growing (22-40 DAS, fruiting (40-58 DAS and maturation (58-70 DAS. Rainfall was measured with a rain gauge and water storage was estimated by the trapezoidal method, based on tensiometer readings and soil water retention curves. For soil water flux densities at 0.3 m, the tensiometers at the depths of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 m were considered; the tensiometer at 0.3 m was used to estimate soil water content from the soil water retention curve at this depth, and the other two to calculate the total potential gradient. Flux densities were calculated through use of the Darcy-Buckingham equation, with hydraulic conductivity determined by

  14. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  15. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  16. Teaching Programming in Secondary School: A Pedagogical Content Knowledge Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeli, Mara; Perrenet, Jacob; Jochems, Wim M. G.; Zwaneveld, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this literature study is to give some preliminary answers to the questions that aim to uncover the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Informatics Education, with focus on Programming. PCK has been defined as the knowledge that allows teachers to transform their knowledge of the subject into something accessible for their students.…

  17. Uncovering attribute-based determinants of loyalty in cigarette brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    ; and second within product attributes, switching among family brands for smaller brands. Social implications – These findings have profound implications for the development of anti-smoking policy in terms of the exact functioning of product differentiation as part of the tobacco industry’s strategy. Public......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market performance and loyalty levels of brands. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a stochastic approach to measure...... brand loyalty at the attribute level using the Dirichlet model as a benchmark tool. Data based on the Juster Probability Scale were collected from a sample of n ¼ 155 young smokers in Iceland. Findings – Product differentiation strategies operate differently. Light nicotine and tar content encourages...

  18. Uncovering Discrete Non-Linear Dependence with Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Golub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we model discrete time series as discrete Markov processes of arbitrary order and derive the approximate distribution of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between a known transition probability matrix and its sample estimate. We introduce two new information-theoretic measurements: information memory loss and information codependence structure. The former measures the memory content within a Markov process and determines its optimal order. The latter assesses the codependence among Markov processes. Both measurements are evaluated on toy examples and applied on high frequency foreign exchange data, focusing on 2008 financial crisis and 2010/2011 Euro crisis.

  19. Deepest Image of Exploded Star Uncovers Bipolar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A spectacular new image of Cassiopeia A from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory released today has nearly 200 times more data than the "First Light" Chandra image of this object made five years ago. The new image reveals clues that the initial explosion caused by the collapse of a massive star was far more complicated than suspected. Chandra Broadband Image of Cassiopeia A Chandra Broadband Image of Cassiopeia A "Although this young supernova remnant has been intensely studied for years, this deep observation is the most detailed ever made of the remains of an exploded star," said Martin Laming of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Laming is part of a team of scientists led by Una Hwang of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "It is a gold mine of data that astronomers will be panning through for years to come." The one-million-second (about 11.5-day) observation of Cassiopeia A uncovered two large, opposed jet-like structures that extend to about 10 light years from the center of the remnant. Clouds of iron that have remained nearly pure for the approximately 340 years since the explosion were also detected. "The presence of the bipolar jets suggests that jets could be more common in relatively normal supernova explosions than supposed by astronomers," said Hwang. A paper by Hwang, Laming and others on the Cassiopeia A observation will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Chandra Enhanced Silicon Image of Cassiopeia A Chandra Enhanced Silicon Image of Cassiopeia A X-ray spectra show that the jets are rich in silicon atoms and relatively poor in iron atoms. In contrast, fingers of almost pure iron gas extend in a direction nearly perpendicular to the jets. This iron was produced in the central, hottest regions of the star. The high silicon and low iron abundances in the jets indicate that massive, matter-dominated jets were not the immediate cause of the explosion, as these should have carried out large

  20. Uncovering the Chemistry of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    We propose to use the evidence from our solar system to understand exoplanets, and in particular, to predict their surface chemistry and thereby the possibility of life. An Earth-like planet, born from the same nebula as its host star, is composed primarily of silicate rocks and an iron-nickel metal core, and depleted in volatile content in a systematic manner. The more volatile (easier to vaporize or dissociate into gas form) an element is in an Earth-like planet, the more depleted the element is compared to its host star. After depletion, an Earth-like planet would go through the process of core formation due to heat from radioactive decay and collisions. Core formation depletes a planet's rocky mantle of siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in addition to the volatile depletion. After that, Earth-like planets likely accrete some volatile-rich materials, called "late veneer". The late veneer could be essential to the origins of life on Earth and Earth-like planets, as it also delivers the volatiles such as nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and water to the planet's surface, which are crucial for life to occur. Here we build an integrative model of Earth-like planets from the bottom up. Thus the chemical compositions of Earth-like planets could be inferred from their mass-radius relations and their host stars' elemental abundances, and the origins of volatile contents (especially water) on their surfaces could be understood, and thereby shed light on the origins of life on them. This elemental abundance model could be applied to other rocky exoplanets in exoplanet systems.

  1. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  2. Kinetics Study on Black Tea Infusion: Effects of Super-comminuting Process and Temperature on the Extraction Rate of the Soluble Solid Contents%红茶汤动力学研究:超微粉碎工艺和温度对茶汤可溶性固形物成分萃取率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦祥; 杨文雄

    2005-01-01

    本文研究了红茶叶和超微茶粉可溶性固形物含量的萃取动力学过程.不同温度(40~80℃)下茶汤的Brixs通过数字折射计测量,实验结果通过一级稳态模型加以解释,等级常数由Brixs随时间的增加率决定.结果表明:茶汤可溶性固形物含量随萃取温度的升高而增加,超微茶粉的等级常数是红茶叶的1.22~2.22倍.%The kinetics of extracting the soluble solid contents from black tea leaves in super-comminuted tea powder was studied.The Brixs of infusion was measured by digital refractometer at different temperatures from 40 to 80 ℃.The first order rate constant was determined from the rate of increase of the Brixs concentration in the tea infusion time and the result was interpreted by using a steady state model. The results showed that the first order rate constant of the super-comminuted tea powder was 1.27~2.22 times as large as that of black tea leaves, and that the Brixs increased when the extraction temperature increased.

  3. Effect of Increase in Plant Density on Stem Yield and Sucrose Content in Two Sweet Sorghum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soleymani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of increase plant density on stalk yield and sucrose content in two sweet sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University located at Zaghmar village. A split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with tree replication was used. Main plots were plant densities (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plant/ha and subplots were cultivars (Rio and Keller. The effect of plant density at hard dough harvest stage on plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, stem fresh weight and juice yield were significant but had no significant effect on brix, sucrose percentage and purity. The highest juice yield and purity were produced by 400 thousand plants/ha. Keller was significantly superior for plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight, juice yield and brix at hard dough harvest stage as compared to Rio. Number of tiller per plant of Rio was significantly more than Keller. There were no significant difference between two cultivars for sucrose percentage and purity but sucrose percentage in Keller had highest as compared to Rio. Maximum stem fresh weight, juice yield, sucrose percentage and purity were obtained at hard dough harvest stag. On the basis of the results obtained, 400 thousand plant/ha plant density, Keller cultivar and hard dough harvest stage might be suitable for sweet sorghum production under the condition similar to the present study. Keywords: Sweet sorghum, Stem yield, Sucrose percentage, Harvesting stages

  4. The Measurement of Sucrose Content of Sugar Cane Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoranto Trisnobudi, Tjia Liong Hoei, Enung Rosihan Nugraha

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of sucrose content of sugar cane is usually carried out by using polarimeter and Brix Wager scale. These two apparatus are operated manually so that the accuracy of the measurement results is depended on the operator skill. To overcome this problem we have developed an alternative method that can measure the sucrose content more quickly and accurately than the conventional methods. This new method was carried out by using ultrasonic waves whose velocity depends on the sucrose content. Firstly, the electronic apparatus used was calibrated with 37 samples of sugar cane with various sucrose content from 4.46 % to 7.29 %. The result of this calibration was an empirical equation between the ultrasonic wave velocity V and the sucrose content R, i.e. R = 2.65 V2 - 11,95 V + 17,65 where R in % and V in km/s. Then this equation was stored as database in a computer program that will be used to calculate the sucrose content. Finally, this sucrose content measurement system was tested by using 30 samples of sugar cane. The maximum error of the measurement result was 6.4 %.

  5. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC, pH, and soluble solid content (SSC in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed that the regression model developed by PLS regression based on Savitzky–Golay (S–G first-derivative preprocessed spectra resulted in better performance for MC, pH, and the smoothing preprocessed spectra-based model resulted in better performance for SSC in intact tomatoes compared to models developed by other preprocessing methods, with correlation coefficients (rpred of 0.81, 0.69, and 0.74 with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.63%, 0.06, and 0.33% Brix respectively. The full wavelengths were used to create chemical images by applying regression coefficients resulting from the best PLS regression model. These results obtained from this study clearly revealed that hyperspectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for the nondestructive prediction of chemical components in intact tomatoes.

  6. Propriedades termofísicas da polpa do cupuaçu com diferentes teores de sólidos Termophysical properties of cupuaçu pulp at different solids contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josalice de Lima Araújo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar as propriedades termofísicas difusividade térmica, calor específico e condutividade térmica da polpa do cupuaçu em três condições de teor de sólidos: integral (12ºBrix, 9ºBrix e com eliminação parcial dos sólidos insolúveis (peneirado. A difusividade térmica foi determinada por meio do aparato de Dickerson (1965; para o calor específico, utilizou-se a metodologia do calorímetro de mistura, e a condutividade térmica foi determinada considerando-se a relação entre a difusividade térmica, o calor específico e a massa específica. Foram utilizadas equações para o cálculo teórico dessas propriedades e os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais. Os resultados experimentais médios, obtidos para as difusividades térmicas, calores específicos e condutividades térmicas das amostras integral, 9ºBrix e peneiradas foram, respectivamente: 1,31x10-7, 1,32x10-7 e 1,27x10-7 m²/s; 3,24, 3,71 e 3,18 kJ/kgºC; e 0,44 W/mºC, 0,50 W/mºC e 0,42 W/mºC.This work was accomplished with the aim of determining the termophysical properties, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of cupuaçu pulp in three conditions of solids contents: 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix, and partial elimination of the insoluble solids (sieving. The thermal diffusivity was determined by means of Dickerson’s (1965 apparatus, for the specific heat the method of mixtures was used and the thermal conductivity was determined starting from the relationship among thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density. Equations were used for the theoretical calculation of those properties and the results were compared with the experimental values. The average results, obtained for the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix and sieved samples were, respectively: 1.31x10-7, 1.32x10-7 and 1.27x10-7 m²/s; 3.24, 3.71 and 3.18 kJ/kgºC; and 0.44 W

  7. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  8. Uncovering the Best Skill Multimap by Constraining the Error Probabilities of the Gain-Loss Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio; Stefanutti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The Gain-Loss model is a probabilistic skill multimap model for assessing learning processes. In practical applications, more than one skill multimap could be plausible, while none corresponds to the true one. The article investigates whether constraining the error probabilities is a way of uncovering the best skill assignment among a number of…

  9. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public... requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting, EPA...

  10. Uncovering the Motivating Factors behind Writing in English in en EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyavuz, Oya; Çakir, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Writing in a language, whether the target or native, is regarded as a complex activity operating on multiple cognitive levels. This study aimed to uncover the factors which motivate teacher trainees of English to write in English in an EFL context. The study also investigated the differences in the ways teacher trainees are motivated in terms of…

  11. Uncovering Expertise-Related Differences in Troubleshooting Performance: Combining Eye Movement and Concurrent Verbal Protocol Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the value of eye movement data for uncovering relatively small expertise-related differences in electrical circuit-troubleshooting performance, and describes that value in relation to concurrent verbal protocols. Results show that in the ‘problem orientation’ phase, higher expert

  12. Epistemically Virtuous Risk Management : Financial Due Diligence and Uncovering the Madoff Fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Luetge, Christoph; Jauernig, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The chapter analyses how Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi scheme was uncovered by Harry Markopolos, an employee of Rampart Investment Management, LLC, and the contribution of so-called epistemic virtues to Markopolos’ success. After Rampart had informed the firm about an allegedly highly successful hedge fund

  13. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... synthetic material or woven material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are... innerspring. Pocketed and non-pocketed innerspring units are included in this definition. Non-pocketed innersprings are typically joined together with helical wire and border rods. Non-pocketed innersprings...

  14. 77 FR 21961 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... synthetic material or woven material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are... innerspring. Pocketed and non-pocketed innerspring units are included in this definition. Non-pocketed innersprings are typically joined together with helical wire and border rods. Non-pocketed innersprings...

  15. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  16. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  17. EXCHANGE RATES AND VOLATILITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: A TEST FOR UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Dan-Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available At times of heightened global capital market volatility, high-yielding currencies tend to depreciate, while low-yielding currencies tend to serve as a€śsafe heavena€ť. We present the results of a test for Uncovered Interest Parity for selected European cu

  18. Uncovering One Trilingual Child's Multi-Literacies Development across Informal and Formal Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Song

    2016-01-01

    Due to globalisation and rapid technological change, today's educators need to help students develop multi-literacy competencies to enable them to function successfully in our culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) and increasingly connected global and digital society. A qualitative, longitudinal case study attempted to uncover the…

  19. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  20. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered...

  1. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  2. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    OpenAIRE

    Salha M. Alzahrani; Naomie Salim; Vasile Palade

    2015-01-01

    Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS) tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and su...

  3. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Rose; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M; J. Nattress; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of act...

  4. Thermal Behavior of a Single Spent Fuel in Water Pool Storage Under Partially Uncovered Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Ram; Park, Hee Sung; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global Univ, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    LOCA in SFP can be led by a partial drain-down or a boil off scenario. In order to predict the response and consequence in such case, exact model on the partially uncovered SFP has to be established. Most studies on accidents in SFP have been done by safety analysis codes such as ATHLET-CD, ASTEC, MAAP, and MELCOR. However, an experimental investigation has not been conducted so far. Schultz et al.(2014) studied experimentally the response of air cooled BWR fuel assembly which is blocked at lower side fluid path. In this study, we experimentally investigated the thermal response of a partially uncovered single nuclear fuel rod (SNFR) in the SFP. The SNFR was 1/4 scaled down in axial length. 1-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed and compared with the result of experiment. An experimental study was conducted for obtaining transient temperature profile data of a modeled single nuclear fuel rod in heating condition under partially uncovered condition. Numerical prediction model was developed also and the prediction result was compared with the experimental result.

  5. Production of Candida utilis Biomass and Intracellular Protein Content: Effect of Agitation Speed and Aeration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of agitation speed and aeration rate on the Candida utilis biomass and the intracellular protein content were investigated in this study. C. utilis inoculum of 10^6 cells/mL (7.8 % v/v was cultured in 1.5 L pineapple waste medium (3 % Brix in a 2-L fermentor for 30 h at 30 °C. Agitation speed and aeration rate have significant effects on the dissolved oxygen concentration, which in turn affect the cell growth and the intracellular protein content. The agitation speed of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 rpm was employed. The highest yield of protein content (1.2 g/L media and total biomass (7.8 g/L media were resulted from yeast cultivation with agitation speed of 900 rpm. Thus, the effects of aeration rate (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 L/min were studied at agitation speed of 900 rpm. A maximum yield of protein content (1.6 g/L media and biomass (9.5 g/L media were attained at aeration rate of 2.0 L/min.

  6. Detection of Onion Soluble Solids Content Based on the Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectra%基于近红外反射光谱的洋葱可溶性固体物检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海华; 李长缨; 李民赞

    2013-01-01

    Onion soluble solids content (SSC) was detected using near-infrared (924~1 720 nm) reflectance spectra.Three cultivars of onions,harvested at different period,were selected for experiment and the total number of samples is 268.SSC reference value of onion juice was determined using the temperature compensated refractometer.Some pre-processing methods,such as S-G smoothing,scatter correction,and derivation,were compared to establish a statistical model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) method.The results show that the avitzky-Golay smoothing with window 32 and span 10 is more efficient.The determination correlation coefficient of prediction R2 is 0.87 and root mean square error (RMSEP) is 2.42 ° Brix.Compared to the 2nd derivation,the 1st derivation got better prediction result,but the spectra scatter correction is the best (R2 =0.88,RMSEP of=2.31 ° Brix).The optimal prediction (R2 =0.90,RMSEP=1.84 Brix and RPD=3) was built based on crossing validation modeling,which shows that infrared reflectance spectroscopy with scatter correction pre-processing is feasible for onions soluble solids detection.%研究利用近红外(924~1 720 nm)反射光谱预测了洋葱的可溶性固体物含量.实验选取了三种不同产地和不同采收期的洋葱为样本(268).在重复采集光谱数据之后,榨取对应光谱采集处洋葱块汁,测定可溶性固体物参考值.研究对比了Savitzky-Golay平滑、散射校正和微分处理等预处理方法,同时基于偏最小二乘回归方法建立了统计模型.结果表明,带S-G平滑的微分处理在平滑窗口为32,跨度为10时效果最佳.一阶微分比二阶微分的预处理效果要好,预测复相关系数R2为0.87,均方根误差RMSEP为2.42°Brix.对比显示,无平滑处理光谱数据散射校正预处理得到的结果最好,预测复相关系数R2为0.88(RMSEP=2.31°Brix).采用交叉验证得到的PLSR模型预测复相关系数R2为0.90,RMSEP为1.84°Brix

  7. The invisible Web uncovering information sources search engines can't see

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Enormous expanses of the Internet are unreachable with standard web search engines. This book provides the key to finding these hidden resources by identifying how to uncover and use invisible web resources. Mapping the invisible Web, when and how to use it, assessing the validity of the information, and the future of Web searching are topics covered in detail. Only 16 percent of Net-based information can be located using a general search engine. The other 84 percent is what is referred to as the invisible Web-made up of information stored in databases. Unlike pages on the visible Web, informa

  8. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian;

    2017-01-01

    . Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. RESULTS: We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can......MOTIVATION: Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry...

  9. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  10. From detecting astrocyte connectivity to uncovering drug effects in living tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Pires, Marcelo; Vaz, Sandra; Sebastião, Ana; Lind, Pedro G

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a simple procedure of multivariate signal analysis to uncover the connectivity structure among cells composing a living tissue and describe how to apply it for extracting insight on the effect of drugs in the tissue. The procedure is based in the covariance matrix of time resolved activity signals. By determining the time-lag that maximizes covariance one derives the weight of the corresponding connection between cells. Introducing simple constraints, it is possible to conclude if pairs of cells are connected or not and in which direction. After testing the method against synthetic data we apply it to study propagation of $Ca^{2+}$ waves in astrocytes, with the aim of uncovering the cell connectivity structure. Our method shows to be particularly suited for this type of networking signal propagation where signals are pulse-like and have short time-delays, and is shown to be superior to standard methods, namely a multivariate Granger algorithm. Finally, based the statistical analysis of the connec...

  11. Animal models of Huntington's disease: implications in uncovering pathogenic mechanisms and developing therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-hui WANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2006-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by an abnormal expansion of Cytosine Adenine Guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the gene making huntingtin (Htt). Despite intensive research efforts devoted to investigate molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, effective therapy for this devastating disease is still not available at present. The development of various animal models of HD has offered alternative approaches in the study of HD molecular pathology. Many HD models, including chemical-induced models and genetic models, mimic some aspects of HD symptoms and pathology. To date, however, there is no ideal model which replicates all of the essential features of neuropathology and progressive motor and cognitive impairments of human HD. As a result, our understanding of molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in HD is still limited. A new model is needed in order to uncover the pathogenesis and to develop novel therapies for HD. In this review we discussed usefulness and limitations of various animal and cellular models of HD in uncovering molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and developing novel therapies for HD.

  12. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  13. Uncovering signal transduction networks from high-throughput data by integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Ming; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Chen, Luonan; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-05-01

    Signal transduction is an important process that transmits signals from the outside of a cell to the inside to mediate sophisticated biological responses. Effective computational models to unravel such a process by taking advantage of high-throughput genomic and proteomic data are needed to understand the essential mechanisms underlying the signaling pathways. In this article, we propose a novel method for uncovering signal transduction networks (STNs) by integrating protein interaction with gene expression data. Specifically, we formulate STN identification problem as an integer linear programming (ILP) model, which can be actually solved by a relaxed linear programming algorithm and is flexible for handling various prior information without any restriction on the network structures. The numerical results on yeast MAPK signaling pathways demonstrate that the proposed ILP model is able to uncover STNs or pathways in an efficient and accurate manner. In particular, the prediction results are found to be in high agreement with current biological knowledge and available information in literature. In addition, the proposed model is simple to be interpreted and easy to be implemented even for a large-scale system.

  14. Representations of God uncovered in a spirituality group of borderline inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Manierre, Amy

    2008-01-01

    We present aspects of a psychoanalytically-oriented, exploratory spirituality group for nine female psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Through drawings and group process, the patients uncovered and elaborated on their representations of God. Two patterns of representations were identified: (1) representations of a punitive, judgmental, rigid God that seemed directly to reflect and correspond with parental representations and (2) representations of a depersonified, inanimate, abstract God entailing aspects of idealization that seemed to compensate for parental representations. Interestingly, the second pattern was associated with comorbid narcissistic features in the patients. Those patients who presented punitive God representations were able to begin the process of re-creating these representations toward more benign or benevolent images in the context of this group, while those participants who presented depersonified God representations seemed unable to do so.

  15. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies—uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julián R.; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E.; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which—despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria—are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered....... Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching Pleptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO....... Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown...

  17. Uncover the Aesthetic Simplicity Associated with Mass Transfer in Energy Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Wei Li; Jia Li; Ke-Chun Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetics, referred frequently to as a philosophical term, has played a starring role in forming and evolving a number of aspects of human society, including arts, politics, economics, ethics, etc. Indeed, exploring and investigating the aesthetic phenomena in the scientific field have aroused insightful research findings, which in turn has stimulated research interests in such a science-aesthetics field. In particular, better-evaluated aesthetic aspects of the materials field are expected to be uncovered upon the exceedingly-exposed fundamental breakthroughs in researching the basic structure and functionality of materials. In this report, we glimpse into the aesthetic simplicity of energy materials and comprehend specifically the mass transfer functionalities of key categories of energy materials through an intuitive and bottom-up approach. Our effort aspires to shed new lights on the functionality understanding and manipulation of functional materials in general.

  18. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  19. Systems-level approach to uncovering diffusive states and their transitions from single particle trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic motions of a diffusing particle contain information concerning the particle's interactions with binding partners and with its local environment. However, accurate determination of the underlying diffusive properties, beyond normal diffusion, has remained challenging when analyzing particle trajectories on an individual basis. Here, we introduce the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for confined diffusion and fractional Brownian motion. We demonstrate that this MLE yields improved estimation over traditional mean square displacement analyses. We also introduce a model selection scheme (that we call mleBIC) that classifies individual trajectories to a given diffusion mode. We demonstrate the statistical limitations of classification via mleBIC using simulated data. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a new version of perturbation expectation-maximization (pEMv2), which simultaneously analyzes a collection of particle trajectories to uncover the system of interactions which give rise to u...

  20. Uncovering the role of p53 splice variants in human malignancy: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surget S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sylvanie Surget,1,2 Marie P Khoury,1,2 Jean-Christophe Bourdon1,21Dundee Cancer Centre, 2Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Dundee, UKAbstract: Thirty-five years of research on p53 gave rise to more than 68,000 articles and reviews, but did not allow the uncovering of all the mysteries that this major tumor suppressor holds. How p53 handles the different signals to decide the appropriate cell fate in response to a stress and its implication in tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear. Nevertheless, the uncovering of p53 isoforms has opened new perspectives in the cancer research field. Indeed, the human TP53 gene encodes not only one but at least twelve p53 protein isoforms, which are produced in normal tissues through alternative initiation of translation, usage of alternative promoters, and alternative splicing. In recent years, it became obvious that the different p53 isoforms play an important role in regulating cell fate in response to different stresses in normal cells by differentially regulating gene expression. In cancer cells, abnormal expression of p53 isoforms contributes actively to cancer formation and progression, regardless of TP53 mutation status. They can also be associated with response to treatment, depending on the cell context. The determination of p53 isoform expression and p53 mutation status helps to define different subtypes within a particular cancer type, which would have different responses to treatment. Thus, the understanding of the regulation of p53 isoform expression and their biological activities in relation to the cellular context would constitute an important step toward the improvement of the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive values of p53 in cancer treatment. This review aims to summarize the involvement of p53 isoforms in cancer and to highlight novel potential therapeutic targets.Keywords: p53, isoforms, p63, p73, alternative splicing, cancer

  1. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  2. Design Issues and Information Contents of the Provincial Government Websites of Indonesia: A Content Analysis on Visual Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Syarief

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A website is not just merely act as an object of displaying information, but it also represents a contextual medium of communication through visuals and contents. The interplay of website design elements builds up meanings that affect users beyond what previous communication practices have uncovered. Previous research acknowledges that visuals and contents have significant effects in attracting users’ attention and trust. Thus, the ability of a website to provide credible information through visuals and contents to target users is therefore plays great importance in the success of a website. However, although a considerable number of researches on website design have been performed, study in understanding the characteristics of site’s visual appearances and information contents for the purpose of promoting local investment in Indonesia has been very limited. This paper addresses visual design issues and information contents of eighteen provincial government websites of Indonesia. Through content analysis, the paper comparatively examines visual appearances, information contents, and functions of each website, in order to determine visual characteristics and contents that suit the purpose of promoting local potencies. The paper focuses on commonality, discrepancy, and pattern of contents, provide suggestions to improve the use of provincial government website design of Indonesia.

  3. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  4. Uncovering Molecular Relaxation Processes with Nonlinear Spectroscopies in the Deep UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brantley Andrew

    Conical intersections mediate internal conversion dynamics that compete with even the fastest nuclear motions in molecular systems. Traditional kinetic models do not apply in this regime of commensurate electronic and nuclear motion because the surroundings do not maintain equilibrium throughout the relaxation process. This dissertation focuses on uncovering the physics associated with vibronic interactions at conical intersections. Of particular interest are coherent nuclear motions driven by steep excited state potential energy gradients. Technical advances have only recently made these dynamics accessible in many systems including DNA nucleobases and cyclic polyene molecules. Optical analogues of multidimensional NMR spectroscopies have recently yielded transformative insight in relaxation processes ranging from energy transfer in photosynthesis to bond making and breaking in liquids. Prior to the start of this research, such experiments had only been conducted at infrared and visible wavelengths. Applications in the ultraviolet were motivated by studies of numerous biological systems (e.g., DNA, proteins), but had been challenged by technical issues. The work presented in this dissertation combines pulse generation techniques developed in the optical physics community with spectroscopic techniques largely pioneered by physical chemists to implement two-dimensional ultraviolet spectroscopy (2DUV). This technique is applied at the shortest wavelengths and with the best signal-to-noise ratios reported to date. Sub-picosecond excited state deactivation processes provide photo stability to the DNA double helix. Vibrational energy transfer from the solute to surrounding solvent enables relaxation of the highly non-equilibrium ground state produced by fast internal conversion. In this dissertation, nonlinear spectroscopies carried out at cryogenic temperatures are used to uncover the particular nuclear modes in the solvent that primarily accept vibrational energy from

  5. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  6. Uncovering cryptic species diversity of a termite community in a West African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Barbara; Kimpel, Dorothea; van Neer, Abbo; Korb, Judith

    2011-12-01

    To uncover the termite species diversity of a natural African savanna ecosystem, we combined morphological analyses and sequencing of three gene fragments (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and 28SrDNA, total length about 2450 bp) to infer putative species from phylogenetic trees. We identified 18 putative species clusters with high support values and which we retrieved consistently. Samples from two genera (Ancistrotermes and Microcerotermes) were excluded from the mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses as they might represent nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs). In total, our data suggest a species richness of at least 20 species, all but one belonging to the Termitidae (higher termites), and among them the fungus-growing Macrotermitinae were most prevalent with at least nine putative species. Within the fungus-growers the most species-rich genus was Microtermes and its four putative species were all cryptic species. Their abundance in the samples suggests that they play an important ecological role which is completely unstudied also due to the lack of reliable identification means. Our study shows that morphological traits are unreliable means of species identification for several termite taxa. Yet reliable and consistent identification is necessary for studying the functional role of termites in ecosystem and global processes.

  7. The work is never ending: uncovering teamwork sustainability using realistic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hasson, Henna; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used. Findings The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced. Practical implications The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period. Originality/value By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.

  8. Systematic Triple-Mutant Analysis Uncovers Functional Connectivity between Pathways Involved in Chromosome Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Haber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions reveal the functional relationships between pairs of genes. In this study, we describe a method for the systematic generation and quantitation of triple mutants, termed triple-mutant analysis (TMA. We have used this approach to interrogate partially redundant pairs of genes in S. cerevisiae, including ASF1 and CAC1, two histone chaperones. After subjecting asf1Δ cac1Δ to TMA, we found that the Swi/Snf Rdh54 protein compensates for the absence of Asf1 and Cac1. Rdh54 more strongly associates with the chromatin apparatus and the pericentromeric region in the double mutant. Moreover, Asf1 is responsible for the synthetic lethality observed in cac1Δ strains lacking the HIRA-like proteins. A similar TMA was carried out after deleting both CLB5 and CLB6, cyclins that regulate DNA replication, revealing a strong functional connection to chromosome segregation. This approach can reveal functional redundancies that cannot be uncovered through traditional double-mutant analyses.

  9. Uncovering secrets behind low-resistance planing craft hull forms through optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ayob, Ahmad F.; Ray, Tapabrata; Smith, Warren F.

    2011-11-01

    There has always been significant interest within the naval architectural research community to identify ship hull forms with low resistance. While numerous design optimization frameworks have been proposed over the years to support the activity, very little attention has been paid towards the process of gaining an understanding of 'what makes a good ship design superior?'. Furthermore, there have been limited attempts to identify computationally cheap indicators that can be used to distinguish between good and poor designs. A recent technique named discovery of innovative design principles, which is aimed at understanding the relationship between the design variables, is incorporated in this work. In this article, optimal high-speed planing craft hull forms with minimum calm-water resistance are identified through the use of three state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. Collections of such designs are then used to uncover insights into the underlying relationships between the variables. The importance of such relationships is further analysed to identify computationally cheap performance indicators that can be used in lieu of detailed calm-water resistance calculations. Such indicators are useful at the concept and preliminary design stages, where one needs to sieve efficiently through a number of candidate designs to identify the better ones for further analysis.

  10. DNA barcoding uncovers cryptic diversity in 50% of deep-sea Antarctic polychaetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Madeleine J; Wiklund, Helena; Neal, Lenka; Jeffreys, Rachel; Linse, Katrin; Ruhl, Henry; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic marine environment is a diverse ecosystem currently experiencing some of the fastest rates of climatic change. The documentation and management of these changes requires accurate estimates of species diversity. Recently, there has been an increased recognition of the abundance and importance of cryptic species, i.e. those that are morphologically identical but genetically distinct. This article presents the largest genetic investigation into the prevalence of cryptic polychaete species within the deep Antarctic benthos to date. We uncover cryptic diversity in 50% of the 15 morphospecies targeted through the comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences, as well as 10 previously overlooked morphospecies, increasing the total species richness in the sample by 233%. Our ability to describe universal rules for the detection of cryptic species within polychaetes, or normalization to expected number of species based on genetic data is prevented by taxon-specific differences in phylogenetic outputs and genetic variation between and within potential cryptic species. These data provide the foundation for biogeographic and functional analysis that will provide insight into the drivers of species diversity and its role in ecosystem function.

  11. Unexpected novel relational links uncovered by extensive developmental profiling of nuclear receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Bertrand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are transcription factors that are implicated in several biological processes such as embryonic development, homeostasis, and metabolic diseases. To study the role of NRs in development, it is critically important to know when and where individual genes are expressed. Although systematic expression studies using reverse transcriptase PCR and/or DNA microarrays have been performed in classical model systems such as Drosophila and mouse, no systematic atlas describing NR involvement during embryonic development on a global scale has been assembled. Adopting a systems biology approach, we conducted a systematic analysis of the dynamic spatiotemporal expression of all NR genes as well as their main transcriptional coregulators during zebrafish development (101 genes using whole-mount in situ hybridization. This extensive dataset establishes overlapping expression patterns among NRs and coregulators, indicating hierarchical transcriptional networks. This complete developmental profiling provides an unprecedented examination of expression of NRs during embryogenesis, uncovering their potential function during central nervous system and retina formation. Moreover, our study reveals that tissue specificity of hormone action is conferred more by the receptors than by their coregulators. Finally, further evolutionary analyses of this global resource led us to propose that neofunctionalization of duplicated genes occurs at the levels of both protein sequence and RNA expression patterns. Altogether, this expression database of NRs provides novel routes for leading investigation into the biological function of each individual NR as well as for the study of their combinatorial regulatory circuitry within the superfamily.

  12. MARS A Cosmic Stepping Stone Uncovering Humanity’s Cosmic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The questions of our origin and cosmic abundance of life are among the most compelling facing humanity. We have determined much about the nature and origin of the Universe and our place in it, but with virtually all evidence of our origin long since gone from our world and an unimaginably vast Universe still to explore, defining answers are difficult to obtain. For all of the difficulties facing us however, the planet Mars may act as a ‘cosmic stepping stone’ in uncovering some of the answers. Although different today, the origin and early history of both Earth and Mars may have been similar enough to consider an origin to life on both. But because Mars’ planetary processes collapsed over three billion years ago – just as life was beginning to flourish on Earth – a significant and unique record of activity from that era perhaps relevant to the origin of life still resides there today. In recognition of this, both the US and Europe are currently engaged in one of the most ambitious programs of explor...

  13. Antisocial behaviour and psychopathy: uncovering the externalizing link in the P3 modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Fernandes, Carina; Pereira, Mariana R; Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-03-22

    In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models. Distinct etiological pathways of psychopathy were evidenced in cognitive tasks: impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits mainly predicted blunted P3 amplitude, while interpersonal-affective psychopathic traits explained enhanced P3 amplitude. Supporting the low fear hypothesis, the interpersonal-affective traits were associated with reduced P3 amplitude in emotional-affective learning tasks. From the accumulated knowledge we propose a framework of P3 amplitude modulation that uncovers the externalizing link between psychopathy and antisocial behaviour. However, the main hypotheses are exploratory and call for more data before stablishing robust conclusions.

  14. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Pehrsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  15. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  16. Uncovering stem-cell heterogeneity in the microniche with label-free microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Lydia L.

    2013-03-01

    Better suited for large number of cells from bulk tissue, traditional cell-screening techniques, such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, they rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. We have developed a label-free, single-cell analysis microfluidic platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. With this platform, we have screened single quiescent muscle stem (satellite) cells derived from single myofibers, and we have uncovered an important heterogeneity in the surface-marker expression of these cells. By sorting the screened cells with our microfluidic device, we have determined what this heterogeneity means in terms of muscle stem-cell functionality. For instance, we show that the levels of beta1-integrin can predict the differentiation capacity of quiescent satellite cells, and in contrast to recent literature, that some CXCR4 + cells are not myogenic. Our results provide the first direct demonstration of a microniche-specific variation in gene expression in stem cells of the same lineage. Overall, our label-free, single-cell analysis and cell-sorting platform could be extended to other systems involving rare-cell subsets. This work was funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation, NIH, and California Institute of Regenerative Medicine

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H.; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Greco M, Fabiola Del; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M.; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E.; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F.; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M.; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J. N.; Crosslin, David R.; Dale, Caroline E.; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E.; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M.; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hunter, David J.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A.; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard H.; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K.; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M.; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B.; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rao, D. C.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P.; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B.; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D.; Jukema, J.W.; Klein, Robert J.; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10−6 in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10−8) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  18. Uncovering a new role for peroxidase enzymes as drivers of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Zinonos, Irene; Leach, Damien A; Hay, Shelley J; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Ingman, Wendy V; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes released by activated immune cells at sites of inflammation. To-date their functional role in human health has mainly been limited to providing a mechanism for oxidative defence against invading bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms. Our laboratory has recently identified a new functional role for peroxidase enzymes in stimulating fibroblast migration and collagen biosynthesis, offering a new insight into the causative association between inflammation and the pro-fibrogenic events that mediate tissue repair and regeneration. Peroxidases are found at elevated levels within and near blood vessels however, their direct involvement in angiogenesis has never been reported. Here we report for the first time that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are readily internalised by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) where they promote cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These pro-angiogenic effects were attenuated using the specific peroxidase inhibitor 4-ABAH, indicating the enzyme's catalytic activity is essential in mediating this response. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that MPO and EPO regulate endothelial FAK, Akt, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and stabilisation of HIF-2α, culminating in transcriptional regulation of key angiogenesis pathways. These findings uncover for the first time an important and previously unsuspected role for peroxidases as drivers of angiogenesis, and suggest that peroxidase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of angiogenesis related diseases driven by inflammation.

  19. Gene Expression Deconvolution for Uncovering Molecular Signatures in Response to Therapy in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cui

    Full Text Available Gene expression-based signatures help identify pathways relevant to diseases and treatments, but are challenging to construct when there is a diversity of disease mechanisms and treatments in patients with complex diseases. To overcome this challenge, we present a new application of an in silico gene expression deconvolution method, ISOpure-S1, and apply it to identify a common gene expression signature corresponding to response to treatment in 33 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients. Using pre- and post-treatment gene expression profiles only, we found a gene expression signature that significantly correlated with a reduction in the number of joints with active arthritis, a measure of clinical outcome (Spearman rho = 0.44, p = 0.040, Bonferroni correction. This signature may be associated with a decrease in T-cells, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets. The products of most differentially expressed genes include known biomarkers for JIA such as major histocompatibility complexes and interleukins, as well as novel biomarkers including α-defensins. This method is readily applicable to expression datasets of other complex diseases to uncover shared mechanistic patterns in heterogeneous samples.

  20. CHANG-ES VIII: Uncovering Hidden AGN Activity in Radio Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith A; Damas-Segovia, A; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Rand, Richard J; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Kamieneski, Patrick; Paré, Dylan; Sullivan, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    We report on C-band (5 - 7 GHz) observations of the galaxy, NGC~2992, from the CHANG-ES sample. This galaxy displays an embedded nuclear double-lobed radio morphology within its spiral disk, as revealed in linearly polarized emission but {\\it not} in total intensity emission. The radio lobes are kpc-sized, similar to what has been observed in the past for other Seyfert galaxies, and show ordered magnetic fields. NGC~2992 has shown previous evidence for AGN-related activity, but not the linearly polarized radio features that we present here. We draw attention to this galaxy as the first clear example (and prototype) of bipolar radio outflow that is revealed in linearly polarized emission only. Such polarization observations, which are unobscured by dust, provide a new tool for uncovering hidden weak AGN activity which may otherwise be masked by brighter unpolarized emission within which it is embedded. The radio lobes observed in NGC~2992 are interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium and offer new o...

  1. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Jr., P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, Michael F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  2. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  3. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  4. Combining Novel Simulation Methods and Nucleation Theory to Uncover the Secrets of Gas Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Thomas [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-04-14

    Conventional computer simulation methods fail for some of the most important problems. With the design and application of innovative algorithms, this project achieved a breakthrough for the case of systems undergoing first-order phase transitions. We gave a complete simulation protocol based upon a well optimized version of our "generalized replica exchange method". The transition of primary interest was gas hydrate formation, a process of significance for climate science and natural gas retrieval. Since hydrates consist of guest molecules in the cages of a water matrix, β ice, the freezing and melting of water was also studied. New information was uncovered about the transition pathways and thermodynamics. Some highlights are 1. the finding that in a very dilute solution without deep supercooling, representative of real-world conditions and very challenging to conventional algorithms, methane can act as a catalyst to drive the formation of large amounts of β ice with empty cages as metastable intermediates, which might be filled by additional methane in a mechanism for hydrate formation, and 2. illumination of the role of metastable cubic ice in water freezing, with determination of the surface tensions of the cubic, hexagonal, and β ices, and the free energy difference of cubic vs hexagonal ice. Work was begun on lipid systems, bilayers and nanoreactors promising for energy-related photoreductions, and targets for future research. Our methods yielded what is arguably the most complete description of the composite lipid/water phases and the transition pathways among them.

  5. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K; Drong, Alexander W; Hayes, James E; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J N; Crosslin, David R; Dale, Caroline E; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Hunter, David J; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P; Myers, Richard H; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Rao, D C; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A; Chasman, Daniel I; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D; Jukema, J W; Klein, Robert J; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Leibel, Rudolph L; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.

  6. CHANG-ES - VIII. Uncovering hidden AGN activity in radio polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith A.; Schmidt, Philip; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Rand, Richard J.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Kamieneski, Patrick; Paré, Dylan; Sullivan, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    We report on C-band (5-7 GHz) observations of the galaxy, NGC 2992, from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) sample. This galaxy displays an embedded nuclear double-lobed radio morphology within its spiral disc, as revealed in linearly polarized emission but not in total intensity emission. The radio lobes are kpc-sized, similar to what has been observed in the past for other Seyfert galaxies, and show ordered magnetic fields. NGC 2992 has shown previous evidence for AGN-related activity, but not the linearly polarized radio features that we present here. We draw attention to this galaxy as the first clear example (and prototype) of bipolar radio outflow that is revealed in linearly polarized emission only. Such polarization observations, which are unobscured by dust, provide a new tool for uncovering hidden weak active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity which may otherwise be masked by brighter unpolarized emission within which it is embedded. The radio lobes observed in NGC 2992 are interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and offer new opportunities to investigate the interactions between nuclear outflows and the ISM in nearby galaxies. We also compare the radio emission with a new CHANDRA X-ray image of this galaxy. A new CHANG-ES image of NGC 3079 is also briefly shown as another example as to how much more obvious radio lobes appear in linear polarization as opposed to total intensity.

  7. The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Li, Zhe; Huang, Xia-He; Wang, Ying-Chun; Mei, Ying-Chang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

  8. Uncovering Multiple Populations with Washington Photometry: I. The Globular Cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, Jeffrey D; Villanova, S; Carraro, G

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) has become a forefront area of research in astronomy. Multiple red giant branches (RGBs), subgiant branches (SGBs), and even main sequences (MSs) have now been observed photometrically in many GCs. UV photometry has been crucial in discovering and analyzing these MPs, but the Johnson U and the Stromgren and Sloan u filters that have generally been used are relatively inefficient and very sensitive to reddening and atmospheric extinction. In contrast, the Washington C filter is much broader and redder than these competing UV filters. Here we investigate the use of the Washington system to uncover MPs using only a 1-meter telescope. Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 finds that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be ...

  9. 7 CFR 52.773 - Liquid media and Brix measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Liquid... requirements for the liquid media in canned red tart pitted cherries are not incorporated in the grades of the... 15 days or more after the cherries are canned or on the blended homogenized slurry of the...

  10. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salha M. Alzahrani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and suspicious texts of short lengths, which implement the semantic relatedness between words as a membership function to a fuzzy set. In order to minimize the number of false positives and false negatives, a learning method that combines a permission threshold and a variation threshold is used to decide true plagiarism cases. The proposed model and the baselines are evaluated on 99,033 ground-truth annotated cases extracted from different datasets, including 11,621 (11.7% handmade paraphrases, 54,815 (55.4% artificial plagiarism cases, and 32,578 (32.9% plagiarism-free cases. We conduct extensive experimental verifications, including the study of the effects of different segmentations schemes and parameter settings. Results are assessed using precision, recall, F-measure and granularity on stratified 10-fold cross-validation data. The statistical analysis using paired t-tests shows that the proposed approach is statistically significant in comparison with the baselines, which demonstrates the competence of fuzzy semantic-based model to detect plagiarism cases beyond the literal plagiarism. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical test shows the effectiveness of different segmentation schemes used with the proposed approach.

  11. Treatment of gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions with uncovered expandable metal stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided peroral uncovered expandable metal stent placement to treat gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions. METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients underwent peroral placement of WallstentTM Enteral Endoprosthesis to treat gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions (14 malignant, 1 benign). All procedures were completed under fluoroscopic guidance without endoscopic assistance. Follow-up was completed until the patients died or were lost, and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The technique success rate was 100%, and the oral intake was maintained in 12 of 14 patients varying from 7 d to 270 d. Two patients remained unable to resume oral intake, although their stents were proven to be patent with the barium study. One patient with acute necrotizing pancreatitis underwent enteral stenting to treat intestinal obstruction, and nausea and vomiting disappeared. Ten patients died during the followup period, and their mean oral intake time was 50 d. No procedure-related complications occurred. Stent migration to the gastric antrum occurred in one patient 1 year after the procedure, a tumor grew at the proximal end of the stent in another patient 38 d post-stent insertion. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopically guided peroral metal stent implantation is a safe and effective method to treat malignant gastrointestinal obstructions, and complications can be ignored based on our short-term study. Indications for this procedure should be discreetly considered because a few patients may not benefit from gastrointestinal insertion, but some benign gastrointestinal obstructions can be treated using this procedure.

  12. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  13. Quick determination of gas pressure before uncovering coal in cross-cuts and shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cheng-lin; DENG Su-hua; ZHANG Chao-jie; CHENG Song-li; LV Shu-wen; WANG Chen; LI Xiao-wei; CHEN Yu-jia; XIE Qing-xue; LIU Ying; TANG Jun; YANG Fei-long; WANG Fa-kai

    2008-01-01

    The determination of gas pressure before uncovering coal in cross-cuts and in shafts is one of the important steps in predicting coal and gas outbursts. However, the time spent for testing gas pressure is, at present, very long, seriously affecting the application of outburst prediction techniques in opening coal seams in cross-cuts and shafts. In order to reduce the time needed in gas pressure tests and to improve the accuracy of tests, we analyzed the process of gas pressure tests and examined the effect of the length of boreholes in coal seams in tests. The result shows that 1) the shorter the borehole, the easier the real pressure value of gas can be obtained and 2) the main factors affecting the time spent in gas pressure tests are the length of the borehole in coal seams,the gas emission time after the borehole has been formed and the quality of the borehole-sealing. The longer the length of the borehole, the longer the gas emission time and the larger the pressure-relief circle formed around the borehole, the longer the time needed for pressure tests. By controlling the length of the borehole in a test case in the Huainan mining area, and adopting a quick sealing technique using a sticky liquid method, the sealing quality was clearly improved and the gas emission time as well as the amount of gas discharged greatly decreased. Before the method described, the time required for the gas pressure to increase during the pressure test process, was more than 10 days. With our new method the required time is only 5 hours. In addition, the accuracy of the gas pressure test is greatly improved.

  14. Uncovering multiple populations with washington photometry. I. The globular cluster NGC 1851

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Carraro, G. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) has become a forefront area of research in astronomy. Multiple red giant branches (RGBs), subgiant branches (SGBs), and even main sequences (MSs) have now been observed photometrically in many GCs, while broad abundance distributions of certain elements have been detected spectroscopically in most, if not all, GCs. UV photometry has been crucial in discovering and analyzing these MPs, but the Johnson U and the Stromgren and Sloan u filters that have generally been used are relatively inefficient and very sensitive to reddening and atmospheric extinction. In contrast, the Washington C filter is much broader and redder than these competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction. Here, we investigate the use of the Washington system to uncover MPs using only a 1 m telescope. Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 finds that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. The MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB, with ∼30% of the stars belonging to the second population. There is also evidence for two sequences in the red horizontal branch, but this appears to be unrelated to the MPs in this cluster. Neither of these latter phenomena have been observed previously in this cluster. The redder MS stars are also more centrally concentrated than the blue MS. This is the first time MPs in an MS have been discovered from the ground, and using only a 1 m telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  15. Uncovering Multiple Populations with Washington Photometry. I. The Globular Cluster NGC 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) has become a forefront area of research in astronomy. Multiple red giant branches (RGBs), subgiant branches (SGBs), and even main sequences (MSs) have now been observed photometrically in many GCs, while broad abundance distributions of certain elements have been detected spectroscopically in most, if not all, GCs. UV photometry has been crucial in discovering and analyzing these MPs, but the Johnson U and the Stromgren and Sloan u filters that have generally been used are relatively inefficient and very sensitive to reddening and atmospheric extinction. In contrast, the Washington C filter is much broader and redder than these competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction. Here, we investigate the use of the Washington system to uncover MPs using only a 1 m telescope. Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 finds that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. The MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB, with ~30% of the stars belonging to the second population. There is also evidence for two sequences in the red horizontal branch, but this appears to be unrelated to the MPs in this cluster. Neither of these latter phenomena have been observed previously in this cluster. The redder MS stars are also more centrally concentrated than the blue MS. This is the first time MPs in an MS have been discovered from the ground, and using only a 1 m telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  16. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer.

  17. 78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... other sweeteners, regardless of the GPL (grams per liter of citric acid) level of concentration, brix level, brix/acid ratio, pulp content, clarity, grade, horticulture method (e.g., organic or...

  18. 78 FR 38944 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ..., regardless of the GPL (grams per liter of citric acid) level of concentration, brix level, brix/acid ratio, pulp content, clarity, grade, horticulture method (e.g., organic or not), processed form (e.g.,...

  19. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  20. Differential SAGE analysis in Arabidopsis uncovers increased transcriptome complexity in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Isobel AP

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic stress, including low temperature, limits the productivity and geographical distribution of plants, which has led to significant interest in understanding the complex processes that allow plants to adapt to such stresses. The wide range of physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that occur in plants exposed to low temperature require a robust global approach to studying the response. We have employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE to uncover changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over a time course of low temperature stress. Results Five SAGE libraries were generated from A. thaliana leaf tissue collected at time points ranging from 30 minutes to one week of low temperature treatment (4°C. Over 240,000 high quality SAGE tags, corresponding to 16,629 annotated genes, provided a comprehensive survey of changes in the transcriptome in response to low temperature, from perception of the stress to acquisition of freezing tolerance. Interpretation of these data was facilitated by representing the SAGE data by gene identifier, allowing more robust statistical analysis, cross-platform comparisons and the identification of genes sharing common expression profiles. Simultaneous statistical calculations across all five libraries identified 920 low temperature responsive genes, only 24% of which overlapped with previous global expression analysis performed using microarrays, although similar functional categories were affected. Clustering of the differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of novel loci correlated with the development of freezing tolerance. Analysis of their promoter sequences revealed subsets of genes that were independent of CBF and ABA regulation and could provide a mechanism for elucidating complementary signalling pathways. The SAGE data emphasised the complexity of the plant response, with alternate pre-mRNA processing events increasing at low temperatures

  1. "The Teacher Is an Octopus": Uncovering Preservice English Language Teachers' Prior Beliefs through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2006-01-01

    Preservice teachers come to any teacher education course with prior experiences, knowledge and beliefs about learning and teaching. Additionally, the belief systems of preservice teachers often serve as a lens through which they view the content of the teacher education program. Consequently, it is essential that teacher educators take these prior…

  2. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  3. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  4. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  5. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  6. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  7. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  8. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  9. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  10. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  11. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  12. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    After years of successful concealment, the most primitive stars outside our Milky Way galaxy have finally been unmasked. New observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope have been used to solve an important astrophysical puzzle concerning the oldest stars in our galactic neighbourhood - which is crucial for our understanding of the earliest stars in the Universe. "We have, in effect, found a flaw in the forensic methods used until now," says Else Starkenburg, lead author of the paper reporting the study. "Our improved approach allows us to uncover the primitive stars hidden among all the other, more common stars." Primitive stars are thought to have formed from material forged shortly after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. They typically have less than one thousandth the amount of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen and helium found in the Sun and are called "extremely metal-poor stars" [1]. They belong to one of the first generations of stars in the nearby Universe. Such stars are extremely rare and mainly observed in the Milky Way. Cosmologists think that larger galaxies like the Milky Way formed from the merger of smaller galaxies. Our Milky Way's population of extremely metal-poor or "primitive" stars should already have been present in the dwarf galaxies from which it formed, and similar populations should be present in other dwarf galaxies. "So far, evidence for them has been scarce," says co-author Giuseppina Battaglia. "Large surveys conducted in the last few years kept showing that the most ancient populations of stars in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies did not match, which was not at all expected from cosmological models." Element abundances are measured from spectra, which provide the chemical fingerprints of stars [2]. The Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team [3] used the FLAMES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the spectra of over 2000 individual giant stars in four of our galactic neighbours, the Fornax

  13. Partially uncovered Cheatham platinum-covered stent to treat complex aortic coarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Gianfranco; Piazza, Luciane

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment of aortic coarctation is a widely used option. Covered stents have increased the profile of efficacy and safety of this procedure. Here we report on a 32-year-old woman with significant aortic recoarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm and close proximity of both lesions to the origin of both the subclavian arteries. It was decided to manually and partially uncover the proximal part of the stent to have a hybrid stent that could act as a bare stent at the level of the origin of the subclavian arteries and as a covered stent at the level of the aneurysm.

  14. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  15. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hui-shan; XU Hui-rong; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan; TIAN Hai-qing

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79°Brix.

  16. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  17. Scalable Content Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-01-01

    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  18. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Sun, Qi; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Zhang, Cuilin; Qi, Lu; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the NHS II to addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of 1976 to 2016 NHS and NHS II publications. Results. The NHS and NHS II have uncovered important roles in type 2 diabetes for individual nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, and physical activity independent of excess body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are potentially preventable if individuals follow a healthy diet and lifestyle. The NHS investigations have also identified novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, nutrition metabolites, and environmental pollutants, offering new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Global collaborative efforts have uncovered many common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and improved our understanding of gene–environment interactions. Continued efforts to identify epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomic risk factors for type 2 diabetes have the potential to reveal new pathways and improve prediction and prevention. Conclusions. Over the past several decades, the NHS and NHS II have made major contributions to public health recommendations and strategies designed to reduce the global burden of diabetes. PMID:27459454

  19. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-30

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  20. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents...

  1. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  2. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  3. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B

  4. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B

  5. Meiotic double-strand breaks uncover and protect against mitotic errors in the C. elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Deanna; Oegema, Karen; Desai, Arshad

    2013-12-01

    In sexually reproducing multicellular organisms, genetic information is propagated via the germline, the specialized tissue that generates haploid gametes. The C. elegans germline generates gametes in an assembly line-like process-mitotic divisions under the control of the stem cell niche produce nuclei that, upon leaving the niche, enter into meiosis and progress through meiotic prophase [1]. Here, we characterize the effects of perturbing cell division in the mitotic region of the C. elegans germline. We show that mitotic errors result in a spindle checkpoint-dependent cell-cycle delay, but defective nuclei are eventually formed and enter meiosis. These defective nuclei are eliminated by programmed cell death during meiotic prophase. The cell death-based removal of defective nuclei does not require the spindle checkpoint but instead depends on the DNA damage checkpoint. Removal of nuclei resulting from errors in mitosis also requires Spo11, the enzyme that creates double-strand breaks to initiate meiotic recombination. Consistent with this, double-strand breaks are increased in number and persist longer in germlines with mitotic defects. These findings reveal that the process of initiating meiotic recombination inherently selects against nuclei with abnormal chromosomal content generated by mitotic errors, thereby ensuring the genomic integrity of gametes.

  6. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  7. Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-ping FU; Jian-ping LI; Ying ZHOU; Yi-bin YING; Li-juan XIE; Xiao-ying NIU; Zhan-ke YAN; Hai-yan YU

    2009-01-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation,fast response,and non-destructiveness.We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats.Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an,Zhejiang,China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm.A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study.Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of ioquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method.Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives,multiple scatter correction (MSC),and the standard normal variate (SNV).Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800-2500 nm),short NIR (800~1100 nm),and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options.The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats,with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21,1.00,0.965,and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao,Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong,Chun'an-Dahongpao,and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong,respectively.The acidity prediction was not satisfactory,with the RMSEP of 0.382,0.194,0.388,and 0.361 for the above four loquats,respectively.The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

  8. Content Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  9. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Does Globalization Widen or Narrow the Income Inequality in China?Knowledge Composition, Emigration and Economic Growth,China's Status in Division of Labor in the World: A Multinational Analysis based on the Whole and Domestic Technological Contents of Exports

  10. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  11. Where's the Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Will

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers focus on style, fluency, tone, and correct grammar in writing, they rarely emphasize the importance of content. Both the National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges and the NAEP seem to favor emotional and personal writing, at least at the high school level. Judging from their guidelines, both the SAT and the…

  12. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Electroplated Nickel- Phosphorus/Nanometer Silicon Carbide Composite Coating;Effect of Curing Temperature on Corrosion Resistance of Sodium Silicate Conversion Antirust Coating;Effect of Silicon Content on Solidified Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Hot - Dipped Zinc - 40% Aluminum Alloy Coating

  13. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  14. Computing the origin and evolution of the ribosome from its structure — Uncovering processes of macromolecular accretion benefiting synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion occurs pervasively in nature at widely different timeframes. The process also manifests in the evolution of macromolecules. Here we review recent computational and structural biology studies of evolutionary accretion that make use of the ideographic (historical, retrodictive and nomothetic (universal, predictive scientific frameworks. Computational studies uncover explicit timelines of accretion of structural parts in molecular repertoires and molecules. Phylogenetic trees of protein structural domains and proteomes and their molecular functions were built from a genomic census of millions of encoded proteins and associated terminal Gene Ontology terms. Trees reveal a ‘metabolic-first’ origin of proteins, the late development of translation, and a patchwork distribution of proteins in biological networks mediated by molecular recruitment. Similarly, the natural history of ancient RNA molecules inferred from trees of molecular substructures built from a census of molecular features shows patchwork-like accretion patterns. Ideographic analyses of ribosomal history uncover the early appearance of structures supporting mRNA decoding and tRNA translocation, the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and RNA, and a first evolutionary transition that brings ribosomal subunits together into a processive protein biosynthetic complex. Nomothetic structural biology studies of tertiary interactions and ancient insertions in rRNA complement these findings, once concentric layering assumptions are removed. Patterns of coaxial helical stacking reveal a frustrated dynamics of outward and inward ribosomal growth possibly mediated by structural grafting. The early rise of the ribosomal ‘turnstile’ suggests an evolutionary transition in natural biological computation. Results make explicit the need to understand processes of molecular growth and information transfer of macromolecules.

  15. Clinical exome sequencing for cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia uncovers novel gene–disease associations and unanticipated rare disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Schouten, Meyke I; de Bot, Susanne T; Vermeer, Sascha; Meijer, Rowdy; Pennings, Maartje; Gilissen, Christian; Willemsen, Michèl AAP; Scheffer, Hans; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxia (CA) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are two of the most prevalent motor disorders with extensive locus and allelic heterogeneity. We implemented clinical exome sequencing, followed by filtering data for a ‘movement disorders' gene panel, as a generic test to increase variant detection in 76 patients with these disorders. Segregation analysis or phenotypic re-evaluation was utilized to substantiate findings. Disease-causing variants were identified in 9 of 28 CA patients, and 8 of 48 HSP patients. In addition, possibly disease-causing variants were identified in 1 and 8 of the remaining CA and HSP patients, respectively. In 10 patients with CA, the total disease-causing or possibly disease-causing variants were detected in 8 different genes, whereas 16 HSP patients had such variants in 12 different genes. In the majority of cases, the identified variants were compatible with the patient phenotype. Interestingly, in some patients variants were identified in genes hitherto related to other movement disorders, such as TH variants in two siblings with HSP. In addition, rare disorders were uncovered, for example, a second case of HSP caused by a VCP variant. For some patients, exome sequencing results had implications for treatment, exemplified by the favorable L-DOPA treatment in a patient with HSP due to ATP13A2 variants (Parkinson type 9). Thus, clinical exome sequencing in this cohort of CA and HSP patients suggests broadening of disease spectra, revealed novel gene–disease associations, and uncovered unanticipated rare disorders. In addition, clinical exome sequencing results have shown their value in guiding practical patient management. PMID:27165006

  16. Analysis of the Legionella longbeachae genome and transcriptome uncovers unique strategies to cause Legionnaires' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Cazalet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila and L. longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. L. pneumophila is mainly found in natural and artificial water circuits while L. longbeachae is mainly present in soil. Under the appropriate conditions both species are human pathogens, capable of causing a severe form of pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of four L. longbeachae genomes, one complete genome sequence of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 serogroup (Sg 1, and three draft genome sequences another belonging to Sg1 and two to Sg2. The genome organization and gene content of the four L. longbeachae genomes are highly conserved, indicating strong pressure for niche adaptation. Analysis and comparison of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 with L. pneumophila revealed common but also unexpected features specific to this pathogen. The interaction with host cells shows distinct features from L. pneumophila, as L. longbeachae possesses a unique repertoire of putative Dot/Icm type IV secretion system substrates, eukaryotic-like and eukaryotic domain proteins, and encodes additional secretion systems. However, analysis of the ability of a dotA mutant of L. longbeachae NSW150 to replicate in the Acanthamoeba castellanii and in a mouse lung infection model showed that the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is also essential for the virulence of L. longbeachae. In contrast to L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae does not encode flagella, thereby providing a possible explanation for differences in mouse susceptibility to infection between the two pathogens. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that L. longbeachae has a less pronounced biphasic life cycle as compared to L. pneumophila, and genome analysis and electron microscopy suggested that L. longbeachae is encapsulated. These species-specific differences may account for the different environmental niches and disease epidemiology of these

  17. Uncovering Undergraduate English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners’ Perceptions of Reticence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Zare-ee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing undergraduate learners’ participation and/or reticence in second/foreign language classrooms, a relatively recent line of research, can contribute to the betterment of language teaching and learning practices. In this work, we attempt to investigate the causes of a population of undergraduate English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ reticence by focusing on their own perceptions and by seeing the problem from their perspective. 201 male and female undergraduate Iranian EFL learners selected randomly based on Krejcie and Morgan’s formula for determining sample size served as the participants of the study. The data were collected through interviews, observations and a five-point Likert-scale researcher-made questionnaire. The results of the analyses of the data through qualitative content-based coding of the transcripts, frequency counts, and factorial analysis of the questionnaire responses revealed the following: a based on systematic class observations, most students appeared to understand teachers’ instruction, took notes, and spoke when addressed; however, they rarely asked questions or volunteered responses; b unfriendly and competitive class atmosphere, boring and useless topics and materials, and having unmotivated and serious teachers were among the most  frequent  learner-perceived factors causing reticence; c based on the results of exploratory factorial analysis, 12 factors including  learner anxiety,  poor class management, peer/ teacher correction,  background knowledge, grouping learners, and self-image were reported as the main causes of reticence. Based on these findings, we make suggestions for EFL teachers about how to consider students’ concerns and to promote class participation.

  18. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available. PMID:28141861

  19. Beliefs of Chilean University English Teachers: Uncovering Their Role in the Teaching and Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Larenas Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs continue to be an important source to get to know teachers’ thinking processes and pedagogical decisions. Research in teachers’ beliefs has traditionally come from English-speaking contexts; however, a great deal of scientific work has been written lately in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina. This study elicits 30 Chilean university teachers’ beliefs about their own role in the teaching and learning of English in university environments. Through a qualitative research design, the data collected from interviews and journals were analyzed, triangulated, and categorized based on semantic content analysis. Results of the study indicate that university teachers reveal challenging and complex views about what it is like to teach English as a foreign language in a university context in Chile. The article concludes with a call to reflect on the importance of beliefs unravelling in teacher education programmes.Las creencias continúan siendo una fuente de importancia para conocer los procesos de pensamiento y los estilos pedagógicos de los docentes. Los estudios sobre las creencias docentes provienen en su mayoría de contextos angloparlantes; sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha escrito una gran cantidad de trabajos científicos en Brasil, México, Colombia y Argentina. Este estudio recoge las creencias de treinta docentes universitarios chilenos sobre su papel en la enseñanza y aprendizaje del inglés en ambientes universitarios. A partir de un diseño de investigación cualitativo, los datos recolectados por medio de entrevistas y diarios personales fueron analizados, triangulados y categorizados según el análisis de contenido semántico. Los resultados indicaron que los docentes de educación superior tienen visiones desafiantes y complejas sobre lo que significa enseñar inglés como lengua extranjera en un contexto universitario en Chile. El artículo concluye con una invitación a reflexionar sobre la importancia de

  20. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  1. Content Based Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Content based video retrieval is an approach for facilitating the searching and browsing of large image collections over World Wide Web. In this approach, video analysis is conducted on low level visual properties extracted from video frame. We believed that in order to create an effective video retrieval system, visual perception must be taken into account. We conjectured that a technique which employs multiple features for indexing and retrieval would be more effective in the discrimination and search tasks of videos. In order to validate this claim, content based indexing and retrieval systems were implemented using color histogram, various texture features and other approaches. Videos were stored in Oracle 9i Database and a user study measured correctness of response.

  2. “Don’t be evil”: Uncovering the implications of Google search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Winston

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

  1. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  2. An uncovered XIII century icon: Particular use of organic pigments and gilding techniques highlighted by analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Moretti, Patrizia; Grazia, Chiara; Romani, Aldo; Fiorin, Enrico; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Vagnini, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of a panel painting depicting a Madonna and Child listed as an unknown Tuscan artist of the nineteenth century, permitted the hidden original version, a XIII century Medieval icon to be uncovered. It is discovery provided the opportunity for an extensive in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations by portable imaging and spectroscopic techniques (infrared, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and emission), followed by aimed micro-destructive investigations (Raman and SEM-EDS). This approach permitted characterization of the original ground and paint layers by complementary techniques. Furthermore, this protocol allowed supplementary particularities of great interest to be highlighted. Namely, numerous original gilding techniques have been accentuated in diverse areas and include the use of surrogate gold (disulphur tin), orpiment as a further false gold and an area with an original silver rich layer. Moreover, pigments including azurite mixed with indigo have been non-invasively identified. Micro-invasive analyses also allowed the diagnosis of organic colorants, namely, an animal anthraquinone lake, kermes and an unusual vegetal chalcone pigment, possibly safflower. The identification of the latter is extremely rare as a painting pigment and has been identified using an innovative adaption to surface enhanced Raman techniques on a cross-section. The resulting data contributes new hypotheses to the historic and artistic knowledge of materials and techniques utilized in XIII century icon paintings and ultimately provides scientific technical support of the recent restoration.

  3. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  4. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  5. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  6. Applying Content Analysis to Web-based Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inhwa; Kuljis, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Using Content Analysis onWeb-based content, in particular the content available onWeb 2.0 sites, is investigated. The relative strengths and limitations of the method are described. To illustrate how content analysis may be used, we provide a brief overview of a case study that investigates cultural impacts on the use of design features with regard to self-disclosure on the blogs of South Korean and United Kingdom’s users. In this study we took a standard approach to conducting the content an...

  7. Approaching Academic Digital Content Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)

  8. Uncovering foveal crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Yehezkel, Oren; Polat, Uri

    2014-02-12

    Visual crowding, as context modulation, reduce the ability to recognize objects in clutter, sets a fundamental limit on visual perception and object recognition. It's considered that crowding does not exist in the fovea and extensive efforts explored crowding in the periphery revealed various models that consider several aspects of spatial processing. Studies showed that spatial and temporal crowding are correlated, suggesting a tradeoff between spatial and temporal processing of crowding. We hypothesized that limiting stimulus availability should decrease object recognition in clutter. Here we show, for the first time, that robust contour interactions exist in the fovea for much larger target-flanker spacing than reported previously: participants overcome crowded conditions for long presentations times but exhibit contour interaction effects for short presentation times. Thus, by enabling enough processing time in the fovea, contour interactions can be overcome, enabling object recognition. Our results suggest that contemporary models of context modulation should include both time and spatial processing.

  9. Uncovering Pompeii: Examining Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan on Pompeii (Italy) for middle school students that utilizes a teaching technique called interactive presentation. Describes the technique's five phases: (1) discrepant event inquiry; (2) discussion/presentation; (3) cooperative learning activity; (4) writing for understanding activity; and (5) whole-class discussion and…

  10. Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal treatment combinations are all important steps toward improving care in patients with diabetes. The most important goals are for primary care physicians to recognize that every patient treated with antihyperglycemic medications is at risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia and to ask patients about hypoglycemia at every visit.Keywords: hypoglycemia, insulin analogs, type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus

  11. Uncovering the unarchived web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samar, T.; Huurdeman, H.C.; Ben-David, A.; Kamps, J.; Vries, A.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Many national and international heritage institutes realize the importance of archiving the web for future culture heritage. Web archiving is currently performed either by harvesting a national domain, or by crawling a pre-defined list of websites selected by the archiving institution. In either met

  12. Uncovering Discovery Layer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Today's electronic information landscape is growing exponentially with no signs of slowing. This poses a significant challenge for academic libraries. Librarians must continually learn and adapt to harness this explosion of resources. To fulfill their claim as the leaders in the information field they must be effective in providing access and…

  13. Uncovering the Hidden Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Tsirogiannis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we model and analyse the global network of the illegal trade in antiquities. Our goal is to use this network to estimate for any given artefact the potential sequence of people in the network among whom this artefact was traded. For this reason, we have implemented and evaluated...

  14. The discovery uncovered

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Almost exactly one hundred years after the publication of Einstein’s paper on General Relativity, the LIGO and Virgo collaborations have published a paper in which they show a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. The signal has been observed with 5-sigma accuracy and is the first direct observation of gravitational waves.   On Thursday, 11 February, Barry Clark Barish, one of the fathers of the LIGO experiment, presented the latest results in a packed Auditorium. Ripples in space-time, the fabric of the Universe: this is how we can picture gravitational waves. In his visionary paper published in June 1916, Einstein predicted that masses deform space-time and, therefore, any change in their position causes a distortion that propagates at the speed of light, resulting in gravitational waves.   It wasn’t until 1975, almost 60 years later, that Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1993, inferred t...

  15. Uncovering Earth's virome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Espino, David; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Thomas, Alex D; Huntemann, Marcel; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rubin, Edward; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2016-08-25

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, but challenges in detecting, isolating, and classifying unknown viruses have prevented exhaustive surveys of the global virome. Here we analysed over 5 Tb of metagenomic sequence data from 3,042 geographically diverse samples to assess the global distribution, phylogenetic diversity, and host specificity of viruses. We discovered over 125,000 partial DNA viral genomes, including the largest phage yet identified, and increased the number of known viral genes by 16-fold. Half of the predicted partial viral genomes were clustered into genetically distinct groups, most of which included genes unrelated to those in known viruses. Using CRISPR spacers and transfer RNA matches to link viral groups to microbial host(s), we doubled the number of microbial phyla known to be infected by viruses, and identified viruses that can infect organisms from different phyla. Analysis of viral distribution across diverse ecosystems revealed strong habitat-type specificity for the vast majority of viruses, but also identified some cosmopolitan groups. Our results highlight an extensive global viral diversity and provide detailed insight into viral habitat distribution and host–virus interactions.

  16. Uncovering the Cornfield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Observers agree that a pivotal factor in the abandonment of the Beach Boys’ Smile album in 1967 was the hostility shown by group members to some of Brian Wilson co-writer Van Dyke Parks’s lyrics. The latter still tend, however, to be cited more than they are analyzed. This reading of the song...

  17. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  18. A genome-wide immunodetection screen in S. cerevisiae uncovers novel genes involved in lysosomal vacuole function and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florante Ricarte

    Full Text Available Vacuoles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both are cellular organelles responsible for macromolecular degradation, ion/pH homeostasis, and stress survival. We hypothesized that undefined gene functions remain at post-endosomal stage of vacuolar events and performed a genome-wide screen directed at such functions at the late endosome and vacuole interface - ENV genes. The immunodetection screen was designed to identify mutants that internally accumulate precursor form of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY. Here, we report the uncovering and initial characterizations of twelve ENV genes. The small size of the collection and the lack of genes previously identified with vacuolar events are suggestive of the intended exclusive functional interface of the screen. Most notably, the collection includes four novel genes ENV7, ENV9, ENV10, and ENV11, and three genes previously linked to mitochondrial processes - MAM3, PCP1, PPE1. In all env mutants, vesicular trafficking stages were undisturbed in live cells as assessed by invertase and active α-factor secretion, as well as by localization of the endocytic fluorescent marker FM4-64 to the vacuole. Several mutants exhibit defects in stress survival functions associated with vacuoles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the collection to be significantly enriched in vacuolar morphologies suggestive of fusion and fission defects. These include the unique phenotype of lumenal vesicles within vacuoles in the novel env9Δ mutant and severely fragmented vacuoles upon deletion of GET4, a gene recently implicated in tail anchored membrane protein insertion. Thus, our results establish new gene functions in vacuolar function and morphology, and suggest a link between vacuolar and mitochondrial events.

  19. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M.; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R.; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L.; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M.; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201–12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract–enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the “gold standard” to determine whether a gene’s function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others. PMID:27357688

  20. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rabus

    Full Text Available The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca. Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  1. Upregulation of glycans containing 3' fucose in a subset of pancreatic cancers uncovered using fusion-tagged lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Pal, Kuntal; Yadav, Jessica; Tang, Huiyuan; Partyka, Katie; Kletter, Doron; Hsueh, Peter; Ensink, Elliot; Kc, Birendra; Hostetter, Galen; Xu, H Eric; Bern, Marshall; Smith, David F; Mehta, Anand S; Brand, Randall; Melcher, Karsten; Haab, Brian B

    2015-06-05

    The fucose post-translational modification is frequently increased in pancreatic cancer, thus forming the basis for promising biomarkers, but a subset of pancreatic cancer patients does not elevate the known fucose-containing biomarkers. We hypothesized that such patients elevate glycan motifs with fucose in linkages and contexts different from the known fucose-containing biomarkers. We used a database of glycan array data to identify the lectins CCL2 to detect glycan motifs with fucose in a 3' linkage; CGL2 for motifs with fucose in a 2' linkage; and RSL for fucose in all linkages. We used several practical methods to test the lectins and determine the optimal mode of detection, and we then tested whether the lectins detected glycans in pancreatic cancer patients who did not elevate the sialyl-Lewis A glycan, which is upregulated in ∼75% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Patients who did not upregulate sialyl-Lewis A, which contains fucose in a 4' linkage, tended to upregulate fucose in a 3' linkage, as detected by CCL2, but they did not upregulate total fucose or fucose in a 2' linkage. CCL2 binding was high in cancerous epithelia from pancreatic tumors, including areas negative for sialyl-Lewis A and a related motif containing 3' fucose, sialyl-Lewis X. Thus, glycans containing 3' fucose may complement sialyl-Lewis A to contribute to improved detection of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the use of panels of recombinant lectins may uncover details about glycosylation that could be important for characterizing and detecting cancer.

  2. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-07-12

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201-12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract-enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the "gold standard" to determine whether a gene's function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others.

  3. Expression profiles uncover the relationship between erythropoietin and cell proliferation in rat hepatocytes after a partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihong; Yang, Yajuan; He, Tingting; Liu, Yunqing; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Yongkang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2014-09-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has a beneficial effect on hepatic cell proliferation during liver regeneration. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. To uncover the proliferation response of EPO in rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) at the cellular level, hepatocytes (HCs) were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The genes of the EPO-mediated signaling pathway and the target genes of the transcription factor (TF) in the pathway were identified in a pathway and TF database search. Their expression profiles were then detected using Rat Genome 230 2.0 Microarray. The results indicated that the EPO-mediated signaling pathway is involved in 19 paths and that 124 genes participate, of which 32 showed significant changes and could be identified as liver regeneration-related genes. In addition, 443 targets regulated by the TFs of the pathway and 60 genes associated with cell proliferation were contained in the array. Subsequently, the synergetic effect of these genes in liver regeneration was analyzed using the E(t) mathematical model based on their expression profiles. The results demonstrated that the E(t) values of paths 3, 8, 12 and 14-17 were significantly strengthened in the progressing phase of liver regeneration through the RAS/MEK/ERK or PI3K/AκT pathways. The synergetic effect of the target genes, in parallel with target-related cell proliferation, was also enhanced 12-72 h after PH, suggesting a potential positive effect of EPO on HC proliferation during rat liver regeneration. These data imply that the EPO receptor may allow EPO to promote HC proliferation through paths 3, 8, 12 and 14-17, mediating the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AκT pathways in rat liver regeneration after PH.

  4. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphniamagna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triopscancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator’s mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research. PMID:23776711

  5. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  6. PPARalpha siRNA-treated expression profiles uncover the causal sufficiency network for compound-induced liver hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Dai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering pathways underlying drug-induced toxicity is a fundamental objective in the field of toxicogenomics. Developing mechanism-based toxicity biomarkers requires the identification of such novel pathways and the order of their sufficiency in causing a phenotypic response. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi phenotypic screening has emerged as an effective tool in unveiling the genes essential for specific cellular functions and biological activities. However, eliciting the relative contribution of and sufficiency relationships among the genes identified remains challenging. In the rodent, the most widely used animal model in preclinical studies, it is unrealistic to exhaustively examine all potential interactions by RNAi screening. Application of existing computational approaches to infer regulatory networks with biological outcomes in the rodent is limited by the requirements for a large number of targeted permutations. Therefore, we developed a two-step relay method that requires only one targeted perturbation for genome-wide de novo pathway discovery. Using expression profiles in response to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara, our method unveiled the potential causal sufficiency order network for liver hypertrophy in the rodent. The validity of the inferred 16 causal transcripts or 15 known genes for PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy is supported by their ability to predict non-PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy with 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Simulation shows that the probability of achieving such predictive accuracy without the inferred causal relationship is exceedingly small (p < 0.005. Five of the most sufficient causal genes have been previously disrupted in mouse models; the resulting phenotypic changes in the liver support the inferred causal roles in liver hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of defining pathways mediating drug

  7. Cell Viability Assessment: Toward Content-Rich Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Christina Nicole; Antczak, Christophe; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Monitoring cell viability in vitro is critical in many areas of biomedical research, and the ultimate goal in drug discovery is the ability to predict the in vivo toxicology of drug candidates based on their toxicity profile in vitro. Over the last decade, the contribution of high-throughput screening (HTS) toward this goal has been tremendous, providing the ability to screen compounds in parallel against multiple cell types. However, the toxic effects of drug candidates uncovered during clinical trials are by far the main reason for their failure. Over the same period, our understanding of programmed cell death has evolved dramatically with the identification of critical control points in the cell death pathways. As a result, cell viability should no longer be characterized solely on the basis of discrete endpoint measurements such as membrane permeability. Areas covered in this review/What the reader will gain This review summarizes the traditional viability assays currently commercially available, focusing on methods amenable to high density format. Assays categorized into the following classes are discussed: dye exclusion assays, DNA condensation-based assays and assays monitoring a metabolic function. We describe each approach, and using case studies, we emphasize their limitations. Take home message Current low-content methods based on single parameter readouts are prone to error due to the heterogeneity of cell populations and the multi-faceted nature of cell death. High-content approaches based on continuous, multiplexed readouts are becoming increasingly important for monitoring multiple markers of cell death induction simultaneously, on a cell by cell basis. The use of such content-rich platforms is a necessity to predict the toxicology of drug candidates accurately. PMID:22823019

  8. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  9. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  10. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  11. Content Management System (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Καλτουρουμίδης, Κυριάκος Ο.

    2012-01-01

    Ένα σύστημα διαχείρισης περιεχομένων (content management system - CMS) είναι η συλλογή των διαδικασιών με τις οποίες μπορεί να γίνει διαχείριση της ροής εργασιών σε ένα συνεργατικό περιβάλλον. Αυτές οι διαδικασίες θα πρέπει να επιτρέπουν σε πολλά άτομα να συμμετέχουν και να μοιράζονται αποθηκευμένα δεδομένα, να ελέγχεται η πρόσβαση στα δεδομένα με βάση τους ρόλους των χρηστών, να βοηθείται η εύκολη αποθήκευση και ανάκτηση των δεδομένων, να διευκολύνεται η σύνταξη εκθέσεων και η επικοινωνία με...

  12. Comparative analysis of the Photorhabdus luminescens and the Yersinia enterocolitica genomes: uncovering candidate genes involved in insect pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Thilo M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus luminescens and Yersinia enterocolitica are both enteric bacteria which are associated with insects. P. luminescens lives in symbiosis with soil nematodes and is highly pathogenic towards insects but not to humans. In contrast, Y. enterocolitica is widely found in the environment and mainly known to cause gastroenteritis in men, but has only recently been shown to be also toxic for insects. It is expected that both pathogens share an overlap of genetic determinants that play a role within the insect host. Results A selective genome comparison was applied. Proteins belonging to the class of two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, universal stress proteins, and c-di-GMP signalling have been analysed. The interorganismic synopsis of selected regulatory systems uncovered common and distinct signalling mechanisms of both pathogens used for perception of signals within the insect host. Particularly, a new class of LuxR-like regulators was identified, which might be involved in detecting insect-specific molecules. In addition, the genetic overlap unravelled a two-component system that is unique for the genera Photorhabdus and Yersinia and is therefore suggested to play a major role in the pathogen-insect relationship. Our analysis also highlights factors of both pathogens that are expressed at low temperatures as encountered in insects in contrast to higher (body temperature, providing evidence that temperature is a yet under-investigated environmental signal for bacterial adaptation to various hosts. Common degradative metabolic pathways are described that might be used to explore nutrients within the insect gut or hemolymph, thus enabling the proliferation of P. luminescens and Y. enterocolitica in their invertebrate hosts. A strikingly higher number of genes encoding insecticidal toxins and other virulence factors in P. luminescens compared to Y. enterocolitica correlates with the higher virulence of P

  13. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  14. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eTavares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS, the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT, which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC. In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT protein family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT gene family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labelled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine. Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  15. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  16. Front Matter and Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  17. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  18. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues...

  19. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  20. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  1. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  2. Comparative analysis of gene expression: uncovering expression conservation and divergence between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains LT2 and 14028S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Paolo; Meysman, Pieter; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Laukens, Kris; Cavalieri, Duccio; Engelen, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Different strains of the same organism can share a large amount of their genetic material, the so called core pangenome. Nevertheless, these species can display different lifestyles and it is still not well known to what extent the core pangenome plays a role in the divergence of lifestyles between the two organisms. Here, we present a procedure for uncovering the conservation and divergence of gene expression by using large expression compendia. We will use data from two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains as an example here, strain LT2 and strain 14028S, to assess if there are orthologous gene pairs with different expression domains related in both strains.

  3. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  4. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  5. Optimal sampling of paid content

    OpenAIRE

    Halbheer, Daniel; Stahl, Florian; Koenigsberg, Oded; Lehmann, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal sampling and pricing of paid content for publishers of news websites. Publishers offer free content samples both to disclose journalistic quality to consumers and to generate online advertising revenues. We examine sampling where the publisher sets the number of free sample articles and consumers select the articles of their choice. Consumerslearn from the free samples in a Bayesian fashion and base their subscription decisions on posterior quality expectations. We...

  6. CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Indigenization of Science : Introspection, Criticism and Limitation Yao Chuanming (School of Governance Management ,Beijing University, Beijing 100871, China) Abstract: Originated from the Western World, social science theory cannot (well enough) explain the local situation Thus it is not a sufficient condition of the indigenization study. The inconformity between the theory and the reality is not necessarily the falsification of the theory itself.

  7. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Limitations of the Post-New Public Management Yin Wenjia (Department of Public Administration, Guangxi Normal College, Nanning,530001 ) Abstract: As the successor and amendment of the new public management, Post-New public management did not really go beyond new public management. There are some limitations in the theory of premise, the theoretical ideas and practice , the most critical one of these limitations is the premise of theory. Investigated from the perspective of the administrative history of ideas, Post-New public management is difficult to become a paradigm of new Public Administration.

  8. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Social science has long been confronted with a problem of identity, as a branch of social science, the development of Public Administration is also influenced by this problem. Before 1930s, public administration researchers held a scientific belief identical with other social scientists, and took the establishment of a administrative science as their mission; after 1930s, the finding of Hawthorne Experiment greatly wavered the scientific' belief of public administration researchers, which contributed to the bankruptcy of the politics-administration dichotomy; in the 1950s, while public administration researchers in whole had abandoned the dichotomy, social scientists as a whole had rejoined the embrace of scientific pursuit, which produced a huge tension within public administration researchers. Since then, the community of public administration researchers had differentiated into two antithetical camps.

  9. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    International Politics 1 Germany's Seeking for Permanent Seat in UN Security Council and European Integration by Zheng Chunrong In terms of historical development, Germany's position, since reunification, on the reform o f the UN Security Council has undergone remarkable change: from initial modesty,

  10. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    MONOGRAPHS Return to "the Ancient Borderland Corridor of Miao Ethnical Group" (古苗疆走廊 ) a New Way to Research on Southwest Region, Nationalities and the Develop- ment of Cultural Industry Yang Zhiqiang Zhao Xudong Cao Duanbo ( 1 ) The east post road (东路驿道) , which was opened from Huguang, Guizhou to Yunnan during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, was not only the major transportation lifeline to maintain the mainland and the southwest borderlands, but also the influencing factor to the changes of political territory in the southwest borderland during the Ming and Qing dynasties. This article proposes "the ancient borderland corridor of Miao ethnical group" originally,

  11. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) Choosing the Data Mining Represent Objects in China's Local Governments and Establish the Data Warehouses of the Objects: A Study in the Four municipal Governments in Jiangsu Province Shang Huping (Management School of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000) Abstract: In a tremendously large country llke China, there are substantial differences on natural geographic features, history background, and social realities among the varied regions. Because of the heterogeneity, the local government performance evalu- ation indicator designing is a systematical engineering which could be affected by various factors. In this paper, we use the "stan- dard proportion" to develop a new way to choose the study objects among the great many governments of varied level in China. As the study objects chosen, we take advantage of the DM tool of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 to establish a government performance evaluation indictor data warehouse of the four municipal governments in Jiangsu Province by pr6cessing the clata of National Sta- tistical Yearbook. Local Statistical Yearbook, Sector Statistics Yearbook, government departments' work plans & programs, etc. Key words: Standard proportion; DM; Local government performance evaluation indicators; Data warehouse

  12. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Grassroots Officials Promotion in Differentiated Model Association, The Researching of Rural Clan :Paradigm Should be Shifted Analysis Based on the Practice of Rural Community Construction in Ganzhou of Jiangxi Province and Yueping of Hubei Province

  13. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    (1) Between the Revolutionist and the Legislator: Politics scientific Principle and Law of New England township Ren Junfeng (School of International relation and Public Affairs, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433) Abstract: The flames of American Independence War was started from such towns as Boston, Concord, Lexington, etc., the union of towns helped spread the flames all over the Thirteen Colonies. At Massachusetts Convention of 1780, the making of the State Constitution is the deliberation among townships over representation, executive and judicial powers, the relationship between towns and the State government, these issues became the theoretical and practical basis of the Philadelphia Convention seven years later. In the eyes of Daniel Shays and his Regulators, the government of Massachusetts commonwealth has been abused by those commercial interests in Boston, their rebellion is just a noble attempt to uphold the fundamentals of the Declaration of Inde- pendence; In the eyes of those slave owners in the South during the Civil War, the Federal government has been manipulated by those rapacious Yankees represented by Lincoln and his Republican politicians, the principles of American Founding Fathers are under threat. The Confederate States of America is commissioned to save those principles. A historical examination of New Eng- land township and its significance in the creation of the Republic is the starting point to advance our understanding of American politics and political culture. Key Words: township; New England; American Revolution; U.S. Politics

  14. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his opinions on the extent of China ancient territory, viz. the territory administrated by integrated nation and separate states in China ancient history, which is based on his formal studies. The author also makes a comment on the new academic views since 1990s, and presents four new opinions on the development phases of China ancient territory.

  15. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    International Politics 1 The Regionalization of Internal Conflicts in Africa: A Comprehensive Security Perspective by Zheng Xianwu In the post-Cold War era, internal conflicts in Africa are increasingly becoming regionalized through their cross-border spread. In terms of the root cause of conflicts and actual influence, such regionalization takes a comprehensive form, viz. it includes several levels such as global, regional, sub-regional, national and sub-national, and several areas such as military, political, economic, environmental and social and forms a comprehensive security pattern consisting of multi-levels and multi-areas and their close interaction. Thus, it requires African regional and sub-regional organizations to play a central role in Africa's internal conflict resolution.

  16. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Gormally

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs, often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1 TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2 TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3 student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  17. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice. PMID:27158302

  18. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  19. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  20. Orchestrated content release from Drosophila glue-protein vesicles by a contractile actomyosin network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousso, Tal; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-02-01

    Releasing content from large vesicles measuring several micrometres in diameter poses exceptional challenges to the secretory system. An actomyosin network commonly coats these vesicles, and is thought to provide the necessary force mediating efficient cargo release. Here we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of the formation of this actomyosin coat around large vesicles and the resulting vesicle collapse, in live Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands. We identify the Formin family protein Diaphanous (Dia) as the main actin nucleator involved in generating this structure, and uncover Rho as an integrator of actin assembly and contractile machinery activation comprising this actomyosin network. High-resolution imaging reveals a unique cage-like organization of myosin II on the actin coat. This myosin arrangement requires branched-actin polymerization, and is critical for exerting a non-isotropic force, mediating efficient vesicle contraction.

  1. Content Management for a Content-Rich Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeysett, Nik

    Over the last year the J. Paul Getty Trust's Web presence has evolved from a group of disparate, independently maintained Web sites into a homogeneous consistently branded one. This transformation recently culminated with the implementation of a leading Content Management System (CMS). There were and are many process-changes and challenges in…

  2. Content Sharing for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturisation of computing devices has seen computing devices become increasingly pervasive in society. With this increased pervasiveness, the technologies of small computing devices have also improved. Mobile devices are now capable of capturing various forms of multimedia and able to communicate wirelessly using increasing numbers of communication techniques. The owners and creators of local content are motivated to share this content in ever increasing volume; the conclusion has been that social networks sites are seeing a revolution in the sharing of information between communities of people. As load on centralised systems increases, we present a novel decentralised peer-to-peer approach dubbed the Market Contact Protocol (MCP) to achieve cost effective, scalable and efficient content sharing using opportunistic networking (pocket switched networking), incentive, context-awareness, social contact and mobile devices. Within the report we describe how the MCP is simulated with a superimposed geographi...

  3. Identification and Analysis of Medicago truncatula Auxin Transporter Gene Families Uncover their Roles in Responses to Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenjia; Yue, Runqing; Bai, Youhuang; Feng, Rong; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaofei; Yang, Yanjun; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-10-01

    Auxin transport plays a pivotal role in the interaction between legume species and nitrogen-fixing bacteria to form symbioses. Auxin influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux 1 (AUX/LAX), efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and efflux/conditional P-glycoprotein (PGP/ABCB) are three major protein families participating in auxin polar transport. We used the latest Medicago truncatula genome sequence to characterize and analyze the M. truncatula LAX (MtLAX), M. truncatula PIN (MtPIN) and M. truncatula ABCB (MtABCB) families. Transient expression experiments indicated that three representative auxin transporters (MtLAX3, MtPIN7 and MtABCB1) showed cell plasma membrane localizations. The expression of most MtLAX, MtPIN and MtABCB genes was up-regulated in the roots and was down-regulated in the shoots by Sinorhizobium meliloti infection in the wild type (WT). However, the expression of these genes was down-regulated in both the roots and shoots of an infection-resistant mutant, dmi3. The different expression patterns between the WT and the mutant roots indicated that auxin relocation may be involved in rhizobial infection responses. Furthermore, IAA contents were significantly up-regulated in the shoots and down-regulated in the roots after Sinorhizobium meliloti infection in the WT. Inoculation of roots with rhizobia may reduce the auxin loading from shoots to roots by inhibiting the expression of most auxin transporter genes. However, the rate of change of gene expression and IAA contents in the dmi3 mutant were obviously lower than in the WT. The identification and expression analysis of auxin transporter genes helps us to understand the roles of auxin in the regulation of nodule formation in M. truncatula.

  4. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses. PMID:28337209

  5. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  6. Review of English Language Library and Information Science Weblogs: Analyzing the Link between Weblog Types and Their Technical /Content Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Karami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weblog has become well established as one of the Web 2.0 products. Given the essential nature of their job, librarians and information professionals, can use weblog as a quick and easy mean for information and knowledge sharing. The present study reviews some 150 LIS weblogs in order to examine and analyze the link between weblog types (personal, library-owned or group operated with their content and technical structure. Webometric methods were deployed for selection of the sample. The findings indicated that there is a significant correlation between the weblog types and their update frequency. The same holds between the weblog types and their content. But no such significance was observed with respect to the weblog publishing tools. The investigators believe that the links uncovered could also hold true for Iranian LIS weblogs.

  7. GLOBAL MEASURE ON IMAGE CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigated approaches to supporting effective and efficient retrieval of image based on principle component analysis. First, it extracted the image content, texture and color. Gabor wavelet transforms were used to extract texture feature of the image and the average color was used to extract the color features. The principle component of the feature vector of image can be constructed. Content-based image retrieval was performed by comparing the feature vector of the query image with the projection feature vector of the image database on the principle component space of the query image. By this technique, it can reduce the dimensionality of feature vector, which in turn reduce the searching time.

  8. Estado nutricional de diferentes cultivares de pereira nas condições edafoclimáticas de Guarapuava-PR Leaf content and nutrient extraction by fruit harvest of pear trees cultivars grafted on quince 'CP'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2010-09-01

    of 2.500 plants ha-1. Samples of leaves and fruits were collected in 2006 and 2007 for chemical analysis of nutrient contents. Complete and normal leaves were sampled in the end of January, token from the middle part of one-year shoots. The fruits were collected when the total soluble solids content reached 10º Brix. The pear cultivars showed differences in relation to nutrient content in leaves and fruits, indicating distinct nutritional requirements. The cv. Cascatense presented the highest N and P contents in fruits at least in one of the years, and the cv Hosui the highest K content. The nutrient extraction by fruits ranged from 0.366 to 0.825 kg N; 0.097 to 0.205 kg P, 0.996 to 1.302 kg K, 0.049 to 0.085 kg Ca and 0.041 to 0.095 kg Mg per fruit ton.

  9. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    We review the current state of play in the game of naturalizing content and analyse reasons why each of the main proposals, when taken in isolation, is unsatisfactory. Our diagnosis is that if there is to be progress two fundamental changes are necessary. First, the point of the game needs to be ...

  10. The Contents of My Backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    As Mr. Goldman empties his backpack, his philosophy of teaching spills out, along with an interesting assortment of odds and ends. In this article Mr. Goldman describes the contents of his L.L. Bean daypack with two large compartments in the back, a smaller forward compartment, and a little zippered pocket in the very front, along with his…

  11. Virtual Content-Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Tsukamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data-centric networking has recently been gaining attention. A representative design for data-centric networking is Content-Centric Networking (CCN, which routes packets based on content identifiers. CCN is basically designed to be open because ease of data reuse is one of the greatest advantages of data-centric networking. However, for real-world networking, completely open data-centric networking is not sufficient; it is necessary to allow for private communication within a group of users. In this paper, we propose Virtual Content-Centric Networking (VCCN, which realizes private communication within a group of users through CCN router virtualization. We present four building blocks of VCCN: extension of the content identifier, CCN router virtualization, packet transport between virtualized CCN routers, and Social Network Services cooperative user/group identification. We have implemented VCCN’s basic features by extending the CCNx software and have conducted a preliminary performance evaluation of our VCCN implementation. 

  12. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  13. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  14. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict signi...

  15. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image, or edit text) although the similar management action may vary depending on content type (e.g., editing audio involves different operations than editing an image). A key enabler for content managem...

  16. Privacy Preserving Content Protection (Privacy behoud content protection)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Mina

    2010-01-01

    De vooruitgang van informatie- en communicatietechnologie in de laatste decennia heeft de manier waarop informatie wordt verzameld en verwerkt grondig beїnvloed. Dit roept echter ook vraagtekens op rond de manier waarop met privacy wordt omgegaan. De komst van digitale technologieën, het gemak waarmee ongeoorloofde kopieën kunnen worden geproduceerd, en de toegang tot digitale inhoud -- leidend tot commerciële inbreuken -- motiveren de nood om content protection (inhoudsbeschermende) te...

  17. Study of the features of outburst caused by rock cross-cut coal uncovering and the law of gas dilatation energy release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Baohai; Su Chengxiang; Wang Deming

    2015-01-01

    To study the law of gas dilatation energy release of rock cross-cut coal uncovering face, according to the analysis of the physical parameters distribution features of coal and rock mass in front of crosscut face, the equations of elastic potential of coal and gas dilatation energy theory were set up to process a contrast calculation of the sizes of two kinds of energy. The results show that gas dilatation energy is the uppermost energy source causing outburst occurrence. Furthermore, the mathematical model of spherical flow field gas dilatation energy release was established and MATLAB software was applied to make a numerical calculation analysis on the law of gas dilatation energy release. The results indicate that the gas dilatation energy is closely related to gas parameters and its energy index does reflect the possibility of coal seam outburst.

  18. Uncovering Voter Preference Structures Using a Best-Worst Scaling Procedure: Method and Empirical Example in the British General Election of 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    the relative importance of each of the options. Using a Balanced Incomplete Block research design we reduce the number of comparisons to the number of media, thus reducing fatigue and complexity problems associated with the standard paired-preference scale from which BWS is developed. Scale variables can...... be calculated to conduct statistical procedures such as multiple regression and MANOVA. We demonstrate the utility of the method for analysing events in the political sphere using data collected from 282 voters immediately after the British General Election of 2010 on voter preferences regarding the relative......Best-Worst scaling (BWS) is a method that can provide insights into the preference structures of voters. By asking voters to select the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ option (‘most important’ and ‘least important’ media in our investigation) from a short list of alternatives it is possible to uncover...

  19. Parvin overexpression uncovers tissue-specific genetic pathways and disrupts F-actin to induce apoptosis in the developing epithelia in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chountala

    Full Text Available Parvin is a putative F-actin binding protein important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Here we used overexpression of Drosophila Parvin to uncover its functions in different tissues in vivo. Parvin overexpression caused major defects reminiscent of metastatic cancer cells in developing epithelia, including apoptosis, alterations in cell shape, basal extrusion and invasion. These defects were closely correlated with abnormalities in the organization of F-actin at the basal epithelial surface and of integrin-matrix adhesion sites. In wing epithelium, overexpressed Parvin triggered increased Rho1 protein levels, predominantly at the basal side, whereas in the developing eye it caused a rough eye phenotype and severely disrupted F-actin filaments at the retina floor of pigment cells. We identified genes that suppressed these Parvin-induced dominant effects, depending on the cell type. Co-expression of both ILK and the apoptosis inhibitor DIAP1 blocked Parvin-induced lethality and apoptosis and partially ameliorated cell delamination in epithelia, but did not rescue the elevated Rho1 levels, the abnormal organization of F-actin in the wing and the assembly of integrin-matrix adhesion sites. The rough eye phenotype was suppressed by coexpression of either PTEN or Wech, or by knock-down of Xrp1. Two main conclusions can be drawn from our studies: (1, high levels of cytoplasmic Parvin are toxic in epithelial cells; (2 Parvin in a dose dependent manner affects the organization of actin cytoskeleton in both wing and eye epithelia, independently of its role as a structural component of the ILK-PINCH-Parvin complex that mediates the integrin-actin link. Thus, distinct genetic interactions of Parvin occur in different cell types and second site modifier screens are required to uncover such genetic circuits.

  20. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duin, Evert C; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-05-31

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen.

  1. The search for therapeutic bacteriophages uncovers one new subfamily and two new genera of Pseudomonas-infecting Myoviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Henry

    Full Text Available In a previous study, six virulent bacteriophages PAK_P1, PAK_P2, PAK_P3, PAK_P4, PAK_P5 and CHA_P1 were evaluated for their in vivo efficacy in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections using a mouse model of lung infection. Here, we show that their genomes are closely related to five other Pseudomonas phages and allow a subdivision into two clades, PAK_P1-like and KPP10-like viruses, based on differences in genome size, %GC and genomic contents, as well as number of tRNAs. These two clades are well delineated, with a mean of 86% and 92% of proteins considered homologous within individual clades, and 25% proteins considered homologous between the two clades. By ESI-MS/MS analysis we determined that their virions are composed of at least 25 different proteins and electron microscopy revealed a morphology identical to the hallmark Salmonella phage Felix O1. A search for additional bacteriophage homologs, using profiles of protein families defined from the analysis of the 11 genomes, identified 10 additional candidates infecting hosts from different species. By carrying out a phylogenetic analysis using these 21 genomes we were able to define a new subfamily of viruses, the Felixounavirinae within the Myoviridae family. The new Felixounavirinae subfamily includes three genera: Felixounalikevirus, PAK_P1likevirus and KPP10likevirus. Sequencing genomes of bacteriophages with therapeutic potential increases the quantity of genomic data on closely related bacteriophages, leading to establishment of new taxonomic clades and the development of strategies for analyzing viral genomes as presented in this article.

  2. Hypertextuality, Complexity, Creativity: Using Linguistic Software Tools to Uncover New Information about the Food and Drink of Historic Mayans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lema

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay on natural language I present a computer-supported study of words, sentences and hypertexts concerning bromatology (the study of food and drink in a XVI century Maya-Spanish Calepin—the most complete and extended dictionary ever written on the culture of the constructors of the wonderful and prestigious Mayan cities of Uxmal, Kalakmul, Chichén-Itzá (ARZÁPALO, 1995. For constructing a complex corpus, I apply concepts of the three-body and the fractal dimension theories (POINCARÉ, 1908; MANDELBROT, 1975. First, I register an initial body of text by simply searching via the find key for abbreviations of bromatology and botany already recorded by the citation word in the Calepin. Then, I arbitrarily shorten the Spanish form corresponding to tasty and gather it through the whole dictionary. This way I obtain three bodies of interpretative meaning, lexias (BARTHES, 2002. Second, I establish the second and the third dimensional hypertextual relations between the gleaned words or sentences of text as well as their co-occurrences by using the comprehensive linguistics software, Tropes, a lexical and content analysis mixed tool, which brings up the qualitative and quantitative data pertinent to the research. Third, to bring back the colonial Maya voices of the Calepin, I surf the Internet and add to both written bodies of text a third text composed of beautiful colored images presenting food, drinks and tasty dishes that are still enjoyed by the Maya today and have been appreciated for almost five centuries. Notwithstanding the above, neither one of the three bodies (corpora nested fractally one inside the other is exhaustive. Nonetheless, the study of their interrelations could lead to the deepening of our knowledge on the complex juxtaposition between Siglo de Oro and Maya languages and cultures in the Yucatán Peninsula. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202215

  3. Palm content of production metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Swift, W.H.

    1959-11-23

    Purpose of this study was to determine the {sup 237}Np input to the Purex process. The {sup 237}Np content of 639 g Pu/ton U irradiated fuel was found to be 1.78 {plus_minus} .09 g/ton of uranium at the 95% confidence level. Standard recovery for the chemical method was 96.7%, 98.0% for the sampling.

  4. Seamless Access to Home Content

    OpenAIRE

    Høiby, Ola

    2006-01-01

    This thesis documents the mobile phone authentication in the data world and evaluate potential methods for seamless authentication. Telenors Mobil's authentication tool and Wap Gateway have been configured to provide the mobile phone's user id (MSISDN) to a Wap Server for authentication of the user. The thesis resultet in a demo which uses the wap functionality on the mobile phone to access content on a wap server. Automatic authentication based on the user information provided by the wap gat...

  5. Semantic understanding of Image content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Dhobale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

  6. Determination of sugar content of citrus fruit based on computer vision%基于计算机视觉的柑橘糖度检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹乐平; 黄中培; 林继元

    2008-01-01

    现场采摘180个涟红温州蜜柑,考虑色泽和大小范围的广度,从中选取140个作为试验样本,各果转90.中心角,采集一幅图像,每果采图4幅,通过图像裁切,RGB空间至HSI空间的转换和图像差值法去背景,提取柑橘色调H和饱和度S表面色泽参数,用110个样本训练小波神经网络,30个样本检验网络性能.试验结果表明,检测最大绝对偏差0.2452°Brix,最小绝对偏差0.0002°Brix,平均偏差0.0545°Brix,标准差0.0830°Brix,精度在±0.1°Brix内的正确识别率为73.33%,精度在±0.2 °Brix内的正确识别率为90%.

  7. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2016-01-01

    far; it lacks eight genes relative to its Chaetosphaeridium globosum homolog, four of which represent unique events in the evolutionary scenario of gene losses we reconstructed for streptophyte algae. The 10 compared zygnematophycean cpDNAs display tremendous variations at all levels, except gene content. During zygnematophycean evolution, the IR disappeared a minimum of five times, the rDNA operon was broken at four distinct sites, group II introns were lost on at least 43 occasions, and putative foreign genes, mainly of phage/viral origin, were gained.

  8. Content Reading in Four European Union Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.; Flynt, E. Sutton

    2009-01-01

    Is content literacy exclusively a U.S. phenomenon? In this installment we report on the state of content literacy from four international perspectives. Descriptions of content literacy from Ireland, Sweden, Germany, and Bulgaria offer insights into (a) the value policymakers may be placing on reading practices for content learning, and (b) the…

  9. Content in context met LibGuides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, Bernardus; Kuindersma, Sjouke

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries have a variety of content. Over the years it has become increasingly more digital content, and content quantities are increasing. The patrons of the Library - however - lose more and more the overview on available content. This developement is a threat for the use of high quality

  10. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image,

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  12. COMPOSITE CONTENT MANAGEMENT-CASE MANAGEMENT AND ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Composite Content Applications has been climbing higher over the recent years due to the rising need around enabling business process improvements and addressing challenges around business process agility. Such applications can deliver substantial value by leveraging both content and process services for the better orchestration of people and processes and empower organizations to automate routine tasks and aggregate information from multiple sources in a collaborative work environment that enables rapid decision making. In this whitepaper, we have introduced Case Management and its relationship with ECM, the essential functionalities in a Case Management Product stack and expanded on leading vendors in this space along with the salient features of their case management offerings. Subsequently we have built on a sample case scenario of building a contracts management application using EMC Documentum xCelerated Composition Platform (xCP, the business needs and challenges that a well-designed Contracts Management application can address, a real-life application of xCP platform to build such a solution and the observations on the strengths and limitations of this platform, along with a few workarounds to address the limitations.

  13. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  14. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  15. Content delivery network and regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jiu-sheng; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2006-01-01

    First, this article provides an introduction to the content delivery network (CDN), which has wide prospects but is still in its early stages in China. Second, this article depicts the present situation and the developing characteristics of CDN in China. Elaborating on the above-mentioned two points, this article identifies the numerous problems that are encountered during the development of CDN, such as indistinct service positioning and the hidden troubles of information security.Finally, this article presents several countermeasures for handling the problems, such as opening the market widely,making a rational service positioning, strengthening the regulation on information security, and punishing illegal operations and unfair competition.

  16. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund

    2013-01-01

    -supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools...... is discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  17. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  18. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum I: brix and sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was done to measure the deterioration of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after harvest. Three varieties of sorghum were grown in Louisiana and harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting (DAP). Whole stalks were cut from the field at soil level, stripped, and topped...

  19. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  20. MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF BREAST MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that in exclusively breast - fed infants , breast milk is the sole source of the nutrition for the first few months of life , it is important to have accurate data on its composition. Various studies have been done on factors affecting the concentration of microelements in breast milk. Through this article we tried to address the iron , zinc , copper content of breast milk wh ich is most essential micronutrients for growth of infant. A wide range of values for iron in the breast milk (0.1 – 1.6 mg/l , Zn and Cu were 625 (475 - 889 microgram/l and 239 (200 - 296 microgram/l respectively have been reported in the literature in all s tages of lactation. Concentration of micronutrients is high in colostrum and decreases during the lactation period. Maternal serum levels of microelements have no correlation with those in breast milk. Various studies have shown mineral , multivitamin , supp lementation or maternal diet does not affect breast milk micronutrient concentration. Mother’s age , parity , anthropometry , smoking habits , socioeconomic status , residing area(rural/urban , environment , use of oral contraceptive do not have an influence on the micronutrient content of the mother’s milk .

  1. Content of system design descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  2. Error image aware content restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  3. Functional and gene network analyses of transcriptional signatures characterizing pre-weaned bovine mammary parenchyma or fat pad uncovered novel inter-tissue signaling networks during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal bovine mammary fat pad (MFP surrounding the mammary parenchyma (PAR is thought to exert proliferative effects on the PAR through secretion of local modulators of growth induced by systemic hormones. We used bioinformatics to characterize transcriptomics differences between PAR and MFP from ~65 d old Holstein heifers. Data were mined to uncover potential crosstalk through the analyses of signaling molecules preferentially expressed in one tissue relative to the other. Results Over 9,000 differentially expressed genes (DEG; False discovery rate ≤ 0.05 were found of which 1,478 had a ≥1.5-fold difference between PAR and MFP. Within the DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP (n = 736 we noted significant enrichment of functions related to cell cycle, structural organization, signaling, and DNA/RNA metabolism. Only actin cytoskeletal signaling was significant among canonical pathways. DEG more highly-expressed in MFP vs. PAR (n = 742 belong to lipid metabolism, signaling, cell movement, and immune-related functions. Canonical pathways associated with metabolism and signaling, particularly immune- and metabolism-related were significantly-enriched. Network analysis uncovered a central role of MYC, TP53, and CTNNB1 in controlling expression of DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP. Similar analysis suggested a central role for PPARG, KLF2, EGR2, and EPAS1 in regulating expression of more highly-expressed DEG in MFP vs. PAR. Gene network analyses revealed putative inter-tissue crosstalk between cytokines and growth factors preferentially expressed in one tissue (e.g., ANGPTL1, SPP1, IL1B in PAR vs. MFP; ADIPOQ, IL13, FGF2, LEP in MFP vs. PAR with DEG preferentially expressed in the other tissue, particularly transcription factors or pathways (e.g., MYC, TP53, and actin cytoskeletal signaling in PAR vs. MFP; PPARG and LXR/RXR Signaling in MFP vs. PAR. Conclusions Functional analyses underscored a reciprocal influence in

  4. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Anshu Aggarwal; Justin Garson; Chris R Margules; Juliane Zeidler

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use.

  5. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research.

  6. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter......Professional networks of senior managers have indisputable value for them as well as for their organizations. In recent years, much attention has been given to the structure of these networks as it reflects senior managers’ opportunity to access valuable resources. Surprisingly, the actual...... introduces the topic of this dissertation as well as the overall research question. The three next chapters are empirical studies of informal ties in professional networks of Danish senior managers, that together attempt to answer the overall research question. Chapter 2 looks into gender differences...

  7. Perception of Simultaneous Auditive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Christian

    Based on a model of pluralistic music, we may approach an aesthetic concept of music, which employs dichotic listening situations. The concept of dichotic listening stems from neuropsychological test conditions in lateralization experiments on brain hemispheres, in which each ear is exposed to a different auditory content. In the framework of such sound experiments, the question which primarily arises concerns a new kind of hearing, which is also conceivable without earphones as a spatial composition, and which may superficially be linked to its degree of complexity. From a psychological perspective, the degree of complexity is correlated with the degree of attention given, with the listener's musical or listening experience and the level of his appreciation. Therefore, we may possibly also expect a measurable increase in physical activity. Furthermore, a dialectic interpretation of such "dualistic" music presents itself.

  8. Brain Content of Branes' States

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, R L

    2003-01-01

    The problem of decomposition of unitary irreps of (super) tensorial (i.e. extended with tensorial charges) Poincare algebra w.r.t. its different subgroups is considered. This requires calculation of little groups for different configurations of tensor charges. Particularly, for preon states (i.e. states with maximal supersymmetry) in different dimensions the particle content is calculated, i.e. the spectrum of usual Poincare representations in the preon representation of tensorial Poincare. At d=4 results coincide with (and may provide another point of view on) the Vasiliev's results in field theories in generalized space-time. The translational subgroup of little groups of massless particles and branes is shown to be (and coincide with, at d=4) a subgroup of little groups of "pure branes" algebras, i.e. tensorial Poincare algebras without vector generators. Possible existence of corresponding field theories is discussed. At 11d it is shown that, contrary to lower dimensions, spinors are not homogeneous space...

  9. Human β Cell Transcriptome Analysis Uncovers lncRNAs That Are Tissue-Specific, Dynamically Regulated, and Abnormally Expressed in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Ignasi; Akerman, İldem; van de Bunt, Martijn; Xie, Ruiyu; Benazra, Marion; Nammo, Takao; Arnes, Luis; Nakić, Nikolina; García-Hurtado, Javier; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Sauty-Colace, Claire; Beucher, Anthony; Scharfmann, Raphael; van Arensbergen, Joris; Johnson, Paul R; Berry, Andrew; Lee, Clarence; Harkins, Timothy; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Berney, Thierry; Hanley, Neil A; Gloyn, Anna L; Sussel, Lori; Langman, Linda; Brayman, Kenneth L; Sander, Maike; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ravassard, Philippe; Ferrer, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A significant portion of the genome is transcribed as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), several of which are known to control gene expression. The repertoire and regulation of lncRNAs in disease-relevant tissues, however, has not been systematically explored. We report a comprehensive strand-specific transcriptome map of human pancreatic islets and β-cells, and uncover >1100 intergenic and antisense islet-cell lncRNA genes. We find islet lncRNAs that are dynamically regulated, and show that they are an integral component of the β-cell differentiation and maturation program. We sequenced the mouse islet transcriptome, and identify lncRNA orthologs that are regulated like their human counterparts. Depletion of HI-LNC25, a β-cell specific lncRNA, downregulated GLIS3 mRNA, thus exemplifying a gene regulatory function of islet lncRNAs. Finally, selected islet lncRNAs were dysregulated in type 2 diabetes or mapped to genetic loci underlying diabetes susceptibility. These findings reveal a new class of islet-cell genes relevant to β-cell programming and diabetes pathophysiology. PMID:23040067

  10. Transcriptomic profiling of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveals reprogramming of the Crp regulon by temperature and uncovers Crp as a master regulator of small RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Nuss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One hallmark of pathogenic yersiniae is their ability to rapidly adjust their life-style and pathogenesis upon host entry. In order to capture the range, magnitude and complexity of the underlying gene control mechanisms we used comparative RNA-seq-based transcriptomic profiling of the enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis under environmental and infection-relevant conditions. We identified 1151 individual transcription start sites, multiple riboswitch-like RNA elements, and a global set of antisense RNAs and previously unrecognized trans-acting RNAs. Taking advantage of these data, we revealed a temperature-induced and growth phase-dependent reprogramming of a large set of catabolic/energy production genes and uncovered the existence of a thermo-regulated 'acetate switch', which appear to prime the bacteria for growth in the digestive tract. To elucidate the regulatory architecture linking nutritional status to virulence we also refined the CRP regulon. We identified a massive remodelling of the CRP-controlled network in response to temperature and discovered CRP as a transcriptional master regulator of numerous conserved and newly identified non-coding RNAs which participate in this process. This finding highlights a novel level of complexity of the regulatory network in which the concerted action of transcriptional regulators and multiple non-coding RNAs under control of CRP adjusts the control of Yersinia fitness and virulence to the requirements of their environmental and virulent life-styles.

  11. Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A.; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Payne, Jessica D.

    2014-01-01

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants’ eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation. PMID:24962611

  12. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  13. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2013-06-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3\\'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Eye tracking, cortisol, and a sleep vs. wake consolidation delay: combining methods to uncover an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-06-18

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants' eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation.

  15. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA of Irish verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 from feedlot cattle: uncovering strain dissemination routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mahony Micheál

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the routes of dissemination of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157 through a cohort of cattle is a critical step to control this pathogen at farm level. The aim of this study was to identify potential routes of dissemination of E. coli O157 using Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA. Results Thirty-eight environmental and sixteen cattle faecal isolates, which were detected in four adjacent pens over a four-month period were sub-typed. MLVA could separate these isolates into broadly defined clusters consisting of twelve MLVA types. Strain diversity was observed within pens, individual cattle and the environment. Conclusion Application of MLVA is a broadly useful and convenient tool when applied to uncover the dissemination of E. coli O157 in the environment and in supporting improved on-farm management of this important pathogen. These data identified diverse strain types based on amplification of VNTR markers in each case.

  16. RNA-Seq and Gene Network Analysis Uncover Activation of an ABA-Dependent Signalosome During the Cork Oak Root Response to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alexandre P.; Verde, Nuno; Reis, Francisca; Martins, Inês; Costa, Daniela; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Castro, Pedro H.; Tavares, Rui M.; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2016-01-01

    Quercus suber (cork oak) is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454-sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g., LEA, chaperones, transporters) as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species’ response to drought. PMID:26793200

  17. Why do most Gitano/Romani students not complete compulsory secondary education in Spain? Uncovering the view of the educational community using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of research that used Concept Mapping to study the causes of the high rates of school failure among the students of the Gitano or Spanish Romani minority. A sample of 52 members of a school community—pupils, families and teachers—participated in the research. Data were collected in focus groups. Generated ideas were sorted and rated by participants. A multidimensional scaling of sorted data resulted in a map of points. A cluster analysis with the points’ coordinates was run. The results uncovered a model of six clusters: ethnic differences, families, adolescent risk behaviours, students’ attitudes and values, curriculum gap, and finally effects of compensatory education and attention to diversity programmes. The relationships among the clusters point to three sources of concern: cultural and gender issues within the family setting that encourage girls to drop out of school; lack of motivation and educational orientation of the students; and structural problems of the educational system that contribute to maintain the educational gap between minority and majority students.

  18. 彭燕郊《混沌初开》细读%Close Reading of “The Uncovering of Chaos” by Peng Yanjiao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱景华

    2016-01-01

    彭燕郊的《混沌初开》,继承了新诗史上中断很久的鲁迅《野草》传统,并接通了西方现代诗源头的波德莱尔。开创了一种以自我反思为主的新诗学,把“太空时代想象力”和“原型意象想象力”融为一体,创造出一种长篇散文诗的新诗体。%Peng Yanjiao’s “The Uncovering of Chaos” has inherited the traditional traits in Lu Xun’s “Weeds” which was deserted in a certain period in the history of Chinese new poetry and turned on the source of the western modern poetry represented by Baudelaire. Peng Yanjiao has initiated a new poetics mainly based on self-reflection and created a new verse style in the form of long prose poem by integrating “space-age imagination” and “archetype image imagination”.

  19. Reverse genetic screen for loss-of-function mutations uncovers a frameshifting deletion in the melanophilin gene accountable for a distinctive coat color in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Sartelet, Arnaud; Tamma, Nico; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2016-02-01

    In the course of a reverse genetic screen in the Belgian Blue cattle breed, we uncovered a 10-bp deletion (c.87_96del) in the first coding exon of the melanophilin gene (MLPH), which introduces a premature stop codon (p.Glu32Aspfs*1) in the same exon, truncating 94% of the protein. Recessive damaging mutations in the MLPH gene are well known to cause skin, hair, coat or plumage color dilution phenotypes in numerous species, including human, mice, dog, cat, mink, rabbit, chicken and quail. Large-scale array genotyping undertaken to identify p.Glu32Aspfs*1 homozygous mutant animals revealed a mutation frequency of 5% in the breed and allowed for the identification of 10 homozygous mutants. As expression of a colored coat requires at least one wild-type allele at the co-dominant Roan locus encoded by the KIT ligand gene (KITLG), homozygous mutants for p.Ala227Asp corresponding with the missense mutation were excluded. The six remaining colored calves displayed a distinctive dilution phenotype as anticipated. This new coat color was named 'cool gray'. It is the first damaging mutation in the MLPH gene described in cattle and extends the already long list of species with diluted color due to recessive mutations in MLPH and broadens the color palette of gray in this breed.

  20. Coupling between pupil fluctuations and resting-state fMRI uncovers a slow build-up of antagonistic responses in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin, Dov; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Malach, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Even in absence of overt tasks, the human cortex manifests rich patterns of spontaneous "resting state" BOLD-fMRI fluctuations. However, the link of these spontaneous fluctuations to behavior is presently unclear. Attempts to directly investigate this link invariably lead to disruptions of the resting state. Here we took advantage of the well-established association between pupil diameter and attentional gain to address this issue by examining the correlation between the resting state BOLD and pupil fluctuations. Our results uncover a spontaneously emerging spatiotemporal pupil-BOLD correlation whereby a slow buildup of activity in default mode areas preceded both pupil dilation and wide-spread BOLD suppression in sensorimotor cortex. Control experiments excluded a role for luminance fluctuations or fixation. Comparing the pupil-correlated patterns to activation maps during visual imagery revealed a substantial overlap. Our results indicate a link between behavior, as indexed by pupil diameter, and resting state BOLD fluctuations. These pupil dilations, assumed to be related to attentional gain, were associated with spontaneously emerging antagonism between fundamental cortical networks.

  1. RNA-Seq and gene network analysis uncover activation of an ABA-dependent signalosome during the cork oak root response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Papadopoulos Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus suber (cork oak is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454 sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g. LEA, chaperones, transporters as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that all components of a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species’ response to drought.

  2. RNA-Seq and Gene Network Analysis Uncover Activation of an ABA-Dependent Signalosome During the Cork Oak Root Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alexandre P; Verde, Nuno; Reis, Francisca; Martins, Inês; Costa, Daniela; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Castro, Pedro H; Tavares, Rui M; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2015-01-01

    Quercus suber (cork oak) is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454-sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g., LEA, chaperones, transporters) as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species' response to drought.

  3. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  4. Resistant starch content of Indian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, K; Shurpalekar, K S

    1994-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) was determined in a few selected cereals, legumes and vegetables after processing. Higher RS contents were observed in foods subjected to dry heat treatment compared to wet processed ones. Among the foods studied, sorghum, green gram dhal, and green plantain showed relatively higher RS content. Based on the RS content thus determined in individual foods and the known composition of the Indian diet, RS content of Indian diets were computed.

  5. Amylose content of rice marketed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amylose content is considered to be the most important parameter of cooking quality in rice. Presently, rice cultivars are categorized according to amylose content into three groups: low, medium and high amylose content cultivars. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate the grain amylose content of 77 cultivars, which cover Índica and Japónica subspecies, and different types of commercial rice like, aromatic (basmati and thay), wild rice, medium rice (carlose and risotto), glutinou...

  6. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while crea...

  7. Web Content Management Systems in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powel, Wayne; Gill, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Web site development practices of Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, and the content management systems that allow owners of information to control content while the university controls the look of the Web site. More than 150 content managers assume control of some portion of the Web site. (SLD)

  8. Enterprise Content Buying--The New Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Content is both a key ingredient for business and a major expense. Market research shows that the investment in content and data is generally one of the top expense items within a firm. For some firms, within the financial industry, for example, content costs are the second or third level of expense behind the cost of employees. While there has…

  9. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk sam

  10. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Content. 1506.303-2 Section... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The documentation... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  11. Content Schema and English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明珠

    2013-01-01

    Schema is usually the general knowledge structure in mind, and there are different kinds of schema in reader ’s mind. Content schema refers to the background knowledge about the content area of a text. And the reader ’s content schema in mind has greater effects on English comprehension.

  12. Rating Ethical Content-Short Form (RECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Anna; Orlova, Darya; Matthews, Amanda; Narvaez, Darcia

    2004-01-01

    The "Rating Ethical Content Scale" ("RECS") judges the content of stories for positive content, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior: ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action (Rest, 1983; Narvaez, & Rest, 1995). For example, a story with Ethical Sensitivity has evidence of…

  13. CONTENT BASED BATIK IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haris Rangkuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Batik Image Retrieval (CBBIR is an area of research that focuses on image processing based on characteristic motifs of batik. Basically the image has a unique batik motif compared with other images. Its uniqueness lies in the characteristics possessed texture and shape, which has a unique and distinct characteristics compared with other image characteristics. To study this batik image must start from a preprocessing stage, in which all its color images must be removed with a grayscale process. Proceed with the feature extraction process taking motifs characteristic of every kind of batik using the method of edge detection. After getting the characteristic motifs seen visually, it will be calculated by using 4 texture characteristic function is the mean, energy, entropy and stadard deviation. Characteristic function will be added as needed. The results of the calculation of characteristic functions will be made more specific using the method of wavelet transform Daubechies type 2 and invariant moment. The result will be the index value of every type of batik. Because each motif there are the same but have different sizes, so any kind of motive would be divided into three sizes: Small, medium and large. The perfomance of Batik Image similarity using this method about 90-92%.

  14. Brane content of branes' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben

    2003-04-01

    The problem of decomposition of unitary irreps of (super)tensorial (i.e., extended with tensorial charges) Poincaré algebra w.r.t. its different subalgebras is considered. This requires calculation of little groups for different configurations of tensor charges. Particularly, for preon states (i.e., states with maximal supersymmetry) in different dimensions the particle content is calculated, i.e., the spectrum of usual Poincaré representations in the preon representation of tensorial Poincaré. At d=4 results coincide with (and may provide another point of view on) the Vasiliev's results in field theories in generalized space-time. The translational subgroup of little groups of massless particles and branes is shown to be (and coincide with, at d=4) a subgroup of little groups of “pure branes” algebras, i.e., tensorial Poincaré algebras without vector generators. At 11d it is shown that, contrary to lower dimensions, spinors are not homogeneous space of Lorentz group, and one have to distinguish at least 7 different kinds of preons.

  15. An emerging role: the nurse content curator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks.

  16. Uncovering Settler Grammars in Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I focus on making settler colonialism explicit in education. I turn to social studies curriculum as a clear example of how settler colonialism is deeply embedded in educational knowledge production in the United States that is rooted in a dialectic of Indigenous presence and absence. I argue that the United States, and the…

  17. Uncover the recruiter in you!

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience.   The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".

  18. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. hi-res Size hi-res: 377 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (b) Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. hi-res Size hi-res: 435 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (c) Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). hi-res Size hi-res: 121 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (d) Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degree hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. Neutron stars are the smallest kind of stars known. They are the super-dense remnants of massive stars that died in cataclysmic explosions called supernovae. They have been thrown through space like cannonballs and set spinning at a furious rate, with magnetic fields hundreds of billions of times stronger than Earth’s. In the case of Geminga, this cannonball contains one and a half times the mass of the Sun, squeezed into a sphere just 20 kilometres across and spinning four times every second. A cloud bustling with electrically charged particles surrounds Geminga. These particles are shepherded by its magnetic and electric fields. ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory had already discovered that some of these particles are ejected into space, forming tails that stream behind the neutron star as it hurtles along. Scientists did not know whether Geminga’s tails are formed by electrons or by their twin particles with an opposite e

  19. Trametes versicolor carboxylate reductase uncovered

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Margit; Winkler, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first carboxylate reductase from Trametes versicolor was identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme reduces aromatic acids such as benzoic acid and derivatives, cinnamic acid, and 3-phenylpropanoic acid, but also aliphatic acids such as octanoic acid are reduced. Graphical abstract

  20. Disordered Collarettes and Uncovered Tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

    -making resource worth considering in analyses of literature. In particular the article aims to demonstrate how the linguistic theory of polyphony known as ScaPoLine would be a useful tool for those who wish to understand and describe the various voices that are coded by negatives and the way negative polarity is...

  1. DISCOVER: Dutch Iliac Stent trial: COVERed balloon-expandable versus uncovered balloon-expandable stents in the common iliac artery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekken Joost A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iliac artery atherosclerotic disease may cause intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. It can lead to serious complications such as infection, amputation and even death. Revascularization relieves symptoms and prevents these complications. Historically, open surgical repair, in the form of endarterectomy or bypass, was used. Over the last decade, endovascular repair has become the first choice of treatment for iliac arterial occlusive disease. No definitive consensus has emerged about the best endovascular strategy and which type of stent, if any, to use. However, in more advanced disease, that is, long or multiple stenoses or occlusions, literature is most supportive of primary stenting with a balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery (Jongkind V et al., J Vasc Surg 52:1376-1383,2010. Recently, a PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stent (Advanta V12, Atrium Medical Inc., Hudson, NH, USA has been introduced for the iliac artery. Covering stents with PTFE has been shown to lead to less neo-intimal hyperplasia and this might lower restenosis rates (Dolmatch B et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:527-534,2007, Marin ML et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 7:651-656,1996, Virmani R et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 10:445-456,1999. However, only one RCT, of mediocre quality has been published on this stent in the common iliac artery (Mwipatayi BP et al. J Vasc Surg 54:1561-1570,2011, Bekken JA et al. J Vasc Surg 55:1545-1546,2012. Our hypothesis is that covered balloon-expandable stents lead to better results when compared to uncovered balloon-expandable stents. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial. The study population consists of human volunteers aged over 18 years, with symptomatic advanced atherosclerotic disease of the common iliac artery, defined as stenoses longer than 3 cm and occlusions. A total of 174 patients will be included. The control group will undergo

  2. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the... term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims...

  3. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the... term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims...

  4. Uniform method of operative content management in the electronic content commerce systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vysotska, Victoria; Chyrun, Lyubomyr; Chyrun, Liliya

    2013-01-01

    In the given article content lifecycle model in electronic commerce systems is proposed. The model describes the processes of information resources processing in the electronic content commerce systems and simplifies the content automation management technology. In the given paper the main problems of e-commerce and content function management services are analyzed.

  5. Analysis of secretome changes uncovers an autocrine/paracrine component in the modulation of cell proliferation and motility by c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Votta, Giuseppina; De Vincenzo, Anna; Fiume, Immacolata; Raj, Delfin Albert Amal; Marra, Giancarlo; Stoppelli, Maria Patrizia; Iaccarino, Ingram

    2011-12-02

    Proteins secreted by cancer cells are a major component of tumor microenvironment. However, little is known on the impact of single oncogenic lesions on the expression of secreted proteins at early stages of tumor development. Because c-Myc overexpression is among the most frequent alterations in cancer, here we investigated the effect of sustained c-Myc expression on the secretome of a nontransformed human epithelial cell line (hT-RPE). By using a quantitative proteomic approach, we have identified 125 proteins in conditioned media of hT-RPE/MycER cells upon c-Myc induction. Analysis of the 49 proteins significantly down-regulated by c-Myc revealed a marked enrichment of factors associated with growth inhibition and cellular senescence. Accordingly, media conditioned by hT-RPE cells expressing c-Myc show an increased ability to sustain hT-RPE cellular proliferation/viability. We also find a marked down-regulation of several structural and regulatory components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which correlates with an increased chemotactic potency of the conditioned media toward fibroblasts, a major cellular component of tumor stroma. In accordance with these data, the expression of the majority of the genes encoding proteins down-regulated in hT-RPE was significantly reduced also in colorectal adenomatous polyps, early tumors in which c-Myc is invariably overexpressed. These findings help to elucidate the significance of c-Myc overexpression at early stages of tumor development and uncover a remarkable autocrine/paracrine component in the ability of c-Myc to stimulate proliferation, sustain tumor maintenance, and modulate cell migration.

  6. THE CONTENTS OF BUILDING LEASEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the most disputable categories of jurisprudence – to the contents of Building leasehold. In the article there has been presented the research of the legal nature of the institution of building leasehold (superficies. There have been traced the particulars of formation of the Roman legal (classical model of building leasehold and the interpretation of this institution in foreign civil legislation. It has been noted that certain countries apply the classical Roman model of building leasehold while others use the model of "the shared property" of the land plot and of the piece of the estate built on this plot. There was conducted the analysis of the German model inheritance law of building leasehold on the basis of which there was made the conclusion about its independent nature and uniqueness. The historical and the comparative legal methods of the research have enabled to identify the essential differences of the employed models of building leasehold and the specific features of their application in the countries of roman-germanic law and in the Commonwealth of Independent States. There have been studied the approaches of the domestic civilized doctrine in terms of building leasehold and the specific features of its implementation in the draft version of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. There has been affirmed that the draft version of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation admits the existence of the two models of the building leasehold: the design one and the classical one. There has been applied critical approach to the analysis of the design model of building leasehold in comparison with its Roman and Germanic legal constructions; there have been presented recommendations for its improvement. It is proposed to abandon the temporary ownership of the premises in the building constructed based on the Treaty on the law of the land. We proposed to replace it with a specific property right – "right of

  7. Towards art content in original graphic arts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Graphic art defines numerous graphic art techniques; from classical original graphic art techniques to the new media techniques. The new media reproduction and communication capacity influences contemporary art works in such way that more attention is on non-artistic content, while artistic content with its visual efficiency becomes less important. Reproductibility is one of the non-artistic contents which plays a key role in original graphic arts, where it is a means of making o...

  8. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  9. Studying Web Content Credibility by Social Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Adamska, Paulina; Abramczuk, Katarzyna; Papaioannou, Thanasis; Aberer, Karl; Rejmund, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has become an important source of information that significantly affects social, economical and political life. The content available in the Web is the basis for the operation of the digital economy. Moreover, Web content has become essential for many Web users that have to make decisions. Meanwhile, more and more often we encounter Web content of low credibility due to incorrect opinions, lack of knowledge, and, even worse, manipulation attempts for the benefit of the authors or...

  10. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  11. Desenvolvimento de barras de cereais à base de aveia com alto teor de fibra alimentar Development of oat based cereal bars with high dietary fiber content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2007-06-01

    and are a source of vitamins, minerals, fibers, proteins and complex carbohydrates. The objective of this work was to study the effect of dietary fiber concentration and sugar in cereal bars made of oats with a high dietary fiber content. In the research, oat flakes, bran and flour from cultivar UPFA 22, selected on the basis of the dietary fiber and beta-glucans content, were used. The ingredients were used in amounts defined in laboratory tests. The experiment was carried out using a central composite rotational design applicable to the response surface methodology (RSM, and the effects of the sugar syrup concentration (70, 75 and 80 °Brix and dietary fiber content in the formulation (12, 16 and 20% on the chemical composition, calorie value, water activity, microbiology and sensorial characteristics of the cereal bars were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple regression and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The results showed that oats can be used as an ingredient when making cereals bars presenting an adequate texture, flavor and appearance. The oats used in the formulation makes cereal bars with high dietary fiber and beta-glucan content. The bars present acceptable sensorial properties, similar to the industrialized bars, with higher acceptability when made with average concentration of sugar and high dietary fiber content. The cereal bars present low water activity and are within sanitary specifications and can be stored for 60 days.

  12. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases--Huntington's disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)(dl)1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice]--and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25(Bdr)/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7-8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  13. Combinatorial approach of LC-MS/MS and LC-TOF-MS for uncovering in vivo kinetics and biotransformation of ochratoxin A in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Zhao, Zhiyong; Shi, Jianxin; Liao, Yucai; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhang, Dabing; Wu, Yongning; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2013-04-15

    A combinatorial platform of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) has been developed to investigate the in vivo kinetics and biotransformation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in rats. The stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was first validated by determining the linearity (R(2)≥0.9990), sensitivity (lower limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng mL(-1)), accuracy (83.3-108.3), precision (RSD≤15.6%) and stability (≥75.0%), and was approved for the determination OTA in plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain with a run time of 7.0 min. Simultaneously, an LC-TOF-MS method could unambiguously identify the metabolites of OTA in a total run time of 14 min. The subsequent studies on kinetics and distribution after oral administration of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. OTA in rat indicated that OTA could reach a maximum value of 1932.4±124.9 ng mL(-1) within 5h due to its fast absorption, and then was slowly eliminated in plasma with a half-life time (t1/2) of 75.6±29.0 h. Results of tissue accumulation after a daily oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. OTA during 20 days showed that the highest concentration of OTA was observed in lung (95.9±13.7 ng g(-1)), followed by liver (76.0±9.7 ng g(-1)), heart (62.0±4.2 ng g(-1)) and kidney (55.7±4.7 ng g(-1)). Furthermore, three less toxic metabolites of OTA were clearly identified: Ochratoxin β (OTβ) and ochratoxin B (OTB) methyl ester were found in kidney and spleen, respectively, while phenylalanine was detected in heart and kidney. Thus, a possible metabolic pathway of OTA was proposed. The above achieved results justified that the application of combinatorial LC-MS/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods are valuable tools to uncover the kinetics and metabolism of OTA for the interpretation of toxicological findings in animals and extrapolation of the resulting data as reference to humans.

  14. Uncovering symmetry-breaking vector and reliability order for assigning secondary structures of proteins from atomic NMR chemical shifts in amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wookyung [Pusan National University, Department of Physics, Center for Proteome Biophysics (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woonghee; Lee, Weontae [Yonsei University, Department of Biochemistry, Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhkmann [Pusan National University, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Bio-NMR Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Iksoo, E-mail: iksoochang@pusan.ac.kr [Pusan National University, Department of Physics, Center for Proteome Biophysics (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Unravelling the complex correlation between chemical shifts of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, {sup 13}C Prime , {sup 1}H{sup {alpha}}, {sup 15}N, {sup 1}H{sup N} atoms in amino acids of proteins from NMR experiment and local structural environments of amino acids facilitates the assignment of secondary structures of proteins. This is an important impetus for both determining the three-dimensional structure and understanding the biological function of proteins. The previous empirical correlation scores which relate chemical shifts of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, {sup 13}C Prime , {sup 1}H{sup {alpha}}, {sup 15}N, {sup 1}H{sup N} atoms to secondary structures resulted in progresses toward assigning secondary structures of proteins. However, the physical-mathematical framework for these was elusive partly due to both the limited and orthogonal exploration of higher-dimensional chemical shifts of hetero-nucleus and the lack of physical-mathematical understanding underlying those correlation scores. Here we present a simple multi-dimensional hetero-nuclear chemical shift score function (MDHN-CSSF) which captures systematically the salient feature of such complex correlations without any references to a random coil state of proteins. We uncover the symmetry-breaking vector and its reliability order not only for distinguishing different secondary structures of proteins but also for capturing the delicate sensitivity interplayed among chemical shifts of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, {sup 13}C Prime , {sup 1}H{sup {alpha}}, {sup 15}N, {sup 1}H{sup N} atoms simultaneously, which then provides a straightforward framework toward assigning secondary structures of proteins. MDHN-CSSF could correctly assign secondary structures of training (validating) proteins with the favourable (comparable) Q3 scores in comparison with those from the previous correlation scores. MDHN-CSSF provides a simple and robust strategy for the

  15. Theorizing Content: Tools from Cultural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Kate

    2007-01-01

    What lies behind the lack of theorizing about content in history in contrast to much greater attention given to theorizing about children's developing understanding of historical skills and processes? Egan's model of the characteristic ways in which children of different ages engage with the world is used to raise the question of what content to…

  16. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  17. Advanced interactive television services require content synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Stokking, H.M.; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Klos, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced interactive television services, e.g. using IMS-based IPTV technology, enable users to interact with other users within the context of simultaneously consumed content, like broadcast television channels. Differences of content arrival time of 100 ms may already have a perceivable effect on

  18. Creating an Internal Content Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennema, Greg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an internal content management system that they have created at Calvin College. It is a hybrid of CMS and intranet that organizes Web site content and a variety of internal tools to help librarians complete their daily tasks. Hobbes is a Web-based tool that uses Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts written…

  19. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  20. Content Reading Specialists Evaluate Teaching Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas C.; Rakow, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of 37 university-level content reading specialists in which the specialists listed teaching practices that content teachers could incorporate into their teaching to help students learn from texts. Recommends: (1) using multiple texts; (2) using study guides; (3) teaching metacognitive strategies; and (4) direct…

  1. Metadata for Content-Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sterca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image retrieval technique that combines content based image retrieval with pre-computed metadata-based image retrieval. The resulting system will have the advantages of both approaches: the speed/efficiency of metadata-based image retrieval and the accuracy/power of content-based image retrieval.

  2. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Citations § 71.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall...

  3. 48 CFR 3001.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 3001.704 Section 3001.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY....704 Content. The following format shall be used for all determinations and findings (D&Fs),...

  4. 48 CFR 1.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 1.704 Section 1.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Determinations and Findings 1.704 Content. Each D&F shall set forth enough facts...

  5. 48 CFR 307.7102 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 307.7102 Section 307.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plan 307.7102 Content. In accordance with 307.105, the FAR,...

  6. 48 CFR 701.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 701.704 Section 701.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Determinations and Findings 701.704 Content. There is no USAID-prescribed...

  7. 48 CFR 6.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 6.303-2 Section 6.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-2 Content. (a) Each justification...

  8. 48 CFR 3001.7001 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 3001.7001 Section 3001.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY..., Exceptions, Approvals, Reviews, and Submittals 3001.7001 Content. The general format at (HSAR) 48 CFR...

  9. 49 CFR 1121.3 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 1121.3 Section 1121.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.3 Content. (a) A party filing a petition...

  10. 48 CFR 2806.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Content. 2806.303-2 Section 2806.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.303-2 Content. In addition...

  11. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  12. 14 CFR 121.135 - Manual contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manual contents. 121.135 Section 121.135..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.135 Manual contents. (a) Each manual.... (b) The manual may be in two or more separate parts, containing together all of the...

  13. 14 CFR 135.23 - Manual contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manual contents. 135.23 Section 135.23... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.23 Manual contents. Each manual shall have the date of the last revision on each revised page. The manual...

  14. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  15. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a u

  16. Building an Intranet Content Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tredinnick, Luke

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the principals of creating content management processes and resources for Intranets, this article covers the creation of aims and objectives for Intranets, information management issues specific to Intranets, and how to turn those objectives and issues into working content management\\ud procedures.

  17. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029) revising the standards. Since that time... 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....3, to update present ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at...

  18. Direction of Contents Development for SMART Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungSun; An, SangJin; Lee, YoungJun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a direction of developing SMART education contents for its effective implementation by analyzing the status of educational informatization policies in Korea. Korean government has built the information and communication infrastructure, and provided teachers and students with various kinds of contents. And, in…

  19. Seniors' Online Communities: A Quantitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contents and characteristics of seniors' online communities and to explore their potential benefits to older adults. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis of a full year's data from 14 leading online communities using a novel computerized system. The overall database included 686,283 messages. Results: There was…

  20. Teaching Content Analysis through "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable research tool for social scientists that unfortunately can prove challenging to teach to undergraduate students. Published classroom exercises designed to teach content analysis have thus far been predominantly envisioned as lengthy projects for upper-level courses. A brief and engaging exercise may be more…

  1. Environmental Medicine Content in Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Maryjean; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 119 medical schools found that about one-quarter had no required environmental medicine (EM) content in the curriculum. Schools with EM content averaged seven hours of instruction. Sixty-eight percent had faculty with environmental and occupational medicine expertise, primarily in departments of medicine, preventive medicine, and…

  2. Content replication and placement in mobile networks

    CERN Document Server

    La, Chi-Anh; Casetti, Claudio; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana; Fiore, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Performance and reliability of content access in mobile networks is conditioned by the number and location of content replicas deployed at the network nodes. Location theory has been the traditional, centralized approach to study content replication: computing the number and placement of replicas in a static network can be cast as a facility location problem. The endeavor of this work is to design a practical solution to the above joint optimization problem that is suitable for mobile wireless environments. We thus seek a replication algorithm that is lightweight, distributed, and reactive to network dynamics. We devise a solution that lets nodes (i) share the burden of storing and providing content, so as to achieve load balancing, and (ii) autonomously decide whether to replicate or drop the information, so as to adapt the content availability to dynamic demands and time-varying network topologies. We evaluate our mechanism through simulation, by exploring a wide range of settings, including different node ...

  3. Changes in Hydrogen Content During Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbek K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Štore Steel produces steel grades for spring, forging and engineering industry applications. Steelmaking technology consists of scrap melting in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, secondary metallurgy in Ladle Furnace (LF and continuous casting of billets (CC. Hydrogen content during steelmaking of various steel grades and steelmaking technologies was measured. Samples of steel melt from EAF, LF and CC were collected and investigated. Sampling from Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace was carried out using vacuum pin tubes. Regular measurements of hydrogen content in steel melt were made using Hydris device. Hydrogen content results measured in tundish by Hydris device were compared with results from pin tube samples. Based on the measurement results it was established that hydrogen content during steelmaking increases. The highest values were determined in tundish during casting. Factors that influence the hydrogen content in liquid steel the most were steelmaking technology and alloying elements.

  4. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while creating E-archeology Content Repository which stores e-learning materials on protection and management of archeological heritage. The repository contains approximately 4500 Learning Objects in 5 languages and about 800 components of didactically useful e-learning components described in UCTS.

  5. Media content management on the DTV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Boon-Lock; Yeung, Minerva M.

    1998-12-01

    Digital TV offers many advantages over analog TV. The obvious advantages are higher picture resolution and superior quality, more programs for the same channel bandwidth, and potential for mixed video and data broadcasting. In addition, the reception of video, audio, and data in digital form, offer new opportunities for better filtering, management and organization of the content, during and after the broadcast. The platform on which these media content management operations are performed is similar to the computing platform, with which we are familiar. Hence, the goals are to process incoming bits of data and to generate output for users' reception and/or interactivity. In this paper, we present our vision and summarize our research activities in media content management on the DTV platform. In particular, we will focus on three key areas, namely, channel surfing, digital video recording, and content filtering. We will also demonstrate how media content management can offer new and better viewing experiences in the era of DTV.

  6. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  7. Social Scientists on Ethnic Relations in Croatia after 1989: Content Analysis of an Annotated Bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Baráth

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of qualitative analysis of an annotated bibliography on ethnic relations in Croatia after 1989, prepared by the CEU, South-Eastern European Studies Department (Budapest. The bibliography was a selected sample of academic literature published, with few exceptions, by Croatian social and political scientists between 1989 and 1998. Five major classification criteria were found that “best” describe the mainstream of academic interest in-, and for Croatia during the past decade. These are issues dealing with: (1 ethnic identity, (2 nationalism & ethnic conflicts, (3 war & related human catastrophes, (4 human, ethnic & minority rights, (5 multiculturalism & democracy. The content analysis of abstracts and listed key words uncovered a significant shift of interest of Croatian scholars during the past 10 years from issues on ethnic identity & conflicts toward issues of multiculturalism & human rights. With the exception of few titles, the reviewer found the annotated bibliography complete with customary library search data, representative for a wide range of disciplines and balanced in selection.

  8. Applications of FT-IR spectrometry to plasma contents analysis and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleris, Gerard Y. R.; Petibois, Cyril

    2002-03-01

    We devoted efforts to develop an analytical method of plasma able to provide both a high sensitivity and a global overview of its biomolecular contents along with the variations of these ones. Among candidates, transmittance FT-IR spectrometry has proved to be highly efficient. It has been used to analyze plasma micro samples using an iterative process. Results in accordance with clinical data were obtained from a single FT-IR spectrum for the following biomolecules: amino-acids, fatty acids, albumin, glucose, fibrinogen, lactate, triglycerides, glycerol, urea, (alpha) 1-antitrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin, transferin, Apo-A1, Apo-B, Apo-C3, IgA, IgD, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, haptoglobin, and (alpha) 1-acid glycoprotein. Moreover, cholesterol contribution may be determined on the same IR spectrum. Therefore, as only micro samples are necessary, high frequency blood analysis become available. This method was used to monitor inflammatory processes related to given metabolic stresses. Moreover, FT-IR spectrum constitutes a 'metabolic photography' of the subject, allowing classification between metabolic groups (pathologic or others). It was used on difference spectra in order to raise 'signal to noise' ratio by elimination of the unvarying spectral contribution. Among others, it allowed to uncover overtraining in high-level sportsmen several weeks before any physiologic or clinical symptom occurred.

  9. A Socio-Technical Analysis of Web Content Management: "Content is King."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenfelder, Kristin

    2001-01-01

    Examines how ongoing content management needs and tasks affect organizations that maintain Web-based information systems (Web IS). Investigates how organizational context shapes content management practice and configuration of the underlying Web IS technology. Presents a model of the socio-technical context of Web IS content management. (AEF)

  10. Content Appraisal as a Method for Measuring the Effectiveness & Usability of Online Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jenifer; Heidorn, Neely; Broady, Nick; Whittle, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Content appraisal is a simple, qualitative system to identify modifications to make website material more useful to clientele. This system provides a comprehensive evaluation of content, focuses on content strategy, identifies weaknesses, and provides recommendations for improvement. The criteria examined included knowledge level,…

  11. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  12. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  13. Carbon Content of Tree Tissues: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the potential for forest carbon (C capture and storage requires accurate assessments of C in live tree tissues. In the vast majority of local, regional, and global assessments, C content has been assumed to be 50% of tree biomass; however, recent studies indicate that this assumption is not accurate, with substantial variation in C content among tree species as well as among tissue types. Here we conduct a comprehensive literature review to present a global synthesis of C content in tissues of live trees. We found a total of 253 species-specific stem wood C content records in 31 studies, and an additional 34 records of species with C content values of other tissues in addition to stem wood. In all biomes, wood C content varied widely across species ranging from 41.9–51.6% in tropical species, 45.7–60.7% in subtropical/Mediterranean species, and 43.4–55.6% in temperate/boreal species. Stem wood C content varied significantly as a function of biome and species type (conifer, angiosperm. Conifer species exhibited greater wood C content than angiosperm species (50.8 ± 0.7% (95% C.I. and 47.7 ± 0.3%, respectively, a trend that was consistent among all biomes. Although studies have documented differences in C content among plant tissues, interspecific differences in stem wood appear to be of greater importance overall: among species, stem wood C content explained 37, 76, 48, 81, and 63% respectively of the variation in bark, branch, twig, coarse root, and fine root C content values, respectively. In each case, these intraspecific patterns approximated 1:1 linear relationships. Most published stem wood C content values (and all values for other tree tissues are based on dried wood samples, and so neglect volatile C constituents that constitute on average 1.3–2.5% of total C in live wood. Capturing this volatile C fraction is an important methodological consideration for future studies. Our review, and associated data compilation

  14. An Alternative To Common Content Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rares Vasilescu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Content management systems use various strategies to store and manage information. One of the most usual methods encountered in commercial products is to make use of the file system to store the raw content information, while the associated metadata is kept synchronized in a relational database management system. This strategy has its advantages but we believe it also has significant limitations which should be addressed and eventually solved. In this paper we propose an alternative method of storing and managing content aiming at finding solutions for current limitations both in terms of functional and nonfunctional requirements.

  15. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction...... is increased with increasing clay content, up to 30%, beyond which the mixture of silt and clay is not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction resistant under waves....

  16. An Alternative To Common Content Management Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilescu, Rares

    2009-01-01

    Content management systems use various strategies to store and manage information. One of the most usual methods encountered in commercial products is to make use of the file system to store the raw content information, while the associated metadata is kept synchronized in a relational database management system. This strategy has its advantages but we believe it also has significant limitations which should be addressed and eventually solved. In this paper we propose an alternative method of storing and managing content aiming at finding solutions for current limitations both in terms of functional and nonfunctional requirements.

  17. The model of content management system

    OpenAIRE

    Ridlauskas, Renaldas

    2006-01-01

    The content management system is a tool which is essential to load and administrate information that is in the net site. The main CMS purpose is money and time saving which is committed for the site care. To look after the site and freshen it could an employee not having specific news. Content management system is analyzing Lithuania��s and the world’s measure in this work. Their basal internal are reviewing and specifying requests for content management system’s model. So, there is ana...

  18. #fitspo on Instagram: A mixed-methods approach using Netlytic and photo analysis, uncovering the online discussion and author/image characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Sara; Coyne, Paige; Lisinski, Carly; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2016-11-15

    The #fitspo 'tag' is a recent trend on Instagram, which is used on posts to motivate others towards a healthy lifestyle through exercise/eating habits. This study used a mixed-methods approach consisting of text and network analysis via the Netlytic program (N = 10,000 #fitspo posts), and content analysis of #fitspo images (N = 122) was used to examine author and image characteristics. Results suggest that #fitspo posts may motivate through appearance-mediated themes, as the largest content categories (based on the associated text) were 'feeling good' and 'appearance'. Furthermore, #fitspo posts may create peer influence/support as personal (opposed to non-personal) accounts were associated with higher popularity of images (i.e. number of likes/followers). Finally, most images contained posed individuals with some degree of objectification.

  19. A classification of user-generated content into consumer decision journey stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Silvia; Muñoz-García, Óscar; Campanella, Inés; Poch, Marc; Fisas, Beatriz; Bel, Nuria; Andreu, Gloria

    2014-10-01

    In the last decades, the availability of digital user-generated documents from social media has dramatically increased. This massive growth of user-generated content has also affected traditional shopping behaviour. Customers have embraced new communication channels such as microblogs and social networks that enable them not only just to talk with friends and acquaintances about their shopping experience, but also to search for opinions expressed by complete strangers as part of their decision making processes. Uncovering how customers feel about specific products or brands and detecting purchase habits and preferences has traditionally been a costly and highly time-consuming task which involved the use of methods such as focus groups and surveys. However, the new scenario calls for a deep assessment of current market research techniques in order to better interpret and profit from this ever-growing stream of attitudinal data. With this purpose, we present a novel analysis and classification of user-generated content in terms of it belonging to one of the four stages of the Consumer Decision Journey Court et al. (2009) (i.e. the purchase process from the moment when a customer is aware of the existence of the product to the moment when he or she buys, experiences and talks about it). Using a corpus of short texts written in English and Spanish and extracted from different social media, we identify a set of linguistic patterns for each purchase stage that will be then used in a rule-based classifier. Additionally, we use machine learning algorithms to automatically identify business indicators such as the Marketing Mix elements McCarthy and Brogowicz (1981). The classification of the purchase stages achieves an average precision of 74%. The proposed classification of texts depending on the Marketing Mix elements expressed achieved an average precision of 75% for all the elements analysed.

  20. Analysis, Retrieval and Delivery of Multimedia Content

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2013-01-01

    Covering some of the most cutting-edge research on the delivery and retrieval of interactive multimedia content, this volume of specially chosen contributions provides the most updated perspective on one of the hottest contemporary topics. The material represents extended versions of papers presented at the 11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, a vital international forum on this fast-moving field. Logically organized in discrete sections that approach the subject from its various angles, the content deals in turn with content analysis, motion and activity analysis, high-level descriptors and video retrieval, 3-D and multi-view, and multimedia delivery. The chapters cover the finest detail of emerging techniques such as the use of high-level audio information in improving scene segmentation and the use of subjective logic for forensic visual surveillance. On content delivery, the book examines both images and video, focusing on key subjects including an efficient p...

  1. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  2. Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

  3. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  4. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  5. Content-based vessel image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satabdi; Cohen, Samuel; Gertner, Izidor

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach to vessel classification from satellite images using content based image retrieval methodology. Content-based image retrieval is an important problem in both medical imaging and surveillance applications. In many cases the archived reference database is not fully structured, thus making content-based image retrieval a challenging problem. In addition, in surveillance applications, the query image may be affected by weather or/and geometric distortions. Our approach of content-based vessel image retrieval consists of two phases. First, we create a structured reference database, then for each new query image of a vessel we find the closest cluster of images in the structured reference database, thus identifying and classifying the vessel. Then we update the closest cluster with new query image.

  6. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  7. Instrument content validation on nasogastric intubation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Kelly da Silva Medeiros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to validate the content of an instrument on nasogastric intubation skills based on Pasquali's model of content validation. This was a methodological study conducted with 23 nursing teachers in public higher education institutions in Rio Grande do Norte. The Content Validation Index (CVI and Kappa Index was applied. In the overall evaluation, the instrument obtained a CVI with values above 0.75 with a total CVI of 0.95 and a total Kappa of 0.91. However, some changes were made on the instructional sequence requirements of the topics, and to vocabulary. The instrument proved to be reliable and trustworthy in facilitating nursing care quality and can be used for health services and educational institutions to assess skill levels of professionals and undergraduate students. However, the instrument requires additional stages for a more precise and specific content validation.

  8. Topological Trends of Internet Content Providers

    CERN Document Server

    Shavitt, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is constantly changing, and its hierarchy was recently shown to become flatter. Recent studies of inter-domain traffic showed that large content providers drive this change by bypassing tier-1 networks and reaching closer to their users, enabling them to save transit costs and reduce reliance of transit networks as new services are being deployed, and traffic shaping is becoming increasingly popular. In this paper we take a first look at the evolving connectivity of large content provider networks, from a topological point of view of the autonomous systems (AS) graph. We perform a 5-year longitudinal study of the topological trends of large content providers, by analyzing several large content providers and comparing these trends to those observed for large tier-1 networks. We study trends in the connectivity of the networks, neighbor diversity and geographical spread, their hierarchy, the adoption of IXPs as a convenient method for peering, and their centrality. Our observations indicate that co...

  9. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2001-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  10. USER GENERATED CONTENT IN TOURISM MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    ALİKILIÇ, DR. ÖZLEM

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the idea that user generated content is of fundamental importance in tourism and travel industry to understand the role of consumer generated messages. This paper also describes interpersonal influences mean for user generated content and also word of mouth (WOM) which reflect cost effective for tourism and travel industry but as well as the real crisis lead by the customer and discusses the new technological and ethical considerations facing tourism and travel industry

  11. Content Distribution over IP : Developments and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Adrian; Kouvatsos, Demetres; Remondo, David; Giordano, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the multimedia distribution over Internet IP under the auspices of the NoE Euro-NGI research project "Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)". The multimedia distribution is supported by several components such as services, content distribution chain, protocols and standards whilst Internet is used for content, acquisition, management and delivery as well as an Internet; Protocol Television (IPTV) infrastructure with QoS facilities. As the convergence between fi...

  12. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  13. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization.

  14. Content-aware objective video quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of user-perceived video quality (PVQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures (VQMs), their lack of generalizability remains a problem. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between PVQ and video content. Although this problem is well known, few existing VQMs directly account for the influence of video content on PVQ. Recently, we proposed a method to predict PVQ by introducing relevant video content features in the computation of video distortion measures. The method is based on analyzing the level of spatiotemporal activity in the video and using those as parameters of the anthropomorphic video distortion models. We focus on the experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology based on a total of five public databases, four different objective VQMs, and 105 content related indexes. Additionally, relying on the proposed method, we introduce an approach for selecting the levels of video distortions for the purpose of subjective quality assessment studies. Our results suggest that when adequately combined with content related indexes, even very simple distortion measures (e.g., peak signal to noise ratio) are able to achieve high performance, i.e., high correlation between the VQM and the PVQ. In particular, we have found that by incorporating video content features, it is possible to increase the performance of the VQM by up to 20% relative to its noncontent-aware baseline.

  15. Using the DOM Tree for Content Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Insa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main information of a webpage is usually mixed between menus, advertisements, panels, and other not necessarily related information; and it is often difficult to automatically isolate this information. This is precisely the objective of content extraction, a research area of widely interest due to its many applications. Content extraction is useful not only for the final human user, but it is also frequently used as a preprocessing stage of different systems that need to extract the main content in a web document to avoid the treatment and processing of other useless information. Other interesting application where content extraction is particularly used is displaying webpages in small screens such as mobile phones or PDAs. In this work we present a new technique for content extraction that uses the DOM tree of the webpage to analyze the hierarchical relations of the elements in the webpage. Thanks to this information, the technique achieves a considerable recall and precision. Using the DOM structure for content extraction gives us the benefits of other approaches based on the syntax of the webpage (such as characters, words and tags, but it also gives us a very precise information regarding the related components in a block, thus, producing very cohesive blocks.

  16. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  17. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  18. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadzadeh, F Farzad; Willems, FMJ Frans; Voloshynovskiy, S

    2014-01-01

    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  19. Heavy-metal content in provisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, G.

    1982-01-01

    In total, 52 samples from 20 different brands of raw cocoa beans, and 40 samples of bars of chocolate, chocolates, cocoa powder and chocolate drink powder taken from the retail trade, were examined for their zinc content. The zinc content was determined with the aid of flammable AAS after wet incineration in the teflon-lined autoclave. The zinc-content of milk chocolate with and without nuts was 11.6 and 13.4 mg/kg respectively. With semi-sweet and plain chocolate the results were on average 17.2 and 23.2 mg/kg respectively. The chocolate drink powder examined contained 10.7 mg/kg whilst the cocoa powder samples contained 42.8 and 58.7 mg/kg zinc. As far as chocolates and bars of chocolate were concerned, with additives and fillings the results were 10.0 mg/kg and 13.4 mg/kg respectively. It can be seen that in the case of finished products with a very small cocoa content, the limits can be complied with. In the case of semi-sweet and plain chocolate it is virtually impossible to adhere to the limits because of their high cocoa content.

  20. Predicting the popularity of online content

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for accurately predicting the long time popularity of online content from early measurements of user access. Using two content sharing portals, Youtube and Digg, we show that by modeling the accrual of views and votes on content offered by these services we can pre- dict the long-term dynamics of individual submissions from initial data. In the case of Digg, measuring access to given stories during the first two hours allows us to forecast their popularity 30 days ahead with remarkable accuracy, while downloads of Youtube videos need to be followed for 10 days to attain the same performance. The differing time scales of the predictions are shown to be due to differences in how content is consumed on the two portals: Digg stories quickly become outdated, while Youtube videos are still found long after they are initially submitted to the portal. We show that predictions are more accurate for submissions for which attention decays quickly, whereas predictions for evergreen content will be pro...

  1. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  2. Discontent with content analysis of online transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Guevarra Enriquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content analysis has dominated computer-mediated communication and educational technology studies for some time, and a review of its practices applied to online corpus of data or messages is overdue. We are confronted with complexity given the various foci, nuances and models for theorising learning and applying methods. One common suggestion to deal with the complexity in content analysis is a call for standardisation by replication or systematic research studies. This article presents its ‘discontent' with content analysis, discussing the issues and concerns that surround the analysis of online transcripts. It does not attempt to resolve nor provide a definitive answer. Instead, it is an open inquiry into another way of looking at online content. It presents an alternative or perhaps an extension of what we have come to know as content analysis. It argues for the notion of genres as another way of conceptualising online transcripts. It proposes two things: first that in performing transcript analysis, it is worthwhile to think how messages relate to a system of interactions that persists even beyond the online environment; secondly, there is an emergent and recurring metastructuring that is at work in online environments that is worth exploring, instead of imposing structures – models and frameworks that do not fit the emerging communicative practices of participants.

  3. QTL Mapping of Chlorophyll Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bo; ZHUANG Jie-yun; ZHANG Ke-qin; DAI Wei-min; LU Ye; FU Li-qing; DING Jia-ming; ZHENG Kang-le

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic factors controlling the chlorophyll content of rice leaf using QTL analysis. A linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers was constructed by using 247 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica-indica rice cross of Zhenshan97B×Milyang 46. In 2002 and 2003, the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the parents and the 247 RILs were measured on the top first leaf, top second leaf, and top third leaf, respectively. The software QTLMapper 1.6 was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs), additive by environment (AE) interactions, and epistatic by environment (AAE) interactions. A total of eight QTLs in four intervals were detected to have significant additive effects on chlorophyll a and b contents at different leaf positions, with 1.96-9.77% of phenotypic variation explained by a single QTL, and two QTLs with significant AE interactions were detected. Epistasis analysis detected nine significant additive-by-additive interactions on chlorophyll a and b contents, and one pair of QTLs with significant AAE interactions was detected. On comparison with QTLs for yield traits detected in the same population, it was found in many cases that the QTLs for chlorophyll a and b contents and those for yield traits were located in the same chromosome intervals.

  4. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  5. Impact Of The Ban On Uncovered SCDS Trade On the Interdependencies Between The CDS Market And Other Sectors Of Financial Markets. The Case Of Safe And Developed Versus Risky And Developing European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliber Agata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to verify the impact of the ban on uncovered sCDS trade in Europe on the interdependencies between the sCDS market and other sectors of financial markets. We analyse two European markets: the safe and developed Swedish market, and the risky and developing Hungarian one. The study covers the period from October 2008 to October 2013. We analyse changes in the interdependencies between the sCDS market and the bond market, as well as between the sCDS market and the stock exchange. We found out that in the case of the safe Swedish market, the strength of relationships of each sector of financial markets with the sCDS one was much weaker than in the case of Hungary, which may suggest that the Swedish market is less prone to crisis transmission arising from herd behaviour or speculative attacks. In the end we show that in the two economies, the influence of the sCDS market on the other sectors of financial market indeed diminished following introduction of the ban on uncovered sCDS trade.

  6. Hiding Malicious Content in PDF Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sabin Popescu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a proof-of-concept demonstration for a specific digital signatures vulnerability that shows the ineffectiveness of the WYSIWYS (What You See Is What You Sign concept. The algorithm is fairly simple: the attacker generates a polymorphic file that has two different types of content (text, as a PDF document for example, and image: TIFF – two of the most widely used file formats. When the victim signs the dual content file, he/ she only sees a PDF document and is unaware of the hidden content inside the file. After obtaining the legally signed document from the victim, the attacker simply has to change the extension to the other file format. This will not invalidate the digital signature, as no bits were altered. The destructive potential of the attack is considerable, as the Portable Document Format (PDF is widely used in e-government and in e-business contexts.

  7. Verbal communication of semantic content in products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes the increa......The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes...... a number of the selected terms seem to have several interpretations causing ambiguous information. The work also suggests that more emphasis is needed in design education on training precise verbal communication concerning semantic contents in products....

  8. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  9. TEACHING ADMINISTRATION: PROPOSAL OF THE PROGRAM CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Guidelines established by MEC (Brazilian Ministry of Education, define the specific areas of vocational training content that should be included in the curricular organization of undergraduate courses in Brazil, without suggesting or detailing which content should be offered in each area. In this sense, this study aims at proposing the course syllabus for the financial area for the undergraduate courses of Management. To achieve this goal, the curriculum matrices and the teaching plans of the financial discipline of the undergraduate courses on Management with the highest grades in ENADE were analyzed. Based on this survey, seven disciplines were elaborated with the professional qualification contents of the area, with 560 hours/class in total, distributed in the curriculum matrix, according to their goals: presentation of corporate finance and personal finance, short and long-term financial decisions, financial economic analysis, financial planning, and financial strategies.

  10. Data Content Protection for Virtual Libraries Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai DOINEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects of digital content protection in virtual library systems. The legislation aspects are presented to better emphasize the need of new security mechanisms. Integrated library systems architecture is presented with focus on their main purpose, manipulating and rendering digital content to end-users. The cultural heritage stored in such systems is an important asset that needs to be protected against malicious manipulation. The characteristics of a smart virtual library, supported by an integrated library system, are analyzed and a security model is proposed for implementation, based on its particularities. The model aims to be an interface between the interactions of anonymous users with the Online Public Access Catalog of a virtual library that assures the protection of digital content. Conclusions are drawn to better support the idea of cultural persistence by the use of Information Systems.

  11. Semantic Content Filtering with Wikipedia and Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Malo, Pekka; Ahlgren, Oskar; Wallenius, Jyrki; Korhonen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    The use of domain knowledge is generally found to improve query efficiency in content filtering applications. In particular, tangible benefits have been achieved when using knowledge-based approaches within more specialized fields, such as medical free texts or legal documents. However, the problem is that sources of domain knowledge are time-consuming to build and equally costly to maintain. As a potential remedy, recent studies on Wikipedia suggest that this large body of socially constructed knowledge can be effectively harnessed to provide not only facts but also accurate information about semantic concept-similarities. This paper describes a framework for document filtering, where Wikipedia's concept-relatedness information is combined with a domain ontology to produce semantic content classifiers. The approach is evaluated using Reuters RCV1 corpus and TREC-11 filtering task definitions. In a comparative study, the approach shows robust performance and appears to outperform content classifiers based on ...

  12. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  13. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advancement...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained...

  14. Predicion of Chemical Element Contents in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHAN-ZHE; QIANJUN-LONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that the regularity for the dynamic changes of the chrono-sequences of chemical element contents in tree rings follows a k-order constant coefficient differential equation and substituting the differential with the difference,we could obtain the inferred value ym+k+1 by the formula:ym+k+1=c1ym+1+c2Ym+2+…ckym+kEach coefficient ci in the formula may be ascertained by use of the measured data in the chrono-sequences,Extending the chrono-sequences on the assumption that the regularity of dynamic changes wouldn't change in the near future,the contents of chemical elements in the soils may be predicted in terms of a logarithmic linear correlation model.Also,this extension method could be used for the reproduction of the contents of chemical elemets in soils during different periods of time in the past.

  15. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package.

  16. Development of life skills through physics content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarči, Tomáš; Raganová, Janka

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with students' life skills which the physics teacher should intentionally develop through physics content. An attention is given not only to the physics content and activities connected with it, but also to the development of responsibility, freedom, ability to make decisions, group cooperation, self-evaluation and experience of success. Three activities implemented in the seventh class of the elementary school are described in the paper. Authors describe reasons for class selection, the physics content and the used methods as well as the skills which they decided to purposely develop. They emphasize the importance of activities requiring students' inquiry-based learning and the need to change organization and philosophy of physics teaching at secondary schools. At the end of the paper authors analyze the achievement of objectives, positives as well as negatives of the implemented approaches and propose changes for a future realization.

  17. Biographical introduction, Summary of Contents (manuscript version), Summary of Contents (Latin edition) and Summary of Contents (German edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2016-01-01

    This file contains a biographical introduction on Maximilianus (Maximilian) Hell (1720-1792) followed by summaries of contents of all three known versions of his treatise on the Aurora Borealis, the 'Lucis Boreæ Theoria nova' (manuscript version, c. 1770), 'Aurorae Borealis Theoria Nova' (Latin edition, 1776) and 'Neue Theorie des Nordlichtes' (German edition, 1792).

  18. Iron and radical content in Mya arenaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Paula Mariela [Physical Chemistry-PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Abele, Doris [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Department of Shelf Sea Ecology, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany); Puntarulo, Susana [Physical Chemistry-PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: susanap@ffyb.uba.ar

    2008-08-29

    The objective of this work was to analyze oxidative metabolism in Mya arenaria. Total Fe content in M. arenaria collected in the German Wadden Sea was 1.9 {+-} 0.7, 0.7 {+-} 0.1 and 0.17 {+-} 0.01 nmol/mg fresh weight (FW), in digestive glands (DG), mantle and gills, respectively. Labile Fe pool, assessed by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), was 146 {+-} 10 pmol/mg FW, and by the fluorescence method employing calcein it was 118 {+-} 9 pmol/mg FW. The lipid radical content in the DG, assessed by EPR, was 27 {+-} 7 pmol/mg FW, and the thiobarbituric reactive substances content amounted to 57 {+-} 8 pmol/mg FW. Ascorbyl radical (A{center_dot}) content, assessed by quantification of EPR signals, was 0.04 {+-} 0.01 pmol/mg FW, and the ascorbate content (AH{sup -}) was 478 {+-} 12 pmol/mg FW. The ratio A{center_dot}/AH{sup -} was (8 {+-} 1) x 10{sup -5} AU, suggesting a minimum oxidative stress even under physiological conditions, presumably depending on basal metabolic functions. The content of nitric oxide (NO), assessed by EPR, was 99 {+-} 3 pmol/mg FW. The generation rate of NO by nitric oxide synthase-like activity (NOS-like) was assayed as NO production detected by EPR in the presence of L-arginine and NADPH, and was 3.16 {+-} 0.06 pmol/(mg FW min). The data presented here document the detectable presence of highly reactive species in M. arenaria.

  19. Change of anthocyanins content during raspberry extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Change in anthocyanins content under different conditions of extraction enzymatic maceration and heat treatment of two raspberry cultivars (Villamette and Meeker was determined. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory hydraulic extractor. During extraction commercial operating conditions were emulated using a "Bucher" extractor (pressure 180-200 bar 1-3 pulp shakings. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM France, was used for maceration and depectinization, because it is specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2. At a single-stage maceration, it was applied in the amount of 200-400 g/t, for 1-2 hours at 50oC. In a two-stage maceration and depectinization, the enzyme was added as follows: in the first stage 100-200 g/t for 0.5 - 1 hour at 20oC and in the second stage 4-8 g/hl for 1-2 hours at 200C. Thermal breaks of raspberry pulp were performed at raised temperatures for 2 and 5 min in order to examine the effects of raised temperatures on anthocyanins extraction. The application of heat-enzymatic treatments of the pulp prior to extraction proved to be suitable in both raspberry cultivars. Apart from well-known degrading effects of heat on anthocyanins, the juice obtained by extraction, after enzymatic maceration, has higher anthocyanins content by 30% than the juice obtained without enzymatic maceration. Juice pasteurization, in each stage of processing, produced markedly negative effect on anthocyanins content therefore their content decreases considerably. The forms of anthocyanins that are lost most are those uncolored. In batches subjected to a two -stage enzymatic maceration, despite initial high anthocyanins content, the content of total anthocyanins is reduced after the second pasteurization to the approximate value as that in batches subjected to a single-stage enzymatic maceration.

  20. The 10Be contents of SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R. K.; Savin, W.; Vajda, S.; Kruse, T.; Herzog, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    Several authors have explored the possibility that the Shergottites, Nakhlites, and Chassigny (SNC) came from Mars. The spallogenic gas contents of the SNC meteorites have been used to: constrain the sizes of the SNC's during the last few million years; to establish groupings independent of the geochemical ones; and to estimate the likelihood of certain entries in the catalog of all conceivable passages from Mars to Earth. The particular shielding dependence of Be-10 makes the isotope a good probe of the irradiation conditions experienced by the SNC meteorites. The Be-10 contents of nine members of the group were measured using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. The Be-10 contents of Nakhla, Governador Valadares, Chassigny, and probably Lafayette, about 20 dpm/kg, exceed the values expected from irradiation of the surface of a large body. The Be-10 data therfore do not support scenario III of Bogard et al., one in which most of the Be-10 in the SNC meteorites would have formed on the Martian surface; they resemble rather the Be-10 contents found in many ordinary chondrites subjected to 4 Pi exposures. The uncertainties of the Be-10 contents lead to appreciable errors in the Be-10 ages, t(1) = -1/lambda ln(1 Be-10/Be-10). Nonetheless, the Be-10 ages are consistent with the Ne-21 ages calculated assuming conventional, small-body production rates and short terrestrial ages for the finds. It is believed that this concordance strengthens the case for at least 3 different irradiation ages for the SNC meteorites. Given the similar half-thicknesses of the Be-10 and Ne-21 production rates, the ratios of the Be-10 and Ne-21 contents do not appear consistent with common ages for any of the groups. In view of the general agreement between the Be-10 and Ne-21 ages it does not seem useful at this time to construct multiple-stage irradiation histories for the SNC meteorites.

  1. Cultural Contents Taught in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂孝春

    2007-01-01

    Language and culture are closely related to each other. From the aspect of language as the semiotic system, language is the carrier of culture and culture is the entailment of language .The language of any nation bears the deep content of its culture .It can be said that language is the reflection of a nation's culture .Therefore the learning of a language must be connected with the acquisition of the corresponding culture. In the English classrooms English teacher should teach the language and the culture as well. This paper deals with both the cultural contents to be taught and the principles of teaching them in the English classrooms.

  2. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  3. A Progressive Approach to Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian;

    2015-01-01

    PCGapproachesarecommonlycategorisedasconstructive,generate- and-test or search-based. Each of these approaches has its distinctive advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we propose an approach to Content Generation (CG)– in particular level generation – that combines the advantages of construc......- tive and search-based approaches thus providing a fast, flexible and reliable way of generating diverse content of high quality. In our framework, CG is seen from a new perspective which differentiates between two main aspects of the game- play experience, namely the order of the in-game interactions...

  4. Unsupervised Segmentation Methods of TV Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El-Khoury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a generic algorithm to address various temporal segmentation topics of audiovisual contents such as speaker diarization, shot, or program segmentation. Based on a GLR approach, involving the ΔBIC criterion, this algorithm requires the value of only a few parameters to produce segmentation results at a desired scale and on most typical low-level features used in the field of content-based indexing. Results obtained on various corpora are of the same quality level than the ones obtained by other dedicated and state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  6. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  7. A Historical Context Analysis of Changes in Content Management Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    content management system (Doyle, 2004). The dynamic capability of digital...as multiple media publication of content…..publication is rarely automated unless a content management system is in place” (Rockley, Kostur et al...Investments: An Assessment of Investment Alternatives for a Web Content Management System 2002 CM web ContentP2P: a peer-to-peer content management system

  8. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  9. Sustainable Multilingual Communication: Managing Multilingual Content Using Free and Open Source Content Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Todd

    2011-01-01

    It is often too complicated or expensive for most educators, non-profits and individuals to create and maintain a multilingual Web site, because of the technological hurdles, and the logistics of working with content in different languages. But multilingual content management systems, combined with streamlined processes and inexpensive…

  10. AN INVESTIGATION OF TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS AND CONTENT KNOWLEDGE IN A CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject. Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction. Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English. The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.

  11. Infusing Mathematics Content into a Methods Course: Impacting Content Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…

  12. Content-Based Instruction and Content and Language Integrated Learning: The Same or Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the characteristics of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in order to examine their similarities and differences. The analysis shows that CBI/CLIL programmes share the same essential properties and are not pedagogically different from each other. In fact, the use of an L2 as…

  13. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing...

  14. Bird Boxes Build Content Area Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, Sherri Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a preservice teacher training in line with meeting the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) using geometric reasoning, spatial sense, measurement, representation, communication, and problem solving. The author infers that when preservice teachers lack pedagogical content knowledge they cannot successfully…

  15. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  16. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth R.; De Miranda, Michael A.; Shin, Jinseup

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been embraced by many of the recent educational reform documents as a way of describing the knowledge possessed by expert teachers. These reform documents have also served as guides for educators to develop models of teacher development. However, in the United States, few if any of the current models…

  17. Learning Academic Content the Adventure Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Describes and gives examples of integrating adventure activities into existing classroom curricula at three levels: review or metaphors, interwoven activities for content delivery, and total integration into classroom design. Example activities include "Speed Rabbit,""Have You Ever,""Stepping Stones,""Whale Watch," and "Mine Field." (SAS)

  18. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  19. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Content-based retrieval of visual information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Adrianus Antonius Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate new approaches relevant to content-based image retrieval techniques. First, the MOD paradigm is proposed, a method for detecting salient points in images. These salient points are specifically designed to enhance image retrieval accuracy by maximizing distinctive