Sample records for brittle-ductile transitions

  1. Mechanical behavior of limestone undergoing brittle-ductile transition: experiments and model (United States)

    Nicolas, Aurélien; Fortin, Jérôme; Verberne, Berend; Regnet, Jean-Baptiste; Plümper, Oliver; Dimanov, Alexandre; Spiers, Christopher; Guéguen, Yves


    With increasing confining pressure, carbonate rocks can undergo the brittle-ductile transition at room temperature. In order to examine the brittle-ductile transition, we performed constant strain rate triaxial deformation and stress-stepping creep experiments on Tavel limestone (porosity 14.7%) under various conditions. The evolution of elastic wave velocities were recorded during each experiment and inverted to crack densities. The constant strain rate triaxial experiments were performed for varying confining pressure from 5 to 90 MPa. For Pc≤55 MPa our results show that the behavior is brittle. The latter is characterized by dilatancy due to crack propagation, leading to a stress drop at failure. For Pc≥70 MPa, the behavior is semi-brittle with elastic compaction followed by inelastic compaction, then leading to dilatancy and eventual failure. The semi-brittle behavior is characterized by diffuse deformation. Inelastic compaction is due to intra-crystalline plasticity (dislocation motions and twinning) and micro-cracking. Constant strain rates experiments were modelled taking into account (1) crack propagation from pre-existing flaws, (2) plastic pore collapse and (3) crack nucleation from dislocation pile-ups. The obtained model predictions are in good agreement with our experimental data. Stress stepping (creep) experiments were performed in a range of confining pressures crossing the brittle-ductile transition (from 20 to 85 MPa). In the brittle regime, the time-dependent axial deformation is coupled with dilatancy and a decrease of elastic wave velocities, which is characteristic of crack nucleation and/or propagation. In the semi-brittle regime, the first steps are inelastic compactant due to plastic pore collapse. All following stress steps are dilatant as a result of crack nucleation and/or propagation. In general, our results show that the axial strain rate is always controlled by plastic phenomena, until the last step, during which the axial strain

  2. Dependence of the brittle ductile transition on strain-rate-dependent critical homologous temperature (United States)

    Davis, Paul M.


    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to

  3. A phenomenological molecular model for yielding and brittle-ductile transition of polymer glasses (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Cheng, Shiwang; Lin, Panpan; Li, Xiaoxiao


    This work formulates, at a molecular level, a phenomenological theoretical description of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in tensile extension, exhibited by all polymeric glasses of high molecular weight (MW). The starting point is our perception of a polymer glass (under large deformation) as a structural hybrid, consisting of a primary structure due to the van der Waals bonding and a chain network whose junctions are made of pairs of hairpins and function like chemical crosslinks due to the intermolecular uncrossability. During extension, load-bearing strands (LBSs) emerge between the junctions in the affinely strained chain network. Above the BDT, i.e., at "warmer" temperatures where the glass is less vitreous, the influence of the chain network reaches out everywhere by activating all segments populated transversely between LBSs, starting from those adjacent to LBSs. It is the chain network that drives the primary structure to undergo yielding and plastic flow. Below the BDT, the glassy state is too vitreous to yield before the chain network suffers a structural breakdown. Thus, brittle failure becomes inevitable. For any given polymer glass of high MW, there is one temperature TBD or a very narrow range of temperature where the yielding of the glass barely takes place as the chain network also reaches the point of a structural failure. This is the point of the BDT. A theoretical analysis of the available experimental data reveals that (a) chain pullout occurs at the BDT when the chain tension builds up to reach a critical value fcp during tensile extension; (b) the limiting value of fcp, extrapolated to far below the glass transition temperature Tg, is of a universal magnitude around 0.2-0.3 nN, for all eight polymers examined in this work; (c) pressurization, which is known [K. Matsushige, S. V. Radcliffe, and E. Baer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 1853 (1976)] to make brittle polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ductile at room temperature

  4. Tectonics of Slow Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges and Consequences of a Variable Depth to the Brittle/ductile Transition (United States)

    Harper, Gregory D.


    Geophysical evidence, especially microearthquakes that extend into the upper mantle beneath the inner floor of the Mid-Atlantic and Gorda Ridges, indicates that the axial magma chamber episodically freezes beneath slow spreading ridges. Freezing of the axial magma chamber will result in a variable thermal structure that has important tectonic consequences. Most importantly, large near-axis faults will intersect as the brittle/ductile transition deepens, causing some of the faults to become locked. The topographic effect of fault locking will be a variation in the width of the inner floor from narrow (10 km) when a magma chamber is absent. The deep microearthquakes also imply that faults at slow spreading ridges extend into the upper mantle. The nature of these faults at depth is unknown, but the following hypotheses are presented: (1) the faults may be planar and pass downward into aseismic ductile shear zones, and (2) the faults may sole into a flat detachment fault defining a sharp boundary between brittle faulting and homogeneous ductile flow. Such low-angle normal faults are common in continental extensional domains. Large-scale tilting (50°-70°) is probably common at slow spreading ridges and implies either listric faulting or rotation of planar faults and fault blocks (similar to toppling dominoes). Calculations of temperatures at the brittle/ductile transition are made assuming olivine and diabase rheologies for the mantle and crust, respectively. The temperature is approximately 800°C when the transition is at 8 km depth, and approximately 600° when the transition is at 2 km depth. The strength of the lithosphere varies dramatically with the rise and fall of the brittle/ductile transition as magma chambers form and subsequently freeze. Strong lateral temperature gradients will be present when a magma chamber is formed, resulting in localization of faulting within thin weak crust above the chamber. When the magma chamber freezes, lateral temperature

  5. Fault-Zone Deformation and Strain Partitioning at the Brittle-Ductile Transition, SEMP Fault, Austrian Alps. (United States)

    Cole, J. N.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Dolan, J. F.; Frost, E.; Barth, N.


    The differentially exhumed Miocene strike-slip Salzachtal-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg (SEMP) fault in Eastern Austria allows one to study fault structure from Earth's surface to ~30km depth, simply by moving along strike from the Vienna basin to the Tauern Window. Coincident with its entry into the Tauern Window, the SEMP fault passes from a dominantly brittle to a dominantly ductile structure. It is these kinds of brittle-ductile transitions that represent major mechanical discontinuities in the crust and may represent the base of the seismogenic zone. The Tauern segment of the SEMP fault therefore represents a key location for studying earthquake nucleation and mid-crustal rheology. Previous studies (e.g. Behrmann, 1990; Ratschbacher et al., 1991a; Linzer et al., 2002) suggested that the SEMP fault splayed down-section into the Tauern Window into a series of ductile shear zones, including the Olperer, Griener, and Ahrntal shear zones. At each of these locations, however, outcrop-scale structures (e.g. cross-cutting dikes) demonstrate that the main shear-zone fabrics are pre-Alpine, and thus largely unrelated to the SEMP. In contrast, a brittle-ductile shear zone in the northeastern edge of the Tauern Window (near Rinderkarsee south of Krimml) is a probable deeper level portion of the SEMP. The Rinderkarsee shear zone is localized along the contact between the tonalitic Zentral Gneiss and the metasedimentary/meta-igneous rocks of the Habach Group, but extends at least 1300m into the Zentral Gneiss. Shear strain is partitioned into separate discrete zones of sinistral and dextral shear, and both structures have the same slip plane mineralogy and are thus interpreted as coeval. Generally, sinistral shear zones are subvertical and strike NE-SW, while dextral shear zones are steeply dipping and strike NW-SE. At Rinderkarsee there exists a continuum of deformation from high to low temperature. High-temperature deformation shows dominantly sinistral amphibolite

  6. 3D image of Brittle/Ductile transition in active volcanic area and its implication on seismicity: The Campi Flegrei caldera case study (United States)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Luca, D'auria; Susi, Pepe; Giuseppe, Solaro; Pietro, Tizzani


    The thermo-rheology of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behavior of the crust in young and tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to understand the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic environments. In this context, we analyze the upper crust rheology of the Campi Flegrei active caldera (Southern Italy). Our target is the evaluation of the 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition beneath the resurgent caldera, by integrating the available geological, geochemical, and geophysical data. We first performed a numerical thermal model by using the a priori geological and geophysical information; than we employ the retrieved isothermal distribution to image the rheological stratification of the shallow crust beneath caldera. In particular, considering both the thermal proprieties and the mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we performed, in a Finite Element environment, a 3D conductive time dependent thermal model through an numerical of solution of the Fourier equation. The dataset consist in temperature measurements recorded in several deep wells. More specifically, the geothermal gradients were measured in seven deep geothermal boreholes, located in three main distinct areas: Mofete, Licola, and San Vito. In addition, we take into account also the heat flow density map at the caldera surface calculated by considering the thermal measurements carried out in 30 shallow water wells. We estimate the isothermal distribution of the crust calibrating two model parameters: the heat production [W], associated to the magma injection episodes in the last 60 kyears within the magma chamber and the heat flow coefficient [W/m2*K] at the external surface. In particular, the optimization procedure has been performed using an exhaustive grid search, to minimize the differences between model and experimental measurements. The achieved results allowed us to

  7. Microstructural and fabric characterization of brittle-ductile transitional deformation of middle crustal rocks along the Jinzhou detachment fault zone, Northeast China (United States)

    Zhang, Juyi; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Junlai


    -630˚ C), whereas complicated fabric patterns (e.g. asymmetric single girdles) are formed in fault rocks from the upper part of the DFZ. The increasing fabric complexity is here interpreted as the result of progressive superposition of fault rocks by shearing either at relatively shallow levels or high rate of strain, during exhumation of the lower plate and shear zone rocks. The above observations and interpretations imply that dislocation creep processes contribute to the dynamic recrystallization of quartz in the middle crustal brittle-ductile transition. Progressive shearing as a consequence of exhumation of the lower plate of the MCC contributed to the obvious structural, microstructural and fabric superpositions. Strain localization occurs as the progressive shearing proceeded. Transition of mechanisms of deformation and dynamic recrystallization during strain localization may be resulted from changes in temperature conditions, in strain rates or addition of minor amount water.

  8. Abrupt variations in brittle-ductile transition depth and lower crustal properties beneath two branches of the north Anatolian fault zone, Turkey. (United States)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.


    As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images of the crust and upper mantle beneath a major continental strike-slip fault system. Our study region samples the north Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) near the epicentres of two large earthquakes that occurred in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) and where estimates of current slip rate are 20-25 mm/yr. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes that were recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. We use a combination of H-K stacking, common conversion point migration and non-linear inversion of receiver function stacks to constrain the subsurface velocity structure and illuminate major changes in the architecture and properties of the upper crust, lower crust and upper mantle, both across the two NAFZ branches and along the NAFZ, at length scales of less than 20 km. We show that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 5 km wide. A high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting appear to add strength to a heterogeneous crust and play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation. Furthermore, we show a direct relationship between crustal terrane, seismicity rate and seismicity depth, indicating that the brittle-ductile transition is likely to vary over horizontal length scales of less than 10 km.

  9. Pulverized granite at the brittle-ductile transition: An example from the Kellyland fault zone, eastern Maine, U.S.A. (United States)

    Sullivan, Walter A.; Peterman, Emily M.


    Granite from a 50-200-m-wide damage zone adjacent to the brittle-ductile Kellyland Fault Zone contains healed fracture networks that exhibit almost all of the characteristics of dynamically pulverized rocks. Fracture networks exhibit only weak preferred orientations, are mutually cross-cutting, separate jigsaw-like interlocking fragments, and are associated with recrystallized areas likely derived from pervasively comminuted material. Fracture networks in samples with primary igneous grain shapes further indicate pulverization. Minimum fracture densities in microcline are ∼100 mm/mm2. Larger fractures in microcline and quartz are sometimes marked by neoblasts, but most fractures are optically continuous with host grains and only visible in cathodoluminescence images. Fractures in plagioclase are crystallographically controlled and typically biotite filled. Petrologic observations and cross-cutting relationships between brittle structures and mylonitic rocks show that fracturing occurred at temperatures of 400 °C or more and pressures of 200 MPa. These constraints extend the known range of pulverization to much higher temperature and pressure conditions than previously thought possible. The mutually cross-cutting healed fractures also provide the first record of repeated damage in pulverized rocks. Furthermore, pulverization must have had a significant but transient effect on wall-rock porosity, and biotite-filled fracture networks in plagioclase form weak zones that could accommodate future strain localization.

  10. Experimental – Numerical Analysis of Stress State in Front of the Crack Tip of Modified and Unmodified G17CrMo5-5 Cast Steel by Rare Earth Metals in a Brittle-Ductile Transition Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzioba I.


    Full Text Available In the paper presented experimental data and numerical analysis of stress distribution in front of the crack of two melts of low-alloy G17CrMo5-5 cast steel-modified (M by rare earth metals and original, unmodified (UM in the temperature range, according to the brittle-ductile transition region. Experimental tests include determination of the tensile properties and fracture toughness characteristics for the UM and M cast steel. Numerical analysis includes determination of stress distribution in front of the crack at the initial moment of the crack extension. In the numerical computations, experimentally tested specimens SEN(B were modeled. The true stress-strain curves for the UM and M cast steel were used in the calculation. It was shown that the maximum of the opening stresses at the initial moment of the crack extension occurs in the axis of the specimens and reaches similar level of about 3.5σ0 for both UM and M cast steel. However, the length of the critical distance, measured for stress level equal 3σ0, is great for the M in comparison to the UM cast steel. Also was shown that the UM cast steel increased the level of the stress state triaxiality parameters that resulted in a decrease of fracture toughness.

  11. Prediction of non-brittle fracture in the welded joint of C-Mn steel in the brittle-ductile transition domain; Prediction de la non-rupture fragile dans un joint soude en acier C-Mn dans le domaine de la transition fragile/ductile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thai Ha


    This work concerns the nuclear safety, specifically the secondary circuit integrity of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The problem is that of the fracture of a thin tubular structure in ferritic steel with many welded joints. The ferritic steel and weld present a brittle/ductile tenacity transition. Moreover, the welds present geometry propitious to the appearance of fatigue cracks, due to vibrations and expansions. These cracks may cause the complete fracture of the structure. The objectives of this work are to establish a criterion of non-fracture by cleavage of thin welded structures in ferritic steel, applicable to actual structures. Therefore, the present study focuses on the fracture behaviour of welded thin structures in brittle/ductile transition. It aims at developing the threshold stress model initially proposed by Chapuliot, to predict the non-brittle-fracture of this welded structure. The model is identified for the welded joint in C-Mn steel for nuclear construction, specifically in the upper part of the transition. A threshold stress, below which the cleavage cannot take place, is identified using tensile tests at low temperature on axis-symmetrical notched specimens taken in welded joint. This threshold stress is used to define the threshold volume where the maximum principal stress exceeds the threshold stress during the test. The analysis by SEM of specimen fracture surfaces shows that the gross solidification molten zone in the weld is the most likely to cleave. The relation between the brittle fracture probability and the threshold volume in the gross solidification molten zone is established via a sensitivity function, using multi-materials simulations. The model thus identified is tested for the prediction of non-brittle-fracture of SENT specimens taken in the welded joint and tested in tension. The results obtained are encouraging with regards to the transferability of the model to the actual structure. (author)

  12. Determinação de temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil de plásticos através de testes de impacto instrumentado Determination of the brittle-ductile transition temperature in plastics by intrumented impact test 76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Correa


    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho é realizada uma análise descritiva do teste de impacto tipo Izod instrumentado e são mostradas suas vantagens em relação ao impacto convencional na obtenção de diagramas de força e energia de fratura em tempo-real. Estes diagramas além de fornecerem dados do material em termos de sua resistência ao impacto tradicional, contém informações detalhadas sobre os mecanismos de fratura e as principais características apresentadas durante a propagação da trinca no corpo de prova. A medida da variação da resistência ao impacto com a temperatura pode ser utilizada como uma forma de se determinar a existência de transições dúctil-frágeis ou alternativamente a suscetibilidade de materiais poliméricos à concentração de tensões, i.e., profundidade e raio da extremidade do entalhe. As curvas de carga e energia, obtidas à várias temperaturas, são utilizadas na determinação de parâmetros do material e da temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil de um copolímero de acrilonitrila-butadieno-estireno (ABS. A análise da superfície de fratura por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, (MEV permitiu a correlação da forma das curvas de impacto com o modo de fratura observado e detalhes da microestrutura do material.The present work intends to point out some of the advantages of using instrumented impact testing over conventional non-instrumented methods in the failure analysis of plastics. In this method, force-displacement diagrams are obtained in "real-time" and used to calculate partial energies of initiation and complete fracture of the specimens. The diagrams yield important information on fracture mechanisms and main characteristics of the failure process. Variations of impact energy with temperature can be used in the determination of brittle-ductile transitions or alternatively for evaluation of material susceptibility to stress concentrations, i.e. depth and crack tip radii. The load and energy diagrams

  13. A natural example of fluid-mediated brittle-ductile cyclicity in quartz veins from Olkiluoto Island, SW Finland (United States)

    Marchesini, Barbara; Garofalo, Paolo S.; Viola, Giulio; Mattila, Jussi; Menegon, Luca


    Brittle faults are well known as preferential conduits for localised fluid flow in crystalline rocks. Their study can thus reveal fundamental details of the physical-chemical properties of the flowing fluid phase and of the mutual feedbacks between mechanical properties of faults and fluids. Crustal deformation at the brittle-ductile transition may occur by a combination of competing brittle fracturing and viscous flow processes, with short-lived variations in fluid pressure as a viable mechanism to produce this cyclicity switch. Therefore, a detailed study of the fluid phases potentially present in faults can help to better constrain the dynamic evolution of crustal strength within the seismogenic zone, as a function of varying fluid phase characteristics. With the aim to 1) better understand the complexity of brittle-ductile cyclicity under upper to mid-crustal conditions and 2) define the physical and chemical features of the involved fluid phase, we present the preliminary results of a recently launched (micro)structural and geochemical project. We study deformed quartz veins associated with brittle-ductile deformation zones on Olkiluoto Island, chosen as the site for the Finnish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel excavated in the Paleoproterozoic crust of southwestern Finland. The presented results stem from the study of brittle fault zone BFZ300, which is a mixed brittle and ductile deformation zone characterized by complex kinematics and associated with multiple generations of quartz veins, and which serves as a pertinent example of the mechanisms of fluid flow-deformation feedbacks during brittle-ductile cyclicity in nature. A kinematic and dynamic mesostructural study is being integrated with the detailed analysis of petrographic thin sections from the fault core and its immediate surroundings with the aim to reconstruct the mechanical deformation history along the entire deformation zone. Based on the observed microstructures, it was possible to

  14. Quantification of the brittle-ductile failure behavior of reactor steels by means of the small punch tests and micromechanical damage models; Quantifizierung des sproed-duktilen Versagensverhaltens von Reaktorstaehlen mit Hilfe des Small-Punch-Tests und mikromechanischer Schaedigungsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linse, Thomas


    This work comprises the development and implementation of a non-local ductile damage model, the application of methods for the identification of material parameters from experimental data as well as the calculation of fracture mechanics parameters in the brittle-ductile transition zone through numerical simulations of fracture mechanical tests using the identified parameters. The developed non-local ductile damage model is based on the Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model (GTN). The pathological mesh sensitivity of the GTN model is eliminated by introducing an additional length parameter by means of an implicit gradient formulation. To solve the coupled field problem, the non-local damage model is implemented in a finite element program in the form of a userdefined element. Force-displacement-curves of the small punch test (SPT), a miniaturised test, are evaluated for the determination of material parameters. Given the modest material requirements for the preparation of the required samples remnants of Charpy-specimens are reused. Two ferritic reactor steels, both irradiated and unirradiated, are examined. The experiments cover the full brittle-ductile transition region of the steels. Following the concept of the Local Approach, fracture toughness values are determined by numerical calculation of the stress and deformation state in fracture mechanics specimen only. Here, the yield curves and damage parameters previously determined from the SPT are used. The calculated fracture toughness values are compared with experimental results.

  15. The brittle-ductile transition of polycarbonate as function of test speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Hamberg, M.J.J.; Hamberg, M.J.J.; Inberg, J.P.F.


    The fracture behavior of polycarbonate was studied as a function of temperature (-80°C to +80°C) and test speed (10-5 to 10 m/s) using an instrumented, singleedged, notched tensile test (SENT). SENT tests give information on the fracture stress, fracture displacements, and fracture energies of

  16. Structural and temporal evolution of a reactivated brittle-ductile fault - Part I: Fault architecture, strain localization mechanisms and deformation history (United States)

    Torgersen, E.; Viola, G.


    Faults are by nature dynamic, as their architecture and composition evolve progressively in space and through time steered by the interplay between strain weakening and hardening mechanisms. This study combines structural analysis, geochemistry and chlorite geothermometry to investigate deformation and strain localization mechanisms of the Kvenklubben fault, a Paleozoic brittle-ductile thrust in northern Norway, with the goal to constrain their temporal variations and the consequences thereof on fault architecture development and rheological behavior. The fault evolved from an initially discrete brittle feature slipping mainly by seismogenic ruptures to a wide brittle-ductile phyllonite deforming by aseismic creep. The formation of mechanically weak phyllosilicates by decarbonation of footwall dolostones and carbonation of hanging wall metabasalts was the main weakening mechanism, whereas partitioning of fluid flow and fracture sealing following transient high pore pressure-driven embrittlement caused episodic and localized strain hardening. The interplay between strain weakening and hardening mechanisms caused the fault core to widen. We suggest that the ability for carbonate-hosted faults to slip by seismogenic rupture is also a function of the faults' structural-evolutionary stage, and that it decreases progressively with fault maturity. This study demonstrates the importance of calibrating the present-day fault anatomy against the dynamic character of faults, which evolve geometrically, compositionally and mechanically in space and through time.

  17. Tidal triggering of low frequency earthquakes near Parkfield, California: Implications for fault mechanics within the brittle-ductile transition (United States)

    Thomas, A.M.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, David R.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Rudolph, M.L.


    Studies of nonvolcanic tremor (NVT) have established the significant impact of small stress perturbations on NVT generation. Here we analyze the influence of the solid earth and ocean tides on a catalog of ∼550,000 low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) distributed along a 150 km section of the San Andreas Fault centered at Parkfield. LFE families are identified in the NVT data on the basis of waveform similarity and are thought to represent small, effectively co-located earthquakes occurring on brittle asperities on an otherwise aseismic fault at depths of 16 to 30 km. We calculate the sensitivity of each of these 88 LFE families to the tidally induced right-lateral shear stress (RLSS), fault-normal stress (FNS), and their time derivatives and use the hypocentral locations of each family to map the spatial variability of this sensitivity. LFE occurrence is most strongly modulated by fluctuations in shear stress, with the majority of families demonstrating a correlation with RLSS at the 99% confidence level or above. Producing the observed LFE rate modulation in response to shear stress perturbations requires low effective stress in the LFE source region. There are substantial lateral and vertical variations in tidal shear stress sensitivity, which we interpret to reflect spatial variation in source region properties, such as friction and pore fluid pressure. Additionally, we find that highly episodic, shallow LFE families are generally less correlated with tidal stresses than their deeper, continuously active counterparts. The majority of families have weaker or insignificant correlation with positive (tensile) FNS. Two groups of families demonstrate a stronger correlation with fault-normal tension to the north and with compression to the south of Parkfield. The families that correlate with fault-normal clamping coincide with a releasing right bend in the surface fault trace and the LFE locations, suggesting that the San Andreas remains localized and contiguous down to near the base of the crust. The deep families that have high sensitivity to both shear and tensile normal stress perturbations may be indicative of an increase in effective fault contact area with depth. Synthesizing our observations with those of other LFE-hosting localities will help to develop a comprehensive understanding of transient fault slip below the “seismogenic zone” by providing constraints on parameters in physical models of slow slip and LFEs.

  18. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation


    Violay, M.; Heap, M. J.; Acosta, M; Madonna, C.


    International audience; Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indic...

  19. Effect of the brittle-ductile transition on the topography of compressive mountain belts on Earth and Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.A.; Connors, C.; Dahlen, F.A.; Price, E.J.; Suppe, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The Coulomb critical taper model has been very successful in explaining the large-scale topography of a number of terrestrial accretionary wedges; however, this model is limited to cases of purely brittle frictional deformation. In this paper the authors extend the range of applicability of the critical taper model by explicitly including the effects of temperature-dependent ductile deformation. The new model includes temperature-dependent power law flow, an assumed velocity field, and linear thermal gradients in the atmosphere and within the crust. Flexural isostasy is also incorporated so that the decollement geometry is computed as a response to the applied load of the wedge material. They assume that ductile deformation within the decollement zone is controlled by dislocation creep. The topographic profiles predicted by the model are very similar to those of a number of fold-and-thrust belts on both Earth and Venus. A typical wedge and the decollement zone deforms in a brittle-frictional manner; a region of relatively steep slope, where the wedge base deforms ductilely and the decollement zone are deforming by ductile flow. The authors have applied the model to two-fold-and-thrust belts on Venus (Maxwell Montes and Uorsar Rupes) and to the Andes on Earth, and they find good agreement between observed and predicted topography using reasonable parameter values. The model accounts for the observed positive correlation between relief and evaluation of Venusian fold-and-thrust belts on the basis of different thermal environments at different elevations. It is also able to explain the first-order differences between and Venusian fold-and thrust belts; fundamentally, this difference is due to a combination of the lower temperatures and the presence of water on Earth. 54 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Structural and temporal evolution of a reactivated brittle-ductile fault - Part II: Timing of fault initiation and reactivation by K-Ar dating of synkinematic illite/muscovite (United States)

    Torgersen, E.; Viola, G.; Zwingmann, H.; Harris, C.


    Present-day exposures of ancient faults represent only the end result of the faults' often protracted and heterogeneous histories. Here we apply K-Ar dating of synkinematic illite/muscovite to constrain the timing of the complete temporal evolution of a complex, multiply-reactivated brittle-ductile fault, the Kvenklubben Fault in northern Norway. All obtained ages vary as a function of grain size. Geologically significant events are identified principally on the basis of detailed structural analysis presented in a companion paper (Torgersen and Viola, 2014). Faulting initiated at 531±11Ma, but most strain was accommodated during Caledonian compression at 445±9Ma. The fault was reactivated extensionally at 121±5Ma. C and O isotopic composition of carbonates and silicates in the fault rocks demonstrates that mineral authigenesis was linked to wall-rock disintegration through dolomite decarbonation and metabasalt carbonation. We suggest that the commonly observed case of age decreasing with grain size in K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of brittle fault rocks can be interpreted as a consequence of mixing between two end-member illite/muscovite generations: an authigenic and a protolithic, in which the finest authigenic grains constrain the timing of the last faulting increment. Integrating detailed structural analysis with age dating is the key towards a better understanding of fault architecture development and the temporal evolution of strain localization and deformation mechanisms.

  1. How does a brittle-ductile fault nucleate and grow in dolostone? A lesson learnt from a structural, geochemical and K-Ar chronological study of a reactivated Paleozoic thrust fault (United States)

    Viola, G.; Torgersen, E.; Zwingmann, H.; Harris, C.


    Carbonate-hosted faults in the upper crust are mechanically strong, yet, under certain environmental conditions, carbonates may decompose into mechanically weak minerals, with major consequences for faults´ rheological behavior. We combine structural analysis, geochemistry, stable isotopes and K-Ar dating of synkinematic illite/muscovite to investigate the processes that control localization and weakening of initially strong, seismogenic brittle faults. We aim at better understanding how the constantly evolving architecture and composition of brittle-ductile faults affect their seismogenic properties. The Kvenklubben fault in northern Norway is part of a Caledonian compressional imbricate stack. It juxtaposes greenschist facies metabasalts in the hanging wall against meta-dolostones and has a 2.5 m thick fault core consisting of talc-bearing calc-phyllonites and chlorite phyllonites. Petrographic and geochemical results indicate that the phyllonites formed mainly through fluid-rock interaction and progressive decomposition of the adjacent wall rocks. K-Ar dating and chlorite geothermometry documents that the fault damage zone developed from the base upwards with fault initiation at 530 Ma around 200°C and the main development during reactivation around 440 Ma at c. 285°C. Early strain increments were accommodated in the dolostone by pressure-solution, formation of optimally oriented tensional fractures and cataclasis along geometrical irregularities of the growing fault plane. Fluids caused sequential decarbonation of the dolostones and carbonation of the metabasalts, resulting in the formation of phyllosilicate-decorated planar fabrics. The newly formed phyllosilicate levels weakened the fault under overall viscous creep conditions. The strongly anisotropic fluid-flow within the phyllonites, together with vein sealing following localized and transient high pore pressure-driven embrittlement, caused strain hardening. Together, the interaction between strain

  2. Heterogeneous brittle-ductile deformation at shallow crustal levels under high thermal conditions: The case of a synkinematic contact aureole in the inner northern Apennines, southeastern Elba Island, Italy (United States)

    Papeschi, Samuele; Musumeci, Giovanni; Mazzarini, Francesco


    We present an example of interaction between magmatism and tectonics at shallow crustal levels. In the Late Miocene the metamorphic units of the eastern Elba Island (northern Apennines) were intruded at very shallow crustal levels by a large pluton (> 60 km2) with the development of an hectometre-sized contact aureole defined by growth of low-pressure/high-temperature mineral assemblages (Pmax data show that the contact aureole is associated with a km-sized antiform of the foliation and by several metre- to decametre-thick high-strain domains consisting of strongly foliated rocks containing synkinematic HT/LP mineral assemblages and ductile shear zones of variable thickness. These shear zones are characterized by a mylonitic foliation variably overprinted by cataclasis. Quartz microfabrics indicate that the dynamic crystallization processes progressively changed from grain boundary migration, associated with the thermal peak of contact metamorphism, to subgrain rotation and bulging recrystallization, the latter mostly associated with the cataclastic overprint. These transitions of recrystallization mechanisms in quartz are related to a progressive decrease of temperature during deformation. Deformation accompanied the development and cooling of the contact aureole, which recorded the switch from high temperature ductile to low temperature brittle conditions. The geometry of the studied deformation structures is consistent with the constraints of the regional tectonic evolution and its local interaction with the localized and transient thermal anomaly related to the coeval emplacement of igneous rocks.

  3. Brittle-Ductile Relaxation Kinetics of Strained AlGaN/GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors have directly measured the stress evolution during metal organic chemical vapor deposition of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire. In situ stress measurements were correlated with ex situ microstructural analysis to directly determine a critical thickness for cracking and the subsequent relaxation kinetics of tensile-strained Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N on GaN. Cracks appear to initiate the formation of misfit dislocations at the AlGaN/GaN interface, which account for the majority of the strain relaxation.

  4. Sample geometry and the brittle-ductile behavior of edge cracks in 3D atomistic simulations by molecular dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelikán, Vladimír; Hora, Petr; Machová, Anna; Kolman, Radek; Uhnáková, Alena


    Roč. 258 (2017), s. 45-48, č. článku 188189. ISSN 1662-9779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20666S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : BCC iron * crack growth * dislocation emission * twins Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Evidence for Cyclic Brittle-Ductile Deformation from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) Phase 3 Cores (United States)

    White, J. C.; Kennedy, L.


    Microstructural development in core retrieved from SAFOD Phase 3 drilling has been examined in three locations utilizing light, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM): (1) within the Salinian Terrane near its contact with the presumed Great Valley sequence (Hole E-Run 1-Section 4 & 6); (2) proximal to the Southwest Deformation Zone (SDZ) with which are associated casing deformation and seismic aftershocks indicative of active faulting (Hole G-Run-1-Section 2 & Hole G-Run 2-Section 3); and (3) within the Central Deformation Zone (CDZ) in the centre of the damage zone identified in Phase 2 drilling (Hole G-Run 4-Section 2). The sampling locations translate to an across-strike distance from outside the damage zone to its centre of approximately 125 meters, and a change in current measured depth from 2610 m to 2685m. Common to all cores are: (1) a significant fractional volume (fluid flux in the form of stress-induced dissolution seams (pressure solution), grain precipitation and veining; and (3) complex, non-systematically varying phyllosilicate intergrowths (illite, muscovite, phengite, chlorite). The Salinian terrane material (E14, E16) comprises coarse-grained quartz and perthitic feldspar clasts that locally form slightly foliated cataclasite. The matrix is commonly chloritic with very fine-grained aggregates and zones of quartz and/or feldspar. Microbrecciation is ubiquitous. There are both fluid-corroded clasts, particularly of quartz, and globular infillings of calcite with sutured contacts. Quartz and feldspar grains are coated by chlorite. Amorphous silica and secondary Ti-Fe oxides occur within cataclasite. Foliated siltstone-shale cataclasites (G12, G23) at the edge of the damage zone close to the SDZ exhibit brecciation and cataclasis at different scales; deformation is episodic as there are distinct overprinting relationships. The fine-grained matrix exhibits a strong SPO of phyllosilicates and cryptocrystalline quartz (damage zone approximately 7m across strike from the CDZ exhibit extensive evidence of fluid-rock interaction. Grains commonly have overgrowths, and there are well-developed pressure solution foliae. Quartz grains commonly ‘float’ in a calcite matrix. The fine-grained matrix itself has a strong foliation. The most unique feature is the occurrence of calcite veins at a high angle to the tectonic foliation. Collectively, microstructures indicate repeated cycles of cataclasis, with rapid strength recovery (interseismic?) by fluid-enhanced healing with significant aseismic strain accumulation.

  6. Applying micromechanic failure models for description of failure modes in the ductile-brittle transition region; Einsatz mikromechanischer Schaedigungsmodelle im sproed-duktilen Uebergangsbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, G.


    The work reported was to examine whether the modified Gurson model and the Beremin model can be applied to the brittle-ductile transition region of a ferritic steel, and whether the material`s behaviour can be characterized with a failure model integrating the two models mentioned above into one. Any possible improvements of this approach were to be found. The report at first gives a brief list of terminology and formulas used. Chapter 3 explains the microscopic processes typically observed in the transition region in connection with the failure modes of ductile fracture and cleavage fracture, and shows possible approaches for modelling. Chapter 4 defines the specimens and materials, and chapter 5 explains the experiments as well as the microscopic analyses of the fracture surfaces. Chapter 6 presents subsequent calculations representing the processes observed. Based on the stress distributions thus derived, the Beremin model is re-examined for further development. Chapter 7 summarizes the results obtained. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit ist, zu untersuchen, ob das modifizierte Gurson-Modell und das Beremin-Modell im sproed-duktilen Uebergangsbereich eines ferritischen Stahls einsetzbar sind und ob das Werkstoffverhalten mit einem aus beiden Modellen kombinierten Schaedigungsmodell berechnet werden kann. Gegebenenfalls sind Verbesserungen herbeizufuehren. Die vorliegende Arbeit beginnt mit einer kurzen Einfuehrung der verwendeten Begriffe und Formalismen. In Kap. 3 werden die mikroskopischen Vorgaenge bei den im Uebergangsbereich typischerweise auftretenden Versagensarten duktiler Bruch und Spaltbruch vorgestellt und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten ihrer Modellierung aufgezeigt. Nach der Vorstellung des Probenwerkstoffs werden in Kap. 4 die Experimente beschrieben und die mikroskopischen Untersuchungen der Bruchflaechen in Kap. 5 dargestellt. Die Nachrechnungen der Experimente werden in Kap. 6 vorgestellt. Auf der Grundlage der dadurch bereitgestellten

  7. Cyclic frictional-viscous slip oscillations along the base of an advancing nappe complex: Insights into brittle-ductile nappe emplacement mechanisms from the Naukluft Nappe Complex, central Namibia (United States)

    Viola, Giulio; Mancktelow, Neil S.; Miller, Jodie A.


    The Naukluft Nappe Complex (NNC) forms a far-traveled fold and thrust belt klippe of the Panafrican Damara Belt in central Namibia. Estimates of the SE directed displacement range between 50 and 80 km. The entire nappe stack was thrust along an out-of-sequence, nearly planar, horizontal structure, the "Naukluft Thrust." The thrust zone consists of several distinct lithological components whose typical distribution, when all present, from bottom to top is (1) a massive, ochre-yellow weathering dolomite; (2) a polymict "gritty dolomite" (called in the past "Sole Dolomite"), (3) strongly foliated and isoclinally folded calcmylonites, and (4) an upper massive dolomite. A very discrete (history of combined viscous and frictional flow.

  8. Supercritical Geothermal Systems - A Review of Past Studies and Ongoing Research Activities


    Dobson, Patrick; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Huenges, Ernst; Poletto, Flavio; Reinsch, Thomas; Sanjuan, Bernard


    International audience; Supercritical geothermal systems are very high temperature geothermal systems that are located at depths near or below the brittle-ductile transition zone in the crust where the reservoir fluid is assumed to be in the supercritical state, e.g., for pure water temperature and pressure are respectively in excess of 374°C and 221 bar. These systems have garnered attention in recent years as a possible type of unconventional geothermal resource that could yield much higher...

  9. The effects of aging on the microstructure, hardness and fracture behavior of 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.D.; Parker, J.D. [Univ. of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Engineering


    The effect of laboratory aging on the microstructure and properties of 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo low alloy steel has been investigated. Microstructural changes have been characterized using metallographic techniques and by undertaking selected mechanical tests. Results obtained indicate that precipitate coarsening leads to a reduction in hardness and an increase in brittle ductile transition temperature. Similar changes were observed in material which had been subjected to long term service under elevated temperature conditions.

  10. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...

  11. Transitional Care (United States)

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.


    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  12. Transitional determinacies. (United States)

    Luelsdorff, P A


    In classic generative grammar a distinction is drawn between linguistic 'competence' and linguistic 'performance', the former referring to linguistic knowledge, the latter to how linguistic knowledge is used. However, this controversial differentiation obscures the additional dichotomy between linguistic knowledge for production and linguistic knowledge for recognition. In this article it is shown that production and recognition differ, that recognition is not simply the inverse of production, and that the derivation of production from recognition and recognition from production require a small set of generalizable 'transitional determinacies'. Secondly, it is shown that transitional determinacies explain the difference between 'overt' and 'covert' recognition recently observed in prosopagnosics, patients unable to recognize familiar faces. Prosopagnosics and normals are found to differ in their transitional determinacies, such that prosopagnosics require more binders (precisors) for covert recognition than normals. In general, it is concluded that transitional determinacies are as necessary to the theory of grammar as determinacies themselves.

  13. Presidential Transitions (United States)


    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  14. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.


    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  15. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  16. Transitions: A Personal Perspective. (United States)

    Wood, Ann Stace


    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  17. Army Leader Transitions Handbook (United States)

    2008-01-01 LEADER TRANSITION MODEL Leader Transitions Handbook 1 The Army Leader Transitions Handbook is designed to help leaders plan and...D-1) Managing transitions is a leadership responsibility. Leader transitions within the Army are significant events for any organization due to...current. Administrative skills - Brush up on personnel management , especially leader development. Know UCMJ, promotions, administrative discharge

  18. Gas turbine combustor transition (United States)

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane


    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  19. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood (United States)

    Wyn, Johanna


    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  20. Public Transit Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  1. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration (United States)


    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  2. Cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)


    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  3. Quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)


    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place atthe ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase

  4. Modeling for transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.


    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  5. Origins of evolutionary transitions. (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen


    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  6. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.


    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  7. Transition to Adulthood (United States)

    ... a lot of ground to cover! But it’s essential ground, if the student’s transition to the adult ... of transition planning? Here’s a closer look at writing transition-related IEP goals. Students Get Involved ! Very ...

  8. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  9. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger


    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  10. Transition path time distributions (United States)

    Laleman, M.; Carlon, E.; Orland, H.


    Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies. These terms influence the short time scale dynamics of a stochastic system and can be of experimental relevance in view of the short duration of transition paths. We derive the full transition path time distribution as well as the average transition path times and discuss the similarities and differences with the high friction limit.

  11. Economic Transition and Growth


    Phillips, Peter C.B.; Donggyu Sul


    Some extensions of neoclassical growth models are discussed that allow for cross section heterogeneity among economies and evolution in rates of technological progress over time. The models offer a spectrum of transitional behavior among economies that includes convergence to a common steady state path as well as various forms of transitional divergence and convergence. Mechanisms for modeling such transitions and measuring them econometrically are developed in the paper. A new regression tes...

  12. Investigation of machining mechanism of monocrystalline silicon in nanometric grinding (United States)

    He, Liping; Zhu, Fulong; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Sheng


    Monocrystalline silicon is the foundation of the computer industry, so it has a great significance to study the ultra-high precision machining of silicon. Molecular dynamics has been proved as a very effective method for the study of ultra-precision machining in nanoscale. During the grinding of brittle materials in nano-level, there are some unique phenomena such as brittle-ductile transition. To study the machining mechanism in nanometric grinding of monocrystalline silicon, the subsurface damage of oriented Monocrystalline silicon under different grinding speeds were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between different atoms are described by the Morse and Tersoff potential. Based on analyzing the mechanism of diamond tool extrusion induced silicon lattice slip and distortion, the grinding process is explained. The movement of atoms and phase transformation are studied. The results show that there is not enough time for atoms beneath the tool to rearrange when increasing grinding speed at a low speed, which leads to the subsurface damage thickness decreases. When the diamond tool radius is small enough but still bigger than the undeformed chip thickness, the brittle-ductile transition can be achieved in the grinding region. And during the grinding process, the normal force is smaller than the tangential force. However, when the radius of the diamond tool increases to a certain value, the normal force could be larger than the tangential force.

  13. Rheological behavior of glaucophane and lawsonite in experimentally deformed blueschists (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Katayama, Ikuo; Wallis, Simon; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Miyake, Akira; Seto, Yusuke; Azuma, Shintaro


    We performed a series of simple-shear deformation experiments on blueschist at 400-500°C and 1-2.5 GPa. Microstructures of samples deformed at 1-2 GPa are brittle, while they deformed at 2.5 GPa display ductile features. J-indices of glaucophane CPOs systematically decrease by increasing shear strain and confining pressure, and the angle to the shear direction is similar to that of a strain ellipsoid. These results, together with the variable orientations of recrystallized fine grains in a SAED image at 2 GPa, suggest that the brittle-ductile transition of glaucophane occurs at ~2 GPa. On the other hand, lawsonite shows abundant fractures in the most specimens and a poor correlation among the J-index, shear strain, and confining pressure. The results demonstrate the predominant role of glaucophane on rheology of blueschist rather than lawsonite. Considering a strong fabric in the starting material and dry experimental condition, the brittle-ductile transition of glaucophane could occur at much shallower pressure than 2 GPa. Therefore our results indicate the dehydration embrittlement of subducting oceanic crust as an important factor in the origin of intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  14. Deformation microstructures of glaucophane and lawsonite in experimentally deformed blueschists: Implications for intermediate-depth intraplate earthquakes (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Katayama, Ikuo; Wallis, Simon; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Miyake, Akira; Seto, Yusuke; Azuma, Shintaro


    A series of simple-shear experiments on blueschist was performed at 400-500°C and 1-2.5 GPa to understand the deformation of seismically active, subducting oceanic crust. The experiments show that brittle microstructures are mainly found at pressures of 1-2 GPa, whereas ductile microstructures form at 2.5 GPa. J-indices (a measure of fabric intensity) of glaucophane crystal preferred orientations change systematically with changing shear strain and confining pressure, and the angle between the slip plane and the shear direction of samples deformed at >2 GPa is similar to that of a strain ellipsoid. These results, together with the variable orientations of fine grains in a selected area electron diffraction image at 2 GPa, indicate that the brittle-ductile transition for glaucophane occurs at 2 GPa. In contrast to this, lawsonite in the experiments show abundant fracturing in most specimens and a poor correlation between the J-index, shear strain, and confining pressure. This demonstrates that lawsonite deformed by brittle failure under all experimental conditions. In the case of a starting material that has a strong fabric and deformed under dry experimental conditions, the brittle-ductile transition zone of glaucophane will be much shallower than 2 GPa. Therefore, our initial experimental results on the deformation behavior of blueschist indirectly support the dehydration embrittlement of subducting oceanic crust (glaucophane) as an important factor in the origin of intraplate earthquakes.

  15. Transitions in Mathematics Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verschaffel, Ghislaine GueudetMarianna BoschAndrea A. diSessaOh Nam KwonLieven


    .... The book focuses on research in the area of mathematics education, and starts out with a literature review, describing the epistemological, cognitive, institutional and sociocultural perspectives on transition...

  16. Transit Benefit Program Data - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  17. Good Transitions = Great Starts! (United States)

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012


    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

  18. Successive Transitions in Ecodesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.


    , into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, together providing a historic account of how academic...

  19. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.


    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  20. Urban renewal in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, P.


    Urban renewal in transition consists revised and enlarged version of two papers. The first paper 'urban renewal and restructuring: between economie and social renewal' had been presented at the conference 'Labour on the move and transitions in the building process', organlzed by the Bartlett School

  1. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  2. Ethical considerations in transition. (United States)

    Kaufman, Hannah; Horricks, Laurie; Kaufman, Miriam


    The objective of this paper is to explore ethical issues in the provision of transitional care. Using five case studies a number of ethical issues in transition and transition care are discussed. These issues include: 1) preserving, promoting and ensuring dignity and respect for patients; 2) fostering and supporting the trusting relationships that young people and their parents have for pediatric providers to their new adult providers by using a graduated system of transfer; 3) recognizing graduated capacity; 4) promoting autonomy and self-management; 5) duties of beneficence and non-maleficence; 6) truthtelling; 7) duty to provide developmentally appropriate care; and 8) duty of pediatric providers to advocate for transitioning patients in the adult system. Attention to the ethical issues surrounding these complex cases has the potential to positively influence a successful transition to adult-oriented health care.

  3. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo


    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  4. Predictability of critical transitions (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah


    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  5. Modeling Low-Frequency Earthquake Recurrence Patterns (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Daub, Eric G.


    Tectonic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) have been identified globally, but the physical mechanisms responsible for different types of LFE recurrence patterns are still elusive. Here we use a brittle ductile friction model to study the frictional conditions leading to different LFE recurrence patterns observed in central California. We do a comprehensive search of the friction parameters, including the brittle contact failure length and ductile damping strength to generate synthetic LFE bursts that match three different occurrence patterns of LFE bursts. We find that the output synthetic LFE burst recurrence type varies under different frictional conditions. The chaotic recurrence LFE sources require a higher brittle-to-ductile friction ratio, consistent with the observation that they are mainly at shallower part of the brittle-ductile transition zone. The trimodal recurrence LFE sources require a wide distribution of asperity sizes, indicating that the segment of deep San Andreas Fault between Monarch Peak and Parkfield is likely to be more fragmented and weaker than the surrounding segments.

  6. Structural Analysis: Folds Classification of metasedimentary rock in the Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Shamsuddin, A.


    Understanding shear zone characteristics of deformation are a crucial part in the oil and gas industry as it might increase the knowledge of the fracture characteristics and lead to the prediction of the location of fracture zones or fracture swarms. This zone might give high influence on reservoir performance. There are four general types of shear zones which are brittle, ductile, semibrittle and brittle-ductile transition zones. The objective of this study is to study and observe the structural geometry of the shear zones and its implication as there is a lack of understanding, especially in the subsurface area because of the limitation of seismic resolution. A field study was conducted on the metasedimentary rocks (shear zone) which are exposed along the coastal part of the Peninsular Malaysia as this type of rock resembles the types of rock in the subsurface. The analysis in this area shows three main types of rock which are non-foliated metaquartzite and foliated rock which can be divided into slate and phyllite. Two different fold classification can be determined in this study. Layer 1 with phyllite as the main type of rock can be classified in class 1C and layer 2 with slate as the main type of rock can be classified in class 1A. This study will benefit in predicting the characteristics of the fracture and fracture zones.

  7. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  8. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)


    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  9. Rural transit emergency planning guidance. (United States)


    Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...

  10. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe


    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  11. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.


    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  12. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Zeloni


    .... From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott...

  13. Transit management certificate program. (United States)


    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  14. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika


    and thereby facilitating new actor configurations in urban social-technical systems. This perspective may contribute to the study of transition processes that so far have not studied citizens' roles in depth. Based on discussions of theories on transition and institutional capacity building, the article...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...... discusses the mobilisation of citizens through social learning processes and how the develop-ment of new platforms plays a part in societal transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have per-formed innovative forms...

  15. Geomagnetic polarity transitions (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.


    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  16. Transitional Justice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Payero López


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate Spanish transitional justice policy. The aspects of transitional justice put forward by L. Joinet –truth, justice and reparation– will frame this analysis. Firstly, the main deficiencies of this policy will be pointed out. Secondly, some measures to be adopted in Spain will be suggested. Their implementation would mean that international standards on the protection of human rights, as agreed within the specialized literature, would be met.

  17. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.


    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  18. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gregory W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, <Φ>T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of <Φ>T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase <Φ>T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value <Φ> = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state <Φ> = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state <Φ> = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  19. High Energy Exoplanet Transits (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.


    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  20. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems


    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  1. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao


    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  2. Phase transition in nanomagnetite (United States)

    Dézsi, I.; Fetzer, Cs.; Gombkötő, Á.; Szűcs, I.; Gubicza, J.; Ungár, T.


    Recently, the application of nanosized magnetite particles became an area of growing interest for their potential practical applications. Nanosized magnetite samples of 36 and 9nm sizes were synthesized. Special care was taken on the right stoichiometry of the magnetite particles. Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements were made in 4.2-300K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the intensities of the spectral components indicated size dependent transition taking place in a broad temperature range. For nanosized samples, the hyperfine interaction values and their relative intensities changed above the Verwey transition temperature value of bulk megnetite. The continuous transition indicated the formation of dendritelike granular assemblies formed during the preparation of the samples.

  3. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel


    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... amounts of amino acids to the blood. The physiology of the sow ensures that nutrient transfer to the offspring is not being compromised and that nutrients are preferentially being allocated to uterine tissues before parturition and to the udder after parturition. During the transition period, the sow...

  4. Transitions of Creatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjællegaard, Cecilie Bryld

    The degree of transferability of skills and knowledge from an creative occupation in the creative industries to the wider economy is a great point of discussion within research in the arts and cultural and creative industries. By applying human capital theory on the labor market for creatives......, this paper investigates the relationship between creative occupation and industry human capital and hourly wage after transitioning to a non-creative occupation and/ or industry. Further, it is investigated how the distance of the transition mediates the relationship between creative occupation and industry...... specific human capital and hourly wage. By making use of a matched employer-employee dataset from the Denmark from 1994 to 2007, wage equation are estimated. The results suggest that a transition from a creative occupation to a non-creative occupation results in an increase in the hourly wage...

  5. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.W.


    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  6. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV


    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  7. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni


    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  8. Trauma in Transition. (United States)

    Wilson, Peggy


    An ethnographic study examined the experiences of 23 Canadian Sioux students during their transition from a reservation elementary school to an urban public high school. Students encountered racial bias, low teacher expectations, isolation, frustration, and a lack of understanding by school personnel of cultural conflicts. Eighteen dropped out.…

  9. Military Lives: Coaching Transitions (United States)

    Beech, Nick; Gold, Jeff; Beech, Susan


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first consider how veterans use talk to shape interpretations of personal and social identity. Second, this paper seeks to gain an understanding of how veterans see themselves in a civilian world, their ability to re-conceptualise and realign their perspective on life to support their transition in to a…

  10. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2014 ... I define an evolutionary transition as a shift in the hierarchical level at which heritable fitness variance ... life, for example in eusocial insects, around 150 million years ago. None of these transformations was ...... affecting and heritable trait, and to introduce a mechanism which inhibits them from subsequent ...

  11. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.


    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  12. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)


    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  13. What is Transit?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He set out to Pondicherry with the idea of observing the transit of Venus. Rough seas and the ongoing Anglo-French war delayed his journey and he had to be content watching it from the sea. Determined to see the next one slated after 8 years, he wandered between Madagaskar and Manila studying nature. Unfortunately.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    from war to peace. The goal was to better understand how IDRC gathers and shares pertinent information to inform programming and decision- making. How was the Centre alerted to impending transition? How did it ... visited Burma for a first-hand look. Aiming mostly to learn more about Burma's research organizations ...


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Twenty years of IDRC participation in Palestinian research have demonstrated the value of exploiting even the smallest progress when transition is otherwise failing. ... and the West Bank) served as a catalyst for a new round of intelligence gathering and analysis at IDRC. The Accords generated new hope for Palestinian ...


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    the early stages, capacity building might necessarily precede actual research. Above all, the particular features of any real or impending transition place a high value on strategic intelligence about local conditions. That means knowing the country, its politics, and its potential research partners even before research starts.

  17. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  18. Outplacement as Transition Counseling. (United States)

    Mirabile, Richard J.


    Describes outplacement counseling as a process that enables management to deal with the problem of the employee who must be released or the staff that must be reduced. Discusses the process of outplacement counseling, the stages of transition counseling, and techniques to be implemented. (BH)

  19. Lost in Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    Thinking of Transit Places, the first sites that comes to mind will probably be airports, train stations and motorways. Such places are overall mono-functional with the embedded rationales of people's desires to move (themselves or goods) from one place to another. Often different service functions...

  20. Logic of transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, Johan van; Bergstra, J.A.


    Labeled transition systems are key structures for modeling computation. In this paper, we show how they lend themselves to ordinary logical analysis (without any special new formalisms), by introducing their standard first-order theory. This perspective enables us to raise several

  1. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K


    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  2. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)


    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  3. Families in Transition . (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.


    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  4. Transitions as Speech Acts. (United States)

    Fesmire, Alice Ann


    Reviews speech act theory to explain the function of writing transitions in terms of the illocutionary and perlocutionary effect of explicit performatives. Identifies explicit performatives in samples of professional writing in technical and academic areas. Suggest ways to revise textbooks to include the findings from speech act theory. (SR)

  5. Rheological weakening of high-grade mylonites during low-temperature retrogression: The exhumed continental Ailao Shan-Red River fault zone, SE Asia (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Bernroider, Manfred; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Junyu; Yu, Zunpu; Genser, Johann


    We present a detailed case study of an exhumed continental strike-slip fault zone, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) strike-slip fault zone, to investigate how deformation promotes strain localization, and how the weak second phases and fluids trigger rheological weakening during retrogression near the ductile to brittle transition during exhumation. Along the ASRR strike-slip fault zone, in the Diancang Shan (DCS) metamorphic massif, high-temperature ductile deformation (D1) pervasively occurred during shearing and exhumation since late Oligocene. The high-temperature microstructures and textures are in part or entirely altered by subsequent low-temperature shearing (D2) since late Miocene, which is under the conditions of frictional-viscous transition of K-feldspar (ca. 450 °C) during further exhumation to the upper crustal levels. The formation of D2 microstructures and shear bands overprinted high-temperature intracrystalline plasticity phases (D1) in mylonitic rocks. Depending on the main rock-forming minerals, the results also demonstrate that the brittle-ductile transition involves a combination of different deformation mechanisms and possible rheological paths. In quartz-rich rocks, quartz was deformed in the dislocation creep regime and records transition of microfabrics and slip systems during decreasing temperature, which lasted until retrogression related to exhumation. As a result, grain-size reduction associated with fluids circulating within the ASRR strike-slip fault zone at brittle-ductile transition leads to reaction and texture weakening. Rheological weakening is the consequence of the syntectonic deformation, fluid flow, reaction softening, reaction creep and textural softening. The hydrous fluids resulted in hydration of silicates. Decompression occurred during shearing and as a result of tectonic exhumation. All these results demonstrate that the exhumation through the ductile to ductile-brittle transition involves a combination of different

  6. Elastic-plastic properties of graphene engineered by oxygen functional groups (United States)

    Hou, Yuan; Zhu, YinBo; Liu, XiaoYi; Dai, ZhaoHe; Liu, LuQi; Wu, HengAn; Zhang, Zhong


    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the elastic-plastic mechanical performances of monolayer graphene oxide (GO) under uniaxial tension. The brittle-ductile-brittle transition and nonlinear-linear-nonlinear elastic transition is found in the uniaxial tension of GO, which displays strong correlations to the content, distribution and proportion of oxygen functional groups. In principle, the tensile behavior of graphene with epoxy groups exhibits ductile fracture features due to the unique epoxy-to-ether transformation in structural evolution. Our simulation results also reveal that wrinkling could cause a competing mechanism of strain-hardening or -softening, and in turn, the nonlinear-linear elasticity transition. Moreover, we propose a continuum mechanical model with a modified stress-strain relation to understand the unique deformation performances, which is consistent with the MD results. These findings might provide valuable insight and design guidelines for optimizing the specific mechanical properties and deformation behaviors of graphene and its derivatives.

  7. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects (United States)


    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  8. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Richard G


    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia.

  9. Jamming transitions in cancer (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Smith, David M.; Käs, Josef A.


    The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients.

  10. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula


    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page ( pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  11. Global transition i sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W


    Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity, and by degener......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity......, and by degenerative, and man-made diseases in ageing populations. Omran could not foresee the HIV/AIDS pandemic or the dramatic fall in longevity and fertility in, for example, Russia. But his model remains of value for health planners and politicians. We advocate for research in the interplay between diseases...

  12. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A


    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  13. Global transition in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W


    "Tempora mutantur et nos in illis" King Lothar I remarked by year 900 AD. What exactly changed in us over time, i.e. how patterns of the epidemiological transition in populations locally and globally might appear, was described by Omran in 1971 [1]. The effect of transition on health and diseases...... in populations was demonstrated by Frenkl et al in 1991 [2]. And which major public health problems following each other, and why, was underscored by LaPorte in 1995 [3]. In 2000, leaders of the world society decided to identify a range of common goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached...... by year 2015. Many of the MDG are directly or indirectly related with the major health problems, particularly those hitting the poorest: lack of clean drinking water, unhealthy environment, high maternal mortality due to lack of care for the pregnant, and lack of control of major communicable, often fatal...

  14. NPS national transit inventory, 2013 (United States)


    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  15. Nav Status & Daily Transit Report - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....

  16. 2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    England, Gordon


    The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...

  17. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan


    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  18. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach


    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  19. Entrepreneurship and Economic Transition


    Ruta Aidis


    Identification of the entrepreneur's economic function has engaged economistsfor more than 200 years. In this paper we address the issue of entrepreneurship intwo distinct ways: a) as it has historically developed within the field of economicsand b) as it develops in the transitional context. In contrast to advanced westerneconomies, productive entrepreneurship cannot be taken for granted in transitioncountries. Therefore we propose a working definition and model for productiveentrepreneurshi...

  20. Empowering Students in Transition


    Ann-Catherine Sullivan


    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was str...

  1. Eccentricity from transit photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon


    and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with $\\sigma$ = 0.049 $\\pm$ 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. Our findings are helpful in identifying which...... (TTVs), and we present some previously unreported TTVs. Finally transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets and we use our measurements to confirm six new exoplanets....

  2. The Need for Transition (United States)


    Many wonder if the transition that occurred, or failed to occur in Iraq in the spring and summer of 2003, was a byproduct of poor planning or was believed that Phases I-III would take up to as much as 135 days, while General Tommy Franks, CENTCOM Commander, explained to President Bush on...The Royal United Services Institute 2003. Franks, Tommy , with Malcolm McConnell, American Soldier, New York: Reagan Books, 2004. Gordon

  3. Empowerment translated to transition


    Chatterjee, Susmita


    This is well noted that women have been subjugated by the throes of patriarchy. They have been bounded by certain gendered social and cultural norms.In this study, we have found that being empowered by joining the self help gropus and with change in lifestyle factors along with sense of self esteem women influence the child birth decision which is leading to demographic transition irrespectiv of their settlement places.

  4. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  5. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu


    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  6. [Peruvian demographic transition]. (United States)

    Carbajal Chirinos, C


    The demographic transition is conceptualized as the historic change from high to low fertility and mortality rates in a population. Peru's population was reduced by an estimated 80% as a result of new diseases, destruction of the economy, and the brutal regime of colonial exploitation after the Spanish conquest. From colonial times to the least the 1940s, Peru's principal population problem was the scarcity of manpower. The population grew at an annual rate of about .03% between 1650 and 1800, increasing to about 1.3% between 1876 and 1940. High fertility throughout the 19th century and a stabilization of mortality due to reduced incidence and deadliness of epidemics contributed to the increased growth rate. In the 1940s the process of demographic transition was initiated by abrupt declines in mortality. The crude death rate declined from 27/1000 in 1940 to 16/1000 in 1961 and 9/1000 in 1988, with the rate still declining. Fertility remained high and possibly increased slightly. The crude birth rate was estimated at 45/1000 in 1940 and 45.4/1000 in 1961. Improvements in infant and general mortality rates in developing countries like Peru result from diffusion of technological advances in prevention and control of diseases and improvement in health services rather than from changes in the economic and social structure. The 3rd phase of the demographic transition began with declines in fertility from 45.4/1000 in 1961 to 42.0/1000 in 1972 and 36.0/1000 in 1981. Despite declines, mortality and fertility continue to be elevated in Peru. The theory of demographic transition views the reduction of infant mortality, improvements in health and educational conditions and the condition of women, and more equitable income distribution as essential for a true decline in birth rates. In Peru, however, fertility has declined in a context of deteriorating living conditions and in the absence of effective family planning programs. The process of demographic transition must be

  7. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.


    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  8. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua


    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln


    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  10. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik


    Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...

  11. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y


    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  12. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang


    Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution...

  13. Semiconducting transition metal oxides (United States)

    Lany, Stephan


    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using

  14. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

  15. 309 Building transition plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.


    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  16. Physical education in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran


    Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.

  17. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  18. Structural Analysis of the Exhumed SEMP Fault Zone, Austria: Towards an Understanding of the Mechanics of Shear Zone Localization (United States)

    Frost, E. K.; Dolan, J. F.; Sammis, C. G.; Hacker, B.; Ratschbacher, L.; Decker, K.; Cole, J.


    One of the most exciting frontiers in earthquake science is the linkage between the internal structure and mechanical behavior of fault zones. Little is known about how fault-zone structure varies as a function of depth, yet such understanding is vital if we are to understand the mechanical instabilities that control the nucleation and propagation of seismic ruptures. This has led us to the Oligo-Miocene Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg [SEMP] fault zone in Austria, a major left-lateral strike-slip fault that has been exhumed differentially such that it exposes a continuum of structural levels along strike. In order to establish the structure of this fault zone, we are studying outcrops at a variety of exhumation levels, from <1 km near the eastern end of the fault, downward through the seismogenic crust, across the brittle- ductile transition, and into the uppermost part of the lower crust in western Austria. Here we present new results and discuss the mechanical implications of these new data from two key outcrops at Gstatterboden and Taxenbach, where the SEMP has experienced 40-60 km of displacement. The outcrop at Gstatterboden has been exhumed from 2-3 km depth. Here the SEMP juxtaposes limestone of the Wettersteinkalk on the south with dolomite of the Ramsaudolomit on the north. Faulting has produced extremely asymmetric damage, extensively shattering and shearing the dolomite while leaving the limestone largely intact. We interpret this brittle damage using both mesoscopic calculations of damage intensity and microscopic grain size distribution analysis, which suggests that shear has localized to a zone approximately 10 m wide. These findings are compared to the brittle-ductile outcrop at Taxenbach, which has been exhumed from depths of up to 10 km. Here, the SEMP juxtaposes Greywacke Zone rocks with carbonate mylonites of the Klammkalk. Microstructural observations of grain size and lattice preferred orientation suggest a marked increase in strain within

  19. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye


    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  20. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye


    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  1. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero


    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  2. Steered transition path sampling. (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan


    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  3. Strategic planning in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim


    In this paper, we analyse how contested transitions in planning rationalities and spatial logics have shaped the processes and outputs of recent episodes of Danish ‘strategic spatial planning’. The practice of ‘strategic spatial planning’ in Denmark has undergone a concerted reorientation...... style of ‘strategic spatial planning’ with its associated spatial logics is continuously challenged by a persistent regulatory, top-down rationality of ‘strategic spatial planning’, rooted in spatial Keynesianism, which has long characterised the Danish approach. The findings reveal the emergence...... of a particularly Danish approach, retaining strong regulatory aspects. However this approach does not sit easily within the current neoliberal political climate, raising concerns of an emerging crisis of ‘strategic spatial planning’....

  4. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben


    The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social...... problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes....

  5. Managing a Leader Transition Process (United States)


    GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR MILITARY LEADERSHIP WRITING COMPETITION SUBMISSION Managing a Leader Transition Process Major Michael B. Siegl 23...DATE 23 FEB 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing a Leader Transition Process 5a...1 Managing a Leader Transition Process …one should bear in mind that there is nothing more difficult to execute, nor more dubious of

  6. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  7. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov


    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  8. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.


    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  9. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.


    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  10. Representing vertex-transitive Vertex-transitive graphs on Groupoids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertex-transitive graphs are one of the most favoured class of graphs in modelling scientific phenomena if symmetry is at issue. An understanding of these graphs should, therefore, be an obvious undertaking. Here, we present a characterisation of vertex-transitive graphs as left loop graphs and expose the measure of ...

  11. Evaluation of deep moonquake source parameters: Implication for fault characteristics and thermal state (United States)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Satoshi


    While deep moonquakes are seismic events commonly observed on the Moon, their source mechanism is still unexplained. The two main issues are poorly constrained source parameters and incompatibilities between the thermal profiles suggested by many studies and the apparent need for brittle properties at these depths. In this study, we reinvestigated the deep moonquake data to reestimate its source parameters and uncover the characteristics of deep moonquake faults that differ from those on Earth. We first improve the estimation of source parameters through spectral analysis using "new" broadband seismic records made by combining those of the Apollo long- and short-period seismometers. We use the broader frequency band of the combined spectra to estimate corner frequencies and DC values of spectra, which are important parameters to constrain the source parameters. We further use the spectral features to estimate seismic moments and stress drops for more than 100 deep moonquake events from three different source regions. This study revealed that deep moonquake faults are extremely smooth compared to terrestrial faults. Second, we reevaluate the brittle-ductile transition temperature that is consistent with the obtained source parameters. We show that the source parameters imply that the tidal stress is the main source of the stress glut causing deep moonquakes and the large strain rate from tides makes the brittle-ductile transition temperature higher. Higher transition temperatures open a new possibility to construct a thermal model that is consistent with deep moonquake occurrence and pressure condition and thereby improve our understandings of the deep moonquake source mechanism.

  12. Bank lending in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.


    Bank privatization and tighter credit enforcement are believed indispensable to facilitate the Eastern European transition process. We analyze lending by value-maximizing banks, the only source of capital in the transition, faced by non-performing loans to the state-owned sector. We show that banks

  13. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Fisher, R.M.; Gardner, A.; Kiers, E.T.


    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed

  14. Mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-Cr compacts strengthened by nanodispersed yttria particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany); Heintze, Cornelia [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Institute of Safty Research; Bergner, Frank [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Weissgaerber, Thomas [Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Branch Lab Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials; Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Department of High Performance Sintered Materials


    Oxide dispersion strengthening of high-Cr steels is a well-recognized way to extend the application window including nuclear applications for this class of materials. The experimental investigation of model alloys of less complexity is important in order to separate individual influence factors and to understand the irradiation behaviour. The present work is devoted to the mechanical properties of ODS Fe-9wt%Cr alloys produced by means of spark plasma sintering. The range of material conditions covers contents of nanodispersed yttria of 0 (reference), 0.3 wt%, and 0.6 wt% as well as variations of the milling time. Results obtained for the density, elastic properties, hardness, tensile behaviour, and brittle-ductile transition are reported, and the effect of ODS content and PM process parameters is discussed. (orig.)

  15. On the micromechanics of brittle fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokl, M.L. (Barnwell Industries, Inc., Fairlawn, NJ (US)); Vitek, V.; McMahon, C.J. Jr. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Burgers, P. (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen, Providence, RI (USA))


    The response of a deformable solid, in which dislocations are assumed to be highly mobile, to the presence of a loaded crack has been examined, and two cases have been considered. In the first case, that of a crack which pre-exists at zero load, it was confirmed that dislocation emission from the crack tip always precludes brittle crack propagation. In the second case, a microcrack is injected into the loaded deformable solid, for example, due to the cracking of a brittle inclusion. In this case simultaneous dislocation emission and brittle crack propagation can occur, depending on the cohesive energy and the dislocation mobility. Both cases have been studied dynamically, assuming fast moving dislocations, and the effect of the presence of dislocations upon the crack-tip field was fully taken into account. The implications of these results for understanding the brittle-ductile transition and impurity-induced intergranular embrittlement are discussed.

  16. Internal friction and physicomechanical properties of solids (United States)

    Kardashev, B. K.


    Different aspects of applying the physical acoustics methods (in particular, internal friction method) in mechanics, optics, and radiation solid-state physics are considered. The results of acoustic experiments in situ upon plastic deformation and under the irradiation of crystals by high-energy (8 MeV) protons are discussed. The acoustic technique for studying the microplasticity of solids in a wide range of vibrational stress amplitudes is described. An example of studying the acoustooptic interactions in the defect structure of a wide-gap HgI2 semiconductor crystal is shown. The possibility of using acoustic measurements for investigating the mechanisms of brittle-ductile transition in bcc alloys is discussed.

  17. Internal friction and physicomechanical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardashev, B. K., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)


    Different aspects of applying the physical acoustics methods (in particular, internal friction method) in mechanics, optics, and radiation solid-state physics are considered. The results of acoustic experiments in situ upon plastic deformation and under the irradiation of crystals by high-energy (8 MeV) protons are discussed. The acoustic technique for studying the microplasticity of solids in a wide range of vibrational stress amplitudes is described. An example of studying the acoustooptic interactions in the defect structure of a wide-gap HgI{sub 2} semiconductor crystal is shown. The possibility of using acoustic measurements for investigating the mechanisms of brittle-ductile transition in bcc alloys is discussed.

  18. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.


    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  19. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André


    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  20. Dislocation model for aseismic crustal deformation at Hollister, California (United States)

    Matsuura, Mitsuhiro; Jackson, David D.; Cheng, Abe


    A model of crustal deformation during the interseismic phase is developed and applied (using the improved Bayesian inversion algorithm described by Jackson and Matsu'ura, 1985) to trilateration data for the USGS Hollister (CA) network. In the model, rigid blocks in motion relative to each other experience friction only in a brittle upper zone, while their ductile lower zones slide freely; the Hollister model comprises five blocks and nine rectangular fault patches. The data and results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps and characterized in detail. The model predicts steady block motion on time scales between 10 yr and 1 Myr, with net motion across the San Andreas/Calaveras fault system 38 + or - 3 mm/yr and brittle/ductile transition depths ranging from 0.4 to 11 km. Two San Andreas segments with higher probabilities of moderate-to-large earthquakes are identified.

  1. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven


    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  2. Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Seoane, Luís F


    Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.

  3. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is satisfied...

  4. Observational biases for transiting planets (United States)

    Kipping, David M.; Sandford, Emily


    Observational biases distort our view of nature, such that the patterns we see within a surveyed population of interest are often unrepresentative of the truth we seek. Transiting planets currently represent the most informative data set on the ensemble properties of exoplanets within 1 au of their star. However, the transit method is inherently biased due to both geometric and detection-driven effects. In this work, we derive the overall observational biases affecting the most basic transit parameters from first principles. By assuming a trapezoidal transit and using conditional probability, we infer the expected distribution of these terms both as a joint distribution and in a marginalized form. These general analytic results provide a baseline against which to compare trends predicted by mission-tailored injection/recovery simulations and offer a simple way to correct for observational bias. Our results explain why the observed population of transiting planets displays a non-uniform impact parameter distribution, with a bias towards near-equatorial geometries. We also find that the geometric bias towards observed planets transiting near periastron is attenuated by the longer durations which occur near apoastron. Finally, we predict that the observational bias with respect to ratio-of-radii is super-quadratic, scaling as (RP/R⋆)5/2, driven by an enhanced geometric transit probability and modestly longer durations.

  5. Transition Probabilities of Gd I (United States)

    Bilty, Katherine; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.


    Rare earth transition probabilities are needed within the astrophysics community to determine rare earth abundances in stellar photospheres. The current work is part an on-going study of rare earth element neutrals. Transition probabilities are determined by combining radiative lifetimes measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atom beam with branching fractions measured from high resolution Fourier transform spectra. Neutral rare earth transition probabilities will be helpful in improving abundances in cool stars in which a significant fraction of rare earths are neutral. Transition probabilities are also needed for research and development in the lighting industry. Rare earths have rich spectra containing 100's to 1000's of transitions throughout the visible and near UV. This makes rare earths valuable additives in Metal Halide - High Intensity Discharge (MH-HID) lamps, giving them a pleasing white light with good color rendering. This poster presents the work done on neutral gadolinium. We will report radiative lifetimes for 135 levels and transition probabilities for upwards of 1500 lines of Gd I. The lifetimes are reported to ±5% and the transition probabilities range from 5% for strong lines to 25% for weak lines. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CTS 0613277 and the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881.

  6. Transitions in a wicked environment. (United States)

    Hudson, Rhett; Comer, Linda; Whichello, Ramona


    The aim of this review is to synthesize the current body of knowledge concerning transitional care for patients 65 years of age and older moving from the acute care setting to home. Transitional care is a timely topic as hospital days of care decrease whereas patient needs grow more complex as a result of aging populations. This review considers evidence-based research as well as reports, case studies and literature reviews related to transitional care. International articles are included. The authors explore transitional care through the lens of wicked problems; problems that appear seemingly intractable and are characterized by inter-related dilemmas, contradictory agendas, and multi-layered societal, economic and political influences. Outcome measures of success, barriers to achieving successful transitional care and effectiveness of interventions are investigated. While the literature offers specific strategies that positively affect transitional care, there are few strategies that do not negatively affect an alternate agenda. Conscientious leaders should consider transitional care in the context of its wicked nature in order to achieve optimal patient care. Stakeholders include: hospital administrators, nurse leaders, direct-care nurses, acute care and primary care clinicians, patients, caregivers, community agencies, health sciences educators and insurers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Nicola Cufaro [INFN Sezione di Bari, INFM Unitadi Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universitae del Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [INFM Unitadi Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli - Gruppo collegato di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universitadi Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno (Italy)


    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first significant application we present a detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  8. New graduate nurses in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier


    was to review existing research literature, and in doing so, investigate transition programmes for new graduate nurses (NGN) into mental health care, and their experiences of role transition and evaluations of participation in transition programmes. The literature review spans literature published after...... the year 2000. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Pubmed. Search results consisting of 14 articles were analysed using thematic analysis. Results from the analysis showed four overall themes: nursing...

  9. The 2012 Transit of Venus (United States)

    Deans, P.


    On June 5-6, 2012, much of the world will experience an event that will not occur again for another 105 years - a transit of Venus. During the 18th and 19th centuries, astronomers made arduous trips to remote corners of Earth to make Venus transit observations in an attempt to calculate the Earth-Sun distance. Today a transit of Venus is simply a rare spectacle. But it is important to take care when viewing it, because observing the Sun is dangerous if proper filters for eye protection are not used.

  10. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van


    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  11. Empowering Students in Transition. (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann-Catherine


    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students' attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire and the Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention: positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student's familiarity with university students, and the environment, and, lastly, the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the Best of Both Worlds (BOBW) students were not confident in starting conversations with their university peers. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  12. Empowering Students in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Catherine Sullivan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (a identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus, and (b to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they don’t feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire; and The Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention; positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student’s familiarity with university students, and the environment and lastly the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the BOBW students were not confident in starting conversations with their university. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  13. Empowering Students in Transition (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann-Catherine


    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire and the Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention: positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student’s familiarity with university students, and the environment, and, lastly, the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the Best of Both Worlds (BOBW) students were not confident in starting conversations with their university peers. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  14. Moved by a Rapid Transit (United States)

    Bueter, C.


    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  15. NPS National Transit Inventory, 2012 (United States)


    Working in coordination with the NPS regions and the U.S. Department of Transportations Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, the Alternative transportation program (ATP) developed a definition of National Park Service (NPS) transit system...

  16. Transitions to Retirement: A Review


    Jeff Borland


    This paper presents a conceptual framework for thinking about issues associated with the transition to retirement by older workers, and then reviews available Australian and international empirical evidence and literature on this topic.

  17. Multiple paths in educational transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    In many countries educational branching points consist of more than two qualitatively different alternatives, and only some alternatives provide the opportunity of continuing into higher education. I develop a multinomial transition model for modeling the effects of family background characterist...

  18. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  19. Trade Policy of Transition Economics


    Moraga-Gonzalez, José Luis; Viaene, Jean-Marie


    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity. These elements are embedded in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation and international trade. First, we show that trade liberalization in transition economies reduces the output of lo...

  20. Non-Transitive Consumer Behavior


    Fuchs-Seliger, Susanne


    Rational choice when preferences are not required to be transitive and complete has been discussed in the literature for years. In this article transitivity and completeness of the preference relation is also not assumed. It will be shown that nevertheless the existence of a competitive equilibrium can be proven when those properties are replaced by a domination property which allows that there could be cicles among those alternatives which are of less importance for the individual and which ...

  1. Learning phase transitions by confusion (United States)

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Liu, Ye-Hua; Huber, Sebastian D.


    Classifying phases of matter is key to our understanding of many problems in physics. For quantum-mechanical systems in particular, the task can be daunting due to the exponentially large Hilbert space. With modern computing power and access to ever-larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine-learning techniques. Here, we propose a neural-network approach to finding phase transitions, based on the performance of a neural network after it is trained with data that are deliberately labelled incorrectly. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to the development of a generic tool for identifying unexplored phase transitions.

  2. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions. (United States)

    Solé, Ricard


    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Narratives about labour market transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie


    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexic......In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research...... on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...

  4. Hypocritical transitions? The challenge of urban sustainable mobility transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Nina

    This paper addresses the issue of sustainable urban mobility and the still persisting problems of implementing this objective, illuminated by current planning practice in the municipality of Fredericia in the so called Triangle Region of southern Denmark. The core questions are whether any imprints...... of a sustainable mobility discourse can be traced in the policy documents, how mobility is framed, and which arguments are used to legitimate or envision strategies and planning practices. Is Fredericia performing a transition towards low-carbon mobility? The paper will draw on concepts from transition theory...

  5. Major transitions in human evolution. (United States)

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris


    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel


    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  7. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Researching literacy practices in transition Postmodern societies are characterized by constant, fast and unpredictable mobility of people, goods, ideas and values. These mobilities are often visualized as a movement from one place to another, as a temporary interference of the stability of fixed...... places. An alternative take on mobilty sees movement as the default and change as the normal way of being rather than the exception (Barton, 2012). This understanding of change is central to the framing concept of this symposium: transition. Transitional processes around literacy are significant because...... literacy is something that is taught and learned, that is adopted, transformed and appropriated and that is used to categorize and classify people (Holm & Pitkänen-Huhta, 2012). Based on detailed empirical studies in the Nordic countries, the aim of this symposium is to discuss how to explore and research...

  8. Citizen involvement in green transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders


    Citizen involvement in green transition: negotiating the tension between participation and environmental effectiveness Anders Horsbøl, Aalborg University Citizen involvement plays an important role in many governmental and municipal attempts towards green transition, reflecting a departure from...... a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens in more open-ended decision making (Lassen et al. 2011, Phillips et. al, 2012). However, there is often a tension between the participatory ambitions on the one hand and predetermined environmental goal...... in the form of a case study investigating how four municipality associated partners in Sweden and Denmark embark on a common project on citizen involvement as an avenue to green transition. At the outset of the project each partner identified different environmental goals such as reduction of electricity...

  9. Transition metals in superheat melts (United States)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick


    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  10. The Transitional Legend of Winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević


    Full Text Available During 2006 a number of stories that featured the motive of great gain under dramatic circumstances were repeatedly told in betting-houses in Kragujevac, a town in Serbia. The main character of these legends is an empoverished victim of transition who, thanks to luck and help of friends, wins a great sum of money betting. Besides describing the preceding transitional "fall" of the winner (getting fired, failing in private enterprise, the legends describe his economical and social prosperity initiated by capital gained through betting (starting succesfull enterprises, buying good shares. Diachronically following other "sudden wealth" legends this transitional legend speaks about the establishing of a new system of values that, in the categories of social promotion, makes up for the old principles that marked the period of socialism.

  11. Understanding epidemiological transition in India (United States)

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam


    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  12. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Avelino (Flor)


    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts

  13. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril


    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  14. Dewetting Transitions in Protein Cavities * (United States)

    Young, Tom; Hua, Lan; Huang, Xuhui; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard; Berne, B. J.


    In a previous analysis of the solvation of protein active sites, a drying transition was observed in the narrow hydrophobic binding cavity of Cox-2. With the use of a crude metric that often seems able to discriminate those protein cavities that dry from those that do not, we made an extensive search of the pdb, and identified five other proteins that, in molecular dynamics simulations, undergo drying transitions in their active sites. Because such cavities need not desolvate before binding hydrophobic ligands they often exhibit very large binding affinities. This paper gives evidence that drying in protein cavities is not unique to Cox-2. PMID:20225258

  15. The work of cultural transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.


    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting...... cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews...

  16. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity.

  17. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina


    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  18. Socialising transgender support in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kate, Norman


    An evaluation of social support to transgender people relating to gender identity, gender transition, discrimination and mental health, leading to consideration of the niche for transgender people in a bi-gendered society, and of the developing socialization of transgender which counter-balances the consequences of its initial medicalization.

  19. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Canada. M Vaz1, S Yusuf2, A V Bharathi1, A V Kurpad1, S Swaminathan1. NUTRITION IN INDIA. The nutrition transition in India. The World Health Report 2002 introduced the ...

  20. Developmental transitions: So what's new?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Hopkins, B.


    Structural approaches to development, such as Piaget's stage theory, have proved to be problematic in dealing with developmental transitions. More promising in this respect are models of qualitative change that address macroscopical phase shifts in non-linear dynamicalsystems that arise from

  1. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D


    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d <0, and/or with the induced G-non-conser...

  2. The transiting system GJ1214

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T.C.


    . The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ 1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainites as low as 10 s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainity in the orbital period...

  3. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.


    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...

  4. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  5. Metal-to-nonmetal transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hensel, Friedrich; Holst, Bastian


    This book is devoted to nonmetal-to-metal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quark-gluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the transition from localized to delocalized states which describes the nonmetal-to-metal transition in these diverse systems. Based on the ideas of Mott, Hubbard, Anderson as well as Landau and Zeldovich, internationally respected scientists present the scientific challenges and highlight the enormous progress which has been achieved over the last years. The level of description is aimed to specialists in these fields as well as to young scientists who will get an overview for their own work...

  6. Transition metals in plant photosynthesis. (United States)

    Yruela, Inmaculada


    Transition metals are involved in essential biological processes in plants since they are cofactors of metalloproteins and also act as regulator elements. Particularly, plant chloroplasts are organelles with high transition metal ion demand because metalloproteins are involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The transition metal requirement of photosynthetic organisms greatly exceeds that of non-photosynthetic organisms, and either metal deficiency or metal excess strongly impacts photosynthetic functions. In chloroplasts, the transition metal ion requirement needs a homeostasis network that strictly regulates metal uptake, chelation, trafficking and storage since under some conditions metals cause toxicity. This review gives an overview of the current understanding of main features concerning the role of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in plant photosynthesis as well as the mechanisms involved in their homeostasis within chloroplasts. The metalloproteins functioning in photosynthetic proteins of plants as well as those proteins participating in the metal transport and metal binding assembly are reviewed. Furthermore, the role of nickel (Ni) in artificial photosynthesis will be discussed.

  7. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire


    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  8. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units. (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  9. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda


    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  10. Transition Metal Complexes and Catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Transition Metal Complexes and Catalysis. Balaji R Jagirdar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 63-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  11. Transition From Plan to Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    This paper gives an overview over how far transition has proceeded and what is still lacking in the process. The analytical framework – the PIE model for Politics, Institutions, Economy – is introduced. The model is first used to point to the main reasons for the fall of the command economy. Then...

  12. The transition to hospital consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W.; Jorgensen, Rasmus Lundhus


    Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and generic comp...... competencies, perceived intensity and burnout were compared. Additionally, effects of differences in working conditions and cultural dimensions were explored....

  13. Transitions in a globalising world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Martens (Pim); J. Rotmans (Jan)


    textabstractThe increasing complexity of our global society means that sustainable development cannot be addressed from a single perspective or scientific discipline. By using the concept of transitions, we examine current and future tensions between welfare, well-being and the environment, and

  14. Symmetry in labeled transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. van Langevelde


    textabstractSymmetry is defined for labeled transition systems, and it is shown how symmetrical systems can be symmetrically decomposed into components. The central question is under what conditions one such component may represent the whole system, in the sense that one symmetrical system is

  15. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions (United States)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie


    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  16. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  17. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... symmetry structure at finite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic field and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and ...

  18. Transition Room Program, 1967 Report. (United States)

    Glassner, Leonard E.

    The Transition Room Program of the Pittsburgh Schools was defined and evaluated by the staff, the administration, and a program evaluator from the Office of Research. The definition included general objectives, anticipated outcomes, student criteria and characteristics, staff qualifications and functions, media, student activities, and staff…

  19. On P-transitive graphs and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lenzi


    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of graphs which we call P-transitive graphs, lying between transitive and 3-transitive graphs. First we show that the analogue of de Jongh-Sambin Theorem is false for wellfounded P-transitive graphs; then we show that the mu-calculus fixpoint hierarchy is infinite for P-transitive graphs. Both results contrast with the case of transitive graphs. We give also an undecidability result for an enriched mu-calculus on P-transitive graphs. Finally, we consider a polynomial time reduction from the model checking problem on arbitrary graphs to the model checking problem on P-transitive graphs. All these results carry over to 3-transitive graphs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  1. Out-of-transit Refracted Light in the Atmospheres of Transiting and Non-transiting Exoplanets (United States)

    Dalba, Paul A.


    Before an exoplanet transit, atmospheric refraction bends light into the line of sight of an observer. The refracted light forms a stellar mirage—a distorted secondary image of the host star. I model this phenomenon and the resultant out-of-transit flux increase across a comprehensive exoplanetary parameter space. At visible wavelengths, Rayleigh scattering limits the detectability of stellar mirages in most exoplanetary systems with semimajor axes ≲ 6 {au}. A notable exception is almost any planet orbiting a late M or ultra-cool dwarf star at ≳ 0.5 {au}, where the maximum relative flux increase is >50 parts per million. Based partly on previous work, I propose that the importance of refraction in an exoplanet system is governed by two angles: the orbital distance divided by the stellar radius and the total deflection achieved by a ray in the optically thin portion of the atmosphere. Atmospheric lensing events caused by non-transiting exoplanets, which allow for exoplanet detection and atmospheric characterization, are also investigated. I derive the basic formalism to determine the total signal-to-noise ratio of an atmospheric lensing event, with application to Kepler data. It is unlikely that out-of-transit refracted light signals are clearly present in Kepler data due to Rayleigh scattering and the bias toward short-period exoplanets. However, observations at long wavelengths (e.g., the near-infrared) are significantly more likely to detect stellar mirages. Lastly, I discuss the potential for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite to detect refracted light and consider novel science cases enabled by refracted light spectra from the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. Central Okanagan smart transit plan : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.A. [IBI Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This report outlines the steps and financial aspects of implementing the smart transit plan for the Central Okanagan region, one of British Columbia's fastest growing regions. The plan, which is designed to enhance transit services, is affordable by all stakeholders and is adjustable, based on levels of ridership and availability of resources. The region is expected to grow from 160,000 to 225,000 people by 2021. Transit ridership has grown from just over 1 million passengers per year 10 years ago to almost 3 million passengers in 2003. This strong growth provides an opportunity to pursue a transit plan and land use plan that supports efficient modes of transportation such as transit, walking and cycling. This Smart Transit project involved collaboration with stakeholders to develop a vision for sustainable transit for the region; guidelines for promoting transit-supportive land use development and a business plan to direct transit investments to achieve the transit vision. The existing conditions of the transit system were described with reference to ridership performance by route, current transit ridership, recommended priorities, bus stop inventory, and comparison to other transit systems. Currently, the transit system in the Okanagan region has higher than average ridership compared to similar Canadian systems. It is also as cost-effective as similar sized transit systems. Areas of improvement include better on-time transit service reliability; reduction in the level of graffiti and vandalism and the need to expand off-peak services. Historical and projected future transit system performance was also discussed with reference to system growth, productivity and cost. tabs., figs.

  3. Children’s everyday transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte


    This chapter analyses children’s everyday transitions across home and the day-care institution, as well as between different activities and communities. Employing a cultural-historical approach, historical and socio-structural conditions for everyday life are analysed on the basis of subjective...... meanings and experiences of action possibilities (Chaiklin, Hedegaard, & Jensen, 1999). Employing the concept of conduct of everyday life (Dreier, 2008, 2011; Holzkamp, 2013; Højholt & Kousholt, 2017), this chapter analyses the active, creative and coordinating processes involved in leading a compound...... everyday life. Analysing transitions from the children’s perspective produces knowledge about how children actively deal with and arrange their conditions as they move between different communities and practices, as well as the struggles and possibilities involved, which are not always visible to adult...

  4. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material......The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate projects, which promote sustainable transi-tion in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local intermediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing associations; NGO...

  5. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek


    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  6. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)


    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  7. Electroweak phase transition recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc


    Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.

  8. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana


    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

  9. Dark photons from nuclear transitions (United States)

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan


    Light new particles can be emitted in decays of excited nuclear states. Experiments analyzing such transitions and incorporating high-resolution detectors can be sensitive to new MeV-scale physics at a level competitive with upcoming collider and other fixed target experiments, provided sufficient luminosity. We demonstrate this in the case of the Be 8 system, showing that searches targeting the reported anomaly in Be 8 nuclear transitions can also be sensitive to currently unexplored regions of the canonical dark photon parameter space with 1 MeV ≲mA'≲18 MeV and ɛ2≳10-7 . These experiments could be performed on a short time scale, at low cost, and directly probe both the hadronic and leptonic couplings of light hidden particles.

  10. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren


    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace......-Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice...

  11. Transitions from High School to College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Venezia; Laura Jaeger


    .... Andrea Venezia and Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs in place to help them transition to college, and efforts to improve those transitions...

  12. How Theories of Organization Inform Transition Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mossel, Allard; van Rijnsoever, Frank; Hekkert, Marko

    In historical socio-technical transitions, organizations functioned as the principal drivers of transitions, invented the defining innovations, and created the cognitive and normative rules that led industries to embrace the innovation and associated behavior. Yet, despite their importance, the

  13. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue (United States)


    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  14. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue. (United States)


    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  15. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.


    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  16. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej


    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  17. Women in Transition at Midlife


    Rawson, Kay T.


    Women in modern America are living longer than ever before and society 's expectations are changing. In 1900, it was expected that most women would die in their forties or early fifties. However, with today's life expectancy of approximately 80 years. midlife is a viable component of a woman's total life course. Since midlife is an important part of the lives of today's women, this study examines the elements of well-being in midlife women over three transitional periods surrounding the half ...

  18. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN


    Full Text Available the statuses. Status models the normal behaviour of the life cycle in the real world, items are first scheduled, then become active, can be suspended and reactivated again and finally may become disabled, when they reached their expiry. These are the four... of the four status attributes, while scheduled, suspended and disabled classes can only have their corresponding attributes, i.e. scheduled, suspended or disabled only. Transition records migration of elements from source to target element, be they objects...

  19. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 µ2(σ2 +π2) + 1. 4λ(σ2 +π2)2. (2). For µ2. 0 chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. Theσ field can be used to represent the quark condensate, the order parameter for chiral phase transition and the pions are the. Goldstone bosons. At the tree level the sigma, pion and the quark masses are given by m2 σ =3λσ2 cl µ2; m2.

  20. Latent entrepreneurship in transition economies


    Atasoy, Hilal


    Because entrepreneurial activity can stimulate job creation and long-term economic growth, promoting entrepreneurship is an important goal. However, many financial, bureaucratic, and social barriers can short-circuit the process of actually starting a business, especially in transition economies that lack established institutional systems and markets. The main obstacles are underdeveloped financial markets, perceptions of administrative complexity, political and economic instability, and lack...

  1. Nucleon Resonance Transition Form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI) (Armenia)


    We discuss recent results from CLAS on electromagnetic resonance transition amplitudes and their dependence on the distance scale (Q2). From the comparison of these results with most advanced theoretical calculations within QCD-based approaches there is clear evidence that meson-baryon contributions are present and important at large distances, i.e. small Q2, and that quark core contributions dominate the short distance behavior.

  2. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert


    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further...... divided into cyclization reactions to carbocycles and branching reactions at terminal and non-terminal positions. In addition, carbon-oxygen and carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions are illustrated by various oxidation and reduction procedures...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj


    Full Text Available Most of the transition countries in Europe had significant benefits from the EU enlargement but the positive effects depend also from the structure of the economy and reforms of these countries. It’s important to analyze: if transition countries ensured sustainable economic reforms or just short term stability and emergent solutions. This paper will address international competitiveness which is the main challenge for the transition countries but also for the EU. First, monopoly position of some international firms in local markets and lack of creativity and innovations of the local firms, especially in Western Balkans due to lack of institutional support and non-stable business environment. The problem of creativity and lack of innovations by the firms is also a serious issue for the EU countries. The second important issue is large productivity gap. The recent global financial crisis as well as EU crises present the difficulties in the Euro zone and highlighted the interdependence of national economies and the convergence problems within European Union. The third challenge is absorption capacity for the structural and cohesion funds. The past experience of Central European countries shows that success in effectively using the EU financial and technical assistance is positively related with the success of countries on creating sustainable economic development and international competitiveness. Fourth issue is that some transition countries achieved economic growth but due to unequal distribution of welfare on these countries there is no significant reduce of unemployment and social cohesion. Last but not least the international competitiveness in most of the countries is harmed by the lack of functional institutions due to high level of corruption, inefficiency, rule of law, the lack of transparency and accountability.

  4. Geometrical Aspects of Venus Transit

    CERN Document Server

    Bertuola, Alberto C; Magalhães, N S; Filho, Victo S


    We obtained two astronomical values, the Earth-Venus distance and Venus diameter, by means of a geometrical treatment of photos taken of Venus transit in June of 2012. Here we presented the static and translational modelsthat were elaborated taking into account the Earth and Venus orbital movements. An additional correction was also added by considering the Earth rotation movement. The results obtained were compared with the values of reference from literature, showing very good concordance.

  5. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.


    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  6. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  7. Exploring the new phase transition of CDT


    Coumbe, D. N.; Gizbert-Studnicki, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.


    This work focuses on the newly discovered bifurcation phase transition of CDT quantum gravity. We define various order parameters and investigate which is most suitable to study this transition in numerical simulations. By analyzing the behaviour of the order parameters we present evidence that the transition separating the bifurcation phase and the physical phase of CDT is likely a second or higher-order transition, a result that may have important implications for the continuum limit of CDT.

  8. Exploring the new phase transition of CDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbe, D.N. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gizbert-Studnicki, J.; Jurkiewicz, J. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,ul. prof. Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, PL 30-348 (Poland)


    This work focuses on the newly discovered bifurcation phase transition of CDT quantum gravity. We define various order parameters and investigate which is most suitable to study this transition in numerical simulations. By analyzing the behaviour of the order parameters we present evidence that the transition separating the bifurcation phase and the physical phase of CDT is likely a second or higher-order transition, a result that may have important implications for the continuum limit of CDT.

  9. Transition on Hypersonic Vehicles with Crossflow (United States)


    t=520 seconds, the rest of the payload was turbulent. Mach number varied slightly throughout the test window from M=7.7 to M=7.9. During the same...and the transitional heat transfer. Heat transfer near the shoulder of the model at φ=45° also showed a periodic transition progression. Figure 2...wind tunnel experiments showed that the shoulder area transition was more closely correlated with yaw. Figure 2-16 shows that transition occurred

  10. Transitions - opportunities for growth, renewal, and gratitude (United States)

    Transitions in life and career represent significant milestones and are cause for both celebration and renewed interest and commitment. The new year brings a transition in leadership of the American Society of Agronomy, and new leadership is welcomed. Transitions can include retirement, as in the c...

  11. Functional Assessment and Intervention for Transition Difficulties. (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Vorndran, Christina M.


    A study investigated the use of functional assessment for the transition difficulties of an 11-year-old girl with multiple disabilities who engaged in flopping to the ground during transitions. Assessment information led to the scheduling of a period for interaction immediately following problematic transitions and resulted in reduced rates of…

  12. A Smoother Transition for Black Teens (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl


    For all students, the transition to high school may lead to lower academic achievement and adjustment problems. Black students are at greater risk for academic and social decline during this transition. Holcomb-McCoy identifies four obstacles that make black students more vulnerable as they navigate the transition into high school: stereotyping in…

  13. Managing Change and Transition, Creating a Future (United States)

    Liu, Karen


    Beginning in childhood and on into adulthood, people experience many transitions and changes in their lives. Some people cope with change better than others and make transitions easily; some people may experience a longer transition in order to integrate change. Most people have a fear of change due to uncertainty. Once a person releases that…

  14. Fluor Hanford (FH) River Corridor Transition Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Transition Plan defines the scope and schedule for actions that are critical for a smooth transition of the River Corridor scope of work and to ensure the achievement of transition as planned, with minimal or no impact to ongoing baseline activities.

  15. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri


    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  16. Fundamental Elements of Transition Program Design (United States)

    Karmelita, Courtney


    Adult learners require supports and services to help them successfully transition into taking on the demands and expectations of college students. Transition programs have grown in popularity as a means to aid adult learners as they transition to higher education. Unfortunately, previous research on adult learner participation in transition…

  17. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood (United States)

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael


    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  18. Electromagnetic transitions in the algebraic cluster model (United States)

    Bijker, R.; Díaz-Caballero, O. A.


    We study electromagnetic transition rates in the framework of the algebraic cluster model. The concept of shape-phase transitions is used to propose a mechanism that allows to have interband and intraband quadrupole transitions of comparable strength, as observed in 12C.

  19. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra


    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One…

  20. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...

  1. Transit Migration in North Cyprus (TRNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Çolak


    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the flows of transit migration to North Cyprus by type: whether or not it is labour, refugee or asylum. To determine that, the question of which push factors lay behind transit migration in the origin country tries to be answered. Also this study seeks to analyze origins, routes and destinations of transit migrants in TRNC from 2004 to 2008. In addition, the paper analyzes what kind of measures TRNC government was taking to deal with illegal transit migrants, human trafficking and smuggling through its borders, and how non-state institutions in TRNC considered and dealt with transit migrants and especially refugees.

  2. [Impact of health transition on services demand]. (United States)

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio


    Health transition is a process that determines the way a population dies and gets sick, there are several processes that contribute to the change in the health profile of a population that might be analyzed. The demographic transition, reflected in population aging and change of population structure; risk transition, which explains differential exposures to risk factors; technologic transition, as a major contributor to change in health and the epidemiologic transition that explains how the social, economic and demographic determinants impact the epidemiologic profile of a society. An analysis of the current health profile in Mexico is shown and its consequences on the health system and the need for change is discussed.

  3. Rheological diagnostic tools for state transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Ruel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Vlassopoulos, Dimitris, E-mail: [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), N. Plastira 100, 71103 Heraklion, Crete, Greece and Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)


    Thermodynamic or kinetic state transitions of six polymeric systems were probed using rheology in isothermal and nonisothermal isochronal experiments. The polymeric systems were representative of three different types of transitions: Gelation, macrophase separation, and order-disorder transitions. A phenomenological dimensionless parameter termed the relative elasticity, R, was found to be particularly sensitive to these transitions and was finitely bound by the viscous limit and the elastic limit with values of zero and one, respectively. In addition, the (time or temperature) derivative of R and tan δ (with δ being the phase angle) proved to be more sensitive to transitions as compared to the respective pure values. When compared to other methods found in literature, these new phenomenological protocols are found to be robust while providing a convenient and precise means of detecting transitions. Hence, they may complement existing methods, whereas they are beneficial to industrial or other systems exhibiting multiple transitions due to their high sensitivity.

  4. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ


    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  5. Imaging of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail:


    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common finding in the general population. Their clinical significance is controversial with no consensus as to their relationship to low back pain or disc prolapse. However, on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they may be difficult to positively identify on sagittal sequences and can lead to confusion with respect to numbering of lumbar discs and vertebrae, with the consequent risk of surgical intervention at an inappropriate level. The imaging findings of LSTV on plain radiography and MRI are reviewed and their clinical significance discussed.

  6. Phase transitions in operational risk. (United States)

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer


    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.

  7. Heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin


    The structural, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of out-of-plane and in-plane heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated by (hybrid) first principles calculations. The out-of-plane heterostructures are found to be indirect band gap semiconductors with type-II band alignment. Direct band gaps can be achieved by moderate tensile strain in specific cases. The excitonic peaks show blueshifts as compared to the parent monolayer systems, whereas redshifts occur when the chalcogen atoms are exchanged along the series S-Se-Te. Strong absorption from infrared to visible light as well as excellent photocatalytic properties can be achieved.

  8. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji


    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  9. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril


    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  10. Gibbs measures and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Georgii, Hans-Otto


    From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.

  11. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra


    Ownership is determined by firm specific factors and the environment. Firms change over their life-cycle. The governance cycle - here defined as changes in identity of the dominant owner and own-ership concentration - is marked by key phases including start-up, growth, and possibly a restructur......-ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi...

  12. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels


    We begin by identifying a typical governance life-cycle, defined as changes in ownership structure, and including both the identity of the major owner and ownership concentration. The cycle is marked by key events and phases including start-up, initial growth, mature growth, and possibly a crisis......-sures for restructuring produce strong impulses for ownership changes. There is limited possibility for external finance because of the embryonic development of the banking system and the capital markets during early transition. The governance cycle is also influenced by specific features of the institutional, cultural...

  13. Transition to Turbulent Dynamo Saturation (United States)

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Gallet, Basile; Alexakis, Alexandros


    While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction. We perform numerical simulations of the resulting set of reduced equations for Pm down to 2 ×10-5. This parameter regime is currently out of reach to fully 3D DNS. We show that the magnetic energy transitions from a high-Pm viscous scaling regime to a low-Pm turbulent scaling regime, the latter being independent of viscosity. The transition to the turbulent saturation regime occurs at a low value of the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm ≃10-3 , which explains why it has been overlooked by numerical studies so far.

  14. Nutrition transition and food sustainability. (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia


    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  15. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (United States)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras


    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  16. Securing Power during the Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electricity security has been a priority of energy policy for decades due to the dependence of modern society on ongoing supply of electricity. Only a few years ago there was confidence that liberalised electricity markets in IEA member countries could deliver sufficient and timely generation investments needed to ensure security of supply. However, policies to decarbonise electricity systems have served to magnify investment risk and uncertainty. At the same time as renewable support schemes have proven effective in facilitating deployment of wind and solar photovoltaics, they also introduce new challenges to design a stable regulatory framework and well-functioning markets. Securing Power during the Transition, a report in the Electricity Security Action Plan series, assesses the threats and identifies options for competitive electricity markets embarking on the transition towards generating electricity from low-carbon sources . The analysis covers the impact of the global economic and financial situation, energy policy context and the implications for electricity market design. Its objective is to identify opportunities to improve regulatory and market designs to create a framework for timely and adequate investment, with a particular focus on conventional power plants.

  17. Transition energies of atomic lawrencium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U. [Tel Aviv Univ., School of Chemistry (Israel); Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y. [Puerto Rico Univ., Dept. of Chemistry (United States)


    Transition energies of the superheavy element lawrencium, including the ionization potential, excitation energies and electron affinities, are calculated by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method. A large basis set (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i) is used, as well as an extensive P space (6s5p4d2f1g). The outer 43 electrons are correlated. Accuracy is monitored by applying the same approach to lutetium, the lighter homologue of Lr, and comparing with experimentally known energies. QED corrections are included. The main goal is to predict excitation energies, in anticipation of planned spectroscopy of Lr. The ground state of Lr is 7s{sup 2}7p {sup 2}P(1/2), unlike the 5d6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D(3/2) of Lu. Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20.000-30.000 cm{sup -1}, are 7p {yields} 8s at 20.100 cm{sup -1} and 7p {yields} 7d at 28.100 cm{sup -1}. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm{sup -1}, and the error limits for Lr are put at 700 cm{sup -1}. The two electron affinities measured recently for Lu are reproduced within 55 cm{sup -1}, and a third bound state of Lu{sup -} is predicted. (authors)

  18. Flocking Transition in Confluent Tissues (United States)

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Giavazzi, Fabio; Macchi, Marta; Scita, Giorgio; Cerbino, Roberto; Manning, Lisa; Marchetti, Cristina

    The emerging of collective migration in biological tissues plays a pivotal role in embryonic morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. While many aspects of single cell movements are well established, the mechanisms leading to coherent displacements of cohesive cell groups are still poorly understood. Some of us recently proposed a Self-Propelled Voronoi (SPV) model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers and exhibits a liquid-solid transition as a function of cell shape and cell motility. We now examine the role of cell polarization on collective cell dynamics by introducing an orientation mechanism that aligns cell polarization with local cell motility. The model predicts a density-independent flocking transition tuned by the strength of the aligning interaction, with both solid and liquid flocking states existing in different regions of parameter space. MP and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation Targeted Grant in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems Number: 342354 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović


    Full Text Available One of the essential constituents of the term transition, in Serbia as well as in other postsocialistic countries, refers to the transition from one development concept onto another one (extensive and mobilising, which is completely different (market-based and innovation-oriented. Market behaviour rules have changed to a great extent, as well as the increasingly present innovations in the field of technology, and introduced certain innovations in business orientation of companies. The struggle for market share is becoming more aggressive and dynamic enabling the survival of exclusively those companies which have implanted high flexibility and innovation levels into their business ambience. Globalisation is inherent in capitalism, it is its constituent logic. In future, new rules will have to be brought which would allow of the managment function to be performed within the complete business policy mutually agreed upon betwen the representatives of the capital owner and those of the personell. These regulations are necessary for long-term efficiency and profitability of private sector, as well as for the final success of economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jung Kuo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of positing a Transitivity Projection (= TrP cf. Bowers 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2002 in the BA construction in Mandarin Chinese. BA has been proposed to be a semantically-bleached verb, inserted in the v position (Huang 1997 and Lin 2001. Several pieces of evidence such as manner adverbial placement (cf. Huang, Li and Li 2009 and GEI-insertion (cf. Tang 2001 indicate that there must be a functional projection between the vP and VP to host the BA NP. I propose that a TrP is probably the most apt candidate for the XP. I also argue, in contrast to the proposal by Huang, Li and Li (2009, that the present proposal which employs a TrP captures most of the properties of the BA construction. A comparison with the structure of the BEI construction also shows that the TrP proposal fits into the general picture of current linguistic theory on transitive constructions without extra stipulations.

  1. Deconfinement transitions in a generalised XY model (United States)

    Serna, Pablo; Chalker, J. T.; Fendley, Paul


    We find the complete phase diagram of a generalised XY model that includes half-vortices. The model possesses superfluid, pair-superfluid and disordered phases, separated by Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for both the half-vortices and ordinary vortices, as well as an Ising-type transition. There also occurs an unusual deconfining phase transition, where the disordered to superfluid transition is of Ising rather than KT type. We show by analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations that there is a point in the phase diagram where the KT transition line meets the deconfining Ising phase transition. We find that the latter extends into the disordered phase not as a phase transition, but rather solely as a deconfinement transition. It is best understood in the dual height model, where on one side of the transition height steps are bound into pairs while on the other they are unbound. We also extend the phase diagram of the dual model, finding both O(2) loop model and antiferromagnetic Ising transitions.

  2. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone


    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  3. Understanding intercultural transitions of medical students. (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta L; Mansour, Nasser; Fisher, Ros


    The aim of this research was to explore the transition of medical students to an international branch campus of a medical university established in Bahrain. In order to gain insights into this transition, we explored two culturally diverse systems of learning of the university and the local schools in Bahrain, using Communities of Practice as a lens for understanding transitions. Focus groups were conducted with secondary school teachers and first year medical students. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with university lecturers. The findings suggest that, while Communities of Practice have been influential in contextualising transitions to university, this model does not seem to help us to fully understand intercultural transitions to the case-study university. The research emphasises that more attention should be given to learner individual agency within this theory as a framework for understanding transitions. It also challenges approaches within medical education that attempt to standardise systems of learning through acquisition of established practices.

  4. Transition from IPv4 to IPv6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far t...... the adoption of IPv6 has come. It also includes a discussion on what but also who the drivers and barriers are, including an examination of the implications of implementing transfer markets for IPv4 addresses.......The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far...

  5. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013......In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...

  6. Towards a sustainable urban transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Cappellaro, Francesca


    Never as today the discourse about uncertainty is permeating and affecting traditional paradigms of urban planning. Predictable futures are no longer possible, sufficient to understand it in the long term and adequate. If the future looks uncertain, the debate on sustainable development has...... contributed to render the situation even more complex and planning practitioners are now navigating between an unclear perception of future risks and the hope for results and visions for long-term perspectives of urban futures. Among scholars engaged in the study of sustainable transitions in urban areas......, the ‘systeminc thinking’ has irrupted in town. A new vocabulary of ‘the city’ as a systemic and functional hub of technology, economy, and social organization has replaced an integral view on the urban complexity. This article returns back to the urban as an integral project. It aims to contribute understanding...

  7. Prison health in transitional Albania. (United States)

    Jaka, Drita; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc


    The information about prisoners' health in transitional countries including Albania is limited. The aim of our study was to assess the health status and its correlates among adult prisoners in Albania, a post-communist country in Southeast Europe. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013 including 401 prisoners in Albania [290 (72%) males and 111 (28%) females]. All participants were administered an anonymous and structured questionnaire including information on self-perceived health status, health-related problems, lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake and drug use) and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (age, sex, educational attainment and income level). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between self-reported health status and covariates. Overall, 173 (43.1%) of prisoners included in this study reported a poor health status, with a clear predominance of the female gender (P Albania to make a significant progress in health services provision for prisoners, which constitute a particularly vulnerable population subgroup.

  8. The Coastal Transition Zone Program (United States)

    The Coastal Transition Zone Group

    The Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ) Program, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (Coastal Sciences and Oceanic Biology programs), is designed to investigate the cold tongues ("filaments") often observed in satellite sea surface temperature images of the waters off the west coast of North America. The cold filaments are not unique to this region, since similar features have also been observed along other coasts around the world, including those near Portugal and southwestern Africa. The discovery of these features is an excellent example of the power of satellite observations, because although the filaments are quite prominent in the satellite images, years of regular shipboard observations did not reveal them. On the other hand, the study of cold tongues also illustrates the necessity of on-site observations, because the nature, structure, causes, and effects of filaments cannot be determined from the satellite observations alone.

  9. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte


    in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... with livelihood opportunities and strategies. It is argued that migrants to the current frontier can be divided into at least four different types based on their migration, settlement and livelihood practices. Accordingly, to understand how the cocoa frontier changes as well as its continuation beyond...

  10. Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions. (United States)

    Torres, Joaquín J; Marro, J


    We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification--in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome--showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation.

  11. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    and the state and more recently, trust in the peace process. As the contest over meaning is always determined by the context of articulation, this paper examines the role of parades in the current ‘post-conflict’ phase of the peace process. Using theories of cultural and collective memory (Assman 2011, Olick......On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...

  12. Stellar atmospheres behind transiting exoplanets (United States)

    Dravins, D.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dahlén, E.; Gustavsson, M.; Pazira, H.


    Stellar surfaces are covered with brighter and darker structures, just like on the Sun. While solar surface details can be easily studied with telescopes, stellar surfaces cannot thus be resolved. However, one can use planets that happen to pass in front of distant stars as "shades" that successively block out small portions of the stellar surface behind. By measuring how the light from the star changes during such a transit, one can deduce stellar surface properties. Knowing those is required not only to study the star as such, but also to deduce the chemical composition of the planet that is passing in front of it, where some of the detected starlight has been filtered through the planet's atmosphere.

  13. Effective Theory of Floquet Topological Transitions


    Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H. A.; Seradjeh, Babak


    We develop a theory of topological transitions in a Floquet topological insulator, using graphene irradiated by circularly polarized light as a concrete realization. We demonstrate that a hallmark signature of such transitions in a static system, i.e. metallic bulk transport with conductivity of order $e^2/h$, is substantially suppressed at some Floquet topological transitions in the clean system. We determine the conditions for this suppression analytically and confirm our results in numeric...

  14. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance


    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; van Kranenburg, H.L.; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van


    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of systems to defeat the policies that have been designed to improve them is known as ‘policy resistance’. This paper addresses the question how we can explain the persistence of policy resistance in the co...

  15. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V


    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  16. Thermal Fluctuations in Electroweak Phase Transition (United States)

    Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.


    We estimate the amplitude of thermal fluctuations by calculating the typical size of subcritical bubbles in cosmological electroweak phase transition and show that this thermal fluctuation effect drastically changes dynamics of the phase transition from the ordinary first order type with supercooling. From this fact, we conclude that the standard electroweak baryogenesis scenario associated with such a first order transition does not work in the minimal standard model in certain conditions.

  17. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences. (United States)

    Galor, Oded


    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth.

  18. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan


    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat


    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  19. Tasting Freedom: happiness, religion and economic transition


    Orsolya Lelkes


    Economic transition lowered happiness on average, but did not affect all equally. This paper uses Hungarian survey data to study the impact of religion and economic transition on happiness. Religious involvement contributes positively to individuals' self-reported well-being. Controlling for personal characteristics of the respondents, money is a less important source of happiness for the religious. The impact of economic transition has varied greatly across different groups. The main winners...

  20. Picking the right transition strategy. (United States)

    Watkins, Michael D


    Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves.

  1. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie


    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  2. Transitioning to Adulthood from Foster Care. (United States)

    Lee, Terry; Morgan, Wynne


    Transitional age foster youth do not typically receive the types of family supports their nonfoster peers enjoy. Many foster youth experience multiple adversities and often fare worse than nonfoster peers on long-term functional outcomes. Governments increasingly recognize their responsibility to act as parents for state dependents transitioning to adulthood and the need to provide services to address social/emotional supports, living skills, finances, housing, education, employment, and physical and mental health. More research is needed to inform the development of effective programs. Transitional age foster youth benefit from policies promoting a developmentally appropriate, comprehensive, and integrated transition system of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preemptive Transitional Justice Policies in Aceh, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suh, Jiwon


    .... Preemptive transitional justice policies are adopted when reluctant policymakers attempt to trump "tougher" options with more acceptable alternatives, such as the following preemption in reformasi Indonesia...

  4. Transition manager is liaison between teams. (United States)


    At University of Utah Health Care, a transition case manager acts as a liaison between the outpatient care team at community clinics and the inpatient care team. The transition navigator works with case managers at the hospital and the clinics to make sure both have the information they need to coordinate care for the patient. The transition navigator visits patients in the hospital and works with the unit case manager to make sure the discharge plan will work. To further smooth transitions, the patients receive a one-page sheet that summarizes their discharge instructions, follow-up appointments, and medication regimen.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)


    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  6. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarata, Antonio, E-mail: [Department of Control Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 16627 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rondinelli, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)


    CaFeO{sub 3} is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO{sub 3}. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  7. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites (United States)

    Cammarata, Antonio; Rondinelli, James M.


    CaFeO3 is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO3. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  8. Fixed-Guideway Transit Stations (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Transit (Stations) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Version 2004 of the Fixed-Guideway Transit Network is a network database of the nation's fixed-guideway transit systems (NTAD). The data set covers systems in cities...

  9. Fixed-Guideway Transit Lines (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Transit (Lines) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Version 2004 of the Fixed-Guideway Transit Network is a network database of the nation's fixed-guideway transit systems (NTAD). The data set covers systems in cities...

  10. Family transitions during the adolescent transition: implications for parenting. (United States)

    Freeman, Harry S; Newland, Lisa A


    This study explored how family transitions affect parenting practices in a sample of 7,000 ethnically diverse students in 9th, 10th, or 11th grade over a period of 2 years. Adolescent perceptions of parental control and parental responsiveness were assessed in three groups: (1) adolescents moving into mother-custody households following a marital separation or divorce, (2) adolescents from stable never-divorced households, and (3) adolescents from stable mother-custody households. The study examined pre- and posttransition data to determine whether adolescents in newly formed single-parent families experienced a larger drop in parental control and responsiveness than did adolescents in stable nondivorced and stable mother-custody households. Adolescents from all family types reported significant declines in behavioral control, but not parental responsiveness. However, the lack of family-type differences contrasts sharply with findings from the childhood-divorce literature. Findings suggest that adolescent individuation may overshadow family-type differences during middle adolescence. As expected, boys reported lower parental control than did girls. Ethnic differences revealed that European American adolescents reported the highest levels of parental responsiveness, and African American adolescents reported the highest levels of parental control. Contextual and individual pathways in adolescence are discussed.

  11. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  12. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah


    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  13. Small City Transit : Xenia, Ohio : Transit Service for a Rebuilding Community (United States)


    Xenia, Ohio is an illustration of a transit service which evolved from a freefare emergency service to a demonstration of para-transit services. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of ...

  14. 36 CFR 1211.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class... RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to...

  15. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class... REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to...

  16. 29 CFR 36.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan...

  17. 32 CFR 196.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class...) MISCELLANEOUS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to...

  18. 44 CFR 19.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan...

  19. Transition from Poisson to circular unitary ensemble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transitions to universality classes of random matrix ensembles have been useful in the study of weakly-broken symmetries in quantum chaotic systems. Transitions involving Poisson as the initial ensemble have been particularly interesting. The exact two-point correlation function was derived by one of the present authors ...

  20. A methodology of tracking transitioning Cyclones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, L A; Pezza, A B; Simmonds, I [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Davidson, N E, E-mail: [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, Victoria, 3000 (Australia)


    'Cyclone transition' is a process in which either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone undergoes a fundamental dynamic and thermodynamic transformation. A 'tropical transition' is a process in which a cold-core extratropical cyclone transforms to a warm-core tropical cyclone, while 'extratropical transition' refers to the opposite mechanism. The transition process is gradual, with no sharp defining threshold representing its commencement or completion. This study develops and explores a methodology of identifying tropical transition and extratropical transition events. Using the 1.5{sup 0} ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset over the period from 1989 to present, cyclone tracks are derived using The Melbourne University Tracking Scheme. The average temperature difference between the cyclone core and an environmental ring, set at a distance corresponding to the cyclones size, is then calculated throughout the troposphere during the life cycle of the cyclone. This difference represents the index or phase of the cyclone relative to its immediate environment. The lack of a complete cyclone transition climatology and the uncertainty behind the transition process is the motivation for this research, with the overarching aim of placing these systems in climatic perspective. This methodology seeks to create the foundations for further cyclone research.

  1. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016


    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  2. Bullying and school transition: Context or development? (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Brittain, Heather; McDougall, Patricia; Vaillancourt, Tracy


    The relative impact of school transition versus development on peer victimization and bullying perpetration were examined in a natural experiment involving 698 students where half transitioned into middle school from Grade 5 to Grade 6 and the other half remained in their elementary school over the same period. Results indicated that, on average, peer victimization decreased over the transition period while bullying perpetration remained stable for the whole sample. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the effects of school transition and sex on changes in victimization and perpetration. Results indicated that the effect of transition status on changes in peer victimization was moderated by sex. Middle school transition status predicted decreases in peer victimization for girls, but not for boys, who transitioned. However, school transition status and participants' sex (and their interaction) did not predict changes in perpetration over time. Our findings indicate that changes in student involvement with peer victimization are better understood as a contextual rather than a typical developmental process, whereas bullying perpetration may be better understood as developmental. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromagnetic transition between molecular resonances in Be

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 4, 2014 ... A crucial test of this conjecture is the electromagnetic transition between the molecular resonances. This paper ... Electromagnetic properties and transitions present a crucial test for any model or the- ory. ... triple coincidence measurement is necessary to reduce the background problem which is particularly ...

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  5. The Landau theory of phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of sec- ond order phase transitions, the mean-field theory of superconductivity, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electro-. Keywords. Phase transition, Landau theory, symmetry breaking, bead-on-a- ring, critical angular velocity ...

  6. Transitions from preschool to primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope


      The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...

  7. 49 CFR 25.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a... Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency...

  8. 14 CFR 1253.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1253.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  9. 22 CFR 146.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a... Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency...

  10. 22 CFR 229.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a... Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency...

  11. 10 CFR 1042.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate... of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency Committee...

  12. 15 CFR 8a.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 8a.230... more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to... order to be approved by the Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address...

  13. 31 CFR 28.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.230... more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to... order to be approved by the Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address...

  14. 40 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  15. 43 CFR 41.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 41.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  16. 6 CFR 17.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 17.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  17. 28 CFR 54.230 - Transition plans. (United States)


    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  18. Towards Natural Transition in Compressible Boundary Layers (United States)


    evo- lution. [95] reveals selective nonlinear amplification in the streamwise direction . The following experiment focused on linear evolution [33] to...nonlinear instability, secondary instability, transition to turbulence, direct numerical simulation, white noise Marcello A. Faraco de Medeiros +55 (0...measure and reproduce. Given the complexity of the problem, investigations on natural transition consider several simplified ap- proaches. For example

  19. College Students in Transition: An Annotated Bibliography (United States)

    Foote, Stephanie M., Ed.; Hinkle, Sara M., Ed.; Kranzow, Jeannine, Ed.; Pistilli, Matthew D., Ed.; Miles, LaTonya Rease, Ed.; Simmons, Jannell G., Ed.


    The transition from high school to college is an important milestone, but it is only one of many steps in the journey through higher education. This volume is an annotated bibliography of the emerging literature examining the many other transitions students make beyond the first year, including the sophomore year, the transfer experience, and the…

  20. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  1. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  2. Transition to smart grids : A psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda; Beaulieu, Anne; de Wilde, Jaap; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    A transition to smart grids requires a wide range of changes in household energy behaviour. In this chapter we discuss four key issues important for understanding and promoting behaviour in smart grids. First, we need to identify which behaviour needs to be changed. A transition to smart grids

  3. Transit functions on graphs (and posets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Mulder (Martyn)


    textabstractThe notion of transit function is introduced to present a unifying approach for results and ideas on intervals, convexities and betweenness in graphs and posets. Prime examples of such transit functions are the interval function I and the induced path function J of a connected graph.

  4. Transition Experiments: Exploring societal changes towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.M. van den Bosch (Suzanne)


    textabstractThis PhD thesis presents the outcome of exploratory research on how transition experiments can be used as instruments to further sustainable development. A transition experiment is a specific type of innovation project that is aimed at exploring radically new ways to meet societal

  5. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania


    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  6. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best


    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  7. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  8. Equinoctial transitions in the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available Equinoctial summer/winter transitions in the parameters of the F2-region are analyzed using ground-based ionosonde and incoherent scatter observations. Average transition from one type of diurnal NmF2 variation to another takes 20–25 days, but cases of very fast (6–10 days transitions are observed as well. Strong day-time NmF2 deviations of both signs from the monthly median, not related to geomagnetic activity, are revealed for the transition periods. Both longitudinal and latitudinal variations take place for the amplitude of such quiet time NmF2 deviations. The summer-type diurnal NmF2 variation during the transition period is characterized by decreased atomic oxygen concentration [O] and a small equatorward thermospheric wind compared to winter-type days with strong poleward wind and increased [O]. Molecular N2 and O2 concentrations remain practically unchanged in such day-to-day transitions. The main cause of the F2-layer variations during the transition periods is the change of atomic oxygen abundance in the thermosphere related to changes of global thermospheric circulation. A possible relationship with an equinoctial transition of atomic oxygen at the E-region heights is discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry – Ionosphere (ionosphere- atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  9. Water Intrusion Problems in Transit Tunnels (United States)


    This report presents the findings of five case studies in which an in-depth analysis was made of tunnel water intrusion problems in transit tunnels. Water intrusion parameters of transit systems in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, New York and Washington, D...

  10. Assessing urbanization impacts on catchment transit times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Tetzlaff, Doerthe


    .... Percent urban cover influenced the shape of the catchment transit time distribution. Total urban cover reduced the mean transit time to <10 days compared with ~1 year and ~2–3 years with 63% and 13...

  11. Phase transition in nonlinear viscous cosmology (United States)

    Novello, M.; Duque, S. L. S.; Triay, R.; Fliche, H. H.


    A simple example of a phase transition process describing the isotropization of a universe of Bianchi type is outlined. Such a mechanism is induced by a self-gravitating fluid, and it operates as described by Landau's phase transition. The expansion factor (the Hubble constant) plays the part of the control parameter as the temperature does for ordinary matter.

  12. The anova to mixed model transition. (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris


    A transition towards mixed models is underway in science. This transition started up because the requirements for using analyses of variances are often not met and mixed models clearly provide a better framework. Neuroscientists have been slower than others in changing their statistical habits and are now urged to act. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transition from Poisson to circular unitary ensemble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Transitions to universality classes of random matrix ensembles have been useful in the study of weakly-broken symmetries in quantum chaotic systems. Transitions involving Poisson as the initial ensemble have been particularly interesting. The exact two-point correlation function was derived by one of the present ...

  14. Factors Affecting Third Culture Kids' (TCKs) Transition (United States)

    Morales, Antonio


    (TCKs) transition becomes challenging for both the student and the school. The programs implemented, or lack thereof, are imperative to the successful transition of TCKs into their new, diverse, multicultural environment. Research has been written on the positive effects and challenges faced by TCKs' transient lifestyle. Although international…

  15. Critical transitions and perturbation growth directions (United States)

    Sharafi, Nahal; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah


    Critical transitions occur in a variety of dynamical systems. Here we employ quantifiers of chaos to identify changes in the dynamical structure of complex systems preceding critical transitions. As suitable indicator variables for critical transitions, we consider changes in growth rates and directions of covariant Lyapunov vectors. Studying critical transitions in several models of fast-slow systems, i.e., a network of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators, models for Josephson junctions, and the Hindmarsh-Rose model, we find that tangencies between covariant Lyapunov vectors are a common and maybe generic feature during critical transitions. We further demonstrate that this deviation from hyperbolic dynamics is linked to the occurrence of critical transitions by using it as an indicator variable and evaluating the prediction success through receiver operating characteristic curves. In the presence of noise, we find the alignment of covariant Lyapunov vectors and changes in finite-time Lyapunov exponents to be more successful in announcing critical transitions than common indicator variables as, e.g., finite-time estimates of the variance. Additionally, we propose a new method for estimating approximations of covariant Lyapunov vectors without knowledge of the future trajectory of the system. We find that these approximated covariant Lyapunov vectors can also be applied to predict critical transitions.

  16. The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.


    Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...... and showed 'softening' as the transition temperature was approached from above....

  17. Leading change: evidence-based transition. (United States)

    Lewis, Brennan; Allen, Stephanie


    The purpose of this article was to provide a framework for evidence-based transition of patient populations within an acute care pediatric institution. Transition within a hospital is foreseeable, given the ever-changing needs of the patients within an evolving healthcare system. These changes include moving patient populations because of expansion, renovation, or cohorting similar patient diagnoses to provide care across a continuum. Over the past 1 to 2 years, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas has experienced a wide variety of transition. To provide a smooth transition for patients and families into new care areas resulting in a healthy work environment for all team members. The planning phase for patient population moves, and transition should address key aspects to include physical location and care flow, supplies and equipment, staffing model and human resources (HR), education and orientation, change process and integrating teams, and family preparation. It is imperative to consider these aspects in order for transitions within a healthcare system to be successful. During a time of such transitions, the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is a highly valuable team member offering a unique perspective and methodological approach, which is central to the new initiative's overall success. The themes addressed in this article on evidence-based transition are organized according to the CNS spheres of influence: system/organization, patient/family, and nursing. An evidence-based transition plan was developed and implemented successfully with the support from the CNS for 3 patient populations. Organizational leadership gained an increased awareness of the CNS role at the conclusion of each successful transition. The CNS plays a pivotal role as clinical experts and proponents of evidence-based practice and effects change in the system/organization, nursing, and patient/family spheres of influence. While transitions can be a source of stress for leaders

  18. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  19. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina


    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  20. First-Order Dynamical Phase Transitions (United States)

    Canovi, Elena; Werner, Philipp; Eckstein, Martin


    Recently, dynamical phase transitions have been identified based on the nonanalytic behavior of the Loschmidt echo in the thermodynamic limit [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. By introducing conditional probability amplitudes, we show how dynamical phase transitions can be further classified, both mathematically, and potentially in experiment. This leads to the definition of first-order dynamical phase transitions. Furthermore, we develop a generalized Keldysh formalism which allows us to use nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to study the Loschmidt echo and dynamical phase transitions in high-dimensional, nonintegrable models. We find dynamical phase transitions of first order in the Falicov-Kimball model and in the Hubbard model.

  1. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis (United States)

    Raina, Rupesh; Wang, Joseph; Krishnappa, Vinod


    The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE). This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives. PMID:28913329

  2. Transition problems and play as transitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig


    functions, among others the development of children's learning motive. From the view of activity theori, transition to formal education entails crossing boundaries from the activity system play to the activity system of school learning. The transition can be facilitated by developing a 'transitory activity......Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap betwen pre-school and schoo. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental...... system', which mediates between the two systems, ensuring that the result of one system serves as a tool for the next. Advanced forms of play might make up a transitory activity system. The paper describes different forms of play crossing the boundaies of role play (frame-play, aesthetic theme play...

  3. Attribute Exploration of Discrete Temporal Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Wollbold, Johannes


    Discrete temporal transitions occur in a variety of domains, but this work is mainly motivated by applications in molecular biology: explaining and analyzing observed transcriptome and proteome time series by literature and database knowledge. The starting point of a formal concept analysis model is presented. The objects of a formal context are states of the interesting entities, and the attributes are the variable properties defining the current state (e.g. observed presence or absence of proteins). Temporal transitions assign a relation to the objects, defined by deterministic or non-deterministic transition rules between sets of pre- and postconditions. This relation can be generalized to its transitive closure, i.e. states are related if one results from the other by a transition sequence of arbitrary length. The focus of the work is the adaptation of the attribute exploration algorithm to such a relational context, so that questions concerning temporal dependencies can be asked during the exploration pr...

  4. Automated transit planning, operation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rongfang


    This book analyzes the successful implementations of automated transit in various international locations, such as Paris, Toronto, London, and Kuala Lumpur, and investigates the apparent lack of automated transit applications in the urban environment in the United States. The book begins with a brief definition of automated transit and its historical development. After a thorough description of the technical specifications, the author highlights a few applications from each sub-group of the automated transit spectrum. International case studies display various technologies and their applications, and identify vital factors that affect each system and performance evaluations of existing applications. The book then discusses the planning and operation of automated transit applications at both macro and micro levels. Finally, the book covers a number of less successful concepts, as well as the lessons learned, allow ng readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

  5. Music: Creativity and Structure Transitions (United States)

    Pietrocini, Emanuela

    Music, compared to other complex forms of representation, is fundamentally characterized by constant evolution and a dynamic succession of structure reference models. This is without taking into account historical perspective, the analysis of forms and styles, or questions of a semantic nature; the observation rather refers to the phenomenology of the music system. The more abstract a compositional model, the greater the number and frequency of variables that are not assimilated to the reference structure; this "interference" which happens more often than not in an apparently casual manner, modifies the creative process to varying but always substantial degrees: locally, it produces a disturbance in perceptive, formal and structural parameters, resulting more often than not in a synaesthetic experience; globally, on the other hand, it defines the terms of a transition to a new state, in which the relations between elements and components modify the behavior of the entire system from which they originated. It is possible to find examples of this phenomenon in the whole range of musical production, in particular in improvisations, in the use of the Basso Continuo, and in some contrapuntal works of the baroque period, music whose temporal dimension can depart from the limits of mensurability and symmetry to define an open compositional environment in continuous evolution.

  6. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.


    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  7. Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations. (United States)

    Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico


    Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems.

  8. State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.


    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

  9. Atomic inner-shell transitions (United States)

    Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.


    Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

  10. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.


    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  11. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM) (United States)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.


    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  12. Transit-Based Emergency Evacuation with Transit Signal Priority in Sudden-Onset Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin


    Full Text Available This study presents methods of transit signal priority without transit-only lanes for a transit-based emergency evacuation in a sudden-onset disaster. Arterial priority signal coordination is optimized when a traffic signal control system provides priority signals for transit vehicles along an evacuation route. Transit signal priority is determined by “transit vehicle arrival time estimation,” “queuing vehicle dissipation time estimation,” “traffic signal status estimation,” “transit signal optimization,” and “arterial traffic signal coordination for transit vehicle in evacuation route.” It takes advantage of the large capacities of transit vehicles, reduces the evacuation time, and evacuates as many evacuees as possible. The proposed methods were tested on a simulation platform with Paramics V6.0. To evaluate and compare the performance of transit signal priority, three scenarios were simulated in the simulator. The results indicate that the methods of this study can reduce the travel times of transit vehicles along an evacuation route by 13% and 10%, improve the standard deviation of travel time by 16% and 46%, and decrease the average person delay at a signalized intersection by 22% and 17% when the traffic flow saturation along an evacuation route is 0.81.0, respectively.

  13. 47 CFR 27.1232 - Planning the transition. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning the transition. 27.1232 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1232 Planning the transition. (a) The Transition Planning Period. The Transition Planning Period is a 90-day period that...

  14. 76 FR 47296 - Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds (United States)


    ... Federal Transit Administration Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Transit Asset Management Pilot Program Announcement of Project Selections... the Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program, which was announced in the TAM Program Notice of...

  15. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier


    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  16. Aging China -- policies in transition. (United States)

    Nusberg, C


    The International Forum on Aging was held in Beijing, China, in May of 1986 under the joint sponsorship of the Gerontological Society of America and the Chinese National Committee on Aging. 24 Chinese and American participants were also joined by experts from Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Japan. Older persons in the West are by and large economically independent of their children and live in separate households. Nevertheless, both in the US and China families remain the preferred source of support for older persons. As a result of successful family planning policies, China will undergo a demographic transition in several decades that took a century in the West. This will result in the decline in the network of relatives, on which China's family support system has rested. Societal adjustments will have to be made including expanded joint ventures among government, families, neighborhoods, and collectives to provide for the old preferably in their own homes. The elderly will also participate more in economic and social development because of improved health, higher education, and declines in co-residency. For instance, an association of retired engineers in Chongqing has assisted over 6000 groups since 1980 through technical consultation for small enterprises in towns and rural areas. In 1987 only 6% of the rural population received some kind of pension, but policy makers envisage several different forms of social security schemes for the rural elderly. China's elderly population over 60 is projected to increase from 130 million in 2000 to 370 million in 2050, or from 11% to 26% of the total population. A Japanese model worth examining by China is the practice of combined occupation household, which permits rural areas to modernize while preserving the three-generation family household. The elderly continue to perform agricultural work on family property, while the younger family members take jobs in more urbanized nearby areas.

  17. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a

  18. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation. (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika


    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  19. Nurse Practitioner Role Transition: A Concept Analysis. (United States)

    Barnes, Hilary


    A concept analysis of nurse practitioner (NP) role transition. The Affordable Care Act is expected to provide 32 million Americans with health insurance, and NPs are gaining attention in addressing this increasing demand for healthcare providers. However, there is limited analysis of the transition from registered nurse to NP. Oftentimes, during this transition, there is a shift from an experienced, expert status to an inexperienced, novice status, with a subsequent loss of confidence in one's ability and competence. This can hinder successful role development and affect employment continuity within the first year of practice. NP role transition was examined using Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis. Electronic databases were searched using the terms role transition and nurse practitioner. Thirty articles from nursing, psychology, and business were included. The four defining attributes of NP role transition are absorption of the role, the shift from provider of care to prescriber of care, straddling two identities, and mixed emotions. Personal and environmental antecedents and consequences of the concept are identified. The development of empirical knowledge on NP role transition through further research is important in order for new-to-practice NPs to become high-quality, full-functioning providers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Food habits and beliefs in transitional societies. (United States)

    Worsley, A


    This paper discusses the concept of the nutrition transition in detail. It commences with an overview of societies which are recognised as being in transition. The economic foundations of the transition from traditional to modern (and post-modern societies) will be emphasised. This will be followed by an examination of the nutrition problems and food habits associated with transitional societies. The public health context of such nutritional problems will also be described. Comparisons will be made between the food beliefs and habits held in traditional societies and those in transitional, modern and post-modern societies. It will be argued that nutritional and medical beliefs have come to play more extensive roles in non-traditional societies, most probably through the mass media. Changes in personal values associated with societal transition will be described in relation to the pursuit of luxury foods. Finally, some of the responses to the nutritional problems of transitional societies will be described. The essential roles of government and non-government organisations in moderating harmful effects of the global economy will be elucidated. It will be argued that the success of nutrition interventions such as food-based dietary guideline policies depend on the development of effective national and local social organisations.

  1. Does preemption help children learn verb transitivity? (United States)

    Brooks, Patricia J; Zizak, Otto


    Children's acquisition of the transitivity status of novel verbs was examined to test whether preemption helps children learn to avoid nonconventional uses of verbs. Given that many English verbs alternate between transitive and intransitive usage (e.g., break, roll), how do children learn the fixed transitive status of verbs such as hit or the fixed intransitive status of verbs such as fall? 48 four-year-olds and 48 six- and seven-year-olds learned two novel verbs, with one verb modelled as transitive and the other as intransitive. Exposure conditions varied the occurrence and type of preemptive evidence potentially facilitating learning of the verbs' transitivity status. In comparison to a No Preemption group, only six- to seven-year-olds exposed to novel verbs in alternative construction (that allowed them to talk about the actions from the perspective of the agent or patient without changing the verbs' assigned transitivity) produced fewer utterances violating the verbs' fixed transitivity. The results identify limits in children's usage of indirect negative evidence in acquiring verb argument structure constructions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  3. Transit timing observations from Kepler. V. Transit timing variation candidates in the first sixteen months from polynomial models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, E.B.; Ragozzine, D.; Holman, M.J.


    Transit timing variations provide a powerful tool for confirming and characterizing transiting planets, as well as detecting non-transiting planets. We report the results of an updated transit timing variation (TTV) analysis for 1481 planet candidates based on transit times measured during...

  4. Quantum Phase Transitions: A Network Approach (United States)

    Vargas, David L.; Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.


    Understanding the network structure of complex systems has opened up new avenues of research in sociology, biology, technology, and physics. In this talk we present evidence that complex network measures are able to identify the phases in two well known models. We distinguish the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the transverse Ising Hamiltonian. We also identify the Mott-insulator to superfluid transition of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. The network approach to the analysis of quantum phase transitions provides us with a new set of tools to explore the many body physics of quantum phase transitions. Supported by NSF and AFOSR.

  5. Dependency in State Transitions of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil


    © 2017 IEEE. Turbine states and predicting the transition into failure states ahead of time is important in operation and maintenance of wind turbines. This study presents a method to monitor state transitions of a wind turbine based on the online inference on residuals. In a Bayesian framework...... the impact machine learning concepts have on the predictive performance of the presented models. In conclusion, a study on model residuals is performed to highlight the contribution to wind turbine monitoring. The presented algorithm can consistently detect the state transition under various configurations...

  6. Interfacial properties of semiconducting transition metal chalcogenides (United States)

    Jaegermann, W.; Tributsch, H.

    This review is aimed at the correlation of structural and electronic properies of semiconducting transition metal chalcogenides with molecular surface processes and mechanisms in photoelectrochemistry, (photo)catalysis, geochemistry and hydrometallurgy. Layer-type, pyrite structured and transition metal cluster containing chalcogenides are selected as model systems to explain the principles involved. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of materials which involve transition metal d- states in the interfacial reaction pathways of holes and electrons. Since they initiate and control heterogeneous coordination chemistry at the surfaces they may provide the possibility of tailoring selective and catalytically demanding reactions. Examples of such mechanisms are presented and discussed in relation to surface properties involved.

  7. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  8. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.


    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  9. Effective Theory of Floquet Topological Transitions (United States)

    Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H. A.; Seradjeh, Babak


    We develop a theory of topological transitions in a Floquet topological insulator, using graphene irradiated by circularly polarized light as a concrete realization. We demonstrate that a hallmark signature of such transitions in a static system, i.e., metallic bulk transport with conductivity of order e2/h , is substantially suppressed at some Floquet topological transitions in the clean system. We determine the conditions for this suppression analytically and confirm our results in numerical simulations. Remarkably, introducing disorder dramatically enhances this transport by several orders of magnitude.

  10. Nonequilibrium random matrix theory: Transition probabilities (United States)

    Pedro, Francisco Gil; Westphal, Alexander


    In this paper we present an analytic method for calculating the transition probability between two random Gaussian matrices with given eigenvalue spectra in the context of Dyson Brownian motion. We show that in the Coulomb gas language, in large N limit, memory of the initial state is preserved in the form of a universal linear potential acting on the eigenvalues. We compute the likelihood of any given transition as a function of time, showing that as memory of the initial state is lost, transition probabilities converge to those of the static ensemble.

  11. Numerical simulation of instability and transition physics (United States)

    Streett, C. L.


    The study deals with the algorithm technology used in instability and transition simulations. Discretization methods are outlined, and attention is focused on high-order finite-difference methods and high-order centered-difference formulas. One advantage of finite-difference methods over spectral methods is thought to be in implementation of nonrigorous boundary conditions. It is suggested that the next significant advances in the understanding of transition physics and the ability to predict transition will come with more physically-realistic simulations. Compressible-flow algorithms are discussed, and it is noted that with further development, exploration of bypass mechanism on simple bodies at high speed would be possible.

  12. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  13. H- - H Collision Induced Radiative Transitions (United States)

    Dadonova, A. V.; Devdariani, A. Z.


    Exchange interaction leads to the formation of gerade and ungerade states of temporary molecules (quasimolecules) formed during the H- +H slow collisions. The work deals with the radiation produced by optical transitions between those states. The main characteristics involved in the description of optical transitions in quasimolecules, i.e., energy terms, an optical dipole transition moments, have been calculated in the frame of zero-range potentials model. The main feature of calculations is that the results can be expressed analytically in closed forms via the Lambert W function.

  14. Successive Transitions in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Hirata, Shoji; Matsuzaki, Ichiro; Yanagita, Akihiro; Tako, Toshiharu


    Successive transitions in an AC electric field in cholesteric liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy have been investigated systematically. According to the relations between the frequency of applied AC field and the threshold voltage Vth of successive transitions and between Vth and cell thickness divided by cholesteric pitch D/P0 several features are observed. The threshold voltage for the dielectric regime extends to a DC electric regime. Quenching of the conduction regime is observed in a thinner sample cell. Some curious behaviors of the domain corresponding to the dielectric regime are also observed. A new model which can explain the mechanism of successive transitions in conduction regime is proposed.

  15. Framing of regimes and transition strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing


    This article suggests that transition strategies are always formulated in the context of specific representations of the regime and the challenges it faces. It is argued that the framing of a regime affects the envisioning of transition strategies. An analysis of the current development agenda...... for the housing construction sector in Denmark reveals the relevance and impacts of different regime framings. It is proposed that the ability to cope with framing issues as situated and political processes is at the core of the governance of transitions....

  16. Granular jamming transitions for a robotic mechanism (United States)

    Jiang, Allen; Aste, Tomaso; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha


    The jamming transitions for granules growing field of interest in robotics for use in variable stiffness mechanisms. However, the traditional use of air pressure to control the jamming transition requires heavy vacuums, reducing the mobility of the robot. Thus, we propose the use of water as a hydraulic fluid to control the transition between free and clustered granules. This paper presents comparative studies that show that a hydraulic granular jammed finger joint can both achieve the same stiffness level and maintain the same hysteresis level of a pneumatic system, with only a small volume of fluid.

  17. A Reconciliation of Collision Theory and Transition State Theory


    Yi, Y. G.


    A statistical-mechanical treatment of collision leads to a formal connection with transition-state theory, suggesting that collision theory and transition-state theory might be joined ultimately as a collision induced transition state theory.

  18. Adaptive single replica multiple state transition interface sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, W.; Bolhuis, P.G.


    The multiple state transition path sampling method allows sampling of rare transitions between many metastable states, but has the drawback that switching between qualitatively different pathways is difficult. Combination with replica exchange transition interface sampling can in principle alleviate

  19. Transit safety & security statistics & analysis 2002 annual report (formerly SAMIS) (United States)


    The Transit Safety & Security Statistics & Analysis 2002 Annual Report (formerly SAMIS) is a compilation and analysis of mass transit accident, casualty, and crime statistics reported under the Federal Transit Administrations (FTAs) National Tr...

  20. Transit safety & security statistics & analysis 2003 annual report (formerly SAMIS) (United States)


    The Transit Safety & Security Statistics & Analysis 2003 Annual Report (formerly SAMIS) is a compilation and analysis of mass transit accident, casualty, and crime statistics reported under the Federal Transit Administrations (FTAs) National Tr...

  1. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying


    acoustics that can achieve unprecedented functionalities. These emergent directions portend the transitioning of the field from the stage of novelty demonstrations to imminent applications of some acoustic metamaterials to select real-world problems, supported by an active research endeavor that continues to push the boundary of possibilities.

  2. Vacuum transitions and eternal inflation (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.

    In this thesis, we focus on aspects of inflation and eternal inflation arising in scalar field theories coupled to gravity which possess a number of metastable states. Such theories contain instantons that interpolate between the metastable potential minima, corresponding to the nucleation of bubbles containing a new phase in a background of the old phase. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the classical dynamics and quantum nucleation of vacuum bubbles. We classify all possible spherically symmetric, thin-wall solutions with arbitrary interior and exterior cosmological constant, and find that bubbles possessing a turning point are unstable to aspherical perturbations. Next, we turn to the quantum nucleation of bubbles with zero mass. Focusing on instantons interpolating between positive and negative energy minima, we find that there exists a "Great Divide" in the space of potentials, across which the lifetime of metastable states differs drastically. Generalizing a semi-classical Hamiltonian formalism to treat the nucleation of bubbles with nonzero mass, we show that a number of tunneling mechanisms can be unified in the thin-wall limit, and directly compare their probabilities. In the second part of this thesis, we discuss the measure problem in eternal inflation. We give a detailed analysis of the prospects for making predictions in eternal inflation, and describe the existing probability measures and the connections between them. We then show that all existing measures exhibit a number of rather generic phenomena, for example strongly weighting vacua that can undergo rapid transitions between each other. It is argued that making predictions will require a measure that weights histories as opposed to vacua, and we develop a formalism to addresses this. Finally, we assess the prospects for observing collisions between vacuum bubbles in an eternally inflating universe. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that under certain assumptions most

  3. Families in transition: A literature review. (United States)

    Dierckx, Myrte; Motmans, Joz; Mortelmans, Dimitri; T'sjoen, Guy


    Research on the transgender population is often limited to their medical care, and in particular to their mental well-being. The social and family environment in which a social gender role transition takes place is often overlooked. Although research is limited, this article reviews the existing literature on the family aspect of a gender transition. Articles regarding three different aspects were selected for this review: first, the issue of parenthood during transition and the experiences of children with a transgender parent, second, the experiences of partners and ex-partners of transgender individuals, and third, the experiences of parents with a gender variant child. Articles were restricted to those with a focus on family members and situations during transition. For all three contexts, several mediating factors, both individual and social, were distinguished. Various challenges for future research were identified.

  4. Detroit regional transit legal structures and governance. (United States)


    Effective governance of transit systems is created through a qualified, representative, informed, diverse, and committed board of : directors that is ultimately accountable for the financial performance and quality of the service in the designated re...

  5. Quantum Phase Transitions in Quantum Dots


    Rau, I. G.; Amasha, S.; Oreg, Y.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.


    This review article describes theoretical and experimental advances in using quantum dots as a system for studying impurity quantum phase transitions and the non-Fermi liquid behavior at the quantum critical point.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firtescu Bogdan


    Full Text Available The process of transition from socialist economy to market economy was not considered an end in itself, but a necessity, and standing proof to achieve high levels of sustainable development. All former socialist countries are characterized by an early transition recession transformation result of the restructuring, loss of markets, tough competition from foreign products, best quality, or in other cases cheaper. To express the financial system structure in transition we take into discussion data that reflects representatives mutations and restructuring in Central and Eastern European countries, such Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. For all countries we show some important changes of financial system during transition and construct an image matrix that illustrates important indicators of financial system structure and their adjustment.

  7. Kenyan refugees included in transitional justice processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Iyodu


    Full Text Available In the complex relationship between forced migration and transitional justice, a visit by the Kenyan Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission to a refugee settlement in Uganda seems to mark a significant step…

  8. Kenyan refugees included in transitional justice processes


    Bernadette Iyodu


    In the complex relationship between forced migration and transitional justice, a visit by the Kenyan Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission to a refugee settlement in Uganda seems to mark a significant step…

  9. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  10. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  11. Consolidating Change: Transitional Security and Operational Art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boy, Donald S


    ... intervention repeated in later crises. Greater focus on certain core concepts such as security in a transitional environment would help to ensure both civilian and military leaders and planners share assumptions, definitions and desired end-states...

  12. A search for transit timing variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramm U.


    Full Text Available Photometric follow-ups of transiting exoplanets (TEPs may lead to discoveries of additional, less massive bodies in extrasolar systems. This is possible by detecting and then analysing variations in transit timing of transiting exoplanets. In 2009 we launched an international observing campaign, the aim of which is to detect and characterise signals of transit timing variation (TTV in selected TEPs. The programme is realised by collecting data from 0.6-2.2-m telescopes spread worldwide at different longitudes. We present our observing strategy and summarise first results for WASP-3b with evidence for a 15 Earth-mass perturber in an outer 2:1 orbital resonance.

  13. System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A.


    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.

  14. Integrating transit with road pricing projects. (United States)


    This study examined various levels of the treatment of public transportation in conjunction with the implementation of : managed lane highway projects. It details the ranges of transit investments identified in and associated with managed : lanes tha...

  15. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education. (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul


    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  16. Implementing the Rochester Community Transit Service Demonstration (United States)


    The report describes the implementation process and the early impacts of the Rochester Community Transit Service demonstration in four suburbs of Rochester, New York. The demonstration project is an outgrowth of an earlier one which ended in October ...

  17. ACTDs: Management Plans as Predictors of Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew; Wideman, Jeffrey S


    .... The methodology included case analysis of thirty-eight ACTD program business plans. Nineteen of the programs transitioned while the other nineteen were terminated either prior to the Military Unit Assessment (MUA...

  18. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari


    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  19. Sound transit climate risk reduction project. (United States)


    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  20. Sudden transition from finite temperature spin environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; He, Qi-Liang; Xu, Hang-Shi [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transition from finite temperature critical environments in the study of quantum correlations of a two-qubit system coupled to independent thermal Ising baths. The influence of the temperature and external field of bath on the critical time of sudden transition is also explored. It is found that the phenomenon of sudden transition can be used to detect the critical points of thermal spin environments. How to protect quantum correlations of the system is also examined by applying a series of π-phase pulses. -- Highlights: ► The sudden transition phenomenon from thermal critical environments is studied. ► How to detect quantum critical points of thermal Ising baths is explored. ► The quantum discord can be protected against thermal bath by π-phase pulses.

  1. Gravitationally self-induced phase transition (United States)

    Novello, M.; Duque, S. L. S.


    We propose a new mechanism by means of which a phase transition can be stimulated by self-gravitating matter. We suggest that this model could be used to explain the observed isotropy of the Universe.

  2. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions (United States)


    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  3. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  4. Transits of Venus and Mercury as muses (United States)

    Tobin, William


    Transits of Venus and Mercury have inspired artistic creation of all kinds. After having been the first to witness a Venusian transit, in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks expressed his feelings in poetry. Production has subsequently widened to include songs, short stories, novels, novellas, sermons, theatre, film, engravings, paintings, photography, medals, sculpture, stained glass, cartoons, stamps, music, opera, flower arrangements, and food and drink. Transit creations are reviewed, with emphasis on the English- and French-speaking worlds. It is found that transits of Mercury inspire much less creation than those of Venus, despite being much more frequent, and arguably of no less astronomical significance. It is suggested that this is primarily due to the mythological associations of Venus with sex and love, which are more powerful and gripping than Mercury's mythological role as a messenger and protector of traders and thieves. The lesson for those presenting the night sky to the public is that sex sells.

  5. Human Rights and Transitional Societies: Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Obel


    This paper will assess how alternative approaches to transitional justice have the potential for overcoming tensions in between human rights standards. A rule in international law prescribing that states have a duty to prosecute gross human rights violations has emerged. Accordingly, transitional...... societies are said to have an obligation to apply criminal justice in dealing with such past violations. In Rwanda, the transitional government decided to prosecute the perpetrators of the 1994 genocide. As a result of widespread participation in the genocide and a devastated legal sector, difficulties...... in respecting the rights of the accused arose. A group of paralegals known as the "Corps of Judicial Defenders" was thus relied upon as to provide legal assistance for genocide suspects, but also for civil parties. This paper describes the work of these paralegals relating to the transitional trials, and, more...

  6. Blue-light reception through quaternary transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Engelhard; Ralph P Diensthuber; Andreas Möglich; Robert Bittl


    .... Using electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labelling, we chart the structural transitions facilitating blue-light reception in the engineered light-oxygen-voltage (LOV...

  7. The Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Berndt, A.; Maciejewski, G.; Takahashi, H.; Chen, W. P.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Pribulla, T.; Nikogossian, E. H.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Marschall, L.; Wu, Z.-Y.; Kellerer, A.; Walter, F. M.; Briceño, C.; Chini, R.; Fernandez, M.; Raetz, St.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Quinn, S. N.; Niedzielski, A.; Bukowiecki, Ł.; Nowak, G.; Tomov, T.; Tachihara, K.; Hu, S. C.-L.; Hung, L. W.; Kjurkchieva, D. P.; Radeva, V. S.; Mihov, B. M.; Slavcheva-Mihova, L.; Bozhinova, I. N.; Budaj, J.; Vaňko, M.; Kundra, E.; Hambálek, Ľ.; Krushevska, V.; Movsessian, T.; Harutyunyan, H.; Downes, J. J.; Hernandez, J.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Cohen, D. H.; Abel, I.; Ahmad, R.; Chapman, S.; Eckert, S.; Goodman, J.; Guerard, A.; Kim, H. M.; Koontharana, A.; Sokol, J.; Trinh, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, X.; Redmer, R.; Kramm, U.; Nettelmann, N.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, J.; Moualla, M.; Ginski, C.; Marka, C.; Adam, C.; Seeliger, M.; Baar, S.; Roell, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Trepl, L.; Eisenbeiß, T.; Fiedler, S.; Tetzlaff, N.; Schmidt, E.; Hohle, M. M.; Kitze, M.; Chakrova, N.; Gräfe, C.; Schreyer, K.; Hambaryan, V. V.; Broeg, C. H.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Pandey, A. K.


    We present the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI), in which we use several 0.2 to 2.6-m telescopes around the world to monitor continuously young (≤100 Myr), nearby (≤1 kpc) stellar clusters mainly to detect young transiting planets (and to study other variability phenomena on time-scales from minutes to years). The telescope network enables us to observe the targets continuously for several days in order not to miss any transit. The runs are typically one to two weeks long, about three runs per year per cluster in two or three subsequent years for about ten clusters. There are thousands of stars detectable in each field with several hundred known cluster members, e.g. in the first cluster observed, Tr-37, a typical cluster for the YETI survey, there are at least 469 known young stars detected in YETI data down to R=16.5 mag with sufficient precision of 50 millimag rms (5 mmag rms down to R=14.5 mag) to detect transits, so that we can expect at least about one young transiting object in this cluster. If we observe ˜10 similar clusters, we can expect to detect ˜10 young transiting planets with radius determinations. The precision given above is for a typical telescope of the YETI network, namely the 60/90-cm Jena telescope (similar brightness limit, namely within ± 1 mag, for the others) so that planetary transits can be detected. For targets with a periodic transit-like light curve, we obtain spectroscopy to ensure that the star is young and that the transiting object can be sub-stellar; then, we obtain Adaptive Optics infrared images and spectra, to exclude other bright eclipsing stars in the (larger) optical PSF; we carry out other observations as needed to rule out other false positive scenarios; finally, we also perform spectroscopy to determine the mass of the transiting companion. For planets with mass and radius determinations, we can calculate the mean density and probe the internal structure. We aim to constrain planet formation models and

  8. Numerical Simulations of Hyperfine Transitions of Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbinger, B.; Diermaier, M.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M.C.; Widmann, E.


    One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.

  9. Forerunning mode transition in a continuous waveguide


    Slepyan, Leonid; Ayzenberg-Stepanenko, Mark; Mishuris, Gennady


    We have discovered a new, forerunning mode transition as the periodic transition wave propagating in a uniform continuous waveguide. The latter is represented by an elastic beam separating from the elastic foundation under the action of sinusoidal waves. The critical displacement is the separation criterion. We show that the steady-state separation mode, where the separation front speed is independent of the wave amplitude, exists only in a bounded speed-dependent range of the wave amplitude....

  10. A Spectral Approach to Transit Timing Variations (United States)

    Ofir, Aviv; Xie, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Chao-Feng; Sari, Re’em; Aharonson, Oded


    The high planetary multiplicity revealed by Kepler implies that transit timing variations (TTVs) are intrinsically common. The usual procedure for detecting these TTVs is biased to long-period, deep transit planets, whereas most transiting planets have short periods and shallow transits. Here we introduce the Spectral Approach technique to TTVs that allows expanding the TTV catalog toward lower TTV amplitude, shorter orbital period, and shallower transit depth. In the spectral approach, we assume that a sinusoidal TTV exists in the data and then calculate the improvement to χ 2 that this model allows over that of the linear-ephemeris model. This enables detection of TTVs even in cases where the transits are too shallow, so that individual transits cannot be timed. The spectral approach is more sensitive because it has fewer free parameters in its model. Using the spectral approach, we (a) detect 129 new periodic TTVs in Kepler data (an increase of ∼2/3 over a previous TTV catalog); (b) constrain the TTV periods of 34 long-period TTVs and reduce amplitude errors of known TTVs; and (c) identify cases of multi-periodic TTVs, for which absolute planetary mass determination may be possible. We further extend our analysis by using perturbation theory assuming a small TTV amplitude at the detection stage, which greatly speeds up our detection (to a level of few seconds per star). Our extended TTV sample shows no deficit of short-period or low-amplitude transits, in contrast to previous surveys, in which the detection schemes were significantly biased against such systems.

  11. Dermatome variations in patients with transitional vertebrae


    Seyfert, S.


    OBJECTIVES—To test whether the position of lumbosacral dermatomes varies in the presence of transitional vertebrae.
MATERIAL AND METHODS—Fifty consecutive male patients were tested for thoracolumbar and lumbosacral transitional vertebrae by radiography and for the position of the dermatome gap between the lumbar dermatomes Ll, L2, L3, and the sacral dermatomes S2 and S3. The dermatome gap was documented with the use of the cremasteric reflex, the receptive field of which end...

  12. Transitions: Managing the Transfer of Security Responsibility (United States)


    society, the creation of a more questioning culture and greater information about some of the abuses of that power have however greatly reduced its...together and withhold their labour . 76. Finally the ability to exploit networks of contacts can be a source of power. The ability to use such...participation by transition partners and stakeholders . 167. Learning & Adapting. Those involved in any transition need to be able to learn and

  13. Functional Implications of Intracellular Phase Transitions. (United States)

    Holehouse, Alex S; Pappu, Rohit V


    Intracellular environments are heterogeneous milieus comprising of macromolecules, osmolytes, and a range of assemblies that include membrane-bound organelles and membraneless biomolecular condensates. The latter are non-stoichiometric assemblies of protein and RNA molecules. They represent distinct phases and form via intracellular phase transitions. Here, we present insights from recent studies and provide a perspective on how phase transitions that lead to biomolecular condensates might contribute to cellular functions.

  14. E-Mobility and the Energy Transition. (United States)

    Schlögl, Robert


    Since the reduction of greenhouse gases is the top priority of the Energy Transition, primary electricity should be converted to material energy carriers. In this way electricity can be "stored" and made accessible for other applications. This Essay focuses on the integration of mobility in the Energy Transition and the development of sustainable alternatives to electricity-based transportation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Transit system as a project of urbanity


    Stipcic, Milos


    Up to which point a transit system, a primarily utilitarian element of the city, could become a positive constituent of urban context, giving it a new significance and an additional value? In the last few decades, there is a relatively new and increasing phenomenon in urbanism which is to put more effort into the integration of transit system and its surrounding. In different regions of the world, multidisciplinary teams of planners are working on many-sided urban projects a...

  16. Stochastic relations foundations for Markov transition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doberkat, Ernst-Erich


    Collecting information previously scattered throughout the vast literature, including the author's own research, Stochastic Relations: Foundations for Markov Transition Systems develops the theory of stochastic relations as a basis for Markov transition systems. After an introduction to the basic mathematical tools from topology, measure theory, and categories, the book examines the central topics of congruences and morphisms, applies these to the monoidal structure, and defines bisimilarity and behavioral equivalence within this framework. The author views developments from the general

  17. Connecting the vulcanization transition to percolation. (United States)

    Peng, W; Goldbart, P M; McKane, A J


    The vulcanization transition is addressed via a minimal replica-field-theoretic model. The appropriate long-wavelength behavior of the two- and three-point vertex functions is considered diagrammatically, to all orders in perturbation theory, and identified with the corresponding quantities in the Houghton-Reeve-Wallace field-theoretic approach to the percolation critical phenomenon. Hence, it is shown that percolation theory correctly captures the critical phenomenology of the vulcanization transition associated with the liquid and critical states.

  18. The Strongly Interacting Electroweak Phase Transition


    Bergerhoff, B.; Wetterich, C


    A quantitative discussion of nonperturbative effects for the high temperature electroweak phase transition is presented. We propose a method for the computation of the temperature dependent effective scalar potential that takes into account the running of the effective gauge coupling. Compared to perturbation theory we find a moderate decrease of the critical temperature and an important change in the strength of the first order transition. We conclude that perturbation theory gives a mislead...

  19. Optimal Weather Conditions, Economic Growth, and Political Transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cáceres, Neila; Malone, Samuel W


    .... Previous studies significantly overestimate the increase in the probability of democratic transitions resulting from negative growth shocks, although we find leadership transition frequencies rise...

  20. Transitional Leadership: Leadership During Times of Transition, Key Principles, and Considerations for Success. (United States)

    Norbash, Alexander


    To suggest a methodical approach for refining transitional management abilities, including empowerment of a growing leader, leading in an unfamiliar organization or leading in an organization that is changing. Management approaches based on the body of work dealing with leadership studies and transitions and dealing with leadership during times of transition and change management were consolidated and categorized. Transitional leaders can benefit from effective leadership training including defining and prospectively accruing necessary experiences and skills; strengthening information gathering skills; effectively self-assessing; valuing and implementing mentoring; formulating strategy; and communicating. A categorical approach to transitional leadership may be implemented through a systems-based and methodical approach to gaining the definable, and distinct sets of skills and abilities necessary for transitional leadership success. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An evaluation of transit procurement training. (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Weiner, Marc D; Klein, Nicholas J; Puniello, Orin D


    We evaluated a training course called "Orientation to Transit Procurement", designed and conducted by the National Transit Institute. This course is designed to provide Federal Transit Administration (FTA) grantees an overview of regulations and best practices related to the procurement process. Our objective in conducting the evaluation was to understand how transit agency staff made changes in procurement practices in response to the course training. The evaluation was mixed mode: an Internet survey followed by in-depth interviews with a small group of respondents. Survey respondents were also provided with an open-ended question providing us with additional context for our evaluation. Results show that the training is substantially successful at meeting the goal of improving procurement practices at transit agencies; indeed, most respondents report making changes at their agencies as the proximate result of the training. This was at odds with our exploration of knowledge of procurement topics, as most respondents gave inaccurate answers on multiple-choice "knowledge questions". This may have been due to question structure or, more likely, the nature of online surveys. Suitable training on the procurement of information technology was also a main concern. The lack of training in this area is indicative of the broader challenge facing public transit agencies in how to incorporate new forms of technology into their existing practices and bureaucratic structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Space Storm as a Dynamical Phase Transition (United States)

    Wanliss, J. A.


    Fluctuations of the DST index were analyzed for several magnetic storms preceded by more than a week of extremely quiet conditions to establish that there is a rapid and unidirectional change in the Hurst scaling exponent at the time of storm onset. That is, the transition is accompanied by the specific signature of a rapid unidirectional change in the temporal fractal scaling of fluctuations in DST, signaling the formation of a new dynamical phase (or mode) which is considerably more organized than the background state. We compare these results to a model of multifractional Brownian motion and suggest that the relatively sudden change from a less correlated to a more correlated pattern of multiscale fluctuations at storm onset can be characterized in terms of nonequilibrium dynamical phase transitions. Initial results show that a dynamical transition in solar wind VBs is correlated with the storm onset for intense storms, suggesting that the transition observed in DST is of external solar wind origin, rather than internal magnetospheric origin. On the other hand, some results show a dynamical transition in solar wind scaling exponents not matched in DST. As well, we also present results for small storms where there is a strong dynamical transition in DST without a similar changes in the VBs scaling statistics. The results for small storms seem to reduce the importance of the solar wind fluctuations but the evidence for the intense storms seems to point to the solar wind as being responsible for providing the scale free properties in the DST fluctuations.

  3. Transitive reasoning distorts induction in causal chains. (United States)

    von Sydow, Momme; Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn


    A probabilistic causal chain A→B→C may intuitively appear to be transitive: If A probabilistically causes B, and B probabilistically causes C, A probabilistically causes C. However, probabilistic causal relations can only guaranteed to be transitive if the so-called Markov condition holds. In two experiments, we examined how people make probabilistic judgments about indirect relationships A→C in causal chains A→B→C that violate the Markov condition. We hypothesized that participants would make transitive inferences in accordance with the Markov condition although they were presented with counterevidence showing intransitive data. For instance, participants were successively presented with data entailing positive dependencies A→B and B→C. At the same time, the data entailed that A and C were statistically independent. The results of two experiments show that transitive reasoning via a mediating event B influenced and distorted the induction of the indirect relation between A and C. Participants' judgments were affected by an interaction of transitive, causal-model-based inferences and the observed data. Our findings support the idea that people tend to chain individual causal relations into mental causal chains that obey the Markov condition and thus allow for transitive reasoning, even if the observed data entail that such inferences are not warranted.

  4. Mott transition by an impulsive dielectric breakdown (United States)

    Yamakawa, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Morimoto, T.; Terashige, T.; Yada, H.; Kida, N.; Suda, M.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Miyagawa, K.; Kanoda, K.; Okamoto, H.


    The transition of a Mott insulator to metal, the Mott transition, can occur via carrier doping by elemental substitution, and by photoirradiation, as observed in transition-metal compounds and in organic materials. Here, we show that the application of a strong electric field can induce a Mott transition by a new pathway, namely through impulsive dielectric breakdown. Irradiation of a terahertz electric-field pulse on an ET-based compound, κ-(ET) 2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), collapses the original Mott gap of ~30 meV with a ~0.1 ps time constant after doublon-holon pair productions by quantum tunnelling processes, as indicated by the nonlinear increase of Drude-like low-energy spectral weights. Additionally, we demonstrate metallization using this method is faster than that by a femtosecond laser-pulse irradiation and that the transition dynamics are more electronic and coherent. Thus, strong terahertz-pulse irradiation is an effective approach to achieve a purely electronic Mott transition, enhancing the understanding of its quantum nature.

  5. Improving transitions in acute stroke patients discharged to home: the Michigan stroke transitions trial (MISTT) protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathew J Reeves; Anne K Hughes; Amanda T Woodward; Paul P Freddolino; Constantinos K Coursaris; Sarah J Swierenga; Lee H Schwamm; Michele C Fritz


    Background For some stroke patients and caregivers, navigating the transition between hospital discharge and returning home is associated with substantial psychosocial and health-related challenges...

  6. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system. (United States)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene


    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  7. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks (United States)

    Espaillat, C.; Muzerolle, J.; Najita, J.; Andrews, S.; Zhu, Z.; Calvet, N.; Kraus, S.; Hashimoto, J.; Kraus, A.; D'Alessio, P.

    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)millimeter and infrared. We note the limitations of these techniques, particularly with respect to the sizes of the clearings currently detectable, and highlight the need for pairing broadband SEDs with multi-wavelength images to paint a more detailed picture of transitional disk structure. We review the gas in transitional disks, keeping in mind that future observations with ALMA will give us unprecedented access to gas in disks, and also observed infrared variability pointing to variable transitional disk structure, which may have implications for disks in general. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk-clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and

  8. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitaker, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oakberg, John A. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snow, Catherine [Sno Consulting, LLC, Sandy, UT (United States)


    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  9. Space storm as a phase transition (United States)

    Wanliss, J. A.; Dobias, P.


    Fluctuations of the SYM-H index were analyzed for several space storms preceded by more than a week of extremely quiet conditions to establish that there was a rapid and unidirectional change in the Hurst scaling exponent at the time of storm onset. That is, the transition was accompanied by the specific signature of a rapid unidirectional change in the temporal fractal scaling of fluctuations in SYM-H, signaling the formation of a new dynamical phase (or mode) which was considerably more organized than the background state. We compare these results to a model of multifractional Brownian motion and suggest that the relatively sudden change from a less correlated to a more correlated pattern of multiscale fluctuations at storm onset can be characterized in terms of nonequilibrium dynamical phase transitions. The results show that a dynamical transition in solar wind VB is correlated with the storm onset for intense storms, suggesting that the dynamical transition observed in SYM-H is of external solar wind origin, rather than internal magnetospheric origin. However, some results showed a dynamical transition in solar wind scaling exponents not matched by similar transitions in SYM-H. In other instances, we observed some small storms where there was a strong dynamical transition in SYM-H without similar changes in the VB scaling statistics, suggesting that changes were due to internal magnetospheric processes. In summary, the results for intense storms points to the solar wind as being responsible for providing the scale free properties in the SYM-H fluctuations but the evidence for small storms clearly limit the importance of the solar wind fluctuations; their interaction is more complex than simple causality.

  10. Transitional justice as social control: political transitions, human rights norms and the reclassification of the past. (United States)

    Dudai, Ron


    This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies. Building on the work of Stanley Cohen, the article contends that the core transitional problem is the denial of human rights violations, and consequently that the common purpose of all transitional justice mechanisms is to reclassify the past: redefining as deviant some acts and individuals which prior to the transition were considered 'normal'. The article identifies and analyses three themes in the application of a social control framework to transitional justice: (1) truth, memory and retroactive social control, pertains to the way truth-seeking transitional justice mechanisms reclassify past events by engaging in social control of and through memory; (2) censure, celebration and transitional social control refers to the reclassification of categories of individuals through expressions of both social disapproval and praise; and (3) civil society and social control from below concerns the role of social movements, organizations and groups as informal agents of social control during transitions. The concluding section recaps and briefly explores the concept of 'good moral panic' in the context of political transitions. While the concept of social control tends to have negative connotations for critical sociologists, this work suggests that efforts to categorize, punish and disapprove certain behaviours as deviant may not only be viewed as supporting a conservative status-quo, but also as promoting fledging human rights norms.

  11. Causes of distal volcano-tectonic seismicity inferred from hydrothermal modeling (United States)

    Coulon, Cecile A.; Hsieh, Paul A.; White, Randall A.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.


    Distal volcano-tectonic (dVT) seismicity typically precedes eruption at long-dormant volcanoes by days to years. Precursory dVT seismicity may reflect magma-induced fluid-pressure pulses that intersect critically stressed faults. We explored this hypothesis using an open-source magmatic-hydrothermal code that simulates multiphase fluid and heat transport over the temperature range 0 to 1200 °C. We calculated fluid-pressure changes caused by a small (0.04 km3) intrusion and explored the effects of flow geometry (channelized vs. radial flow), magma devolatilization rates (0–15 kg/s), and intrusion depths (5 and 7.5 km, above and below the brittle-ductile transition). Magma and host-rock permeabilities were key controlling parameters and we tested a wide range of permeability (k) and permeability anisotropies (kh/kv), including k constant, k(z), k(T), and k(z, T, P) distributions, examining a total of ~ 1600 realizations to explore the relevant parameter space. Propagation of potentially causal pressure changes (ΔP ≥ 0.1 bars) to the mean dVT location (6 km lateral distance, 6 km depth) was favored by channelized fluid flow, high devolatilization rates, and permeabilities similar to those found in geothermal reservoirs (k ~ 10− 16 to 10− 13 m2). For channelized flow, magma-induced thermal pressurization alone can generate cases of ∆ P ≥ 0.1 bars for all permeabilities in the range 10− 16 to 10− 13 m2, whereas in radial flow regimes thermal pressurization causes ∆ P < 0.1 bars for all permeabilities. Changes in distal fluid pressure occurred before proximal pressure changes given modest anisotropies (kh/kv ~ 10–100). Invoking k(z,T,P) and high, sustained devolatilization rates caused large dynamic fluctuations in k and P in the near-magma environment but had little effect on pressure changes at the distal dVT location. Intrusion below the brittle-ductile transition damps but does not prevent pressure

  12. Outcome of impact disruption of iron meteorites at room temperature (United States)

    Katsura, T.; Nakamura, A.; Takabe, A.; Okamoto, T.; Sangen, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Liu, X.; Mashimo, T.


    The iron meteorites and some M-class asteroids are generally understood to originate in the cores of differentiated planetesimals or in the local melt pools of primitive bodies. On these primitive bodies and planetesimals, a wide range of collisional events at different mass scales, temperatures, and impact velocities would have occurred. Iron materials have a brittle-ductile transition at a certain temperature, which depends on metallurgical factors such as grain size and purity, and on conditions such as strain-rate and confining pressure [1]. An evolutional scenario of iron meteorite parent bodies was proposed in which they formed in the terrestrial planet region, after which they were scattered into the main belt by collisions, Yarkovsky thermal forces, and resonances [2]. In this case, they may have experienced collisional evolution in the vicinity of the Earth before they were scattered into the main belt. The size distribution of iron bodies in the main belt may therefore have depended on the disruption threshold of iron bodies at temperature above the brittle-ductile transition. This paper presents the results of impact-disruption experiments of iron meteorite and steel specimens mm-cm in size as projectiles or targets conducted at room temperature using three light-gas guns and one powder gun. Our iron specimens were almost all smaller in size than their counterparts (as targets or projectiles, respectively). The fragment size distribution of iron material was different from that of rocks. In iron fragmentation, a higher percentage of the mass is concentrated in larger fragments, i.e., the mass fraction of fine fragments is much less than that of rocks shown in the Figure (left). This is probably due to the ductile nature of the iron materials at room temperature. Furthermore, the Figure (right) shows that the largest fragment mass fraction f is dependent not only on the energy density but also on the size of the specimens. In order to obtain a generalized

  13. Seismogenesis of the lower crustal intraplate earthquakes occurring in Kachchh, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.


    Large intraplate continental earthquakes like the 1811-12 New Madrid (M w ⩾ 8.0) and the 2001 Bhuj (Mw7.7) were highly destructive because they occurred in strong crust, but the mechanisms underlying their seismogenesis are not understood. Here we show, using local earthquake velocity tomography, and joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocity dispersion that the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of western India is far more complex than hitherto known through previous studies. A new image of the crust and underlying mantle lithosphere indicates the presence of a 18-km thick high velocity (Vp: 7.15-8.11 km/s) differentiated crustal and mantle magmatic layer above a hot and thin lithosphere (only 70 km) in the epicentral region of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. This magmatic layer begins at the depth of 24 km and continues down to 42 km depth. Below this region, brittle-ductile transition reaches as deep as the Moho (˜34 km) due to the possible presence of olivine rich mafic magma. Our 1-D velocity structure envisages an initial phase of plume activity (Deccan plume at 65 m.y. ago) resulting in basaltic magma in the eclogitic layers at sub-lithospheric levels, wherein they were subjected to crystallization under ultra-high pressure conditions. Our study also delineates an updoming of Moho (˜4-7 km) as well as asthenosphere (˜6-10 km) below the Kachchh rift zone relative to surrounding areas, suggesting the presence of a confined body of partial melts below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Restructuring of this warm and thin lithosphere may have been caused due to rifting (at 184 and 88 m.y. ago) and tholeiitic and alkalic volcanism related to the Deccan Traps K/T boundary event (at 65 m.y. ago). Recent study of isotopic ratios proposed that the alkalic basalts found in Kachchh are generated from a CO 2 rich lherzolite partial melts in the asthenosphere that ascended along deep lithospheric rift faults

  14. Tectonic stresses in the lithosphere: constraints provided by the experimental deformation of rocks. (United States)

    Kirby, S.H.


    The strengths of rocks clearly place an upper limit on the stress that can be sustained by the upper half of the lithosphere. Laboratory data on rock rheology are generally lacking at intermediate temperatures and pressures on the important rock types expected in the lithosphere, so a definitive accounting of the strength distribution with depth in the upper lithosphere is presently unattainable. Analogies are drawn between the fragmentary strength data on slicates at intermediate temperature and the more extensive experimental data on marble and limestone, and several tentative conclusions are drawn: First, brittle processes, such as faulting and cataclasis, are expected to control rock strength at low pressures and temperatures. The strengths associated with these brittle mechanisms increase rapidly with increasing effective pressure and are relatively insensitive to temperature and strain rate. Second, the transitions between brittle and ductile processes occur at critical values of the least principal stress sigma3. I suggest that the concept of the deformation mechanism map of Ashby (1972) be extended to brittle-ductile transitions by normalizing the applied differential stress sigma by sigma3, i.e., the transitions occur at critical values of sigma/sigma3. -from Author

  15. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity. (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco


    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).

  16. Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements (United States)

    Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.


    Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.

  17. Transition radiation in EELS and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail:; Kachtík, Lukáš; Miesenberger, Bernhard; Retzl, Philipp


    The excitation probability of transition radiation is measured for varying beam energies in a transmission electron microscope once using optical spectrometry of the emitted light and second using electron energy loss spectrometry. In both cases similar results are found being in good agreement with theory. The knowledge about this probability enables us to judge whether or not transition radiation has to be considered in EELS and CL data interpretation. Additionally it is shown that the emission of transition radiation happens at the sample surfaces only, when the electron passes the vacuum/sample interface and thus feeling the change of its dielectric environment. We demonstrate that in the case of aluminum the influence of transition radiation on the low loss EELS spectrum is only minor and conclude that it might be negligible for many other materials. - Highlights: • We determine the probability for the excitation of transition radiation at a large variety of beam energies in TEM. • We use a GATAN VULCAN system for optical spectrometry in the TEM. • We do angular resolved EELS experiments in a standard TEM with an angular resolution of 7.57 μrad.

  18. Cosmological Inflation as a Quantum Phase Transition (United States)

    Morikawa, M.


    The aim of this paper is to clarify the understanding of the fundamental dynamics in the time evolution of phase transitions based on quantum field theory. This formalism is particularly necessary for the inflationary phase transition in the early Universe when it is quenched in the effectively zero temperature phase. In this situation, quantum fluctuations dominate thermal fluctuations. We first critically review the standard scenario of the inflationary phase transition: the problem of defining the order parameter, the problem of complex and non-convex effective potentials etc. In order to solve these fundamental problems, we develop the formalism of non-equilibrium quantum firld theory. In the process, we a) define the local order parameter relevant for the dynamics of phase transitions in this formalism, and compare this local order parameter with the ordinary global order parameter, b) systematically describe the dissipation and fluctuation effects induced from the special type of radiative corrections (in-in formalism of quantum field theory), c) derive the equation of motion for the local order parameter which becomes a generalized Langevin-type stochastic differential equation, d) argue that dissipative effects destroy the quantum coherence of the system and demonstrate that the ordinary quantum theory based on a single Hilbert space is not sufficient, e) expound upon the validity of using the effective potential for the dynamics of phase transitions, and finally, f) demonstrate that the unstable self-coupling scalar field can actually induce the dissipative effects, and derive the equation of motion for the order parameter.

  19. Rural adolescents experiencing an urban transition. (United States)

    Bramston, Paul; Patrick, Jeff


    To determine the distress levels of adolescents leaving rural Queensland towns for urban boarding schools. A questionnaire study and focus groups were used to collect data from students who made the transition and those who did not. Two hundred and fifty-five rural students completed the questionnaire and of these 36 left home to attend an urban boarding school. Twenty-eight students participated in one of five focus groups. Self-report scales administered were Life Events Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. A semistructured set of prompts was used in the focus groups. Both methodologies revealed adolescents reported coping well with the transition from rural and remote family homes and schools to boarding school in the city. Reported distress levels of those who moved were no higher than those who did not and homesickness, while common, was rarely high or enduring. Adolescents who moved offered useful insights in the focus groups into the best and worst aspects of the transition; how best to cope, and how families and schools can ease their path. In general, adolescents who leave isolated homes and schools to board in the city manage the transition surprisingly well and regard the transition as having a number of advantages. Being prepared for the move emerged as important.

  20. Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition. (United States)

    Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei


    The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.

  1. Synthetic transitions: towards a new synthesis. (United States)

    Solé, Ricard


    The evolution of life in our biosphere has been marked by several major innovations. Such major complexity shifts include the origin of cells, genetic codes or multicellularity to the emergence of non-genetic information, language or even consciousness. Understanding the nature and conditions for their rise and success is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. Along with data analysis, phylogenetic studies and dedicated experimental work, theoretical and computational studies are an essential part of this exploration. With the rise of synthetic biology, evolutionary robotics, artificial life and advanced simulations, novel perspectives to these problems have led to a rather interesting scenario, where not only the major transitions can be studied or even reproduced, but even new ones might be potentially identified. In both cases, transitions can be understood in terms of phase transitions, as defined in physics. Such mapping (if correct) would help in defining a general framework to establish a theory of major transitions, both natural and artificial. Here, we review some advances made at the crossroads between statistical physics, artificial life, synthetic biology and evolutionary robotics.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. New type of two-dimensional phase transition (United States)

    Tikhov, M.; Stolzenberg, M.; Bauer, E.


    A first-order phase transition in a Cu double layer on a Mo(110) surface in which the orientation of the interfacial misfit dislocations changes by 90° is reported. The transition shows considerable hysteresis. The analysis of the transition and of an irreversible transition preceding it suggests that the core of the misfit dislocations is partially empty.

  3. Initial infrastructure development strategies for the transition to sustainable mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetink, F.J.; Vooren, A. van der; Alkemade, F.


    Within the Dutch transition policy framework, the transition to hydrogen-based transport is seen as a promising option towards a sustainable transport system. One aspect of such transition processes that is emphasized in transition management is learning about user behaviour and preferences.

  4. Rethinking Healthcare Transitions and Policies: Changing and Expanding Roles in Transitional Care (United States)

    Moreño, Patricienn K.


    The breakdown of care transitions between various healthcare facilities, providers, and services is a major issue in healthcare, and accounts for over US$15 billion in healthcare expenditures annually. The transition between inpatient care and home care is a very delicate period where, too often, chronically ill patients get worse and wind up back…

  5. 3D CFD computations of transitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer on the wings or airfoils is handled by the turbulence model. The correlation based transition model...

  6. Small City Transit : Amherst, Massachusetts : Free-Fare, Student Operated Transit in a University Community (United States)


    Amherst, Massachusetts, is an illustration of a free-fare transit service serving a university campus. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a de...

  7. Does public transit reduce car travel externalities? Quasi-natural experiments' evidence from transit strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, M.W.; van Ommeren, J.


    One of the unanswered questions in the field of urban economics is to which extent subsidies to public transit are justified. We examine one of the main benefits of public transit, a reduction in car congestion externalities, the so-called congestion relief benefit, using quasi-natural experimental

  8. Colonic transit time in constipated children: does pediatric slow-transit constipation exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, M. A.; Büller, H. A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Akkermans, L. M.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Taminiau, J. A.


    In adults, slow-transit constipation is a well-established form of constipation with abdominal pain and an empty rectum on examination. Marker studies in these patients, mainly women, show a markedly slowed transit time in all colonic segments. No studies in constipated children are available that

  9. Determining transition readiness in congenital heart disease: Assessing the utility of the Transition Readiness Questionnaire (United States)

    The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) is a tool commonly used to assess transition readiness in adolescents with chronic diseases. It was previously validated in youth with special health care needs (YSHCN), but no patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were included in the ...

  10. Transition? What transition? : Changing energy systems in an increasingly carbon constrained world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Lopez de Silanes, Florencio; de Roode, Alexander


    Energy transitions have been taking place continuously since the Industrial Revolution. These transitions primarily involve national energy mixes. In general, countries keep moving up the energy ladder, meaning that they integrate larger and larger proportions of specialized fuels into their energy

  11. Small City Transit : Westport, Connecticut : Comprehensive Transit Service in an Affluent Suburban Community (United States)


    Westport, Connecticut is an illustration of a fixed-route transit service operating in an affluent suburban community. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed...

  12. Thermalon mediated phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B.; Mbarek, Saoussen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    Thermalons can mediate phase transitions between different vacua in higher curvature gravity, potentially changing the asymptotic structure of the spacetime. Treating the cosmological constant as a dynamical parameter, we study these phase transitions in the context of extended thermodynamic phase space. We find that in addition to the AdS to dS phase transitions previously studied, thermal AdS space can undergo a phase transition to an asymptotically flat black hole geometry. In the context of AdS to AdS transitions, we comment on the similarities and differences between thermalon transitions and the Hawking-Page transition.

  13. A dynamic model for the transition region (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.


    We develop a model for the lower transition region that can account for the persistent and ubiquitous redshifts that are observed in the UV emission lines formed at these temperatures. We show that these shifts are not likely to be due either to falling spicular material or to steady-state siphon flows. Our model consists of two key ingredients. The redshifted radiation originates from a minority of flux tubes which have higher gas pressures than their surroundings, and consequently have their transition regions situated below the transition regions of their surroundings. The coronal heating in these loops is impulsive in nature, and this is responsible for the transient mass flows. Our studies, therefore, favor theories for coronal heating which involve flare-like magnetic-energy release.

  14. Project Management Framework to Organizational Transitions (United States)

    Kotnour, Tim; Barton, Saul


    This paper describes a project management framework and associated models for organizational transitions. The framework contains an integrated set of steps an organization can take to lead an organizational transition such as downsizing and change in mission or role. The framework is designed to help an organization do the right work the right way with the right people at the right time. The underlying rationale for the steps in the framework is based on a set of findings which include: defining a transition as containing both near-term and long-term actions, designing actions which respond to drivers and achieve desired results, aligning the organization with the external environment, and aligning the internal components of the organization. The framework was developed based on best practices found in the literature, lessons learned from heads of organizations who have completed large-scale organizational changes, and concerns from employees at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The framework is described using KSC.

  15. YETI – search for young transiting planets******

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhäuser Ralph


    Full Text Available We present our search for young transiting planets at ages of 2 to 20 Myr. Towards this goal, we monitor a number of young open clusters with the YETI network. YETI consists of 0.4-2 m-sized telescopes at different longitudes that observe continuously over timescales much longer than a night. In our first cluster Trumpler 37 we found more than 350 variable stars. Also two transiting candidates were found so far, for which follow-up is partly done. The first candidate turned out to be an eclipsing binary with an M-type companion. We describe the research done on these two transiting candidates.

  16. Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Rabin; Samanta, Saurav


    Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.

  17. Monetary Policy Rules in Some Transition Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Hodiri


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the question of whither monetary rules or ad hoc monetary policies were followed during the early stages of transition and in response to the global financial crisis. We study Eastern European countries and thee CIS countries. We find that during the early of transition, both developed economies and economies in transition used the monetary base, as well as the interest rate, as the main tools for monetary policy. However, in response to the global crises, priority was given to the main objective such as containing inflation and supporting economic growth. Monetary authorities had the additional possible choice of alternative objectives, such as stabilization of nominal exchange rate and real effective exchange rate, or increase in reserves. It was found that countries mostly retained priorities of monetary policy and some of them gave a greater importance to the alternative objectives.

  18. Standard transition aluminas. Electron microscopy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos P. Souza


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of characterization of the particle shapes of six standard transition aluminas samples using transmission and scanning electron microscopies; selected area electron diffraction, in parallel with X-ray powder diffraction were used for confirmation of the different transition aluminas types. The transition aluminas - chi; kappa; gamma; theta; delta; and eta were supplied by ALCOA Central Laboratory. The chi-; kappa-;gamma- and delta-Al(20(3 microcrystals are pseudomorphs from their respective precursors gibbsite and boehmite. However, theta-Al(20(3 microcrystals are not pseudomorphs after the standard delta-Al(20(3 sample. Also, eta-Al(20(3 are not pseudomorphs after bayerite somatoids.

  19. Environmental awareness, the Transition Movement, and place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frederik Nørgaard; Hunka, Agnieszka; Mälgand, Miina


    theory approach, conducted a field study staying in SSV. We collected data with focus groups, individual interviews and participatory observations, taking part in daily life of the community. The analysis revealed three, intertwined themes which altogether create the constructed landscape of SSV......The Transition Movement, originating in Ireland and the United Kingdom, gathers and supports community-led actions to meet the global challenges of climate change, peak oil and energy descent. In our study we analysed a Transition Network project, a Danish village built from scratch by its...... inhabitants and named the Self Sufficient Village (SSV). Employing the theories of constructed landscapes and place attachment, we studied how the Transition Movement ideology shaped the constructed landscape of the village and influenced the inhabitants’ attachment. The research team, following the grounded...

  20. Transit probabilities for debris around white dwarfs (United States)

    Lewis, John Arban; Johnson, John A.


    The discovery of WD 1145+017 (Vanderburg et al. 2015), a metal-polluted white dwarf with an infrared-excess and transits confirmed the long held theory that at least some metal-polluted white dwarfs are actively accreting material from crushed up planetesimals. A statistical understanding of WD 1145-like systems would inform us on the various pathways for metal-pollution and the end states of planetary systems around medium- to high-mass stars. However, we only have one example and there are presently no published studies of transit detection/discovery probabilities for white dwarfs within this interesting regime. We present a preliminary look at the transit probabilities for metal-polluted white dwarfs and their projected space density in the Solar Neighborhood, which will inform future searches for analogs to WD 1145+017.

  1. Estimation of transition probabilities of credit ratings (United States)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah


    The present research is based on the quarterly credit ratings of ten companies over 15 years taken from the database of the Taiwan Economic Journal. The components in the vector mi (mi1, mi2,⋯, mi10) may first be used to denote the credit ratings of the ten companies in the i-th quarter. The vector mi+1 in the next quarter is modelled to be dependent on the vector mi via a conditional distribution which is derived from a 20-dimensional power-normal mixture distribution. The transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) for getting mi+1,j = l given that mi, j = k is then computed from the conditional distribution. It is found that the variation of the transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) as i varies is able to give indication for the possible transition of the credit rating of the j-th company in the near future.

  2. Modelling the energy transition in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Felix [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwarze, Bjoern; Spiekermann, Klaus; Wegener, Michael [Spiekermann und Wegener Urban and Regional Research, Dortmund (Germany)


    The history of cities is a history of energy transitions. In the medieval city heating and cooking occurred with wood and peat. The growth of the industrial city in the 19th century was built on coal and electricity. The sprawling metropolis of the 20th century was made possible by oil and gas. How will the city of the 21st century look after the next energy transition from fossil to renewable energy? This paper reports on the extension of an urban land-use transport interaction model to a model of the energy transition in the Ruhr Area, a five-million agglomeration in Germany. The paper presents the planned model extensions and how they are to be integrated into the model and shows first preliminary results.

  3. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla


    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  4. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering. (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan


    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  5. Transition metal catalysis in confined spaces. (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Gramage-Doria, Rafael; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H


    Transition metal catalysis plays an important role in both industry and in academia where selectivity, activity and stability are crucial parameters to control. Next to changing the structure of the ligand, introducing a confined space as a second coordination sphere around a metal catalyst has recently been shown to be a viable method to induce new selectivity and activity in transition metal catalysis. In this review we focus on supramolecular strategies to encapsulate transition metal complexes with the aim of controlling the selectivity via the second coordination sphere. As we will discuss, catalyst confinement can result in selective processes that are impossible or difficult to achieve by traditional methods. We will describe the template-ligand approach as well as the host-guest approach to arrive at such supramolecular systems and discuss how the performance of the catalyst is enhanced by confining it in a molecular container.

  6. Dynamics of dissipative Landau-Zener transitions (United States)

    Huang, Zhongkai; Zhao, Yang


    A nonperturbative treatment, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variation is employed to examine dynamics of the Landau-Zener model with both diagonal and off-diagonal qubit-bath coupling using the multiple Davydov trial states. It is shown that steady-state transition probabilities agree with analytical predictions at long times. Landau-Zener dynamics at intermediate times is little affected by diagonal coupling, and is found to be determined by off-diagonal coupling and tunneling between two diabatic states. We investigate effects of bath spectral densities, coupling strengths, and interaction angles on Laudau-Zener dynamics. Thanks to the multiple Davydov trial states, detailed boson dynamics can also be analyzed in Landau-Zener transitions. The results presented here may help provide guiding principles to manipulate the Laudau-Zener transitions in circuit QED architectures by tuning off-diagonal coupling and tunneling strength.

  7. Transitional care in pediatric neurosurgical patients. (United States)

    Rothstein, David H; Li, Veetai


    The relatively young specialty field of pediatric neurosurgery addresses a number of surgical diseases that, while first encountered in children, may involve long-term post-operative sequelae that persist into adulthood. These diagnoses present a challenge for care providers as patients transition from pediatric to adult age groups. Brain tumors, shunted hydrocephalus, and myelomeningocele are three of the most common examples of this interesting category. The provision of coordinated transitional care to affected pediatric neurosurgical patients is made all the more difficult by the common comorbidity of developmental delay, affecting not only personal and social growth but also the character and composition of the care team. This article seeks to provide a background for some of the common pediatric neurosurgical diseases requiring a transitional care framework for survivors entering young adulthood, a summary of the adult surgical care challenges faced by these patients, and a rationale for different approaches to optimize care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin, E-mail: [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Samanta, Saurav, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Narasinha Dutt College, 129, Belilious Road, Howrah 711101 (India)


    Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.

  9. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,


    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  10. The Transit/Admission Lounge study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilligan, P


    In response to persistent overcrowding of Emergency Departments in Ireland, the Department of Health and Health Service Executive provided funding for "Transit Lounge" areas to be built. These lounges were to provide a location for patients to wait in beds pending the availability of a ward bed. This research was performed to assess the impact of such a lounge on the overcrowding of the Emergency Department and on patient outcomes. The time period from the opening of the Transit Lounge was compared with the same period a year earlier. The Transit Lounge delivers a comfortable place for patients to wait. It does not reduce Emergency Department overcrowding and has been associated with an increased time waiting for a ward bed. The solution to overcrowding is the creation of real capacity in the system so that ward beds are available in acute hospitals for the "unscheduled unwell".

  11. Discovering phase transitions with unsupervised learning (United States)

    Wang, Lei


    Unsupervised learning is a discipline of machine learning which aims at discovering patterns in large data sets or classifying the data into several categories without being trained explicitly. We show that unsupervised learning techniques can be readily used to identify phases and phases transitions of many-body systems. Starting with raw spin configurations of a prototypical Ising model, we use principal component analysis to extract relevant low-dimensional representations of the original data and use clustering analysis to identify distinct phases in the feature space. This approach successfully finds physical concepts such as the order parameter and structure factor to be indicators of a phase transition. We discuss the future prospects of discovering more complex phases and phase transitions using unsupervised learning techniques.

  12. Molecular evolution tracks macroevolutionary transitions in Cetacea. (United States)

    McGowen, Michael R; Gatesy, John; Wildman, Derek E


    Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) is a model group for investigating the molecular signature of macroevolutionary transitions. Recent research has begun to reveal the molecular underpinnings of the remarkable anatomical and behavioral transformation in this clade. This shift from terrestrial to aquatic environments is arguably the best-understood major morphological transition in vertebrate evolution. The ancestral body plan and physiology were extensively modified and, in many cases, these crucial changes are recorded in cetacean genomes. Recent studies have highlighted cetaceans as central to understanding adaptive molecular convergence and pseudogene formation. Here, we review current research in cetacean molecular evolution and the potential of Cetacea as a model for the study of other macroevolutionary transitions from a genomic perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ferroelectric Phase Transitions from First Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Rabe, K M


    An effective Hamiltonian for the ferroelectric transition in $PbTiO_3$ is constructed from first-principles density-functional-theory total-energy and linear-response calculations through the use of a localized, symmetrized basis set of ``lattice Wannier functions.'' Preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations for this system show a first-order cubic-tetragonal transition at 660 K. The involvement of the Pb atom in the lattice instability and the coupling of local distortions to strain are found to be particularly important in producing the behavior characteristic of the $PbTiO_3$ transition. A tentative explanation for the presence of local distortions experimentally observed above $T_c$ is suggested. Further applications of this method to a variety of systems and structures are proposed for first-principles study of finite-temperature structural properties in individual materials.

  14. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms


    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  15. Young children's overgeneralizations with fixed transitivity verbs. (United States)

    Brooks, P J; Tomasello, M; Dodson, K; Lewis, L B


    The present study examined English-speaking children's tendency to make argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., I disappeared it). Children were exposed to several English verbs of fixed transitivity (exclusively intransitive or exclusively transitive) and then asked questions that encouraged them to overgeneralize usage of the verbs. Seventy-two children (24 in each of three age groups: 3, 4/5, and 8 years of age) experienced four actions performed by puppets. Each action had two verbs of similar meaning associated with it in the context of the experimental action: one more familiar to young children and one less familiar. Children at all ages were more likely to overgeneralize usage of verbs that were less familiar to them, supporting the hypothesis that children's usage of verbs in particular construction types becomes entrenched over time. As children solidly learn the transitivity status of particular verbs, they become more reluctant to use those verbs in other argument structure constructions.

  16. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson


    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  17. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.


    , this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number......By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia DALMAZO


    Full Text Available Background The esophagus has a different response in relation to the characteristics of a swallowed bolus. Bolus viscosity and body position may affect esophageal contraction and transit. Objectives To investigate the effect of bolus viscosity and body position on esophageal contraction, transit and perception. Methods Esophageal contraction, transit and perception of transit were evaluated in 26 asymptomatic volunteers, 13 men and 13 women aged 18-60 years, mean: 33.6 (12.2 years. Esophageal contraction (manometry and transit (impedance were measured with a solid state catheter with sensors located 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. Each volunteer swallowed in duplicate and in random sequence a 5 mL low viscous (LV liquid bolus of an isotonic drink with pH 3.3, and a 5 mL high viscous (HV paste bolus, which was prepared with 7.5 g of instant food thickener diluted in 50 mL of water (pH: 6.4. Results Total bolus transit time, in the sitting position, was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus. Esophageal transit was longer in the supine position than in the sitting position. Bolus head advance time was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus in both positions. Contraction esophageal amplitude was higher in the supine position than in the sitting position. The perception of bolus transit was more frequent with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus, without differences related to position. Conclusions The viscosity of the swallowed bolus and body position during swallows has an influence on esophageal contractions, transit and perception of transit.

  19. Exoplanet Transits of Stellar Active Regions (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira; Reiners, Ansgar; Esposito, Massimiliano


    We report preliminary results of a program to obtain high spectral- and temporal-resolution observations of the neutral helium triplet line at 1083.0 nm in transiting exoplanet systems. The principal objective of our program is to gain insight on the properties of active regions, analogous to solar plages, on late-type dwarfs by essentially using exoplanet transits as high spatial resolution probes of the stellar surface within the transit chord. The 1083 nm helium line is a particularly appropriate diagnostic of magnetized areas since it is weak in the quiet photosphere of solar-type stars but appears strongly in absorption in active regions. Therefore, during an exoplanet transit over the stellar surface, variations in its absorption equivalent width can arise that are functions of the intrinsic strength of the feature in the active region and the known relative size of the exoplanet. We utilized the Galileo Telescope and the GIANO-B near-IR echelle spectrograph to obtain 1083 nm spectra during transits in bright, well-known systems that include HD 189733, HD 209458, and HD 147506 (HAT-P-2). We also obtained simultaneous auxiliary data on the same telescope with the HARPS-N UV-Visible echelle spectrograph. We will present preliminary results from our analysis of the observed variability of the strength of the He I 1083 nm line during transits.Acknowledgements: Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The NSO is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  20. Nonuniversal surface behavior of dynamic phase transitions. (United States)

    Riego, Patricia; Berger, Andreas


    We have studied the dynamic phase transition (DPT) of the kinetic Ising model in systems with surfaces within the mean-field approximation. Varying the surface exchange coupling strength J(s), the amplitude of the externally applied oscillating field h(0), and its period P, we explore the dynamic behavior of the layer-dependent magnetization and the associated DPTs. The surface phase diagram shows several features that resemble those of the equilibrium case, with an extraordinary bulk transition and a surface transition for high J(s) values, independent from the value of h(0). For low J(s), however, h(0) is found to be a crucial parameter that leads to nonuniversal surface behavior at the ordinary bulk transition point. Specifically, we observed here a bulk-supported surface DPT for high field amplitudes h(0) and correspondingly short critical periods P(c), whereas this surface transition simultaneous to the bulk one is suppressed for slow critical dynamics occurring for low values of h(0). The suppression of the DPT for low h(0) not only occurs for the topmost surface layer, but also affects a significant number of subsurface layers. We find that the key physical quantity that explains this nonuniversal behavior is the time correlation between the dynamic surface and bulk magnetizations at the bulk critical point. This time correlation has to pass a threshold value to trigger a bulk-induced DPT in the surface layers. Otherwise, dynamic phase transitions are absent at the surface in stark contrast to the equilibrium behavior of the corresponding thermodynamic Ising model. Also, we have analyzed the penetration depth of the dynamically ordered phase for the surface DPT that occurs for large J(s) values. Here we find that the penetration depth depends strongly on J(s) and behaves identically to the corresponding equilibrium Ising model.