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Sample records for brittle-ductile transitions

  1. Two brittle ductile transitions in subduction wedges, as revealed by topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, C.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction wedges contain two brittle ductile transitions. One transition occurs within the wedge interior, and a second transition occurs along the decollement. The decollement typically has faster strain rates, which suggests that the brittle ductile transition along the decollement will be more rearward (deeper) than the transition within the interior. However, the presence of distinct rheologies or other factors such as pore fluid pressure along the decollement may reverse the order of the brittle-ductile transitions. We adopt a solution by Williams et al., (1994) to invert for these brittle ductile transitions using the wedge surface topography. At present, this model does not include an s point or sediment loading atop the wedge. The Hellenic wedge, however, as exposed in Crete presents an ideal setting to test these ideas. We find that the broad high of the Mediterranean ridge represents the coulomb frictional part of the Hellenic wedge. The rollover in topography north of the ridge results from curvature of the down going plate, creating a negative alpha depression in the vicinity of the Strabo, Pliny, and Ionian 'troughs' south of Crete. A steep topographic rise out of these troughs and subsequent flattening reflects the brittle ductile transition at depth in both the decollement and the wedge interior. Crete exposes the high-pressure viscous core of the wedge, and pressure solution textures provide additional evidence for viscous deformation in the rearward part of the wedge. The location of the decollement brittle ductile transition has been previously poorly constrained, and Crete has never experienced a subduction zone earthquake in recorded history. Williams, C. A., et al., (1994). Effect of the brittle ductile transition on the topography of compressive mountain belts on Earth and Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth

  2. Ultra-sonic testing for brittle-ductile transition temperature of ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomakuchi, Michiyoshi

    1979-01-01

    The ultra-sonic testing for the brittle-ductile transition temperature, the USTB test for short, of ferritic steels is proposed in the present paper. And also the application of the USTB test into the nuclear pressure vessel surveillance is discussed. The USTB test is based upon the experimental results in the present work that the ultrasonic pressure attenuation coefficient of a ferritic steel has the evident transition property with its temperature due to the nature from which the brittle-ductile fracture transition property of the steel come and for four ferritic steels the upper boundary temperatute of the region in which the transition of the attenuation coefficient of a steel takes place is 4 to 5 0 C higher than the sub(D)T sub(E), i.e. the transition temperature of the fracture absorption energy of the steel by the DWTT test. The USTB test estimates the crack arrest temperature which is defined to be the fracture transition elastic temperature by the upper boundary temperature. (author)

  3. On temperature dependence of deformation mechanism and the brittle - ductile transition in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouz, P.; Samant, A.V.; Hong, M.H.; Moulin, A.; Kubin, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent deformation experiments on semiconductors have shown the occurrence of a break in the variation of the critical resolved shear stress of the crystal as a function of temperature. These and many other examples in the literature evidence a critical temperature at which a transition occurs in the deformation mechanism of the crystal. In this paper, the occurrence of a similar transition in two polytypes of SiC is reported and correlated to the microstructure of the deformed crystals investigated by transmission electron microscopy, which shows evidence for partial dislocations carrying the deformation at high stresses and low temperatures. Based on these results and data in the literature, the explanation is generalized to other semiconductors and a possible relationship to their brittle-ductile transition is proposed. copyright 1999 Materials Research Society

  4. Simulation of seismic waves in the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) using a Burgers model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Carcione, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    The seismic characterization of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth's crust is of great importance for the study of high-enthalpy geothermal fields in the proximity of magmatic zones. It is well known that the BDT can be viewed as the transition between zones with viscoelastic and plastic behavior, i.e., the transition between the upper, cooler, brittle crustal zone, and the deeper ductile zone. Depending on stress and temperature conditions, the BDT behavior is basically determined by the viscosity of the crustal rocks, which acts as a key factor. In situ shear stress and temperature are related to shear viscosity and steady-state creep flow through the Arrhenius equation, and deviatory stress by octahedral stress criterion. We present a numerical approach to simulate the propagation of P-S and SH seismic waves in a 2D model of the heterogeneous Earth's crust. The full-waveform simulation code is based on a Burgers mechanical model (Carcione, 2007), which enables us to describe both the seismic attenuation effects and the steady-state creep flow (Carcione and Poletto, 2013; Carcione et al. 2013). The differential equations of motion are calculated for the Burgers model, and recast in the velocity-stress formulation. Equations are solved in the time domain using memory variables. The approach uses a direct method based on the Runge-Kutta technique, and the Fourier pseudo-spectral methods, for time integration and for spatial derivation, respectively. In this simulation we assume isotropic models. To test the code, the signals generated by the full-waveform simulation algorithm are compared with success to analytic solutions obtained with different shear viscosities. Moreover, synthetic results are calculated to simulate surface and VSP seismograms in a realistic rheological model with a dramatic temperature change, to study the observability of BDT by seismic reflection methods. The medium corresponds to a selected rheology of the Iceland scenario

  5. Progressive softening of brittle-ductile transition due to interplay between chemical and deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Petr; Bukovská, Zita; Morales, Luiz F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The micro-scale shear zones (shear bands) in granitoids from the South Armorican Shear Zone reflect localization of deformation and progressive weakening in the conditions of brittle-ductile transition. We studied microstructures in the shear bands with the aim to establish their P-T conditions and to derive stress and strain rates for specific deformation mechanisms. The evolving microstructure within shear bands documents switches in deformation mechanisms related to positive feedbacks between deformation and chemical processes and imposes mechanical constraints on the evolution of the brittle-ductile transition in the continental transform fault domains. The metamorphic mineral assemblage present in the shear bands indicate their formation at 300-350 ˚ C and 100-400 MPa. Focusing on the early development of shear bands, we identified three stages of shear band evolution. The early stage I associated with initiation of shear bands occurs via formation of microcracks with possible yielding differential stress of up to 250 MPa (Diamond and Tarantola, 2015). Stage II is associated with subgrain rotation recrystallization and dislocation creep in quartz and coeval dissolution-precipitation creep of microcline. Recrystallized quartz grains in shear bands show continual increase in size, and decrease in stress and strain rates from 94 MPa to 17-26 MPa (Stipp and Tullis, 2003) and 3.8*10-12 s-1- 1.8*10-14 s-1 (Patterson and Luan, 1990) associated with deformation partitioning into weaker microcline layer and shear band widening. The quartz mechanical data allowed us to set some constrains for coeval dissolution-precipitation of microcline which at our estimated P-T conditions suggests creep at 17-26 MPa differential stress and 3.8*10-13 s-1 strain rate. Stage III is characterized by localized slip along interconnected white mica bands accommodated by dislocation creep at strain rate 3.8*10-12 s-1 and stress 9.36 MPa (Mares and Kronenberg, 1993). The studied example

  6. Dependence of the brittle ductile transition on strain-rate-dependent critical homologous temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul M.

    2017-05-01

    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to

  7. A Micromechanics-Based Elastoplastic Damage Model for Rocks with a Brittle-Ductile Transition in Mechanical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Zhu, Qi-zhi; Chen, Liang; Shao, Jian-fu; Liu, Jian

    2018-06-01

    As confining pressure increases, crystalline rocks of moderate porosity usually undergo a transition in failure mode from localized brittle fracture to diffused damage and ductile failure. This transition has been widely reported experimentally for several decades; however, satisfactory modeling is still lacking. The present paper aims at modeling the brittle-ductile transition process of rocks under conventional triaxial compression. Based on quantitative analyses of experimental results, it is found that there is a quite satisfactory linearity between the axial inelastic strain at failure and the confining pressure prescribed. A micromechanics-based frictional damage model is then formulated using an associated plastic flow rule and a strain energy release rate-based damage criterion. The analytical solution to the strong plasticity-damage coupling problem is provided and applied to simulate the nonlinear mechanical behaviors of Tennessee marble, Indiana limestone and Jinping marble, each presenting a brittle-ductile transition in stress-strain curves.

  8. A phenomenological molecular model for yielding and brittle-ductile transition of polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Cheng, Shiwang; Lin, Panpan; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-01

    This work formulates, at a molecular level, a phenomenological theoretical description of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in tensile extension, exhibited by all polymeric glasses of high molecular weight (MW). The starting point is our perception of a polymer glass (under large deformation) as a structural hybrid, consisting of a primary structure due to the van der Waals bonding and a chain network whose junctions are made of pairs of hairpins and function like chemical crosslinks due to the intermolecular uncrossability. During extension, load-bearing strands (LBSs) emerge between the junctions in the affinely strained chain network. Above the BDT, i.e., at "warmer" temperatures where the glass is less vitreous, the influence of the chain network reaches out everywhere by activating all segments populated transversely between LBSs, starting from those adjacent to LBSs. It is the chain network that drives the primary structure to undergo yielding and plastic flow. Below the BDT, the glassy state is too vitreous to yield before the chain network suffers a structural breakdown. Thus, brittle failure becomes inevitable. For any given polymer glass of high MW, there is one temperature TBD or a very narrow range of temperature where the yielding of the glass barely takes place as the chain network also reaches the point of a structural failure. This is the point of the BDT. A theoretical analysis of the available experimental data reveals that (a) chain pullout occurs at the BDT when the chain tension builds up to reach a critical value fcp during tensile extension; (b) the limiting value of fcp, extrapolated to far below the glass transition temperature Tg, is of a universal magnitude around 0.2-0.3 nN, for all eight polymers examined in this work; (c) pressurization, which is known [K. Matsushige, S. V. Radcliffe, and E. Baer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 1853 (1976)] to make brittle polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ductile at room temperature

  9. A phenomenological molecular model for yielding and brittle-ductile transition of polymer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Cheng, Shiwang; Lin, Panpan; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-07

    This work formulates, at a molecular level, a phenomenological theoretical description of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in tensile extension, exhibited by all polymeric glasses of high molecular weight (MW). The starting point is our perception of a polymer glass (under large deformation) as a structural hybrid, consisting of a primary structure due to the van der Waals bonding and a chain network whose junctions are made of pairs of hairpins and function like chemical crosslinks due to the intermolecular uncrossability. During extension, load-bearing strands (LBSs) emerge between the junctions in the affinely strained chain network. Above the BDT, i.e., at "warmer" temperatures where the glass is less vitreous, the influence of the chain network reaches out everywhere by activating all segments populated transversely between LBSs, starting from those adjacent to LBSs. It is the chain network that drives the primary structure to undergo yielding and plastic flow. Below the BDT, the glassy state is too vitreous to yield before the chain network suffers a structural breakdown. Thus, brittle failure becomes inevitable. For any given polymer glass of high MW, there is one temperature TBD or a very narrow range of temperature where the yielding of the glass barely takes place as the chain network also reaches the point of a structural failure. This is the point of the BDT. A theoretical analysis of the available experimental data reveals that (a) chain pullout occurs at the BDT when the chain tension builds up to reach a critical value f(cp) during tensile extension; (b) the limiting value of f(cp), extrapolated to far below the glass transition temperature T(g), is of a universal magnitude around 0.2-0.3 nN, for all eight polymers examined in this work; (c) pressurization, which is known [K. Matsushige, S. V. Radcliffe, and E. Baer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 1853 (1976)] to make brittle polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ductile at room

  10. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C

    2017-08-09

    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  11. Challenges in the Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP) for EGS development beyond the brittle-ductile transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Muraoka, H.; Tsuchiya, N.; Ito, H.

    2013-12-01

    Development using Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) technologies is considered to be the best solution to the problems of the localized distribution of geothermal resources. However, it is considered that a number of problems, including low water recovery rate, difficulty in design of the reservoir, and induced earthquake, would appear in Japanese EGS. These problems in the development of EGS reservoirs cannot be readily solved in Japan because they are intrinsically related to the physical characteristics and tectonic setting of the brittle rock mass. Therefore, we have initiated the Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP), which will take a multidisciplinary scientific approach, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, water-rock interactions, rock mechanics, seismology, drilling technology, well-logging technology, and reservoir engineering. The science and technology required for the creation and control of geothermal reservoirs in superheated rocks in the ductile zone is at the frontier of modern research in most of the related disciplines. Solutions to the associated problems will not easily be found without international collaboration among researchers and engineers. For this reason, in March, 2013 we held a five-day ICDP-supported workshop in Japan to review and discuss various scientific and technological issues related to the JBBP. Throughout the discussions at the workshop on characteristics of the beyond-brittle rock mass and creation and control of EGS reservoirs in the ductile zone, it has concluded that there are two end-member reservoir models that should be considered (Fig. 1). The JBBP reservoir type-1 would be created near the top of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) and connected to pre-existing hydrothermal systems, which would increase productivity and provide sustainability. The JBBP reservoir type-2 would be hydraulically or thermally created beyond the BDT, where pre-existing fractures are less permeable, and would be hydraulically

  12. Prediction of non-brittle fracture in the welded joint of C-Mn steel in the brittle-ductile transition domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thai Ha

    2009-11-01

    This work concerns the nuclear safety, specifically the secondary circuit integrity of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The problem is that of the fracture of a thin tubular structure in ferritic steel with many welded joints. The ferritic steel and weld present a brittle/ductile tenacity transition. Moreover, the welds present geometry propitious to the appearance of fatigue cracks, due to vibrations and expansions. These cracks may cause the complete fracture of the structure. The objectives of this work are to establish a criterion of non-fracture by cleavage of thin welded structures in ferritic steel, applicable to actual structures. Therefore, the present study focuses on the fracture behaviour of welded thin structures in brittle/ductile transition. It aims at developing the threshold stress model initially proposed by Chapuliot, to predict the non-brittle-fracture of this welded structure. The model is identified for the welded joint in C-Mn steel for nuclear construction, specifically in the upper part of the transition. A threshold stress, below which the cleavage cannot take place, is identified using tensile tests at low temperature on axis-symmetrical notched specimens taken in welded joint. This threshold stress is used to define the threshold volume where the maximum principal stress exceeds the threshold stress during the test. The analysis by SEM of specimen fracture surfaces shows that the gross solidification molten zone in the weld is the most likely to cleave. The relation between the brittle fracture probability and the threshold volume in the gross solidification molten zone is established via a sensitivity function, using multi-materials simulations. The model thus identified is tested for the prediction of non-brittle-fracture of SENT specimens taken in the welded joint and tested in tension. The results obtained are encouraging with regards to the transferability of the model to the actual structure. (author)

  13. The Rheological Evolution of Brittle-Ductile Transition Rocks During the Earthquake Cycle: Evidence for a Ductile Precursor to Pseudotachylyte in an Extensional Fault System, South Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig A.; Miranda, Elena A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how the rheological evolution of shear zone rocks from beneath the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) is affected by coeval ductile shear and pseudotachylyte development associated with seismicity during the earthquake cycle. We focus our study on footwall rocks of the South Mountains core complex, and we use electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses to examine how strain is localized in granodiorite mylonites both prior to and during pseudotachylyte development beneath the BDT. In mylonites that are host to pseudotachylytes, deformation is partitioned into quartz, where quartz exhibits crystallographic-preferred orientation patterns and microstructures indicative of dynamic recrystallization during dislocation creep. Grain size reduction during dynamic recrystallization led to the onset of grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by fluid-assisted grain size-sensitive (GSS) creep, localizing strain in quartz-rich layers prior to pseudotachylyte development. The foliation-parallel zones of GBS in the host mylonites, and the presence of GBS traits in polycrystalline quartz survivor clasts indicate that GBS zones were the ductile precursors to in situ pseudotachylyte generation. During pseudotachylyte development, strain was partitioned into the melt phase, and GSS deformation in the survivor clasts continued until crystallization of melt impeded flow, inducing pseudotachylyte development in other GBS zones. We interpret the coeval pseudotachylytes with ductile precursors as evidence of seismic events near the BDT. Grain size piezometry yields high differential stresses in both host mylonites ( 160 MPa) and pseudotachylyte survivor clasts (> 200 MPa), consistent with high stresses during interseismic and coseismic phases of the earthquake cycle, respectively.

  14. Fracturing and Transformation Into Veins Beneath the Crustal Scale Brittle Ductile Transition - a Record of Co-seismic Loading and Post-seismic Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchter, J. A.; Stöckhert, B.

    2005-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks approaching the crustal scale brittle-ductile transition (BDT) during exhumation are expected to become increasingly affected by short term stress fluctuations related to seismic activity in the overlying seismogenic layer (schizosphere), while still residing in a long-term viscous environment (plastosphere). The structural and microstructural record of quartz veins in low grade - high pressure metamorphic rocks from southern Evia, Greece, yields insight into the processes and conditions just beneath the long-term BDT at temperatures of about 300 to 350°C, which switches between brittle failure and viscous flow as a function of imposed stress or strain rate. The following features are characteristic: (1) The veins have formed from tensile fractures, with a typical length on the order of 10-1 to 101 m; (2) The veins are discordant with respect to foliation and all pre-existing structures, with a uniform orientation over more than 500 km2; (3) The veins show a low aspect ratio of about 10 to 100 and an irregular or characteristic flame shape, which requires distributed ductile deformation of the host rock; (4) Fabrics of the sealing vein quartz indicate that - at a time - the veins were wide open cavities; (5) The sealing quartz crystals reveal a broad spectrum of microstructural features indicative of crystal plastic deformation at high stress and temperatures of about 300 to 350°C. These features indicate that opening and sealing of the fractures commenced immediately after brittle failure, controlled by ductile deformation of the host rock. Vein-parallel shortening was generally less than about 2%. Crystals formed early during sealing were plastically deformed upon progressive deformation and opening of the vein. The structural and microstructural record is interpreted as follows: Brittle failure is proposed to be a consequence of short term co-seismic loading. Subsequent opening of the fracture and sealing to become a vein is interpreted to

  15. Grain Boundary Sliding (GBS) as a Plastic Instability Leading to Coeval Pseudotachylyte Development in Mylonites: an EBSD Study of the Seismic Cycle in Brittle-Ductile Transition Rocks of the South Mountains Core Complex, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E.; Stewart, C.

    2017-12-01

    Exposures of coeval pseudotachylytes and mylonites are relatively rare, but are crucial for understanding the seismic cycle in the vicinity of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). We use both field observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to investigate the coeval pseudotachylytes and granodiorite mylonites exposed in the footwall of the South Mountains core complex, Arizona, to evaluate how strain is localized both prior to and during pseudotachylyte development at the BDT. In the field, we observe numerous pseudotachylyte veins oriented parallel to mylonitic foliation; the veins have synthetic shear sense with adjacent mylonites, and are < 2 cm thick, laterally discontinuous, and confined to a few m in structural thickness. EBSD analysis reveals that deformation is strongly partitioned into quartz in mylonites, where quartz shows subgrain rotation overprinted by bulging recrystallization microstructures and lattice preferred orientation (LPO) patterns indicative of dislocation creep. Foliation-parallel zones of finely recrystallized, (< 5 μm diameter) bulge-nucleated grains in the mylonites show four-grain junctions and randomized LPO patterns consistent with grain boundary sliding (GBS). Pseudotachylyte veins have elongate polycrystalline quartz survivor clasts that also exhibit GBS traits, suggesting that pseudotachylytes form within GBS zones in mylonites. We interpret the onset of GBS as a triggering mechanism for coeval pseudotachylyte development, where the accompanying decrease in effective viscosity and increase in strain rate initiated seismic slip and pseudotachylyte formation within GBS zones. Strain became localized within the pseudotachylyte until crystallization of melt impeded flow, inducing pseudotachylyte development in other GBS zones. We associate the pseudotachylyte veins and host mylonites with the coseismic and interseismic parts of the seismic cycle, respectively, where the abundance and lateral discontinuity of

  16. Depth-Dependent Earthquake Properties Beneath Long-Beach, CA: Implications for the Rheology at the Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Except for a few localities, seismicity along faults in southern California is generally confined to depths shallower than 15 km. Among faults hosting deep seismicity, the Newport-Inglewood Fault (NIF), which traverses the Los-Angeles basin, has an exceptionally mild surface expression and low deformation rates. Moreover, the NIF structure is not as well resolved as other, less well instrumented faults because of poor signal-to-noise ratio. Here we use data from three temporary dense seismic arrays, which were deployed for exploration purposes and contain up to several thousands of vertical geophones, to investigate the properties of deep seismicity beneath Long-Beach (LB), Compton and Santa-Fe Springs (SFS). The latter is located 15 km northeast of the NIF, presumably above a major detachment fault underthrusting the basin.Event detection is carried out using a new approach for microseismic multi-channel picking, in which downward-continued data are back-projected onto the volume beneath the arrays, and locations are derived from statistical analysis of back-projection images. Our technique reveals numerous, previously undetected events along the NIF, and confirms the presence of an active shallow structure gently dipping to the north beneath SFS. Seismicity characteristics vary along the NIF strike and dip. While LB seismicity is uncorrelated with the mapped trace of the NIF, Compton seismicity illuminates a sub-vertical fault that extends down to about 20 km. This result, along with the reported high flux of mantle Helium along the NIF (Boles et al., 2015), suggests that the NIF is deeply rooted and acts as a major conduit for mantle fluids. We find that the LB size distribution obeys the typical power-law at shallow depths, but falls off exponentially for events occurring below 20 km. Because deep seismicity occurs uniformly beneath LB, this transition is attributed to a reduction in seismic asperity density with increasing depth, consistent with a transition

  17. Prediction of non-brittle fracture in the welded joint of C-Mn steel in the brittle-ductile transition domain; Prediction de la non-rupture fragile dans un joint soude en acier C-Mn dans le domaine de la transition fragile/ductile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thai Ha

    2009-11-15

    This work concerns the nuclear safety, specifically the secondary circuit integrity of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The problem is that of the fracture of a thin tubular structure in ferritic steel with many welded joints. The ferritic steel and weld present a brittle/ductile tenacity transition. Moreover, the welds present geometry propitious to the appearance of fatigue cracks, due to vibrations and expansions. These cracks may cause the complete fracture of the structure. The objectives of this work are to establish a criterion of non-fracture by cleavage of thin welded structures in ferritic steel, applicable to actual structures. Therefore, the present study focuses on the fracture behaviour of welded thin structures in brittle/ductile transition. It aims at developing the threshold stress model initially proposed by Chapuliot, to predict the non-brittle-fracture of this welded structure. The model is identified for the welded joint in C-Mn steel for nuclear construction, specifically in the upper part of the transition. A threshold stress, below which the cleavage cannot take place, is identified using tensile tests at low temperature on axis-symmetrical notched specimens taken in welded joint. This threshold stress is used to define the threshold volume where the maximum principal stress exceeds the threshold stress during the test. The analysis by SEM of specimen fracture surfaces shows that the gross solidification molten zone in the weld is the most likely to cleave. The relation between the brittle fracture probability and the threshold volume in the gross solidification molten zone is established via a sensitivity function, using multi-materials simulations. The model thus identified is tested for the prediction of non-brittle-fracture of SENT specimens taken in the welded joint and tested in tension. The results obtained are encouraging with regards to the transferability of the model to the actual structure. (author)

  18. Determinação de temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil de plásticos através de testes de impacto instrumentado Determination of the brittle-ductile transition temperature in plastics by intrumented impact test 76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Correa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho é realizada uma análise descritiva do teste de impacto tipo Izod instrumentado e são mostradas suas vantagens em relação ao impacto convencional na obtenção de diagramas de força e energia de fratura em tempo-real. Estes diagramas além de fornecerem dados do material em termos de sua resistência ao impacto tradicional, contém informações detalhadas sobre os mecanismos de fratura e as principais características apresentadas durante a propagação da trinca no corpo de prova. A medida da variação da resistência ao impacto com a temperatura pode ser utilizada como uma forma de se determinar a existência de transições dúctil-frágeis ou alternativamente a suscetibilidade de materiais poliméricos à concentração de tensões, i.e., profundidade e raio da extremidade do entalhe. As curvas de carga e energia, obtidas à várias temperaturas, são utilizadas na determinação de parâmetros do material e da temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil de um copolímero de acrilonitrila-butadieno-estireno (ABS. A análise da superfície de fratura por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, (MEV permitiu a correlação da forma das curvas de impacto com o modo de fratura observado e detalhes da microestrutura do material.The present work intends to point out some of the advantages of using instrumented impact testing over conventional non-instrumented methods in the failure analysis of plastics. In this method, force-displacement diagrams are obtained in "real-time" and used to calculate partial energies of initiation and complete fracture of the specimens. The diagrams yield important information on fracture mechanisms and main characteristics of the failure process. Variations of impact energy with temperature can be used in the determination of brittle-ductile transitions or alternatively for evaluation of material susceptibility to stress concentrations, i.e. depth and crack tip radii. The load and energy diagrams

  19. A natural example of fluid-mediated brittle-ductile cyclicity in quartz veins from Olkiluoto Island, SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Barbara; Garofalo, Paolo S.; Viola, Giulio; Mattila, Jussi; Menegon, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Brittle faults are well known as preferential conduits for localised fluid flow in crystalline rocks. Their study can thus reveal fundamental details of the physical-chemical properties of the flowing fluid phase and of the mutual feedbacks between mechanical properties of faults and fluids. Crustal deformation at the brittle-ductile transition may occur by a combination of competing brittle fracturing and viscous flow processes, with short-lived variations in fluid pressure as a viable mechanism to produce this cyclicity switch. Therefore, a detailed study of the fluid phases potentially present in faults can help to better constrain the dynamic evolution of crustal strength within the seismogenic zone, as a function of varying fluid phase characteristics. With the aim to 1) better understand the complexity of brittle-ductile cyclicity under upper to mid-crustal conditions and 2) define the physical and chemical features of the involved fluid phase, we present the preliminary results of a recently launched (micro)structural and geochemical project. We study deformed quartz veins associated with brittle-ductile deformation zones on Olkiluoto Island, chosen as the site for the Finnish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel excavated in the Paleoproterozoic crust of southwestern Finland. The presented results stem from the study of brittle fault zone BFZ300, which is a mixed brittle and ductile deformation zone characterized by complex kinematics and associated with multiple generations of quartz veins, and which serves as a pertinent example of the mechanisms of fluid flow-deformation feedbacks during brittle-ductile cyclicity in nature. A kinematic and dynamic mesostructural study is being integrated with the detailed analysis of petrographic thin sections from the fault core and its immediate surroundings with the aim to reconstruct the mechanical deformation history along the entire deformation zone. Based on the observed microstructures, it was possible to

  20. Brittle-ductile gliding shear zone and its dynamic metallization in uranium deposit No. 3110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study on the macroscopic geological structure, microstructures of plastic deformation rotary strain, structural geochemistry and zoning regularity of a brittle-ductile gliding shear zone in uranium deposit No. 3110 is made. Structural dynamic metallization of uranium caused by the strong shearing stress is discussed. It is pointed out that great attention must be paid to in further exploration

  1. Prediction of the brittle-ductile transition temperature shift, from irradiation experiments obtained in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, D.; Dussarte, D.; Soulat, P.

    1988-10-01

    In integrety - evaluation studies of the nuclear-reactor vessel, the toughness of component materials is given by a reference curve, which represents the lowest level of the toughness possible values, as a function of the temperature. Its temperature-scale position is given by the null ductility temperature. In non-irradiated conditions, the temperature of the vessel materials is experimentally obtained. To take into account the irradiation effect, a shift of this temperature, given by the correlations where chemical composition and neutronic dose are included, is considered. Up to date correlations, settled for materials brittler than those applied in the French program, are called in question again. A correlation between results obtained in France since 1973, for base metals and welded joints is given. The behavior of CHOOZ vessel, under irradiation conditions, is discussed [fr

  2. Earthquake rupture below the brittle-ductile transition in continental lithospheric mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Germán A; Froment, Bérénice; Yu, Chunquan; Poli, Piero; Abercrombie, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Earthquakes deep in the continental lithosphere are rare and hard to interpret in our current understanding of temperature control on brittle failure. The recent lithospheric mantle earthquake with a moment magnitude of 4.8 at a depth of ~75 km in the Wyoming Craton was exceptionally well recorded and thus enabled us to probe the cause of these unusual earthquakes. On the basis of complete earthquake energy balance estimates using broadband waveforms and temperature estimates using surface heat flow and shear wave velocities, we argue that this earthquake occurred in response to ductile deformation at temperatures above 750°C. The high stress drop, low rupture velocity, and low radiation efficiency are all consistent with a dissipative mechanism. Our results imply that earthquake nucleation in the lithospheric mantle is not exclusively limited to the brittle regime; weakening mechanisms in the ductile regime can allow earthquakes to initiate and propagate. This finding has significant implications for understanding deep earthquake rupture mechanics and rheology of the continental lithosphere.

  3. Tidal triggering of low frequency earthquakes near Parkfield, California: Implications for fault mechanics within the brittle-ductile transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.M.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, David R.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Rudolph, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of nonvolcanic tremor (NVT) have established the significant impact of small stress perturbations on NVT generation. Here we analyze the influence of the solid earth and ocean tides on a catalog of ∼550,000 low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) distributed along a 150 km section of the San Andreas Fault centered at Parkfield. LFE families are identified in the NVT data on the basis of waveform similarity and are thought to represent small, effectively co-located earthquakes occurring on brittle asperities on an otherwise aseismic fault at depths of 16 to 30 km. We calculate the sensitivity of each of these 88 LFE families to the tidally induced right-lateral shear stress (RLSS), fault-normal stress (FNS), and their time derivatives and use the hypocentral locations of each family to map the spatial variability of this sensitivity. LFE occurrence is most strongly modulated by fluctuations in shear stress, with the majority of families demonstrating a correlation with RLSS at the 99% confidence level or above. Producing the observed LFE rate modulation in response to shear stress perturbations requires low effective stress in the LFE source region. There are substantial lateral and vertical variations in tidal shear stress sensitivity, which we interpret to reflect spatial variation in source region properties, such as friction and pore fluid pressure. Additionally, we find that highly episodic, shallow LFE families are generally less correlated with tidal stresses than their deeper, continuously active counterparts. The majority of families have weaker or insignificant correlation with positive (tensile) FNS. Two groups of families demonstrate a stronger correlation with fault-normal tension to the north and with compression to the south of Parkfield. The families that correlate with fault-normal clamping coincide with a releasing right bend in the surface fault trace and the LFE locations, suggesting that the San Andreas remains localized and contiguous down to near the base of the crust. The deep families that have high sensitivity to both shear and tensile normal stress perturbations may be indicative of an increase in effective fault contact area with depth. Synthesizing our observations with those of other LFE-hosting localities will help to develop a comprehensive understanding of transient fault slip below the “seismogenic zone” by providing constraints on parameters in physical models of slow slip and LFEs.

  4. Brittle-ductile deformation effects on zircon crystal-chemistry and U-Pb ages: an example from the Finero Mafic Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Antonio; José Alberto, Padrón-Navarta; Zanetti, Alberto; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Tiepolo, Massimo; Giovanardi, Tommaso; Bonazzi, Mattia

    2016-04-01

    correlation between internal zircon structures, chemistry, U-Pb isotope ratios and mylonitic fabric. U-Pb data return highly discordant and variable ages: in particular, the 206Pb/238U ages range from Carboniferous to Triassic within the same zircon grain. The youngest 206Pb/238U data derive from narrow axial stripes oriented parallel or at low angle with respect to the foliation planes. These stripes are characterized by an overall HREE, Y, U and Th enrichment possibly reflecting deformation of the grain in presence of interstitial fluid phases, likely related to a concomitant magmatic activity. Deformation related structures (cracks and fractures) within zircon grains acted as fast-diffusion pathways allowing fluids to modify the geochemistry and isotopic systems of zircon. Our results suggest that fluid-assisted brittle-ductile deformation can severely modify the trace elements and isotopic composition of zircon with unexpected patterns constrained by stress regime. In similar cases, our observations suggest that, for a more appropriate interpretation of the petrologic evolution and age variability, a direct characterization of the internal structures of zircons still placed in their microtextural site is highly recommended.

  5. Implementation of design of experiments approach for the micronization of a drug with a high brittle-ductile transition particle diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Ashkan K; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2017-03-01

    To optimize air-jet milling conditions of ibuprofen (IBU) using design of experiment (DoE) method, and to test the generalizability of the optimized conditions for the processing of another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Bulk IBU was micronized using an Aljet mill according to a circumscribed central composite (CCC) design with grinding and pushing nozzle pressures (GrindP, PushP) varying from 20 to 110 psi. Output variables included yield and particle diameters at the 50th and 90th percentile (D 50 , D 90 ). Following data analysis, the optimized conditions were identified and tested to produce IBU particles with a minimum size and an acceptable yield. Finally, indomethacin (IND) was milled using the optimized conditions as well as the control. CCC design included eight successful runs for milling IBU from the ten total runs due to powder "blowback" from the feed hopper. DoE analysis allowed the optimization of the GrindP and PushP at 75 and 65 psi. In subsequent validation experiments using the optimized conditions, the experimental D 50 and D 90 values (1.9 and 3.6 μm) corresponded closely with the DoE modeling predicted values. Additionally, the optimized conditions were superior over the control conditions for the micronization of IND where smaller D 50 and D 90 values (1.2 and 2.7 μm vs. 1.8 and 4.4 μm) were produced. The optimization of a single-step air-jet milling of IBU using the DoE approach elucidated the optimal milling conditions, which were used to micronize IND using the optimized milling conditions.

  6. Influence of the static strain ageing on the ductile-to-brittle transition in C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, A.

    2012-01-01

    Ferritic steels for industrial structures have a brittle-ductile transition toughness and impact energy with temperature. Their resistance to the brittle fracture plays an essential role in the safety certification of industrial structures. Nowadays, the performance and the durability are key issues for major players such as EDF. In these approaches ductile-to-brittle transition toughness and impact energy, toughness is predicted from resilience. Several previous studies have shown that the probability of cleavage fracture can be adequately described in brittle plateau by a local approach to fracture. However, these studies assume that the material does not undergo strain aging, which is rarely relevant for low carbon steels and low calmed down. The work consisted firstly to characterize the behavior and secondly to propose a robust and explicit modeling of the observed phenomena. Characterization consisted of performing tensile tests between -150 C and 20 C for several strain rates. A model able to simulate the static aging is identified by implementing an appropriate and systematic strategy. Impact resistance test allows us to build the curve of ductile-to-brittle transition of the material for different conditions to understand and observe the influence of static strain aging on the failure. Finally, the modeling of the brittle fracture has been described for all experimental conditions tested using the model developed and identified in the previous section to predict the transition for different material conditions. (author)

  7. Iron Damage and Spalling Behavior below and above Shock Induced α ε Phase Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltz, Christophe; Buy, Francois; Roy, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The study of dynamic damage and fracture of iron has been undertaken below and above phase transition by series of time resolved experiments using both light gas launcher and powder gun. Shock wave tests were conducted by symmetrical impacts of high purity iron. To reveal the material behavior we have done shock experiments where the target is covered with a window in order to limit release amplitude and to avoid specimen fragmentation. Metallurgical analysis of soft recovered samples yields information about damage and fracture processes related to thermo-mechanical loading paths. Tests conducted without window allow studying effects of both phase change and release transition. Optical and SEM characterizations lead us to observe several modes of damage: brittle, ductile diffuse with void growth and heavily localized smooth one. These figures are related with: rarefaction shock waves or interfaces between transformed and not transformed iron. Simulations are performed with the 1D to compare experimental data with numerical results. We explain post-mortem observations by the complex shock wave structure interactions: P1 and P2 shock fronts associated with some corresponding shock release during unloading stages

  8. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  9. How does continental lithosphere break-apart? A 3D seismic view on the transition from magma-poor rifted margin to magmatic oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, M.; Lescanne, M.; Picazo, S.; Tomasi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, high-quality seismic data and drilling results drastically challenged our ideas about how continents break apart. New models address their observed variability and are presently redefining basics of rifting as well as exploration potential along deepwater rifted margins. Seafloor spreading is even more constrained by decades of scientific exploration along Mid Oceanic Ridges. By contrast, the transition between rifting and drifting remains a debated subject. This lithospheric breakup "event" is geologically recorded along Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT) at the most distal part of margins before indubitable oceanic crust. Often lying along ultra-deepwater margin domains and buried beneath a thick sedimentary pile, high-quality images of these domains are rare but mandatory to get strong insights on the processes responsible for lithospheric break up and what are the consequences for the overlying basins. We intend to answer these questions by studying a world-class 3D seismic survey in a segment of a rifted margin exposed in the Atlantic. Through these data, we can show in details the OCT architecture between a magma-poor hyper-extended margin (with exhumed mantle) and a classical layered oceanic crust. It is characterized by 1- the development of out-of-sequence detachment systems with a landward-dipping geometry and 2- the increasing magmatic additions oceanwards (intrusives and extrusives). Geometry of these faults suggests that they may be decoupled at a mantle brittle-ductile interface what may be an indicator on thermicity. Furthermore, magmatism increases as deformation migrates to the future first indubitable oceanic crust what controls a progressive magmatic crustal thickening below, above and across a tapering rest of margin. As the magmatic budget increases oceanwards, full-rate divergence is less and less accommodated by faulting. Magmatic-sedimentary architectures of OCT is therefore changing from supra-detachment to magmatic

  10. Factors controlling the mode of rift interaction in brittle-ductile coupled systems: A 3D numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allken, V.; Huismans, R.S.; Thieulot, C.

    2012-01-01

    The way individual faults and rift segments link up is a fundamental aspect of lithosphere extension and continental break-up. Little is known however about the factors that control the selection of the different modes of rift interaction observed in nature. Here we use state-of-the-art large

  11. Applying micromechanic failure models for description of failure modes in the ductile-brittle transition region; Einsatz mikromechanischer Schaedigungsmodelle im sproed-duktilen Uebergangsbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, G.

    1997-07-01

    The work reported was to examine whether the modified Gurson model and the Beremin model can be applied to the brittle-ductile transition region of a ferritic steel, and whether the material`s behaviour can be characterized with a failure model integrating the two models mentioned above into one. Any possible improvements of this approach were to be found. The report at first gives a brief list of terminology and formulas used. Chapter 3 explains the microscopic processes typically observed in the transition region in connection with the failure modes of ductile fracture and cleavage fracture, and shows possible approaches for modelling. Chapter 4 defines the specimens and materials, and chapter 5 explains the experiments as well as the microscopic analyses of the fracture surfaces. Chapter 6 presents subsequent calculations representing the processes observed. Based on the stress distributions thus derived, the Beremin model is re-examined for further development. Chapter 7 summarizes the results obtained. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit ist, zu untersuchen, ob das modifizierte Gurson-Modell und das Beremin-Modell im sproed-duktilen Uebergangsbereich eines ferritischen Stahls einsetzbar sind und ob das Werkstoffverhalten mit einem aus beiden Modellen kombinierten Schaedigungsmodell berechnet werden kann. Gegebenenfalls sind Verbesserungen herbeizufuehren. Die vorliegende Arbeit beginnt mit einer kurzen Einfuehrung der verwendeten Begriffe und Formalismen. In Kap. 3 werden die mikroskopischen Vorgaenge bei den im Uebergangsbereich typischerweise auftretenden Versagensarten duktiler Bruch und Spaltbruch vorgestellt und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten ihrer Modellierung aufgezeigt. Nach der Vorstellung des Probenwerkstoffs werden in Kap. 4 die Experimente beschrieben und die mikroskopischen Untersuchungen der Bruchflaechen in Kap. 5 dargestellt. Die Nachrechnungen der Experimente werden in Kap. 6 vorgestellt. Auf der Grundlage der dadurch bereitgestellten

  12. The role of fluid pressure on frictional behavior at the base of the seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Greg; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize stress and deformation style at the base of the seismogenic zone, we investigate how the mechanical properties of fluid-rock systems respond to variations in temperature and strain rate. The role of fluids on the processes responsible for the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-rich rocks has not been explored at experimental conditions where the kinetic competition between microcracking and viscous flow is similar to that expected in the Earth. Our initial analysis of this competition suggests that the effective stress law for sliding friction should not work as efficiently near the brittle-ductile transition as it does at shallow conditions

  13. Magma-Hydrothermal Transition: Basalt Alteration at Supercritical Conditions in Drill Core from Reykjanes, Iceland, Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.; Schiffman, P.; Fridleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project well IDDP-2, drilled to 4,659 m in the Reykjanes geothermal system, the on-land extension of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, SW Iceland. Drill core was recovered, for the first time, from a seawater-recharged, basalt-hosted hydrothermal system at supercritical conditions. The well has not yet been allowed to heat to in situ conditions, but temperature and pressure of 426º C and 340 bar was measured at 4500 m depth prior to the final coring runs. Spot drill cores were recovered between drilling depths of 3648.00 m and 4657.58 m. Analysis of the core is on-going, but we present the following initial observations. The cored material comes from a basaltic sheeted dike complex in the brittle-ductile transition zone. Felsic (plagiogranite) segregation veins are present in minor amounts in dikes recovered below 4300 m. Most core is pervasively altered to hornblende + plagioclase, but shows only minor changes in major and minor element composition. The deepest samples record the transition from the magmatic regime to the presently active hydrothermal system. Diabase near dike margins has been locally recrystallized to granoblastic-textured orthopyroxene-clinopyroxe-plagioclase hornfels. High temperature hydrothermal alteration includes calcic plagioclase (up to An100) and aluminous hornblende (up to 11 Wt. % Al2O3) locally intergrown with hydrothermal biotite, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and/or olivine. Hydrothermal olivine is iron-rich (Mg # 59-64) compared to expected values for igneous olivine. Biotite phenocrysts in felsic segregation veins have higher Cl and Fe compared to hydrothermal biotites. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs in partially altered quench dike margins give temperature of 955° to 1067° C. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs from hornfels and hydrothermal veins and replacements give temperature ranging from 774° to 888° C. Downhole fluid sampling is planned following thermal equilibration of the drill hole. Previous work

  14. Structural Characterization of the Foliated-Layered Gabbro Transition in Wadi Tayin of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J. R.; Crispini, L.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harris, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Matter, J. M.; Takazawa, E.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin massif, Samail ophiolite and both recovered ca. 400 m of continuous core through a section of the layered gabbros and the foliated-layered gabbro transition. Hole GT1A is cut by a discrete fault system including localized thin ultracataclastic fault zones. Hole GT2A is cut by a wider zone of brittle deformation and incipient brecciation. Here we report the structural history of the gabbros reflecting formation at the ridge to later obduction. Magmatic and high temperature history- 1) Both cores exhibit a pervasive, commonly well-defined magmatic foliation delineated by plagioclase, olivine and in places clinopyroxene. Minor magmatic deformation is present. 2) The dip of the magmatic foliation varies cyclically, gradually changing dip by 30o from gentle to moderate over a 50 m wavelength. 3) Layering is present throughout both cores, is defined by changes in mode and grain size ranging in thickness from 2 cm to 3 m and is commonly sub-parallel to the foliation. 4) There are no high temperature crystal-plastic shear zones in the core. Key observations include: no simple, systematic shallowing of dip with depth across the foliated-layered gabbro transition and layering is continuous across this transition. Cyclic variation of magmatic foliation dip most likely reflects the process of plate separation at the ridge axis. Near-axis faulting- i) On or near-axis structures consist of epidote-amphibole bearing hydraulic breccias and some zones of intense cataclasis with intensely deformed epidote and seams of clay and chlorite accompanied by syntectonic alteration of the wall rock. Early veins are filled with amphibole, chlorite, epidote, and anhydrite. ii) The deformation ranges from brittle-ductile, causing local deflection of the magmatic foliation, to brittle offset of the foliation and core and mantle structures in anhydrite veins. iii) The prevalent sense of shear is normal and slickenfibers

  15. Impact of rheological layering on rift asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous models of rift formation have been proposed, what triggers asymmetry of rifted margins remains unclear. Parametrized material softening is often employed to induce asymmetric fault patterns in numerical models. Here, we use thermo-mechanical finite element models that allow softening via thermal weakening. We investigate the importance of lithosphere rheology and mechanical layering on rift morphology. The numerical code is based on the MILAMIN solver and uses the Triangle mesh generator. Our model configuration consists of a visco-elasto-platic layered lithosphere comprising either (1) only one brittle-ductile transition (in the mantle) or (2) three brittle-ductile transitions (one in the upper crust, one in the lower crust and one in the mantle). We perform then two sets of simulations characterized by low and high extensional strain rates (5*10-15 s-1, 2*10-14 s-1). The results show that the extension of a lithosphere comprising only one brittle-ductile transition produces a symmetric 'neck' type rift. The upper and lower crusts are thinned until the lithospheric mantle is exhumed to the seafloor. A lithosphere containing three brittle-ductile transitions favors strain localization. Shear zones at different horizontal locations and generated in the brittle levels of the lithosphere get connected by the weak ductile layers. The results suggest that rheological layering of the lithosphere can be a reason for the generation of asymmetric rifting and subsequent rift morphology.

  16. Microscale cavitation as a mechanism for nucleating earthquakes at the base of the seismogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Berend A; Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R; de Bresser, Johannes H P; Pennock, Gillian M; Drury, Martyn R; Spiers, Christopher J

    2017-11-21

    Major earthquakes frequently nucleate near the base of the seismogenic zone, close to the brittle-ductile transition. Fault zone rupture at greater depths is inhibited by ductile flow of rock. However, the microphysical mechanisms responsible for the transition from ductile flow to seismogenic brittle/frictional behaviour at shallower depths remain unclear. Here we show that the flow-to-friction transition in experimentally simulated calcite faults is characterized by a transition from dislocation and diffusion creep to dilatant deformation, involving incompletely accommodated grain boundary sliding. With increasing shear rate or decreasing temperature, dislocation and diffusion creep become too slow to accommodate the imposed shear strain rate, leading to intergranular cavitation, weakening, strain localization, and a switch from stable flow to runaway fault rupture. The observed shear instability, triggered by the onset of microscale cavitation, provides a key mechanism for bringing about the brittle-ductile transition and for nucleating earthquakes at the base of the seismogenic zone.

  17. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  18. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  19. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  20. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  1. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  2. Brittle and ductile friction modeling of triggered tremor in Guerrero, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Daub, E. G.; Wu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), which make up the highest amplitude portions of non-volcanic tremor, are mostly found along subduction zones at a depth of 30-40km which is typically within the brittle-ductile transition zone. Previous studies in Guerrero, Mexico demonstrated a relationship between the bursts of LFEs and the contact states of fault interfaces, and LFEs that triggered by different mechanisms were observed along different parts of the subduction zone. To better understand the physics of fault interfaces at depth, especially the influence of contact states of these asperities, we use a brittle-ductile friction model to simulate the occurrence of LFE families from a model of frictional failure and slip. This model takes the stress state, slip rate, perturbation force, fault area, and brittle-ductile frictional contact characteristics and simulates the times and amplitudes of LFE occurrence for a single family. We examine both spontaneous and triggered tremor occurrence by including stresses due to external seismic waves, such as the 2010 Maule Earthquake, which triggered tremor and slow slip on the Guerrero section of the subduction zone. By comparing our model output with detailed observations of LFE occurrence, we can determine valuable constraints on the frictional properties of subduction zones at depth.

  3. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  4. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  5. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  6. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  7. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  8. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  9. Irradiation effects in strain aged pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M; Myers, H P

    1962-02-15

    Tensile specimens, Charpy-V notch and subsize impact specimens of an aluminium killed carbon manganese steel, have been irradiated at 160 - 190 deg C in the reactor G1. The total neutron dose received was 2.4 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). Specimens were prepared from normalized plate and from strain aged material from the same plate. It was found that the changes in brittle ductile transition temperature due to neutron irradiation and those due to strain ageing must be considered additive.

  10. Connection between twinning and brittle fracture in Fe-Cr-Co-Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, V.A.; Chumlyakov, Yu.I.; Korotaev, A.D.; Aparova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Plasticity dependence on crystal orientation, on deformation temperature and structure state of alloy is investigated in Fe-28 % Cr-10 % Co-2 % Mo (at. %) monocrystals. Isostructure decomposition results in increase of critical shearing stresses τ cr , in change of deformation mechanism from slipping into twinning and abrupt reduction of plasticity. Brittleness - ductility transition is detected in high-stable structure states τ cr >280 MPa. Explanation of plasticity abrupt reduction of high-stable crystals using estimation of change of deformation mechanism and of deforming stress high level is given

  11. Electronic hybridisation implications for the damage-tolerance of thin film metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Volker; Jaya, B Nagamani; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-11-07

    A paramount challenge in materials science is to design damage-tolerant glasses. Poisson's ratio is commonly used as a criterion to gauge the brittle-ductile transition in glasses. However, our data, as well as results in the literature, are in conflict with the concept of Poisson's ratio serving as a universal parameter for fracture energy. Here, we identify the electronic structure fingerprint associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. Our correlative theoretical and experimental data reveal that the fraction of bonds stemming from hybridised states compared to the overall bonding can be associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses.

  12. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  13. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  14. Modeling for transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  15. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  16. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  17. Transit manager's handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...

  18. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  19. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  20. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  1. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.

  2. Workers in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Michael

    1995-01-01

    After Central and Eastern European and Central Asian economies abandoned central planning, nearly 195 million workers had to adjust to new rules of work and life. Most transition economies have not yet fully committed themselves to the rules of the market place. A few that have are already enjoying growth in wages and employment; in other countries, labor income growth is still to come. Reform has not been so well accepted in countries that were forced to enter the transition. Transition brou...

  3. Transition and Social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.

    2011-01-01

    School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...

  4. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  5. The Energy Transition Chronicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, Floriane; Vallar, Jean-Pierre; Wyssling, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Energy Cities provides local authorities with support for implementing their own energy transition process. The Proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns (www.energy-cities.eu/30proposals) are illustrated with around a hundred of inspirational examples from all over Europe. In this document composed of five case reports, Energy Cities goes further and tells the tale of energy transition success stories. Because it is important to show that energy transition is 'possible'. Why, how, with whom, for what results? We interviewed local players and decision-makers to find out more. Here are their stories

  6. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  7. Eigenstate Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu

  8. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  9. Alaska Community Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us

  10. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  11. Towards Transition Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is a treatise on a theory for societal transitions: pillar theory. Societal transitions are complex processes taking place in complex systems, large-scale, long-term processes in which societal systems radically change the way they are composed and function. Since we all are

  12. Matter in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  13. Transitional Employment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulle, Paul J.; And Others

    The paper examines the need and implementation of transitional employment programs for handicapped youth. Effects on the handicapped of future automation are considered along with the need for school-business cooperation to prepare for the future. The importance of initial success in any innovation is noted. A Chicago transitional employment…

  14. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  15. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  16. Transition probabilities for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.K.

    1980-01-01

    Current status of advanced theoretical methods for transition probabilities for atoms and ions is discussed. An experiment on the f values of the resonance transitions of the Kr and Xe isoelectronic sequences is suggested as a test for the theoretical methods

  17. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  18. Coordination of IVI and transit signal priority on transit evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...

  19. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  20. Milestoning with transition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2011-12-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between milestones. The transition probabilities and transition time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent transitions between milestones. This approximation is justified if the transition probabilities and transition times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent transitions. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with transition memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous transitions made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits

  1. Martensitic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs

  2. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  3. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W; Neuhaus, J [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  4. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Arnaud; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Arnoux, Mathieu; Auverlot, Dominique; Leguet, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain; Morel, Julien; Lambert, Quentin; Tranie, Jean-Pascal; Bureau, Dominique; Dron, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)

  5. Rural transit emergency planning guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...

  6. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  7. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  8. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail, with part......We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail......, with particular emphasis on two different LM-type tests for the null of symmetric adjustment towards a new regime and three diagnostic tests, whose power properties are explored via Monte Carlo experiments. Four classical real datasets illustrate the empirical properties of the GSTAR, jointly to a rolling...

  9. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  10. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  11. Transit management certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  12. Slow-transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  13. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Transition to turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeau, Y.

    1981-07-01

    In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr

  15. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion...

  16. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  17. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  18. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  19. Metal-insulator transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1998-10-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and

  20. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  1. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.

  2. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented

  3. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  4. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  5. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Maciel, Guillaume; Zeroual, Bouchra; Leca, Christel; Guillou, Maelle; Mossalgue, Marc; Raguet, Alex; Sabot, Guillaume; Coton, Patrice; Olesen, Gunnar Boye; Friggens, Sam; Pouyet, Regis; Blanc, Nicolas; Laurent, Pierre; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  6. Electroweak phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T . In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field

  7. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2011-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...

  8. Successive Transitions in Ecodesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media, ecodesign, or design for environment, has expanded considerably as a scientific research area; from a group of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to optimise a product’s recyclability......, into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, together providing a historic account of how academic...

  9. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  10. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  11. A programme in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is beginning its transition from a scientific research programme to that of an engineering development programme aimed at practical applications. This transition is likely to last a decade or more because many scientific questions remain and because of the magnitude and cost of the engineering issues. This article reviews briefly the encouraging results produced at the Joint European Torus (JET) where 1.7 MW of fusion power was generated for 2 seconds in experiments in November 1991, the remaining scientific issues, the role of near-term experimental reactors like the International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) and other approaches to a demonstration power plant. (author)

  12. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  13. Structural Analysis: Folds Classification of metasedimentary rock in the Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, A.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding shear zone characteristics of deformation are a crucial part in the oil and gas industry as it might increase the knowledge of the fracture characteristics and lead to the prediction of the location of fracture zones or fracture swarms. This zone might give high influence on reservoir performance. There are four general types of shear zones which are brittle, ductile, semibrittle and brittle-ductile transition zones. The objective of this study is to study and observe the structural geometry of the shear zones and its implication as there is a lack of understanding, especially in the subsurface area because of the limitation of seismic resolution. A field study was conducted on the metasedimentary rocks (shear zone) which are exposed along the coastal part of the Peninsular Malaysia as this type of rock resembles the types of rock in the subsurface. The analysis in this area shows three main types of rock which are non-foliated metaquartzite and foliated rock which can be divided into slate and phyllite. Two different fold classification can be determined in this study. Layer 1 with phyllite as the main type of rock can be classified in class 1C and layer 2 with slate as the main type of rock can be classified in class 1A. This study will benefit in predicting the characteristics of the fracture and fracture zones.

  14. Military Lives: Coaching Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Nick; Gold, Jeff; Beech, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first consider how veterans use talk to shape interpretations of personal and social identity. Second, this paper seeks to gain an understanding of how veterans see themselves in a civilian world, their ability to re-conceptualise and realign their perspective on life to support their transition in to a…

  15. Afghanistan in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    These include: Afghanistan is the graveyard of empires ; efforts to centralize power in Afghanistan provoke local resistance; and Afghanistan is an...ethnically fragmented and decentralized country inca - pable of forming a unified state. Afghanistan in Transition Autumn 2010 7 The realities

  16. Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities.” [20 U.S. ... a lot of ground to cover! But it’s essential ground, if the student’s transition to the adult ...

  17. Boundaries, transitions and passages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Pinna, Baingio; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Many pictures are approximately piecewise uniform quilts. The patches meet in transitional areas that have a vague, ribbon-like geometry. These borders may occasionally get lost and sometimes pick up again, creating a 'passage' that partly blends adjacent patches. This type of structure is widely

  18. paraelectric phase transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ferroelectric phase transition is diffuse in nature and broadening of the peak increases with La content. Keywords. PLZT ... Marssi et al (1998) concluded the PLZTs x/65/35 as a model. ∗ ... by analysing field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) dielectric ... material are fitted with universal dielectric behaviour within.

  19. Families in Transition .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  20. Transition and Financial Collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    One of the many problems facing the countries in transition from socialism to capitalism after the initial phase of privatization and restructuring is the lack of proven entrepreneurial talent in addition to a low initial level of capital. New entrepreneurs might find it hard to finance their

  1. Lost in Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    how a town primarily characterized by ferry transit is being challenged on its capacity to be a 'place' of meaning and social importance to its inhabitants. The paper raises the key question: Can a place become too well connected and this in such a manner that its identity and key character becomes...

  2. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  3. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  4. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Richard G

    2009-12-01

    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia.

  5. Hypocritical transitions? The challenge of urban sustainable mobility transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Nina

    of a sustainable mobility discourse can be traced in the policy documents, how mobility is framed, and which arguments are used to legitimate or envision strategies and planning practices. Is Fredericia performing a transition towards low-carbon mobility? The paper will draw on concepts from transition theory...... urban complexity within transition processes. Transitions are always taking place, but the question is which direction they take and if these directions are in line with a planning approach for sustainable mobility....

  6. Jamming transitions in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Smith, David M.; Käs, Josef A.

    2017-12-01

    The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients.

  7. Energy transition in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled the main issues and stakes addressed by the French national debate on energy transition (strategic stakes, priority to a reduction of French energy consumption, options for the evolution of the French energy mix), the author comments the possible evolution of energy prices and of the energy taxing policy (evolution of oil prices, carbon price). In a second part, the author addresses the issue of financing of building and housing renovation. He shows that this operation cannot be only based on financial markets which are not efficient. This means that a public intervention is required, and different solutions are then possible. Some of them seem difficult to implement (creation of money by the central Bank, creation of a public bank which could lend money to private actors), and some others need to be further examined (creation of a financing company for energy transition, use of national savings, simplified circuits for a financing of local projects by local savings, and so on)

  8. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution......Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... of community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....

  9. Jamming transitions in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Käs, Josef A; Smith, David M

    2017-01-01

    The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients. (topical review)

  10. Vacancies in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.; Lannoo, M.

    1976-01-01

    A calculation of the formation energy and volume for a vacancy in transition metals is described. A tight-binding scheme is used for the d band and a Born-Mayer type potential to account for the repulsive part of the energy at small distances. The results show that the relaxation energy is small in all cases, less than 0.1 eV. This seems to be coherent with the good agreement obtained for the theoretical and experimental values of the formation energy Esub(F)sup(V) of the vacancy, without including relaxation. The center of the transitional series is found to give a contraction (Formation volume of order -0.4 at.vol.) whereas the edges are found to produce dilations. (author)

  11. Pays en transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.

  12. Eccentricity from transit photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon

    2015-01-01

    and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with $\\sigma$ = 0.049 $\\pm$ 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. Our findings are helpful in identifying which...... (TTVs), and we present some previously unreported TTVs. Finally transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets and we use our measurements to confirm six new exoplanets....

  13. DARK Technology Transition Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    handicap in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 and Section 504 of the...to make productive use of the technology. Note that, for those technologies where commercialisation would be a prerequisite for institutionalisation...leverage, and nurture the ensuing transition activities (e.g., as a resource) as much as possible. This is where commercialisation would give a boost

  14. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  15. Kondo-Anderson transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.

    2012-03-01

    Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.

  16. LES PAYS EN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    En 2002, une certaine paix sociale avait été rétablie, bien qu'elle fut instable et souvent entachée de violence. Le pays amorçait le ... mieux comprendre comment il recueille et diffuse l'information destinée ... transition) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Les étapes suivantes ont consisté à ...

  17. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  18. Army Leader Transitions Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The courseware allows users to tailor training materials to specific needs. Users access this at the CAL AKO website or Army eLearning https...usarmy.skillport.com/ skillportfe/login/usarmylogin.cfm. New users must register with eLearning . Then login, select “Army Custom Curricula” and scroll to...challenges of your transition. Patience, flexibility and a good understanding of influence techniques on your part will help make any needed realignment a

  19. Strategic Transit Automation Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Transit bus automation could deliver many potential benefits, but transit agencies need additional research and policy guidance to make informed deployment decisions. Although funding and policy constraints may play a role, there is also a reasonable...

  20. Nav Status & Daily Transit Report -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....

  1. 2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    England, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...

  2. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author proposes an analysis of energy transition and of its consequences on the competitive environment. He recalls the main characteristics of energy transition and more particularly focuses on two aspects: the development of renewable energies and the management of demand. Thus, the author discusses the following issues: the relationship between the struggle against climate change and the low carbon economy, the development of renewable energies, the evolution and main actors of photovoltaic array and of wind turbine production, the distribution of photovoltaic and wind energy installed production among countries, and some key figures about the main renewable energy operators in Europe. He discusses how to manage consumptions, and operations performed. In a second part, the author addresses the impact of the German energy transition (Energiewende) on the business models of the main German energy operators (RWE and E.On). He recalls and comments the objective of this energy policy, presents the German electric and gas sector, comments the evolution of the electric utilities since 1998, more presently presents and discusses the activities of RWE and E.On, the evolution of their main financial indicators, and the levels of installed power with respect of energy sources

  3. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  4. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  5. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  6. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  7. Discrete dynamics in transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barkley Rosser, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the transition from planned command socialism to market capitalism and the accompanying complex non-linear dynamics involved. Long wave chaotic hysteretic investment cycles emerge under socialism leading to crisis and breakdown. Macroeconomic collapse occurs with bifurcations of coordination structures during transition. During recovery, transitional cobweb labor market dynamics exhibit chaos, fractal basin boundaries between coexisting non-chaotic attractors, discontinuous phase transitions, strange attractors, and cascades of infinitely many period-doubling bifurcations.

  8. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  9. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  10. Phase Transitions in Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are patterns in a dynamic steady-state, due to competing processes that smooth or sharpen features over large distances and times. Geomorphic transport laws have been developed to model the mass-flux due to different processes, but are unreasonably effective at recovering the scaling relations of landscape features. Using a continuum approximation to compare experimental landscapes and the observed landscapes of the earth, one finds they share similar morphodynamics despite a breakdown of classical dynamical similarity between the two. We propose the origin of this effectiveness is a different kind of dynamic similarity in the statistics of initiation and cessation of motion of groups of grains, which is common to disordered systems of grains under external driving. We will show how the existing data of sediment transport points to common signatures with dynamical phase transitions between "mobile" and "immobile" phases in other disordered systems, particularly granular materials, colloids, and foams. Viewing landscape evolution from the lens of non-equilibrium statistical physics of disordered systems leads to predictions that the transition of bulk measurements such as particle flux is continuous from one phase to another, that the collective nature of the particle dynamics leads to very slow aging of bulk properties, and that the dynamics are history-dependent. Recent results from sediment transport experiments support these predictions, suggesting that existing geomorphic transport laws may need to be replaced by a new generation of stochastic models with ingredients based on the physics of disordered phase transitions. We discuss possible strategies for extracting the necessary information to develop these models from measurements of geomorphic transport noise by connecting particle-scale collective dynamics and space-time fluctuations over landscape features.

  11. Gardner Transition in Physical Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C. L.; Wheatley, M. J.; Godfrey, M. J.; Moore, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The Gardner transition is the transition that at mean-field level separates a stable glass phase from a marginally stable phase. This transition has similarities with the de Almeida-Thouless transition of spin glasses. We have studied a well-understood problem, that of disks moving in a narrow channel, which shows many features usually associated with the Gardner transition. We show that some of these features are artifacts that arise when a disk escapes its local cage during the quench to higher densities. There is evidence that the Gardner transition becomes an avoided transition, in that the correlation length becomes quite large, of order 15 particle diameters, even in our quasi-one-dimensional system.

  12. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  13. Chain transitivity in hyperspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Leobardo; Good, Chris; Puljiz, Mate; Ramírez, Ártico

    2015-01-01

    Given a non-empty compact metric space X and a continuous function f: X → X, we study the dynamics of the induced maps on the hyperspace of non-empty compact subsets of X and on various other invariant subspaces thereof, in particular symmetric products. We show how some important dynamical properties transfer across induced systems. These amongst others include, chain transitivity, chain (weakly) mixing, chain recurrence, exactness by chains. From our main theorem we derive an ε-chain version of Furstenberg’s celebrated 2 implies n Theorem. We also show the implications our results have for dynamics on continua.

  14. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  15. Global transition i sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2006-01-01

    , and by degenerative, and man-made diseases in ageing populations. Omran could not foresee the HIV/AIDS pandemic or the dramatic fall in longevity and fertility in, for example, Russia. But his model remains of value for health planners and politicians. We advocate for research in the interplay between diseases......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity...

  16. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  17. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby......Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...

  18. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  19. 309 Building transition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D ampersand D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency

  20. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  1. Physical education in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.

  2. Invariant probabilities of transition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharopol, Radu

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the set of all the invariant probabilities and the structure of various types of individual invariant probabilities of a transition function are two topics of significant interest in the theory of transition functions, and are studied in this book. The results obtained are useful in ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, which, in turn, can be applied in various other areas (like number theory). They are illustrated using transition functions defined by flows, semiflows, and one-parameter convolution semigroups of probability measures. In this book, all results on transition probabilities that have been published by the author between 2004 and 2008 are extended to transition functions. The proofs of the results obtained are new. For transition functions that satisfy very general conditions the book describes an ergodic decomposition that provides relevant information on the structure of the corresponding set of invariant probabilities. Ergodic decomposition means a splitting of t...

  3. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  4. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  5. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)

  6. Place in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jacob Bjerre; Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche

    from the 'Everyday World'. Within mobilities studies, research has focused on different aspects and consequences of the post-oil society (see Dennis & Urry 2009, Urry 2013). This paper discusses the conception of place within the enclosed 'Oil World' with point of departure in relocation...... and redefinition of oil rigs from an urban design perspective. The paper constitutes a theoretical basis for future design scenarios - exemplified through visionary urban design proposals for a specific site in the city of Esbjerg, Denmark. Relocating rigs to an urban context initiates discussions of conception...... of 'Place' questioning the fixity of 'Place' (Jensen 2010). Scoped through a relational sense of place (Massey 1993) and the potential of exploring new relations between places (Burns & Kahn 2005), the paper challenges the notion of 'Place as God' (Hvattum 2010). These places in transition contest...

  7. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social......The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic...

  8. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  9. Radioisotope esophageal transit test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazuo; Toyonaga, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    A new technique employed sup(99m)Tc-MAA for the study of esophageal dysfunction and its clinical implication were evaluated in the patients with achalasia, progressive systemic sclerosis, reflux esophagitis and 10 normal controls. To investigate esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux, a homogeneous bolus of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in 15ml of water was swallowed in the upright and supine positions under the collimeter of a gamma camera linked to nuclear medicine data analyser (Shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). This radionuclide transit studies made a quantitative evaluation of the esophageal dysfunction possible in all cases. Comparing the conventional esophageal function test procedures, this test is a safe, noninvasive and more physiological and sensitive in detecting abnormal esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux. (author)

  10. Energy transition in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    By presenting examples and experiments implemented in France, this publication illustrates the various ways to translate the objectives of energy transition into practical actions. A first part addresses the building sector and shows how to better renovate buildings: exemplary rehabilitations, techniques of construction to decrease energy consumption and equipment to control it, insulation by vegetal fibres, control of consumption decrease. The second part addresses the development of renewable energies: a heat network for household heating, innovative use of biogas, production of hot water by using solar energy, a waste incineration plant, heating by using waste waters. The third part addresses the promotion of circular economy: a recycling project, an optics-based glass sorting system, the commitment of Parisian restaurateurs for waste valorisation, a plant for waste sorting and valorisation

  11. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  12. Strategic planning in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse how contested transitions in planning rationalities and spatial logics have shaped the processes and outputs of recent episodes of Danish ‘strategic spatial planning’. The practice of ‘strategic spatial planning’ in Denmark has undergone a concerted reorientation...... style of ‘strategic spatial planning’ with its associated spatial logics is continuously challenged by a persistent regulatory, top-down rationality of ‘strategic spatial planning’, rooted in spatial Keynesianism, which has long characterised the Danish approach. The findings reveal the emergence...... of a particularly Danish approach, retaining strong regulatory aspects. However this approach does not sit easily within the current neoliberal political climate, raising concerns of an emerging crisis of ‘strategic spatial planning’....

  13. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  14. Transition to electronic publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowning, Sam

    Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.

  15. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  16. Transition densities with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)

  17. Intermultiplet transitions using neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.; Lovesey, S.W.; Taylor, A.D.; Balcar, E.

    1989-12-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering is used here to attempt to obtain optical spectra for lanthanide metals and compounds. Intermultiplet spectroscopy provides information about transitions from different electronic configurations and hybridisation of the 4f shell. This report discusses the relatively limited contribution that neutron scattering has played in intermultiplet spectroscopy, and covers spin-orbit transitions and coulomb transitions Racah algebra is developed in calculating the scattering cross sections. (author)

  18. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  19. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomain, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear regulation in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomain, J.P. (Cincinnati Univ., OH, US. Coll. of Law)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed.

  1. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  2. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  3. Innovation policy for the Dutch energy transition Operationalising transition management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe term transition is a key term of the fourth national environmental policy plan (NMP4, 2001), which put forward transition management (Rotmans et al, 2000) as a new policy approach for dealing with persistent and highly complex societal problems such as climate change, loss of

  4. Lost in Transition: Examining Transitions in Psychotherapy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Adrienne; Philipp, Diane; Malat, Jan; Feder, Victor; Kulkarni, Chetana; Lawson, Andrea; So, Vivien; Ravitz, Paula

    2015-10-01

    Disruptions are inevitable during psychiatry residency training and can affect resident learning and patient care. This exploratory study examined the nature and impact of transitions in psychotherapy training. PGY2-5 residents (45/150; 30% response rate) and psychotherapy supervisors (46/247; 18.6% response rate) were surveyed about transitional events during residency training in psychotherapy. Supervisors and residents ranked the frequency of occurrence of transitional events and their impact very similarly, as well as the "feed forward" items when transitioning to a new supervisor. Residents feeling confused or overwhelmed with the balancing of learning differing models with differing levels of comfort or knowledge was ranked as the issue that occurred most frequently by both supervisors and residents. This study highlights issues that arise at transitions during psychotherapy training in psychiatry residency. Strategies for managing these periods are discussed, with a focus on resident learning and improved continuity of patient care.

  5. Are Titan's radial Labyrinth terrains surface expressions of large laccoliths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmeier, L.; Dombard, A. J.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Labyrinth terrain unit may be the one of the best examples of the surface expression of Titan's complicated history. They are characterized as highly eroded, dissected, and elevated plateaus and remnant ridges, with an assumed composition that is likely organic-rich based on radar emissivity. How these features accumulated organic-rich sediments and formed topographic highs by either locally uplifting or surviving pervasive regional deflation or erosion is an important question for understanding the history of Titan. There are several subsets of Labyrinth terrains, presumably with differing evolutionary histories and formation processes. We aim to explain the formation of a subset of Labyrinth terrain units informally referred to as "radial Labyrinth terrains." They are elevated and appear dome-like, circular in planform, have a strong radial dissection pattern, are bordered by Undifferentiated Plains units, and are found in the mid-latitudes. Based on their shape, clustering, and dimensions, we suggest that they may be the surface expression of large subsurface laccoliths. A recent study by Manga and Michaut (Icarus, 2017) explained Europa's lenticulae (pits, domes, spots) with the formation of saucer-shaped sills that form laccoliths around the brittle-ductile transition depth within the ice shell (1-5 km). Here, we apply the same scaling relationships and find that the larger size of radial labyrinth terrains with Titan's higher gravity implies deeper intrusion depths of around 20-40 km. This intrusion depth matches the expected brittle-ductile transition on Titan based on our finite element simulations and yield strength envelope analyses. We hypothesize that Titan's radial labyrinth terrains formed as cryovolcanic (water) intrusions that rose to the brittle-ductile transition within the ice shell where they spread horizontally, and uplifted the overlying ice. The organic-rich sedimentary cover also uplifted, becoming more susceptible to pluvial and fluvial

  6. Molecular-nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Miller, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The spectra in some light nuclei have one interesting property. For example, in the closed vicinity of some resonance states of such nuclei as 5 He, 8 Be, 18 F, 18 Ne the thresholds exist for two- or three-body decay of those nuclei. Let us consider the lightest of the above nuclei, 5 He. The energy threshold for 5 He > d+t decay is ∼50 keV lower than the energy of 3/2 + state of 5 He nucleus. However, due to a rather large width of this state, ∼70 keV, the nuclear capture of deuterons by tritons in dtm-molecule is highly enhanced in comparison with the process of dd capture in the ddm molecule. The physical reason for the enhancement of the probability of the capture into the resonant state can be associated with a long tail of wave function of the resonant state and, accordingly, with the large value of the overlap integral determining in general the probability of the transition between two systems. Thus, one can expect the enhancement of the molecular-nuclear transitions, and this was indeed observed experimentally for the case of dtm molecule. Now, let us consider some other molecular-nuclear combinations: 18 Ne - H 2 O, 18 F - 17 OH, and 8 Be - 6 LiD molecule. With the high accuracy the energies of the above molecular systems coincide with the energies of the resonant states in the appropriate nuclei. Due to the uncertainty in the experimental nuclear data it is not known at present whether the energies of these thresholds are lower or higher of the corresponding energies of the nuclear resonances. Let us assume that the molecular energy is few keV over the energy of the nuclear resonance. Then, we will deal with a very interesting phenomenon: the molecular-nuclear complex constitutes a two level system, which in some sense is analogous to the two-level atomic system, as in a laser. The crucial difference between this one and the two-level atomic systems consists in a fact that in the molecular-nuclear case no special procedure of pumping up

  7. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the problem of creation of structural materials on the basis of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajbyshev, O.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Zaripov, N.G.; Bloshenko, V.N.; Bokij, V.A.; Efimov, O.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical composition and structure of refractory skeletons produced by the methods of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) and powder metallurgy were studied for their effects on high temperature mechanical properties hard alloys on these skeletons base. Porous skeletons were obtained on the base of TiC 0.55 ; TiC 0.65 ; TiC 0.75 ; TiC 0.85 and TiC 1.0 carbides with their subsequent impregnation with heat resisting nickel base alloy ZhS6U. It was shown that a sintered skeleton was prone to fracture while SHS-skeleton preserved its structure. Optimal operating temperature of materials considered was noted to depend on the temperatures of brittle-ductile transition and transition into superplastic stable of refractory phase

  10. Transition management: origin, evolution, critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTransition management has rapidly emerged over the past few years as a new approach to dealing with complex societal problems and governance in the context of these problems. In the Netherland, UK and Belgium, serious efforts have been and are being undertaken to develop transition

  11. Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.

    1989-11-01

    The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs

  12. Transitivity and partial screening off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Atkinson, David

    2013-01-01

    The notion of probabilistic support is beset by well-known problems. In this paper we add a new one to the list: the problem of transitivity. Tomoji Shogenji has shown that positive probabilistic support, or confirmation, is transitive under the condition of screening off. However, under that same

  13. Transition Planning for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

  14. Generalized definitions of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.

    2001-09-01

    We define a first order phase transition as a bimodality of the event distribution in the space of observations and we show that this is equivalent to a curvature anomaly of the thermodynamical potential and that it implies the Yang Lee behavior of the zeros of the partition sum. Moreover, it allows to study phase transitions out of equilibrium. (authors)

  15. Transition: Intended and unintended processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the relationship between transition as that was intended by the international financial institutions and transition as it actually happened. Attention is paid to what has been learned by experience about stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation. Attention is also given to the

  16. STYLIZED ECONOMIC FACTS OF TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASHA TRAJKOVA-NAJDOVSKA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of transition, former socialistic countries moved from planned to market economy. This journey typically started with sharp falls in economic activity in all transition countries, accompanied by deterioration of various social indicators. Hence, their main objective was the recovery of economic activity, i.e. increasing the economic growth rate, which in addition was supposed to enable catching up with the European developed economies. This growth movement is usually described by famous U-curve of transition. However, in spite of the efforts and reforms, all transition economies recorded various paces of recovery. This study discusses that difference, through various GDP indicators, - real GDP path, GDP growth rates path, the height of the GDP index achieved and the volatility of growth rates. Analysed in concert, these indicators suggest several other variations of the transition Ucurve, such as: the rapid-J group, the wide-U group and the L-curve group. Namely, almost three decades after the start of the transition, the differences persist, suggesting that some transition economies has not moved significantly towards catching up with the successful transition countries, or with the developed economies.

  17. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  18. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers' partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first 5 years of their children's lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between…

  19. Transition Metal Complexes and Catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approaches towards the study of bonding in transition metal complexes. Despite .... industrial scale reactions for the production of organic compounds using transition ..... It has found several applications as an engineering thermoplastic. .... and processes of interest to the company, that is, applied research. It is this very ...

  20. Weak transitions in 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt

  1. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  2. Gauge theory of glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    A new analytical approach for the description of the glass transition in a frustrated system is suggested. The theory is based on the non-equilibrium dynamics technique, and takes into account the interaction of the local order field with the massive gauge field, which describes frustration-induced plastic deformation. The glass transition is regarded as a phase transition interrupted because of the premature critical slowing-down of one of the degrees of freedom caused by the frustrations. It is shown that freezing of the system appears when the correlation length and relaxation time of the gauge field diverge. The Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann relation for the transition kinetics and the critical exponent for the nonlinear susceptibility, 2.5∼ t correlation function dependence on time, and explains the boson peak appearance on this curve. In addition, the function of the glass transition temperature value with cooling rate is derived; this dependence fully conforms with known experimental data

  3. Narratives about labour market transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...... learning experience during which radical career decisions are taken, and how support structures may work to the detriment of such learning and of the principles behind flexicurity. The article points to a reconceptualisation of transitions as important learning opportunities during which (more) adequate...

  4. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  5. Variational transition-state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.; Garrett, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    A general introduction to and some results from studies of a procedure called variational transition-state theory are presented. A fundamental assumption of this theory is that the net rate of forward reaction at equilibrium equals the equilibrium flux in the product direction through the transition state where the transition state is a surface in phase space dividing reactants from products. Classical generalized-transition-state-theory calculations for nine collinear systems are compared to classical trajectory calculations. This new technique should provide useful insight into the successes and failures of the conventional theory and useful quantitative estimates of possible errors on the predictions of conventional transition-state theory. This should also contribute to a more accurate theory now available for the practical calculations of chemical reaction rates and thermochemical and structural interpretations of rate processes

  6. Energy transition, is it now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, Matthieu; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    As French energy policy is now defined for energy transition, the contributions of this publication discuss implemented measures, what new laws will change, and what will be the consequences for industry. A first set of articles thus comments evolutions related to the implementation of energy transition in the building sector, how energy transition wants to get rid of wastage, how energy transition will impact the transport sector (public transports, car-pool and car sharing, bicycle, retail sector, airfields), and outline that President Hollande has fulfilled (nearly) all his commitments. The next article comments changes and critics made by the French constitutional Council on the law for energy transition. The next set of articles comments the results of an ADEME's study on bicycle kilometre allowance, discusses the issue of energy safety, and comments statements made by candidates to the French President election of 2012 on nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident

  7. Energy: Transitions and Reshaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel; Mazzucchi, Nicolas; Alex, Bastien; Tchung-Ming, Stephane; Meritet, Sophie; Mignon, Valerie; Fischer-Herzog, Claude; Baccarini, Luca; Karbuz, Sohbet; Carcanague, Samuel; Noreng, Oesteyn; Luciani, Giacomo; Criqui, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This issue of 'Revue internationale et strategique' from Winter 2016 presents a special dossier about the geopolitics of energy in a transitional and reshaping market. Content: Introduction: A New Age for Energy Markets? (Emmanuel Hache); National vs International Oil Companies: Toward a New Balance (Nicolas Mazzucchi); Can OPEC Survive Oil Abundance? (Emmanuel Hache); Dutch Disease and Low Oil Prices: From Economic Bankruptcy to (geo)political Reshaping (Bastien Alex, Stephane Tchung-Ming); Is Energy a Driving Force in American Foreign Policy? (Sophie Meritet); Oil Prices and U.S. Dollar: Two Sides of the Same Power? (Valerie Mignon ); The EU's Energy Union: What Energy Security for Europe? (Claude Fischer-Herzog); Natural Gas Discoveries and the Future of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Luca Baccarini, Sohbet Karbuz); The Two Years that Changed the Caspian Sea region (Samuel Carcanague); On Oil and Islam (Oeystein Noreng); Middle East: clean energy sources and the diversification of the oil economies? (Giacomo Luciani); After the Paris Agreement, the New Geopolitics of Energy Innovations (Patrick Criqui)

  8. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Social costs of transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of political and economic transformation in Central and East Europe after 1990 was based on the presumption that the reforms will collapse when the citizens realize that the cost they have to pay for them is too high. The classical claim was that democracy will be destroyed by democratic means-namely, that the losers in the transition will vote the way back to the authoritarian regime. The article offers an explanation as to the regress to the authoritarian regime will not be a consequence of the economic reforms. The article is divided in six section. Section 1 considers the general context of the start of the economic transformation in the light of the debate about the choice between the expert government and the significance of democratic procedures for economic reforms. Section 2 defines the context of Serbia within which economic transformation started out after 2000. Sections 4-5 consider economic policy of the two post-Milosevic government. The major finding is that it was the economic policy that was highly socially sensible that prevented social uprising and undermining democracy by democratic means. Section 6 concludes by applying the concept of equilibrium of partial reforms.

  10. Energy transition and legal transition: renewable energies development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darson, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The way to an energy transition will be reached with an integration of renewable energies in our energy mix. This development includes a legal transition because the current legal context that applies to green energies is not efficient and does not contribute to this emergency. Changing the legal frame becomes a necessity and particularly the way these energies are governed, planned and supported. It's also important that administrative procedures that regulate the implantation of energies production system are set. At last, this legal transition will have to conciliate imperatives linked to the development of renewable energies with those governing the protection of surroundings, all aiming to a sustainable development. (author) [fr

  11. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is satisfied...

  12. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  13. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  14. Transitional region of phase transitions in nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotze, A A

    1988-01-01

    The phase transition in an exactly solvable nuclear model, the Lipkin model, is scrutinised, first using Hartree-Fock methods or the plain mean flield approximation, and then using projected wave functions. It turns out that the plain mean field is not reliable in the transitional region. Although the projection methods give better resutls in the transitional region, it leads to spurious singularities. While the energy of the projection before variation is slightly better than its projection after variation counterpart, the perfomance of the wave function is considerably worse in the transitional region. The model's wave function undergoes dramatic changes in the transitional region. The mechanism that brings about these changes is studied within a model Hamiltonian that can reproduce the Lipkin model mathematically. It turns out that the numerous exceptional points found in the transitional region, bring about the change of the ground state wave function. Exceptional points are associated with level crossings in the complex plane. These level crossings can be seen as level repulsions in the spectrum. Level repulsion and a sensitive dependence of the system on some external parameter are characteristics of chaotic behaviour. These two features are found in the transitional region of the Lipkin model. In order to study chaos, one has to resort to a statistical analysis. A measure of the chaotic behaviour of systems, the ..delta../sub 3/ statistic, is introduced. The results show that the Lipkin model is harmonic, even in the transitional region. For the Lipkin model the exceptional points are regularly distributed in the complex plane. In a total chaotic system the points would be randomly distributed.

  15. The transitional region of phase transitions in nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotze, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The phase transition in an exactly solvable nuclear model, the Lipkin model, is scrutinised, first using Hartree-Fock methods or the plain mean flield approximation, and then using projected wave functions. It turns out that the plain mean field is not reliable in the transitional region. Although the projection methods give better resutls in the transitional region, it leads to spurious singularities. While the energy of the projection before variation is slightly better than its projection after variation counterpart, the perfomance of the wave function is considerably worse in the transitional region. The model's wave function undergoes dramatic changes in the transitional region. The mechanism that brings about these changes is studied within a model Hamiltonian that can reproduce the Lipkin model mathematically. It turns out that the numerous exceptional points found in the transitional region, bring about the change of the ground state wave function. Exceptional points are associated with level crossings in the complex plane. These level crossings can be seen as level repulsions in the spectrum. Level repulsion and a sensitive dependence of the system on some external parameter are characteristics of chaotic behaviour. These two features are found in the transitional region of the Lipkin model. In order to study chaos, one has to resort to a statistical analysis. A measure of the chaotic behaviour of systems, the Δ 3 statistic, is introduced. The results show that the Lipkin model is harmonic, even in the transitional region. For the Lipkin model the exceptional points are regularly distributed in the complex plane. In a total chaotic system the points would be randomly distributed

  16. Transition Models for Engineering Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    While future theoretical and conceptual developments may promote a better understanding of the physical processes involved in the latter stages of boundary layer transition, the designers of rotodynamic machinery and other fluid dynamic devices need effective transition models now. This presentation will therefore center around the development of of some transition models which have been developed as design aids to improve the prediction codes used in the performance evaluation of gas turbine blading. All models are based on Narasimba's concentrated breakdown and spot growth.

  17. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Nicola Cufaro [INFN Sezione di Bari, INFM Unitadi Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universitae del Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [INFM Unitadi Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli - Gruppo collegato di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universitadi Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno (Italy)

    1999-10-29

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first significant application we present a detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  18. Magnetic resonance of phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also

  19. New graduate nurses in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2014-01-01

    was to review existing research literature, and in doing so, investigate transition programmes for new graduate nurses (NGN) into mental health care, and their experiences of role transition and evaluations of participation in transition programmes. The literature review spans literature published after...... the year 2000. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Pubmed. Search results consisting of 14 articles were analysed using thematic analysis. Results from the analysis showed four overall themes: nursing...

  20. A market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, the uranium market was hit hard by the Fukushima disaster, which stalled the growth in nuclear reactor requirements and is still having a profound effect today with zero Japanese nuclear reactors in operation. To make matters worse, the evolving shale gas revolution has made it difficult for many U.S. merchant nuclear plants to compete with gas-fired plants, leading some of these plants to shut down early. As Japanese nuclear plants remain offline, uranium inventories have been building, with the market currently sitting on excess supply of about 14 million pounds U3O8 [~5,400 t U] for 2014. Due to the current oversupply situation, uranium prices have moved below where the true equilibrium likely should be, especially given that 50% of current uranium production is at a full cost above the current spot price of $35 per pound [91 USD/kg U]. Although new uranium projects are planned over the next few years, they are not assured of coming online unless market conditions improve. And with more production cutbacks eminent due to the unfavorable economics for some operating and planned uranium mines, the market could find itself in a volatile situation in only a few years with Chinese nuclear generation expected to grow rapidly, and new countries such as the U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia advancing their nuclear power programs. In fact, the pullback in both the spot and long-term uranium prices over the past three years could again create a problem for the market over the next few years since there is currently less impetus to expand uranium production or engage in exploration. With global nuclear reactor requirements still increasing significantly in the medium- to long-term, more requisite new production will have to be brought online, especially with the U.S.-Russia HEU deal having ended last year, which contributed to up to 24 million pounds of U_3O_8 [~9,200 tU] feed annually. In addition to transitioning from an inventory-driven market to a production

  1. Empowering Students in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Catherine Sullivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (a identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus, and (b to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they don’t feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire; and The Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention; positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student’s familiarity with university students, and the environment and lastly the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the BOBW students were not confident in starting conversations with their university. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  2. India's population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  3. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  4. Distributed Transit Rider Messaging : Final Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty, lack of transit system awareness, and feelings of isolation have negative impact on all riders, regardless of abilities, thereby reducing community livability and transit demand. Lower transit demand, in turn, decreases economic competit...

  5. Macroeconomic models and energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillard, Pierre; Le Hir, Boris; Epaulard, Anne

    2016-02-01

    As a new policy for energy transition has just been adopted, several questions emerge about the best way to reduce CO 2 emissions, about policies which enable this reduction, and about their costs and opportunities. This note discusses the contribution macro-economic models may have in this respect, notably in the definition of policies which trigger behaviour changes, and those which support energy transition. The authors first discuss the stakes of the assessment of energy transition, and then describe macro-economic models which can be used for such an assessment, give and comment some results of simulations performed for France by using four of these models (Mesange, Numesis, ThreeME, and Imaclim-R France). The authors finally draw lessons about the way to use these models and to interpret their results within the frame of energy transition

  6. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  7. Phase transitions and quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Portesi, M.; Rossignoli, R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination is made of the possibility to predict phase transitions of the fundamental state of finite quantum system, knowing the quantum entropy of these states, defined on the basis of the information theory. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Phase transition in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  9. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick, E-mail: sebastian.bramberger@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: thomas.hertog@kuleuven.be, E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: yannick.vreys@kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  10. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  11. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  12. Modern theories of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Modern applications of the ideas of phase transitions to nuclear systems and the modern techniques as applied to familiar phase transitions in solid-state physics are discussed with illustrations. The phenomenon of pion condensation in nuclei and neutron stars, is presented as an example of phase transitions in nuclear systems. The central physical ideas behind this subject as well as techniques used to tackle it are broadly summarised. It is pointed out that unlike familiar examples of ferromagnetism or superconductivity, the order parameter here has spatial variation even in the ground state. Possible experimental consequences are discussed. As an example of the second category, the use of renormalisation group techniques in solid state physics is reviewed. The basic idea behind the renormalisation group in the infra-red (thermodynamic) limit is presented. The observed universality and scaling of critical exponents in second order phase transitions is explained in a model-independent way. (auth.)

  13. First order electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the authors have studied the phase transition in the SU(2)gauge theory at finite temperature. The authors' improved perturbative approach does not suffer from the infrared problems appearing in the ordinary loop expansion. The authors have calculated the effective potential up to cubic terms in the couplings. The higher order terms suggest that the method is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than 80 GeV. The authors have obtained a non-vanishing magnetic mass which further weakens the transitions. By use of Langer's theory of metastability, the authors have calculated the nucleation rate for critical bubbles and have discussed some cosmological consequences. For m H <80 GeV the phase transition is first order and proceeds via bubble nucleation and growth. The thin wall approximation is only marginally applicable. Since the phase transition is quite weak SM baryogenesis is unlikely. 8 refs., 5 figs

  14. Phase transitions and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)

  15. Two-transitive MInkowski planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we determine all finite Minkowski planes with an automorphism group which satisfies the following transitivity property: any ordered pair of nonparallel points can be mapped onto any other ordered pair of nonparallel points.

  16. Transit Greenhouse Gas Management Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    This Compendium provides a framework for identifying greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunities while highlighting specific examples of effective GHG reduction practices. The GHG savings benefits of public transit are first described. GHG saving op...

  17. Research on transition undulator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shuzhuang; Dai Zhimin; Zhao Xiaofeng

    2000-01-01

    The theory of transition undulator radiation was described first, then the properties of infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of SSRF U9.0 were explored by the methods of analytical treatment and numerical simulation, and the influence of beam energy spread, emittance, and magnetic field errors on transition undulator radiation was given also. It was shown that the flux density of the infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of the SSRF U9.0 was high (e.g., the maximum flux density might reach 35 x 10 13 photons/(s·mrad 2 ·BW), collecting angle φ = 0.23 mrad, and the effects of beam energy spread, emittance and magnetic field errors on the radiation flux density were small

  18. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  19. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  20. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  1. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical...

  2. Recombinant Innovation and Endogenous Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Frenken; Luis R. Izquierdo; Paolo Zeppini

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create “short-cuts” which reduce switching costs allowing agents to escape a technological lock-in. As a result, recombinant innovations speed up technological progress allowing transitions that are impossible with only branching ...

  3. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D

    1967-01-01

    -non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...... of limited variations of nuclear matrix element ratios. A complete theoretical expression for the shape factor and details of the analysis are presented....

  4. Non-Transitive Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs-Seliger, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice when preferences are not required to be transitive and complete has been discussed in the literature for years. In this article transitivity and completeness of the preference relation is also not assumed. It will be shown that nevertheless the existence of a competitive equilibrium can be proven when those properties are replaced by a domination property which allows that there could be cicles among those alternatives which are of less importance for the individual and which ...

  5. Transition-Systems, Event Structures, and Unfoldings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Rozenberg, Grzegorz; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    systems. Here we show that by smoothly strengthening the regional axioms for elementary transition systems, one obtains a subclass called occurrence transition system. We then prove that occurrence transition systems are the transition system model of yet another basic model of concurrency, namely, prime......A subclass of transition systems called elementary transition systems can be identified with the help of axioms based on a structural notion called regions. Elementary transition systems have been shown to be the transition system model of a basic system model of net theory called elementary net...

  6. K-forbidden transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.R.; Sletten, G.; Bark, R.A.; Hagemann, G.B.; Herskind, B.; Saitoh-Hashimoto, N.; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki

    2000-01-01

    Reduced hindrance factors of K-forbidden transitions are compiled for nuclei with A∝180 where γ-vibrational states are observed. Correlations between these reduced hindrance factors and Coriolis forces, statistical level mixing and γ-softness have been studied. It is demonstrated that the K-forbidden transition probabilities are related to γ-softness. The decay of the high-K bandheads has been studied by means of the two-state mixing, which would be induced by the γ-softness, with the use of a number of K-forbidden transitions compiled in the present work, where high-K bandheads are depopulated by both E2 and ΔI=1 transitions. The validity of the two-state mixing scheme has been examined by using the proposed identity of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios of transitions depopulating high-K bandheads and levels of low-K bands. A break down of the identity might indicate that other levels would mediate transitions between high- and low-K states. (orig.)

  7. Transition Dipole Moments and Transition Probabilities of the CN Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the transition probabilities of electric dipole transitions between 10 low-lying states of the CN radical. These states are X2Σ+, A2Π, B2Σ+, a4Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π. The potential energy curves are calculated using the CASSCF method, which is followed by the icMRCI approach with the Davidson correction. The transition dipole moments between different states are calculated. To improve the accuracy of potential energy curves, core–valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections, as well as the extrapolation of potential energies to the complete basis set limit are included. The Franck–Condon factors and Einstein coefficients of emissions are calculated. The radiative lifetimes are determined for the vibrational levels of the A2Π, B2Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, and 16Π states. According to the transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes, some guidelines for detecting these states spectroscopically are proposed. The spin–orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic and vibrational properties is evaluated. The splitting energy in the A2Π state is determined to be 50.99 cm‑1, which compares well with the experimental ones. The potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, spectroscopic parameters, and transition probabilities reported in this paper can be considered to be very reliable. The results obtained here can be used as guidelines for detecting these transitions, in particular those that have not been measured in previous experiments or have not been observed in the Sun, comets, stellar atmospheres, dark interstellar clouds, and diffuse interstellar clouds.

  8. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  9. Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects

  10. 3D analyses of the effect of weld orientation in Charpy specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2004-01-01

    . The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when the average of the maximum principal stress over a specified volume attains a critical value. The weld analyzed here is overmatched, so that the yield strength for the weld is larger than that of the base material. Analyses are carried out for specimens where...... the notch is cut parallel to the surface of the test piece, as well as more complex geometries where the notched surface of the specimen is rotated relative to the surface of the test piece. It is found that even for a homogeneous material the brittle-ductile transition can be much affected by three...... dimensional effects; for example, curvature of the deformed free surface gives rise to a stress increase that promotes cleavage. Furthermore, for the rotated specimens the weld geometry relative to the notched specimen surface is so complex that only a full 3D analysis is able to account for the interaction...

  11. Strength and deformability of light-toned layered deposits observed by MER Opportunity: Eagle to Erebus craters, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2007-10-01

    Quantifying host rock deformation is vital to understanding the geologic evolution and productivity of subsurface fluid reservoirs. In support of on-going characterization of fracture controlled fluid flow through the light-toned layered deposits on Mars, key parameters of strength and deformability are derived from Microscopic Imager and Rock Abrasion Tool data collected by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in Meridiani Planum. Analysis of 21 targets of light-toned layered deposits yields a median apparent porosity of 0.25. Additional physical parameters for each target are derived from these porosity measurements. The median value of unconfined compressive strength is 11.23 MPa, Young's modulus is 1.86 GPa, and the brittle-ductile transition pressure is 8.77 MPa.

  12. A review on ductile mode cutting of brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Elijah Kwabena; Liu, Kui; Wang, Hao

    2018-06-01

    Brittle materials have been widely employed for industrial applications due to their excellent mechanical, optical, physical and chemical properties. But obtaining smooth and damage-free surface on brittle materials by traditional machining methods like grinding, lapping and polishing is very costly and extremely time consuming. Ductile mode cutting is a very promising way to achieve high quality and crack-free surfaces of brittle materials. Thus the study of ductile mode cutting of brittle materials has been attracting more and more efforts. This paper provides an overview of ductile mode cutting of brittle materials including ductile nature and plasticity of brittle materials, cutting mechanism, cutting characteristics, molecular dynamic simulation, critical undeformed chip thickness, brittle-ductile transition, subsurface damage, as well as a detailed discussion of ductile mode cutting enhancement. It is believed that ductile mode cutting of brittle materials could be achieved when both crack-free and no subsurface damage are obtained simultaneously.

  13. Preparation and Dynamic Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures of a Tungsten/Glass Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chong; Wang, Yingchun; Ma, Xueya; Liu, Keyi; Wang, Yubing; Li, Shukui; Cheng, Xingwang

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to prepare a borosilicate glass matrix composite containing 50 vol.% tungsten and examine its dynamic compressive behavior at elevated temperatures in the range of 450-775 °C. The results show that the homogenous microstructure of the tungsten/glass composite with relative density of 97% can be obtained by hot-pressing sintering at 800 °C for 1 h under pressure of 30 MPa. Dynamic compressive testing was carried out by a separate Hopkinson pressure bar system with a synchronous device. The results show that the peak stress decreases and the composite transforms from brittle to ductile in nature with testing temperature increasing from 450 to 750 °C. The brittle-ductile transition temperature is about 500 °C. Over 775 °C, the composite loses load-bearing capacity totally because of the excessive softening of the glass phase. In addition, the deformation and failure mechanism were analyzed.

  14. Opinion of the IRSN on serviceability of the 900 MWe reactor vessel - Answers to demands of the Nuclear Permanent Department of December 2005 - Mechanical aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    As three demands had been made to EDF in December 2005 regarding the serviceability and more particularly the mechanical behaviour of the 900 MWe reactor vessels, this report discusses the evolution brought to models and proposed by EDF to correct the defect plasticity and take residual stresses into account. This discussion notably concerns the defect height and length range, and the admissible residual stress, but also the use of safety coefficients, transient application, fluence and the brittle-ductile transition temperature. This report from the French Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection Institute (IRSN) outlines the failure risks associated to the vessel in some specific nuclear power stations. Recommendations are made regarding the residual stress amplitude, the risk of fracture by cleavage, and actions to correct fracture risk margins on vessels which do not comply with regulatory criteria

  15. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1990-01-01

    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  16. Statistical crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Although it is possible to simulate the ground blast from a single explosive shot with a simple computer algorithm and appropriate constants, the most commonly used modelling methods do not account for major changes in geology or shot energy because mechanical features such as tectonic stresses, fault structure, microcracking, brittle-ductile transition, and water content are not represented in significant detail. An alternative approach for modelling called Statistical Crack Mechanics is presented in this paper. This method, developed in the seventies as a part of the oil shale program, accounts for crack opening, shear, growth, and coalescence. Numerous photographs and micrographs show that shocked materials tend to involve arrays of planar cracks. The approach described here provides a way to account for microstructure and give a representation of the physical behavior of a material at the microscopic level that can account for phenomena such as permeability, fragmentation, shear banding, and hot-spot formation in explosives

  17. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  18. Effects of elevated temperature and pore pressure on the mechanical behavior of Bullfrog tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    Samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff from the depth interval 758.9 to 759.2 m in hole USW-G1 on the Nevada Test Site were tested in triaxial compression. Test conditions were: (1) effective confining pressure to 20 MPa; (2) temperature of 200 0 C; (3) both dry and with pore water pressures from 3.4 to 5 MPa; and (4) a strain-rate of 10 -4 /s. The results suggest that the presence of water causes the strength to decrease. In addition, the brittle-ductile transition pressure for this rock was found to be about 15 MPa, regardless of saturation. Below this pressure deformation is characterized by unstable stress drops and the development of a single fracture, and above this pressure deformation is stable and distributed more uniformly throughout the sample

  19. Transition to a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus fleet for Canadian urban transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a preview of its report to the CTFCA, due for October 2004. The planned table of contents includes: TOMORROW'S FUEL CELL (FC) URBAN TRANSIT BUS - Powertrain, on-board fuel technologies - FC engine system manufacturers - Bus technical specifications, performances, operating characteristics - FC bus manufacturers TOMORROW'S FC TRANSIT PROPERTY - Added maintenance, facilities and fuelling infrastructure requirements - Supply chain implications - Environmental and safety issues - Alternative operational concepts PATHWAYS TO THE FUTURE - Choosing the future operational concept - 'Gap' assessment - how long from here to there? - Facilities and fleet adjustments, including fuelling infrastructure - Risk mitigation, code compliance measures TRANSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - Cost implications - Transition schedule (author)

  20. Strategies for implementing transit priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    Increased urbanization in Canada has placed pressure on an eroding, ageing infrastructure and raised concerns about declining air quality. In addition to reducing emissions, well-designed transit systems can reduce traffic and improve road safety. This paper presented a set of transit best practices which addressed the need to improve supply, influence demand, and make operational improvements with the least environmental impact. The objective of this paper was to gather the best implementation strategies for urban roads from municipalities across Canada, and to focus on solutions that can be applied to bus and streetcar systems to make better use of shared facilities. Bus bulbs, signal priority, queue jumps and green waves were recommended, as well as dedicated lanes and exclusive transit facilities. Advances in technology were reviewed, as well as the use of intelligent transportation systems to improve transit with little or no impact on other road users. Case studies were presented from various municipalities across Canada. Various stages of project development, design and construction, operations and maintenance strategies for the various projects were reviewed. The most successful installations were found to be in cities that have established a clear policy on transit improvements. It was suggested that defining the need for priority and determining where it can be implemented is central to the development of a strategic program. Dedicated programs looking at transit priority were recommended, and risks arising from integrating new infrastructure were reviewed. It was suggested that the range of stakeholders involved, and the internal organization of the implementing authority bore a significant impact on overall cost and schedule of transit projects. It was concluded that appropriate planning is needed to control risks. 20 refs., 3 figs

  1. Strong-Superstrong Transition in Glass Transition of Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Wang; Hong-Yan, Peng; Xiao-Yu, Xu; Bao-Ling, Chen; Chun-Lei, Wu; Min-Hua, Sun

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic fragility of bulk metallic glass (BMG) of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 alloy is studied by three-point beam bending methods. The fragility parameter mfor Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG is calculated to be 24.5 at high temperature, which means that the liquid is a 'strong' liquid, while to be 13.4 at low temperature which means that the liquid is a 'super-strong' liquid. The dynamical behavior of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG in the supercooled region undergoes a strong to super-strong transition. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a strong-to-superstrong transition is found in the metallic glass. Using small angle x-ray scattering experiments, we find that this transition is assumed to be related to a phase separation process in supercooled liquid. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. For a citizen energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geze, Patrick; Bernon, Francoise; Alphandery, Claude; Albizzati, Amandine; Ballandras, Marc; Berland, Olivier; Peullemeulle, Justine; Causse, Laurent; Olivier, Dominique; Damerval, Francois; Lepage, Corinne; Dughera, Jacques; Bouchart, Christiane; Duracka, Nicolas; Ferrari, Albert; Noe, Julien; Soulias, Emmanuel; Gaspard, Albane; Greenwood, Marianne; Guy, Lionel; Kretzschmar, Cyril; Lalu, Delphine; Naett, Caroline; Raguet, Alex; Rouchon, Jean-Philippe; Ruedinger, Andreas; Sautter, Christian; Tudor, Ivan; Vaquie, Pierre-Francois; Vernier, Christophe; Youinou, Jean-Michel; Verny, Emmanuel; Claustre, Raphael; Leclercq, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This publication by a think tank specialised in social and solidarity economy first outlines that energy transition means a transition from the present energy model to a new model based on three pillars: a drastic reduction of energy consumption through sobriety (energy saving, struggle against wastage), an improvement of energy efficiency, and an energy mix based on renewable and sustainable resources. A first part proposes a discussion of what 'citizen' energy transition can be: general framework of energy transition, pioneering examples in Europe, citizen empowerment, importance of a decentralised model which is anchored in territories, general interest as a priority. Each of these issues and aspects is illustrated by examples. Then, as this evolution towards a citizen-based model requires a change of scale, the authors discuss how to involve public authorities and to adapt regulation, how to develop financing tools, how to support the emergence and development of projects, and how to be part of international dynamics. The author then discuss what their think tank can do to accelerate energy transition. Proposals made in the different chapters are then summarized

  3. A complex systems methodology to transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Frenken, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Schwoon, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a general sense of urgency that major technological transitions are required for sustainable development. Such transitions are best perceived as involving multiple transition steps along a transition path. Due to the path dependent and irreversible nature of innovation in complex

  4. Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

  5. Deformation localization at the tips of shear fractures: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities are important features in rocks which trigger deformation localization in brittle, ductile or brittle-ductile modes during deformation. In a recent study Misra et al. (2009) have investigated these different processes of deformation localization at the tips of pre-existing planar shear fractures. The authors identified four mechanisms of deformation, ranging from brittle to ductile, operating at the crack tips. Mechanism A: brittle deformation is the dominant process that forms a pair of long tensile fractures at the two crack tips. Mechanism B: nature of deformation is mixed where the tensile fractures grow to a finite length with incipient plastic deformation at the tips. Mechanism C: mixed mode deformation characterized by dominating macro-scale shear bands, and short, opened-out tensile fissures. Mechanism D: localization of plastic bands in the form of a pair of shear bands at each tip without any discernible brittle fracturing. The transition of the mechanisms is a function of orientation ( α) of the crack with respect to the bulk compression direction and the finite length ( l) of the crack. The aim of this study is to present a theoretical analysis to account for the variability of deformation localization in the vicinity of pre-existing shear cracks considering an elastic-plastic rheological model. The analysis calculates the principal tensile stress ( σ1) and the second stress invariant ( I2) of the stress field at the fracture tip to explain the transition from Mechanism A (tensile fracturing) to Mechanism D (ductile strain). The results show that σ1 at the fracture tip increases non-linearly with increasing α and Ar (aspect ratio of the shear crack), and assumes a large value when α > 50 o, promoting tensile fractures. On the other hand, I2 is a maximum at α < 45°, resulting in nucleation of ductile shear bands.

  6. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Researching literacy practices in transition Postmodern societies are characterized by constant, fast and unpredictable mobility of people, goods, ideas and values. These mobilities are often visualized as a movement from one place to another, as a temporary interference of the stability of fixed...... places. An alternative take on mobilty sees movement as the default and change as the normal way of being rather than the exception (Barton, 2012). This understanding of change is central to the framing concept of this symposium: transition. Transitional processes around literacy are significant because...... literacy is something that is taught and learned, that is adopted, transformed and appropriated and that is used to categorize and classify people (Holm & Pitkänen-Huhta, 2012). Based on detailed empirical studies in the Nordic countries, the aim of this symposium is to discuss how to explore and research...

  7. Transition metal nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregosin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Transition metal NMR spectroscopy has progressed enormously in recent years. New methods, and specifically solid-state methods and new pulse sequences, have allowed access to data from nuclei with relatively low receptivities with the result that chemists have begun to consider old and new problems, previously unapproachable. Moreover, theory, computational science in particular, now permits the calculation of not just 13 C, 15 N and other light nuclei chemical shifts, but heavy main-group element and transition metals as well. These two points, combined with increasing access to high field pulsed spectrometer has produced a wealth of new data on the NMR transition metals. A new series of articles concerned with measuring, understanding and using the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the metals of Group 3-12 is presented. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic transitions in the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulehla, I.; Suk, M.; Trka, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Methods to achieve excitation of atoms are outlined and conditions necessary for the occurrence of electromagnetic transitions in the atomic shell are given. Radiative transitions between the energy states of the atom include stimulated absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. Selection rules applying to the majority of observed transitions are given. The parity concept is explained. It is shown how the electromagnetic field and its interaction with the magnetic moment of the atom lead to a disturbance of the energy states of the atom and the occurrence of various electro-optical and magneto-optical phenomena. The Stark effect and electron spin resonance are described. X-rays and X-ray spectra, the Auger effect and the internal photoeffect are also dealt with. The principle of the laser is explained. (M.D.). 22 figs., 1 tab

  9. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  10. The Transitional Legend of Winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 a number of stories that featured the motive of great gain under dramatic circumstances were repeatedly told in betting-houses in Kragujevac, a town in Serbia. The main character of these legends is an empoverished victim of transition who, thanks to luck and help of friends, wins a great sum of money betting. Besides describing the preceding transitional "fall" of the winner (getting fired, failing in private enterprise, the legends describe his economical and social prosperity initiated by capital gained through betting (starting succesfull enterprises, buying good shares. Diachronically following other "sudden wealth" legends this transitional legend speaks about the establishing of a new system of values that, in the categories of social promotion, makes up for the old principles that marked the period of socialism.

  11. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Avelino (Flor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts

  12. Gastrointestinal transit and reflux studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, R.L.; Kochan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Current imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide anatomic resolution far beyond that achievable with the current methods of scintigraphic imaging. Consequently, the strength of nuclear medicine has shifted and now lies in its ability to provide physiologic data noninvasively and simply. This ability is well illustrated by the scintigraphic techniques developed for evaluation of the alimentary tract. Studies of esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastric emptying are now widely available. Evaluation of small and large intestinal transit have also been investigated. These techniques are discussed in the present chapter

  13. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  14. Transit time for resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Calderon, G.; Rubio, A.

    1990-09-01

    This work considers properties of the partial widths in one dimensional elastic resonant tunneling in order to propose a transit-time τ tr = (h/2π)/Γ n T res ) where Γ n is the elastic width and T res the transmission coefficient at resonance energy. This time is interpreted as an average over the resonance energy width. It is shown that the tunneling current density integrated across a sharp resonance is inversely proportional to τ tr . This transit time may be much larger than the values predicted by other definitions. (author). 20 refs

  15. Structural transitions in superionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-04-04

    The ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. phase transition in AgI is studied with use of the new molecular-dynamics technique which allows for a dynamical variation of the shape and size of the cell. In the present model, upon heating of ..beta..-AgI, the iodine ions undergo a hcp..-->..bcc transformation and silver ions become mobile, whereas the reverse transformation is observed on cooling of ..cap alpha..-AgI. The calculated ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. transition temperature and structural and dynamical properties are in good agreement with experiments.

  16. Thailand's Work and Health Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2010-09-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker's health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker's mental and physical health.

  17. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  18. The transition to hospital consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W.; Jorgensen, Rasmus Lundhus

    2013-01-01

    Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and generic comp...... competencies, perceived intensity and burnout were compared. Additionally, effects of differences in working conditions and cultural dimensions were explored....

  19. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  20. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Nicolescu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  1. UAB UTC transit related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The ITS Strategic Plan outlines a strategy for improving the efficiency of the Region's existing highway and transit systems. The Region's overall goal is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of existing systems so as to reduce the need to bui...

  2. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  3. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  4. Socialising transgender support in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kate, Norman

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation of social support to transgender people relating to gender identity, gender transition, discrimination and mental health, leading to consideration of the niche for transgender people in a bi-gendered society, and of the developing socialization of transgender which counter-balances the consequences of its initial medicalization.

  5. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  6. Co-Creating Green Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Citizen involvement plays an important role in many governmental and municipal attempts towards green transition, reflecting a departure from a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens. Recently, the notion of co-creation or co-production has gained...

  7. Person-Centered Transition Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a person-centered planning approach for involving students with disabilities and their families in the transition planning process. Components of person-centered planning are discussed, including development of a personal profile, identification of future lifestyle preferences, action steps and responsible parties, and necessary changes…

  8. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  9. Transitivity of an entangled choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a quantum model of a simple choice game (constructed upon the entangled state of two qubits), which involves the fundamental problem of transitive-intransitive preferences. We compare attainability of optimal intransitive strategies in both classical and quantum models with the use of geometrical interpretation.

  10. Transition From Plan to Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    This paper gives an overview over how far transition has proceeded and what is still lacking in the process. The analytical framework – the PIE model for Politics, Institutions, Economy – is introduced. The model is first used to point to the main reasons for the fall of the command economy. Then...

  11. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  12. Transitions in a globalising world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Martens (Pim); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe increasing complexity of our global society means that sustainable development cannot be addressed from a single perspective or scientific discipline. By using the concept of transitions, we examine current and future tensions between welfare, well-being and the environment, and

  13. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  14. Phase transitions in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Poves, A.; Retamosa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The SU(3) Elliott model is used to study the thermal description of 20 Ne. This solvable model allows us to work in the canonical ensemble and still be able to define an order parameter, the expectation value of the intrinsic quadrupole moment, to investigate the occurrence of phase transitions

  15. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  16. Phase transitions in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author) [pt

  17. Metal-to-nonmetal transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hensel, Friedrich; Holst, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to nonmetal-to-metal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quark-gluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the transition from localized to delocalized states which describes the nonmetal-to-metal transition in these diverse systems. Based on the ideas of Mott, Hubbard, Anderson as well as Landau and Zeldovich, internationally respected scientists present the scientific challenges and highlight the enormous progress which has been achieved over the last years. The level of description is aimed to specialists in these fields as well as to young scientists who will get an overview for their own work...

  18. Life in the Transition Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopus, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Reports on interviews conducted with Ukrainian teachers who were asked whether they and others they know are better, or worse, off since Ukrainian independence. Addresses inflation, private enterprise, delayed salaries, and new freedoms. Provides insights into the effects of the transition on people's lives and hopes for the future. (DSK)

  19. Transition economies: performance and challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 3-28 ISSN 0895-3309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2002 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696574

  20. Phase transitions in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  1. Corporate accountability and transitional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Michalowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, transitional justice processes do not address the role of corporations in dictatorships or in armed conflicts that give rise to the need for dealing with grave and systematic human rights violations. However, there is a growing awareness that in many contexts corporations contribute to these violations, often in the form of corporate complicity with the principal violators. An argument can therefore be made that to achieve the aims of transitional justice and establish a holistic narrative of the past as well as obtain justice and reparations for victims requires investigating and addressing the role of corporate actors. This article uses the example of Colombia’s Justice and Peace process to show some of the complexities, opportunities and challenges that arise if transitional justice measures focus primarily on criminal law and create a specific legal framework, outside of the ordinary justice systems, only for a limited group of primary perpetrators, in the Colombian case for members of the armed groups who demobilised. It is argued that the exclusion of corporate actors in contexts where their role is regarded as significant leads to victims seeking alternatives ways to obtain justice and that both victims and corporations would benefit if transitional justice mechanisms addressed the role of corporations.

  2. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  3. Symmetry guide to ferroaxial transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Přívratská, J.; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Janovec, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 177602. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : symmetry * symmetry breaking * ferroaxial Transitions * property tensors * Aizu species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  4. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  5. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  6. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  7. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  9. Transit-oriented development: an examination of America's transit precincts in 2000 & 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study creates a typology of all fixed transit precincts across the United States to categorize all stations as either a Transit Oriented Development (TOD), Transit Adjacent Development (TAD) or hybrid. This typology is based on an index that acc...

  10. Online transit trip planner for small agencies using Google Transit : final deployment package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Google Transit is a public transportation trip planner that enables travelers to obtain information regarding available transit services between a : given origin and given destination. While transit agencies can publish their service information onto...

  11. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Flor

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts to grasp phenomena in practice. And visa versa, observing these practices allows us to gain new understanding of power in relation to transformative change. More specifically, this book is about pow...

  12. gamma -transition rates in transitional odd gold nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, V; Oms, J

    1981-01-01

    The results of two half-life measurements of excited states in /sup 185/Au are presented. One supports the proposed interpretation of the ground state configuration, the other one calls attention to the h 9/2 to h 11/2 M1 transitions in odd mass gold nuclei, which, in spite of considerable deformation changes of the h 9/2 state, all show the same retardation. (5 refs).

  13. Theory of the transition temperature of superconducting amorphous transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.

    1979-11-01

    In the present paper first the transition temperature Tsub(c) is shown to be a local quantity, which depends on the (average) short range order, and second it is demonstrated how to calculate local electronic properties in the framework of a short range order model and the transition temperature of amorphous systems based on accepted structure models of the amorphous state. In chapter I the theoretical basis of this work is presented in brief. The model used to study the role of short range order (in periodically ordered as well as in disordered system) is described in chapter II. The results of this model for the periodically ordered case are compared in chapter III with band structure calculations. In chapter IV it is shown how to establish short range order models for disordered systems and what kind of information can be obtained with respect to the electronic properties. Finally in chapter V it is discussed to what extend the interpretation of the transition temperature Tsub(c) as being determined by short range order effects can be supported by the electronic properties, which are calculated in the chapters III and IV. (orig.) [de

  14. Electronic transitions and intermolecular forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemert, M.C. van.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes two different subjects - electronic transitions and intermolecular forces - that are related mainly by the following observation: The wavenumber at which an electronic transition in an atom or molecule occurs, depends on the environment of that atom or molecule. This implies, for instance, that when a molecule becomes solvated its absorption spectrum may be shifted either to the blue or to the red side of the original gasphase spectrum. In part I attention is paid to the experimental aspects of VUV spectroscopy, both in the gasphase and in the condensed phase. In part II a series of papers are presented, dealing with the calculation of intermolecular forces (and some related topics) both for the ground state and for the excited state interactions, using different non-empirical methods. The calculations provide, among other results, a semiquantitative interpretation of the spectral blue shifts encountered in our experiments. (Auth.)

  15. Geometric transitions and integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, D.-E.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Donagi, R.; Hofman, C.; Pantev, T.

    2006-01-01

    We consider B-model large N duality for a new class of noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces modeled on the neighborhood of a ruled surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The closed string side of the transition is governed at genus zero by an A 1 Hitchin integrable system on a genus g Riemann surface Σ. The open string side is described by a holomorphic Chern-Simons theory which reduces to a generalized matrix model in which the eigenvalues lie on the compact Riemann surface Σ. We show that the large N planar limit of the generalized matrix model is governed by the same A 1 Hitchin system therefore proving genus zero large N duality for this class of transitions

  16. Transitions in the cadmium sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbert, A.

    1982-01-01

    We present calculations of oscillator strengths of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p sup(1,3)P 1 transitions for Cd I, In II, I VI and Xe VII, using configuration interaction wave functions which take into account valence shell correlation only. It is found that for the intercombination line there is reasonable agreement between theory and experiment, but for the allowed transitions, in I VI and Xe VII, the theoretical and experimental oscillator strengths differ by about a factor of 2. A major part of this disagreement is removed when correction factors, representing the use of experimental energy splittings and the effect of the core, are applied to the ab initio results. (orig.)

  17. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  18. Transition crossing in the RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Scaling laws are provided for the effects of chromatic non-linearity, self-field mismatch, and microwave instability. It is indicated that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a ''γ T -jump'' of about 0.8 unit within a time period of 60 ms is adequate to achieve a ''clean'' crossing, provided that the remnant voltage of the 160 MHz rf system is less than 10 kV. 13 refs., 5 figs

  19. Transition and turbulence (hydrodynamic visualizations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Henri

    The very extensive Reynolds number domain (10 to the 4th power less than or equal to Re sub L greater than or equal to 10 to the 6th power) of the TH2 water tunnel at Chatillon, allowed for laminar-turbulent transition phenomena to be studied systematically by visualizations and with methods previously developed in the TH1 water tunnel. These tests concern a wide variety of models including, Flate plate type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or right base), cylindrical pod type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or plane base), and models of different shapes (recall). The purpose of these tests is to provide a visualization of these transition and turbulence phenomena in order to better understand the phenomena.

  20. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    -Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace....... To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia...

  1. Marketing and the transition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial stage of the transition process reduction of economic activities and downturn trend of GDP per capita are occur, which are the results of actual structural discrepancy and imperative need in undertaking of an adequate structural changes. Economic policy maker's orientation to the economic liberalization, macroeconomic stabilization, foreign capital inflow increase of revenue and expenditure should be attended by the adequate changes in a microeconomic sphere, primarily changes in approach to dealing of basic economic activities protagonists, id est companies. Marketing as the economic process, business philosophy and business function membership dues to raising of company's qualification and competitiveness, assist the economic requiste changes and palliate the transition process as well.

  2. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  3. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  4. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  5. Transitioning leadership and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2017-01-01

    One of the dilemmas faced by directors and other corporate leaders is the need to be entrepreneurial in ensuring the future success of a company which involves risk, while at the same time retaining prudent control. Transitioning leadership suggests a process of adjustment, adaptation, transformation or metamorphosis from one condition, situation or state to another, depending upon the extent of the internal or external change required to continue to operate and cope. The process also involve...

  6. The work of cultural transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting...... provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. © 2016 Ryba, Stambulova and Ronkainen....

  7. Nucleon Resonance Transition Form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2016-08-01

    We discuss recent results from CLAS on electromagnetic resonance transition amplitudes and their dependence on the distance scale (Q2). From the comparison of these results with most advanced theoretical calculations within QCD-based approaches there is clear evidence that meson-baryon contributions are present and important at large distances, i.e. small Q2, and that quark core contributions dominate the short distance behavior.

  8. Morocco: an unbiased energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, the International Energy Agency presented its first in depth report 'Morocco 2014 Energy Policy Review' of Morocco's energy policy, an evaluation and recommendations, with as reference the shared goals of the Agency. The accent was placed on renewable energies energy efficiency and climate change. The 'Moroccan way' of energy transition merits the attention of energy economists and of the negotiators involved in COP21. (authors)

  9. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...... on three major aspects of Drosophila ecdysone biology: (a) factors that regulate the timing of ecdysone release, (b) molecular basis of stage- and tissue-specific responses to ecdysone, and (c) feedback regulation and coordination of ecdysone signaling....

  10. Dimensional transition of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1989-08-01

    In the extended n-dimensional Einstein theory of gravitation, where the spacetime dimension can be taken as a 'dynamical variable' which is determined by the 'Hamilton principle' of minimizing the extended Einstein-Hilbert action, it is suggested that our Universe of four-dimensional spacetime may encounter an astonishing dimensional transition into a new universe of three-dimensional or higher-than-four-dimensional spacetime. (author)

  11. Gamma transitions in 127Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Wagner Fonseca; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno

    2009-01-01

    This study of the 127 Te β - decay was carried out by means of gamma spectroscopy measurements using high resolution Ge detector, in the region from 150 keV up to 1000 keV, aiming to get a better understanding of the 127 Te nuclear structure. Several gamma transitions were confirmed when compared with those published in the last compilation. These data resulting in lower uncertainty. (author)

  12. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references

  13. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction

  14. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  15. Modeling Transit Patterns Via Mobile App Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Transit planners need detailed information of the trips people take using public transit in : order to design more optimal routes, address new construction projects, and address the : constantly changing needs of a city and metro region. Better trans...

  16. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability... Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Sustainability Program Funds: Announcement of Project Selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the...

  17. Site Transition Plan Guidance, December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A short Department of Energy program document has been created to provide an outline on what the Site Transition Plan (STP) objectives are for the transition from the Office of Environmental Management to the newly established Office of Legacy Management

  18. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial potential of transition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Seven novel and biological active transition metal complexes were prepared using 3-nitro- 4-hydroxy -6- .... (CS-800) Carbon-Sulphur Analyzer (Germany). .... with ligand showed d−d transition in the energy regions.

  19. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-01-01

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition

  20. Exploring effective interactions through transition charge density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tematics like reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and static quadrupole moments Q(2) ... approximations of solving large scale shell model problems in Monte Carlo meth- ... We present the theoretical study of transition charge densities.

  1. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  2. Essays on employment and unemployment transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagore Garcia, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses relevant questions related to labour market transitions in Spain. Using administrative records data from Spanish Social Security and applying correlated competing risks models, the impact of the current recession on unemployment and employment transitions and gender differences

  3. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  4. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  5. Transition physics and scaling overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A clear B t dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices. (author)

  6. Transition physics and scaling overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A dear B t dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices

  7. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  8. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  9. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  10. Bifurcation scenarios for bubbling transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Aleksey V; Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical systems with chaos on an invariant submanifold can exhibit a type of behavior called bubbling, whereby a small random or fixed perturbation to the system induces intermittent bursting. The bifurcation to bubbling occurs when a periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor in the invariant manifold becomes unstable to perturbations transverse to the invariant manifold. Generically the periodic orbit can become transversely unstable through a pitchfork, transcritical, period-doubling, or Hopf bifurcation. In this paper a unified treatment of the four types of bubbling bifurcation is presented. Conditions are obtained determining whether the transition to bubbling is soft or hard; that is, whether the maximum burst amplitude varies continuously or discontinuously with variation of the parameter through its critical value. For soft bubbling transitions, the scaling of the maximum burst amplitude with the parameter is derived. For both hard and soft transitions the scaling of the average interburst time with the bifurcation parameter is deduced. Both random (noise) and fixed (mismatch) perturbations are considered. Results of numerical experiments testing our theoretical predictions are presented.

  11. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  12. Non-equilibrium phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken

  13. Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.

    2009-01-01

    Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)

  14. Parity nonconservation in Zeeman atomic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, A.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The abilities to observe the parity violation at the radiofrequency transitions between the hyperfine and Zeeman terms of the atomic levels are considered. The E-1 amplitudes fo the Zeeman transitions of heavy atoms in weak magnetic fields are larger, than for the light atoms hyperfine transitions at the same wavelength. 9 refs

  15. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5 to...

  16. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...

  17. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One…

  18. The Menopausal Transition: Guidelines for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Research guidelines are presented to encourage sound research on the menopausal transition. Included is a review of current literature covering three aspects of menopausal transition: age span, changes in menstrual bleeding during the transition, and other psychological and somatic changes during premenopausal stages. (IAH)

  19. Transitions - opportunities for growth, renewal, and gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitions in life and career represent significant milestones and are cause for both celebration and renewed interest and commitment. The new year brings a transition in leadership of the American Society of Agronomy, and new leadership is welcomed. Transitions can include retirement, as in the c...

  20. Transition: New Challenge for Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dildy, Dennis R.

    Special education students who graduate or age-out of school are often not successful in making the transition from school to work. Transition services in Texas are grounded in federal civil rights legislation and a Texas Senate concurrent resolution which calls for preparing and supporting the successful transition of handicapped students to the…

  1. Intermittent and global transitions in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2003-07-01

    The dynamics of the transition processes in plasma turbulence described by the nonlinear Langevin equation (1) is studied. We show that intermittent or global transitions between metastable states can appear. The conditions for the generation of these transitions and their statistical characteristics are determined. (author)

  2. Drifting between transitions : Lessons from the environmental transition around the river Acheloos Diversion project in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskaki, N.; Thissen, W.; Grin, J.

    Systems can experience different types of transitions. The existing literature on transitions distinguishes socio-technological, social-ecological and institutional transitions that each focus on different aspects of real-life systems. For every one of these types of transitions we have identified a

  3. On Determinism in Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretinsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a formalism which extends the classical notion of labelled transition systems by introducing transitions of two types: must transitions that have to be present in any implementation of the MTS and may transitions that are allowed but not required. The MTS framewo....... In the present article, we provide a comprehensive account of the MTS framework in the deterministic setting. We study a number of problems previously considered on MTS and point out to what extend we can expect better results under the restriction of determinism....

  4. Multimodal approach to the international transit transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazaras

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article not only the problems of multi-modal and inter-modal conveyances in Lithuania and the concept of transit and the transit system stimulating factors are analysed, but also the modelling of transit transport and the flows of the loads are given. The main part of the article comes to the analysis of resent situation of Lithuania. In this part the place of transport sector in the market of transit services is analysed and the transit profit for Lithuanian economy is evaluated. The conclusions and proposals are given at the end of the article.

  5. Fermion condensation quantum phase transition versus conventional quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Han, J.G.; Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main features of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), which are distinctive in several aspects from that of conventional quantum phase transition (CQPT), are considered. We show that in contrast to CQPT, whose physics in quantum critical region is dominated by thermal and quantum fluctuations and characterized by the absence of quasiparticles, the physics of a Fermi system near FCQPT or undergone FCQPT is controlled by the system of quasiparticles resembling the Landau quasiparticles. Contrary to the Landau quasiparticles, the effective mass of these quasiparticles strongly depends on the temperature, magnetic fields, density, etc. This system of quasiparticles having general properties determines the universal behavior of the Fermi system in question. As a result, the universal behavior persists up to relatively high temperatures comparatively to the case when such a behavior is determined by CQPT. We analyze striking recent measurements of specific heat, charge and heat transport used to study the nature of magnetic field-induced QCP in heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn 5 and show that the observed facts are in good agreement with our scenario based on FCQPT and certainly seem to rule out the critical fluctuations related with CQPT. Our general consideration suggests that FCQPT and the emergence of novel quasiparticles near and behind FCQPT and resembling the Landau quasiparticles are distinctive features intrinsic to strongly correlated substances

  6. Transition(s) towards an ecologic economy. The prospective program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Antoine; Hervieu, Halvard; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Cecutti-Etahiri, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    This publication aims at presenting works performed between 2010 and 2014 within the frame of the prospective program 'Transition(s) towards an ecologic economy' of the prospective mission of the CGDD (Commissariat General au Developpement Durable, the French General Committee for Sustainable Development). It also presents lessons which can be learned. The first part examines what could be the shape of an ecologic economy. For this purpose, scenarios have been developed which allow the role which various actors (citizen, territories, State) can play, and the possible evolutions of the present social-economic system to be explored. The second part addresses more specific issues in order to highlight some levers of action for a successful transition. These issues can be transverse (for example, the role of ITs in ecologic economy, or the human factor in terms of challenge of social change and employment) as well as sector-based (focus on transports and on ecologic mobility in the perspective of automotive industries and enterprises, and of public policies)

  7. Delivering power system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiahai; Xu Yan; Hu Zhaoguang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the transition to low carbon power systems in China. The methodology is built on the newly developed multi-level perspective (MLP) transitions, as well as literature on innovation systems. Three lines of thought on the transition process are integrated to probe the possible transition pathways in China's power sector. Five transition pathways, namely reproduction, transformation, substitution, reconfiguration, de-alignment/re-alignment and reconfiguration, with their possible technology options are presented. The requirements for a smart grid in the socio-technical transition process are addressed within the MLP framework. The paper goes further to propose an interactive framework for low carbon transition management in China. Representative technology options are appraised by employing innovation theory to demonstrate the logic of policy design within the framework. The work presented in this paper will be useful in informing policy-makers and other stakeholders in China and it may prove to be a valuable reference for other countries in energy transition management. - Highlights: ► The transition to low carbon power systems is studied from a multi-level perspective. ► Transition pathways with possible technology options are presented. ► An interactive framework is proposed for managing this transition. ► Representative technology options are appraised within the framework to show the logic of policy design.

  8. Exotic Lifshitz transitions in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2018-01-01

    Topological Lifshitz transitions involve many types of topological structures in momentum and frequency-momentum spaces, such as Fermi surfaces, Dirac lines, Dirac and Weyl points, etc., each of which has its own stability-supporting topological invariant ( N_1, N_2, N_3, {\\tilde N}_3, etc.). The topology of the shape of Fermi surfaces and Dirac lines and the interconnection of objects of different dimensionalities produce a variety of Lifshitz transition classes. Lifshitz transitions have important implications for many areas of physics. To give examples, transition-related singularities can increase the superconducting transition temperature; Lifshitz transitions are the possible origin of the small masses of elementary particles in our Universe, and a black hole horizon serves as the surface of the Lifshitz transition between vacua with type-I and type-II Weyl points.

  9. Transitions from preschool to primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2010-01-01

    political understanding. Then the authors define and reflect the word transition in theoretical terms using Bronfenbrenner's ecological developmental model. After a short review of international transition research the article focus on international research on children's transition problems......  The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...... and in continuation of this a description of a number of so-called transition activities are described in order to ease children's transition to school....

  10. Electrochromism in transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, W.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochromism is discussed for transition metal oxides. Particularly tungsten oxide and nickel oxide are reviewed, in order to put forth the different aspects of the field. Since this phenomena has been reviewed by several authors, it is not tried to be comprehensive but rather pedagogical. The basic requirements for a material -in both non-emissive displays and energy efficiency applications- to be electrochromic, a general view of electrochromic mechanism, anodic and cathodic electrochromic materials, and current problems for a electrochromic theory are presented. (author) 45 refs., 8 figs

  11. Gibbs measures and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Georgii, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.

  12. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  13. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  14. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  15. Phase transitions in dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, Veronica; Hempel, Matthias; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    As the density of matter increases, atomic nuclei disintegrate into nucleons and, eventually, the nucleons themselves disintegrate into quarks. The phase transitions (PT's) between these phases can vary from steep first order to smooth crossovers, depending on certain conditions. First-order PT's with more than one globally conserved charge, so-called non-congruent PT's, have characteristic differences compared to congruent PT's. In this conference proceeding we discuss the non-congruence of the quark deconfinement PT at high densities and/or temperatures relevant for heavy-ion collisions, neutron stars, proto-neutron stars, supernova explosions, and compact-star mergers.

  16. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  17. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation

  18. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    -sures for restructuring produce strong impulses for ownership changes. There is limited possibility for external finance because of the embryonic development of the banking system and the capital markets during early transition. The governance cycle is also influenced by specific features of the institutional, cultural...... is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life...

  19. Children’s everyday transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    meanings and experiences of action possibilities (Chaiklin, Hedegaard, & Jensen, 1999). Employing the concept of conduct of everyday life (Dreier, 2008, 2011; Holzkamp, 2013; Højholt & Kousholt, 2017), this chapter analyses the active, creative and coordinating processes involved in leading a compound...... caregivers. The chapter emphasizes the significance of children’s communities in relation to children’s everyday transitions, parental care and parents’ collaboration with day-care professionals. The chapter is based on empirical material consisting of participant observations conducted across children......’s various life contexts and of interviews with children and parents....

  20. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ

    1983-01-01

    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  1. Strict rules for easy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2003-01-01

    The energy companies soon start tests to assess whether their information systems are ready to enable easy transition of retail clients from one energy supplier to another starting early next year. Having learnt a great deal from its experience with the liberalisation of the market for medium-sized business clients, power trade organisation EnergieNed has decided to run a support program named Spoed. (Dutch for Speed) to support the final stage of the liberalisation process. A Reference model has been prepared, on the basis of which energy companies can now test the mutual exchange of switch data [nl

  2. Transition state structures in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertran, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Gonzalez-Lafont, A.; Dillet, V.; Perez, V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper the location of transition state structures for reactions in solution has been studied. Continuum model calculations have been carried out on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a proton transfer through a water molecule between two oxygen atoms in formic acid. In this model the separation between the chemical system and the solvent has been introduced. On the other hand, the discrete Monte Carlo methodology has also been used to simulate the solvent effect on dissociative electron transfer processes. In this model, the hypothesis of separability is not assumed. Finally, the validity of both approaches is discussed

  3. Heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2015-08-24

    The structural, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of out-of-plane and in-plane heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated by (hybrid) first principles calculations. The out-of-plane heterostructures are found to be indirect band gap semiconductors with type-II band alignment. Direct band gaps can be achieved by moderate tensile strain in specific cases. The excitonic peaks show blueshifts as compared to the parent monolayer systems, whereas redshifts occur when the chalcogen atoms are exchanged along the series S-Se-Te. Strong absorption from infrared to visible light as well as excellent photocatalytic properties can be achieved.

  4. Hydrogen: energy transition under way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Pierre-Etienne; Mateo, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Written by a representative of Air Liquide with the help of a free lance journalist, this book proposes an overview of the technological developments for the use of hydrogen as a clean energy with its ability to store primary energy (notably that produced by renewable sources), and its capacity of energy restitution in combination with a fuel cell with many different applications (notably mobility-related applications). The authors outline that these developments are very important in a context of energy transition. They also outline what is left to be done, notably economically and financially, for hydrogen to play its role in the energy revolution which is now under way

  5. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  6. Phase transitions in single macromolecules: Loop-stretch transition versus loop adsorption transition in end-grafted polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike

    2018-01-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to compare two prominent types of single molecule transitions. One is the adsorption transition of a loop (a chain with two ends bound to an attractive substrate) driven by an attraction parameter ɛ and the other is the loop-stretch transition in a chain with one end attached to a repulsive substrate, driven by an external end-force F applied to the free end. Specifically, we compare the behavior of the respective order parameters of the transitions, i.e., the mean number of surface contacts in the case of the adsorption transition and the mean position of the chain end in the case of the loop-stretch transition. Close to the transition points, both the static behavior and the dynamic behavior of chains with different length N are very well described by a scaling ansatz with the scaling parameters (ɛ - ɛ*)Nϕ (adsorption transition) and (F - F*)Nν (loop-stretch transition), respectively, where ϕ is the crossover exponent of the adsorption transition and ν is the Flory exponent. We show that both the loop-stretch and the loop adsorption transitions provide an exceptional opportunity to construct explicit analytical expressions for the crossover functions which perfectly describe all simulation results on static properties in the finite-size scaling regime. Explicit crossover functions are based on the ansatz for the analytical form of the order parameter distributions at the respective transition points. In contrast to the close similarity in equilibrium static behavior, the dynamic relaxation at the two transitions shows qualitative differences, especially in the strongly ordered regimes. This is attributed to the fact that the surface contact dynamics in a strongly adsorbed chain is governed by local processes, whereas the end height relaxation of a strongly stretched chain involves the full spectrum of Rouse modes.

  7. Transit Matching for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, K.; Whitaker, M.; Oakberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Non-proliferation and International Security (NIS) supported a study of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) processes and procedures for ensuring that shipments of nuclear material correspond to (match) their receipts (i.e., transit matching). Under Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, Member States are obliged to declare such information within certain time frames. Nuclear weapons states voluntarily declare such information under INFCIRC/207. This study was funded by the NIS Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Concepts and Approaches program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory led the research, which included collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Nuclear Material Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), and the IAEA Section for Declared Information Analysis within the Department of Safeguards. The project studied the current transit matching methodologies, identified current challenges (e.g., level of effort and timeliness), and suggested improvements. This paper presents the recommendations that resulted from the study and discussions with IAEA staff. In particular, it includes a recommendation to collaboratively develop a set of best reporting practices for nuclear weapons states under INFCIRC/207. (author)

  8. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  9. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  10. Securing Power during the Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity security has been a priority of energy policy for decades due to the dependence of modern society on ongoing supply of electricity. Only a few years ago there was confidence that liberalised electricity markets in IEA member countries could deliver sufficient and timely generation investments needed to ensure security of supply. However, policies to decarbonise electricity systems have served to magnify investment risk and uncertainty. At the same time as renewable support schemes have proven effective in facilitating deployment of wind and solar photovoltaics, they also introduce new challenges to design a stable regulatory framework and well-functioning markets. Securing Power during the Transition, a report in the Electricity Security Action Plan series, assesses the threats and identifies options for competitive electricity markets embarking on the transition towards generating electricity from low-carbon sources . The analysis covers the impact of the global economic and financial situation, energy policy context and the implications for electricity market design. Its objective is to identify opportunities to improve regulatory and market designs to create a framework for timely and adequate investment, with a particular focus on conventional power plants.

  11. Transit oriented development in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Atanacković

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belgrade the process of transition from oriental kasaba to European city was long and thwarted by various economic political and social cultural factors. The European ideal still hasn’t been reached. Transition, as a development process in Belgrade, operates by a specific paradoxical inversion – the logic of harmonised development of urban transport, urban form and structure, which in theories of urban planning appears as a postulate, is in Belgrade influenced by incredible, ephemeral, disfigured, yet authentic transformation. However, quality solutions, conclusions and recommendations for further implementation of the idea about introducing the new public transport system, which is part of the main project for the first light metro line in Belgrade, establishment of a united group of experts, investors, negotiators, public opinion and all actors needed to make decisions, united and uncompromising idea about the future image and quality of urban life in Belgrade, have uncovered an until recently untried field of possibilities for transport management coupled with urban development as the optimal and acceptable model. City life could again become dynamic, productive and attractive.

  12. TRANSITION IN TERMS OF GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential constituents of the term transition, in Serbia as well as in other postsocialistic countries, refers to the transition from one development concept onto another one (extensive and mobilising, which is completely different (market-based and innovation-oriented. Market behaviour rules have changed to a great extent, as well as the increasingly present innovations in the field of technology, and introduced certain innovations in business orientation of companies. The struggle for market share is becoming more aggressive and dynamic enabling the survival of exclusively those companies which have implanted high flexibility and innovation levels into their business ambience. Globalisation is inherent in capitalism, it is its constituent logic. In future, new rules will have to be brought which would allow of the managment function to be performed within the complete business policy mutually agreed upon betwen the representatives of the capital owner and those of the personell. These regulations are necessary for long-term efficiency and profitability of private sector, as well as for the final success of economy.

  13. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  14. Flocking transitions in confluent tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Macchi, Marta; Bi, Dapeng; Scita, Giorgio; Manning, M Lisa; Cerbino, Roberto; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2018-04-25

    Collective cell migration in dense tissues underlies important biological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing and cancer invasion. While many aspects of single cell movements are now well established, the mechanisms leading to displacements of cohesive cell groups are still poorly understood. To elucidate the emergence of collective migration in mechanosensitive cells, we examine a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model of confluent tissues with an orientational feedback that aligns a cell's polarization with its local migration velocity. While shape and motility are known to regulate a density-independent liquid-solid transition in tissues, we find that aligning interactions facilitate collective motion and promote solidification, with transitions that can be predicted by extending statistical physics tools such as effective temperature to this far-from-equilibrium system. In addition to accounting for recent experimental observations obtained with epithelial monolayers, our model predicts structural and dynamical signatures of flocking, which may serve as gateway to a more quantitative characterization of collective motility.

  15. Fertility decline: transition or transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J

    1981-01-01

    This essay argues on the basis of evidence from Northern Rwanda that economic theories of fertility which fail to take into account the value of children for reproducing a community's social relations are of limited value in traditional noncapitalist or peasant societies. Regarding the transition to low fertility as an adjustment of the population to available resources ignores the fact that many families in the developing world regard their children as absolute values, not values relative to other resources, and therefore the transition to lower fertility is a dramatic change rather than an adjustment. The Kiga of Rwanda have in the last 20 years or so become differentiated into a group of richer households with excess land and a labor shortage and poorer households with excess labor and a land shortage. In the face of severe material shortages, the poorer families continue to desire and have almost as many children as the richer. Among women aged 25-35, the poorer group had on average 5.5 children while the wealthier had 3.9 on average. Kiga families are embedded in larger social units which provide social insurance against misfortune, and having many children thus reconstitutes a social value which minimizes the impact of misfortune. High fertility appears to occur in social economies where there is no reasonable motivation for reducing family size; where high value is placed on the survival of the collectivity and on the reproduction of concrete social relations, the only rational behavior is to have many children.

  16. Flocking Transition in Confluent Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Giavazzi, Fabio; Macchi, Marta; Scita, Giorgio; Cerbino, Roberto; Manning, Lisa; Marchetti, Cristina

    The emerging of collective migration in biological tissues plays a pivotal role in embryonic morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. While many aspects of single cell movements are well established, the mechanisms leading to coherent displacements of cohesive cell groups are still poorly understood. Some of us recently proposed a Self-Propelled Voronoi (SPV) model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers and exhibits a liquid-solid transition as a function of cell shape and cell motility. We now examine the role of cell polarization on collective cell dynamics by introducing an orientation mechanism that aligns cell polarization with local cell motility. The model predicts a density-independent flocking transition tuned by the strength of the aligning interaction, with both solid and liquid flocking states existing in different regions of parameter space. MP and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation Targeted Grant in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems Number: 342354 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  17. TRANSITIVITY AND THE BA CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jung Kuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of positing a Transitivity Projection (= TrP cf. Bowers 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2002 in the BA construction in Mandarin Chinese. BA has been proposed to be a semantically-bleached verb, inserted in the v position (Huang 1997 and Lin 2001. Several pieces of evidence such as manner adverbial placement (cf. Huang, Li and Li 2009 and GEI-insertion (cf. Tang 2001 indicate that there must be a functional projection between the vP and VP to host the BA NP. I propose that a TrP is probably the most apt candidate for the XP. I also argue, in contrast to the proposal by Huang, Li and Li (2009, that the present proposal which employs a TrP captures most of the properties of the BA construction. A comparison with the structure of the BEI construction also shows that the TrP proposal fits into the general picture of current linguistic theory on transitive constructions without extra stipulations.

  18. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  19. THE QUASIPERIODIC AUTOMATED TRANSIT SEARCH ALGORITHM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Joshua A.; Agol, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting transiting extrasolar planets in time-series photometry. The Quasiperiodic Automated Transit Search (QATS) algorithm relaxes the usual assumption of strictly periodic transits by permitting a variable, but bounded, interval between successive transits. We show that this method is capable of detecting transiting planets with significant transit timing variations without any loss of significance— s mearing — as would be incurred with traditional algorithms; however, this is at the cost of a slightly increased stochastic background. The approximate times of transit are standard products of the QATS search. Despite the increased flexibility, we show that QATS has a run-time complexity that is comparable to traditional search codes and is comparably easy to implement. QATS is applicable to data having a nearly uninterrupted, uniform cadence and is therefore well suited to the modern class of space-based transit searches (e.g., Kepler, CoRoT). Applications of QATS include transiting planets in dynamically active multi-planet systems and transiting planets in stellar binary systems.

  20. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing

  1. Electronic Transitions of Tungsten Monosulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L. F.; Chan, Man-Chor; Zou, Wenli; Cheung, Allan S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of the tungsten monosulfide (WS) molecule in the near infrared region between 725 nm and 885 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The WS molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated tungsten atoms with 1% CS_{2} seeded in argon. Fifteen vibrational bands with resolved rotational structure have been recorded and analyzed, which were organized into seven electronic transition systems. The ground state has been identified to be the X^{3}Σ^{-}(0^{+}) state, and the determined vibrational frequency, ΔG_{1/2} and bond length, r_{0}, are respectively 556.7 cm^{-1} and 2.0676 Å. In addition, vibrational bands belong to another transition system involving lower state with Ω = 1 component have also been analyzed. Least-squares fit of the measured line positions yielded molecular constants for the electronic states involved. The low-lying Λ-S states and Ω sub-states of WS have been calculated using state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) and followed by MRCISD+Q (internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus Davidson's cluster correction). The active space consists of 10 electrons in 9 orbitals corresponding to the W 5d6s and S 3p shells. The lower molecular orbitals from W 5s5p and S 3s are inactive but are also correlated, and relativistic effective core potential (RECPs) are adopted to replace the core orbitals with 60 (W) and 10 (S) core electrons, respectively. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is calculated via the state-interaction (SI) approach with RECP spin-orbit operators using SA-CASSCF wavefunctions, where the diagonal elements in the SOC matrix are replaced by the corresponding MRCISD+Q energies calculated above. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of the ground and many low-lying Λ-S states and Ω sub-states of the WS molecule are obtained. The calculated

  2. Optical Magnetometry Using Multiphoton Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Skyler M.

    Optical magnetometry plays a critical role in low-energy precision measurements and numerous other applications. In particular, permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) searches impose strict requirements on magnetic field sensitivity of the underlying atomic or molecular species. Other magnetometer properties - such as chemical reactivity, dielectric strength, and interaction cross-sections with other species - also impose limitations on experimental conditions. Here, we explore a novel approach to optical magnetometry, using multiphoton transitions of diamagnetic atoms to detect Larmor precession of polarized nuclei. Resonant probes are possible at moderate ultraviolet wavelengths, and hyperfine structure couples spin precession to fluorescence transitions with negligible backgrounds; paramagnetic rotation due to intensity-dependent dispersion may also be detectable. Nuclear spins and nonlinear optical excitation introduce new degrees of freedom, and evade limitations arising from rapid electronic decoherence. This dissertation reports progress towards two-photon optical magnetometry using ytterbium, rubidium, and xenon. We characterize the influence of probe polarization and magnetic fields on fluorescence spectra, for one- and two-photon continuous-wave (cw) excitation of ytterbium. Resolved hyperfine and isotope structure allow us to use spin-zero isotopes for diagnostics and normalization, and we develop analysis for overlapping two-photon resonances. We also report measurements of two-photon excitation in ytterbium and rubidium using picosecond laser pulses, and in xenon using a cw laser. Although hyperfine structure is unresolved, the rubidium measurements are sensitive to probe field polarization. Fluorescence spectra from two-photon excitation of ytterbium with femtosecond pulses show modulation when the repetition rate changes. Although techniques for polarizing noble gas nuclei are mature, existing cell designs are incompatible with two

  3. Transition probability spaces in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Kan

    2018-03-01

    We study the (generalized) transition probability spaces, in the sense of Mielnik and Cantoni, for spacetime quantum states in loop quantum gravity. First, we show that loop quantum gravity admits the structures of transition probability spaces. This is exemplified by first checking such structures in covariant quantum mechanics and then identifying the transition probability spaces in spin foam models via a simplified version of general boundary formulation. The transition probability space thus defined gives a simple way to reconstruct the discrete analog of the Hilbert space of the canonical theory and the relevant quantum logical structures. Second, we show that the transition probability space and in particular the spin foam model are 2-categories. Then we discuss how to realize in spin foam models two proposals by Crane about the mathematical structures of quantum gravity, namely, the quantum topos and causal sites. We conclude that transition probability spaces provide us with an alternative framework to understand various foundational questions of loop quantum gravity.

  4. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorytchev, V.; Saveliev, V.; Aplin, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high-energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions - neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high-energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high-energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results

  5. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Egorytchev, V; Aplin, S J

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high- energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions-neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and the ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high- energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high- energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results. (12 refs).

  6. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  7. CCS, locations and asynchronous transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukund, Madhavan; Nielsen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    We provide a simple non-interleaved operational semantics for CCS in terms of asynchronous transition systems. We identify the concurrency present in the system in a natural way, in terms of events occurring at independent locations in the system. We extend the standard interleaving transition...... system for CCS by introducing labels on the transitions with information about the locations of events. We then show that the resulting transition system is an asynchronous transition system which has the additional property of being elementary, which means that it can also be represented by a 1-safe net....... We also introduce a notion of bisimulation on asynchronous transition systems which preserves independence. We conjecture that the induced equivalence on CCS processes coincides with the notion of location equivalence proposed by Boudol et al....

  8. Transition from IPv4 to IPv6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far t...... the adoption of IPv6 has come. It also includes a discussion on what but also who the drivers and barriers are, including an examination of the implications of implementing transfer markets for IPv4 addresses.......The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far...

  9. Towards a sustainable urban transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Cappellaro, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Never as today the discourse about uncertainty is permeating and affecting traditional paradigms of urban planning. Predictable futures are no longer possible, sufficient to understand it in the long term and adequate. If the future looks uncertain, the debate on sustainable development has...... contributed to render the situation even more complex and planning practitioners are now navigating between an unclear perception of future risks and the hope for results and visions for long-term perspectives of urban futures. Among scholars engaged in the study of sustainable transitions in urban areas......, the ‘systeminc thinking’ has irrupted in town. A new vocabulary of ‘the city’ as a systemic and functional hub of technology, economy, and social organization has replaced an integral view on the urban complexity. This article returns back to the urban as an integral project. It aims to contribute understanding...

  10. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...... of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...

  11. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    ´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that interme-diary actors have the potential to reach a broader scope of citizens due to their particular role in between public au-thorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory...... processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material...

  12. Which energy transition for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    While recalling the five main objectives of the French bill project for energy transition, the author proposes some critical reflections. He notices that economic, political and financial means to reach the expected decrease of energy consumption are not sufficient. He notably comments the content of the various retained scenarios, discusses and explains the fact that there will always be a gap between the expected optimal energy efficiency and the obtained results: economic actors are not ready to make the required investments, France lacks of a culture of territorial energy governance, and a way of paying the produced carbon emissions is missing. He discusses the introduction of a carbon tax. He states that the Efficiency scenario seems difficult to be reached and briefly discusses the associated consequences. He finally outlines that the nuclear issue is not clearly addressed, either in the Ademe's scenario or by the bill project

  13. The Critical Moment of Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programmes prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... – within the context of an international MBA program – of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an International Consultancy Project. This paper contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing lenses to understand subjective experiences of critical...... moments of transition, developing the notion of “mindful avoidance,” and pointing out a major and neglected potential space in the design of management education....

  14. PUREX transition project case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In December 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed that the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant be shut down and deactivated because it was no longer needed to support the nation's production of weapons-grade plutonium. The PUREX/UO 2 Deactivation Project will establish a safe and environmentally secure configuration for the facility and preserve that configuration for 10 years. The 10-year span is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents the estimated time needed to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on decontamination and decommissioning activities. Accomplishing the deactivation project involves many activities. Removing major hazards, such as excess chemicals, spent fuel, and residual plutonium are major goals of the project. The scope of the PUREX Transition Project is described within

  15. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  16. Multiple paths in educational transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2011-01-01

    In many countries educational branching points consist of more than two qualitatively different alternatives, and only some alternatives provide the opportunity of continuing into higher education. I develop a multinomial transition model for modeling the effects of family background...... characteristics and individual characteristics on these complex educational careers. The model controls for unobserved heterogeneity that may, if ignored, result in biased estimates. Compared to previous research, I explicitly include instrumental variables that ensure identification of the unobserved component....... I apply the model to the Danish case and analyze data which covers the educational careers of a cohort of Danes born around 1954. I find that the model brings forward non-trivial heterogeneity in the influence of family background and ability on qualitatively different choice alternatives both...

  17. Energy transition: towards landscape devastation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posokhow, Andre

    2013-09-01

    The author criticizes some aspects of the content of the French policy for energy transition. He states that the objective of reduction of greenhouse emissions is unreachable and moreover useless when China keeps on opening new coal-fired power stations. He states that temperatures do not increase any longer and that it is not sure that CO 2 emissions are responsible for past increases. He outlines that the power of wind turbines is only a quarter of their theoretical one, that replacing nuclear energy by wind energy would require the installation of 33.000 wind turbines. He states that objectives of energy saving are not credible, and that the energy mix predictions are fuzzy. He outlines contradictions about the nuclear power station life duration, states that the installation of 210 wind turbines per district would devastate the French landscape

  18. Main ring transition crossing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

    1990-10-01

    We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for bar p production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs

  19. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Dynamical constraints on phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    2000-01-01

    The numerical solutions of nonlocal and local Boltzmann kinetic equations for the simulation of central heavy ion reactions are parameterized in terms of time dependent thermodynamical variables in the Fermi liquid sense. This allows to discuss dynamical trajectories in phase space. The nonequilibrium state is characterized by non-isobaric, non-isochoric etc conditions, called iso-nothing conditions. Therefore a combination of thermodynamical observables is constructed which allows to locate instabilities and points of possible phase transition in a dynamical sense. We find two different mechanisms of instability, a short time surface - dominated instability and later a spinodal - dominated volume instability. The latter one occurs only if the incident energies are not exceeding much the Fermi energy and might be attributed to spinodal decomposition. Oppositely the fast surface explosion occurs far outside the spinodal and pertains also in the cases where the system develops too fast for suffering the spinodal decomposition and where the system approaches equilibrium outside the spinodal. (author)

  1. Shedding light on energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    -carbon technologies in energy supply, buildings, transport, and industry, as well as address other key issues like demand response, co-benefits to other energy policies objectives, the role of declining costs for renewables and markets - all needed to facilitate energy sector transition. This editorial outlines......Ever since 2002, when the first Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) was held in Dubrovnik, the SDEWES conferences series has been providing a forum for world-wide scientists and those interested in learning about the sustainability of development...... into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, food production and environment systems and their many combinations. SDEWES has maintained high publishing standard as nearly 1100...

  2. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  3. The Critical Moment of Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programs prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... environment and entering a context characterized by activity and performance. This is a frequently debated challenge for both academics and providers of management learning. Yet, critical moments in this transition remain under-exposed and under-researched. The contribution of this article is a research study......—within the context of an international MBA program—of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an international consultancy project. This article contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing a lens through which subjective experience of critical moments...

  4. Perpetual transitions in Romanian healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiru, Luiza; Traşcu, Răzvan Ioan; Turcu, Ileana; Mărzan, Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Although Romania has a long-lasting tradition in organized medical healthcare, in the last two decades the Romanian healthcare system has been undergoing a perpetual transition with negative effects on all parties involved. The lack of long-term strategic vision, the implementation of initiatives without any impact studies, hence the constant short-term approach from the policy makers, combined with the "inherited" low allocation from GDP to the healthcare system have contributed significantly to its current evolution. Currently, most measures taken are of the "fire-fighting" type, rather than looking to the broader, long time perspective. There should be no wonder then, that predictive and preventive services do not get the proper attention and support. Patient and physicians should step in and take action in regulating a system that was originally designed for them. But until this happens, the organizations with leadership skills and vision need to take action-and this has already started.

  5. The transition-edge microbolometer (TREMBOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, S.M.; Neikirk, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The TREMBOL (transition-edge microbolometer) and the composite TREMBOL are introduced as detectors for FIR imaging arrays. The TREMBOL uses a superconductor's sharp change in resistance at the normal conduction to superconduction transition. The structure of the composite TREMBOL enables heating of the individual detectors in an array up to their transition temperature, and can thus be used in multiplexing, which would be very advantageous for two-dimensional arrays. 23 refs

  6. Renormalization group approach to QCD phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; So, H.

    1987-01-01

    Effective scalar theories for QCD are proposed to investigate the deconfining and chiral phase transitions. The orders of the phase transitions are determined by infrared stabilities of the fixed points. It is found that the transitions in SU(3) gauge theories are of 1st order for any number of massless flavors. The cases of SU(2) and SU(4) gauge theories are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  8. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  9. Picking the right transition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves.

  10. Effect of hyperons on nuclear phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Phase transition of nuclear system in heavy ion-collisions at intermediate energy has been studied well for many years and it has also been extended to strange nuclear matter. Recently, using the Canonical Thermodynamical Model (CTM), detailed work on multiplicity distribution of fragments produced from fragmentation of hypernuclear system shows the existence of phase transition or phase coexistence in strange system with Λ-hyperons. In present work we want to continue the investigation on phase transition with respect to some other thermodynamic observables like free energy, specific heat etc. in order to be confirmed about the nature of the transition

  11. Structural phase transitions and Huang scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasusada

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of the application of the concept of Huang scattering to the understandings of the origin of diffuse scatterings near structural phase transitions are discussed. It is pointed out that in several phase transitions, the observed diffuse scatterings can not be interpreted in terms of critical fluctuations of the order parameters associated with the structural phase transitions, and that they are rather interpreted as Huang scattering due to random distribution of individual order parameter which is 'dressed' by strain fields. Examples to show effective applications of this concept to analyze the experimental X-ray data and whence to understand microscopic mechanisms of structural phase transitions are presented. (author)

  12. Phase transition in SO(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Saumen; Gavai, Rajiv V.

    1998-01-01

    The phase transition in SO(3) lattice gauge theory is investigated by Monte Carlo techniques with a view (i) to understand the relationship between the bulk transition and the deconfinement transition, and (ii) to resolve the current ambiguity about the nature of the high temperature phase. By introduction of a magnetic field, it was shown that the +ve and -ve values of a > correspond to the same phase. Studies on different sized lattices lead to the conclusion that in SO(3), there is only one transition, which is deconfining in nature. (author)

  13. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  14. Unidirectional Transition Waves in Bistable Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Arrieta, Andres F; Chong, Christopher; Kochmann, Dennis M; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-06-17

    We present a model system for strongly nonlinear transition waves generated in a periodic lattice of bistable members connected by magnetic links. The asymmetry of the on-site energy wells created by the bistable members produces a mechanical diode that supports only unidirectional transition wave propagation with constant wave velocity. We theoretically justify the cause of the unidirectionality of the transition wave and confirm these predictions by experiments and simulations. We further identify how the wave velocity and profile are uniquely linked to the double-well energy landscape, which serves as a blueprint for transition wave control.

  15. The simplest classical models of topological transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that simplest classical models of topologigal transitions possess scalar singularity of curvature with a point carrier being a source of space-time incompleteness. It is also shown that the condition of energy dominance is broken near the topological transition, asymptotic behaviour of the curvature tensor (growth of curvature at approximation to the topological transition) and energy-momentum tensor of (breaking the condition of energy dominance) being a common property of the considered models and being completely determined by the type of topological transition

  16. Dynamics of a quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    We present two approaches to the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in quantum Ising model. First approach retraces steps of the standard calculation to thermodynamic second order phase transitions in the quantum setting. The second calculation is purely quantum, based on the Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in processes that involve avoided level crossings. We show that the two approaches yield compatible results for the scaling of the defect density with the quench rate. We exhibit similarities between them, and comment on the insights they give into dynamics of quantum phase transitions. (author)

  17. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D. [Department of Physics, 1150 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  18. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  19. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit.

  20. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  1. Fixed-Guideway Transit Stations (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Transit (Stations)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Version 2004 of the Fixed-Guideway Transit Network is a network database of the nation's fixed-guideway transit systems (NTAD). The data set covers systems in cities...

  2. Fixed-Guideway Transit Lines (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Transit (Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Version 2004 of the Fixed-Guideway Transit Network is a network database of the nation's fixed-guideway transit systems (NTAD). The data set covers systems in cities...

  3. Improving transitional patient safety: research protocol of the Transitional Incident Prevention Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Melle (Marije); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); I.W.M. Mol (Ineke); H.F. van Stel (Henk); N.J. de Wit (Niek)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction:__ Patient transitions between primary and hospital care include referral, discharge, and simultaneous care by the outpatient clinic and the general practitioner (GP). Research on referrals and discharge shows that safety incidents in these transitions are common. We

  4. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J

    1998-05-01

    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  5. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  6. Economic System and Transition Mode : A Comparative Research on Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    This passage mainly deals with the problem of why different transition countries have different transition mode and different economic performance. According to this research, it has been found that the economic system of the traditional socialist countries played an important role in their process of reform and transition. The socialist countries with their different economic systems had determined the economic performance, the space, as well as the environment of the transition. All of this...

  7. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  8. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  9. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  10. Quasiperiodic transition to chaos in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weixing, D.; Huang Wei; Wang Xiaodong; Yu, C.X.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiperiodic transition to chaos in an undriven discharge plasma has been investigated. Results from the power spectrum and Lyapunov exponents quantitatively confirm the transition to chaos through quasiperiodicity. A low-dimension strange attractor has been found for this kind of plasma chaos

  11. Hyperconifold transitions, mirror symmetry, and string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rhys

    2011-09-01

    Multiply-connected Calabi-Yau threefolds are of particular interest for both string theorists and mathematicians. Recently it was pointed out that one of the generic degenerations of these spaces (occurring at codimension one in moduli space) is an isolated singularity which is a finite cyclic quotient of the conifold; these were called hyperconifolds. It was also shown that if the order of the quotient group is even, such singular varieties have projective crepant resolutions, which are therefore smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds. The resulting topological transitions were called hyperconifold transitions, and change the fundamental group as well as the Hodge numbers. Here Batyrev's construction of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric fourfolds is used to demonstrate that certain compact examples containing the remaining hyperconifolds — the Z and Z cases — also have Calabi-Yau resolutions. The mirrors of the resulting transitions are studied and it is found, surprisingly, that they are ordinary conifold transitions. These are the first examples of conifold transitions with mirrors which are more exotic extremal transitions. The new hyperconifold transitions are also used to construct a small number of new Calabi-Yau manifolds, with small Hodge numbers and fundamental group Z or Z. Finally, it is demonstrated that a hyperconifold is a physically sensible background in Type IIB string theory. In analogy to the conifold case, non-perturbative dynamics smooth the physical moduli space, such that hyperconifold transitions correspond to non-singular processes in the full theory.

  12. Understanding transition performance during offshore IT outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Beulen (Erik); V. Tiwari (Vinay); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose - Within an IT outsourcing relationship, transition represents a critical and complex phase that starts immediately after contract signing. Transition involves handing over outsourced activities from client firm to service provider firm and accompanies a new way of operating. The

  13. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply...

  14. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the

  15. 47 CFR 101.4 - Transition plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition plan. 101.4 Section 101.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.4 Transition plan. (a) All systems...

  16. Successful Transition to High School. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that 8th graders make a successful transition to 9th grade? More students fail ninth grade than any other grade level. When middle school students took part in high school transition programs with a variety of different articulation activities, fewer students were retained in ninth grade. Ideally, these transition…

  17. Sound speed during the QCD phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Michiyasu; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    1998-01-01

    The Jeans scale is estimated during the coexistence epoch of quark-gluon and hadron phases in the first-order QCD phase transition. It is shown that, contrary to previous claims, reduction of the sound speed is so little that the phase transition does not affect evolution of cosmological density fluctuations appreciably. (author)

  18. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  19. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  20. Growth and industrial policy during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovic Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After twenty-five years of economic transition economic performance varies considerably in transition countries, while in most cases current outcomes show that the desired effects have not been achieved. In this paper we elaborate on why industrial policy has been a key missing element in the transition and has greatly contributed to the unexpectedly small and slow pace of economic recovery. After discussing the achieved level of economic development we undertake an empirical analysis in order to define the role of several important factors of growth, as seen at the beginning of transition (reform progress, macroeconomic stabilisation, initial conditions and those that attracted particular attention during the global crisis (industrial/manufacturing output, exports. The analysis shows that the growth model in transition economies has altered both over time and in relation to the progress of transition reforms. The most important change concerns the share of industrial output in GDP, which is found to be one of the most important factors of growth after the initial phase of reform. These results suggest that transition economies should implement industrial policy measures as an integral part of their reform strategy instead of just speeding up reforms as the key (if not the only element of government policy. Based on these results, we explore what would be a viable and proper industrial policy in transition countries, particularly what should be done in current conditions after the damaging effects of the recurrent global recession, and make some policy suggestions.

  1. Late time phase transition as dark energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show that the dark energy field can naturally be described by the scalar condensates of a non-abelian gauge group. This gauge group is unified with the standard model gauge groups and it has a late time phase transition. The small phase transition explains why the positive acceleration of the universe is ...

  2. Hyperconifold transitions, mirror symmetry, and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Multiply-connected Calabi-Yau threefolds are of particular interest for both string theorists and mathematicians. Recently it was pointed out that one of the generic degenerations of these spaces (occurring at codimension one in moduli space) is an isolated singularity which is a finite cyclic quotient of the conifold; these were called hyperconifolds. It was also shown that if the order of the quotient group is even, such singular varieties have projective crepant resolutions, which are therefore smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds. The resulting topological transitions were called hyperconifold transitions, and change the fundamental group as well as the Hodge numbers. Here Batyrev's construction of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric fourfolds is used to demonstrate that certain compact examples containing the remaining hyperconifolds - the Z 3 and Z 5 cases - also have Calabi-Yau resolutions. The mirrors of the resulting transitions are studied and it is found, surprisingly, that they are ordinary conifold transitions. These are the first examples of conifold transitions with mirrors which are more exotic extremal transitions. The new hyperconifold transitions are also used to construct a small number of new Calabi-Yau manifolds, with small Hodge numbers and fundamental group Z 3 or Z 5 . Finally, it is demonstrated that a hyperconifold is a physically sensible background in Type IIB string theory. In analogy to the conifold case, non-perturbative dynamics smooth the physical moduli space, such that hyperconifold transitions correspond to non-singular processes in the full theory.

  3. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  4. African Transitional Justice Research Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... little African-led research on the cultural appropriateness and impact of such models of transitional justice. This grant will facilitate the creation and sustainable expansion of an electronically-based research network on options and lessons learned pertaining to transitional justice. A second objective is to build the capacity ...

  5. Discovery, Characterization, and Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Eylen, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    of the planet Kepler-410A~b, a Neptune-sized planet in a 17 day orbit. Kepler-410 is composed of two stars, one of which hosts a transiting planet, and an additional non-transiting planet. The latter was discovered due to its gravitational influence on Kepler-410A~b, which causes a variation in the timing...

  6. A Conceptual Model for Leadership Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of leadership transition based on an integrative review of literature. The article establishes a compelling case for focusing on leadership transitions as an area for study and leadership development practitioner intervention. The proposed model in this study identifies important success factors…

  7. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  9. Equinoctial transitions in the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Equinoctial summer/winter transitions in the parameters of the F2-region are analyzed using ground-based ionosonde and incoherent scatter observations. Average transition from one type of diurnal NmF2 variation to another takes 20–25 days, but cases of very fast (6–10 days transitions are observed as well. Strong day-time NmF2 deviations of both signs from the monthly median, not related to geomagnetic activity, are revealed for the transition periods. Both longitudinal and latitudinal variations take place for the amplitude of such quiet time NmF2 deviations. The summer-type diurnal NmF2 variation during the transition period is characterized by decreased atomic oxygen concentration [O] and a small equatorward thermospheric wind compared to winter-type days with strong poleward wind and increased [O]. Molecular N2 and O2 concentrations remain practically unchanged in such day-to-day transitions. The main cause of the F2-layer variations during the transition periods is the change of atomic oxygen abundance in the thermosphere related to changes of global thermospheric circulation. A possible relationship with an equinoctial transition of atomic oxygen at the E-region heights is discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry – Ionosphere (ionosphere- atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  10. Branding and Bricolage. Gender, Consumption and Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…

  11. Factors Affecting Third Culture Kids' (TCKs) Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    (TCKs) transition becomes challenging for both the student and the school. The programs implemented, or lack thereof, are imperative to the successful transition of TCKs into their new, diverse, multicultural environment. Research has been written on the positive effects and challenges faced by TCKs' transient lifestyle. Although international…

  12. The transition probabilities of the reciprocity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The reciprocity model is a continuous-time Markov chain model used for modeling longitudinal network data. A new explicit expression is derived for its transition probability matrix. This expression can be checked relatively easily. Some properties of the transition probabilities are given, as well

  13. Mapping of the carbon transition. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Teno, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The carbon transition is an ambitious collective project aimed at changing models of production and consumption. The transition is already underway, and will call for substantial investment over the coming decade. All the actors in the field must be mobilized, and indeed, the transition is itself a major lever for driving the development of territorial entities. The Shift Project has decided to map out the carbon transition, as a way of informing political decision-makers of the main outcomes at stake and the anticipated impacts of a transition plan, in terms of job creation, purchasing power and lower energy bills. This mapping also gives them a toolbox, with ideas for action and a set of tools for financing the transition. This research project aims both to convince decision-makers that a transition plan is worthwhile, and to illustrate the means that can be deployed to achieve this transition. These include experimentation, innovation, suitable financing plans, dynamic cooperation between local actors, and positive communication to present this project as 'desirable'

  14. Environmental awareness, the Transition Movement, and place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frederik Nørgaard; Hunka, Agnieszka; Mälgand, Miina

    2014-01-01

    The Transition Movement, originating in Ireland and the United Kingdom, gathers and supports community-led actions to meet the global challenges of climate change, peak oil and energy descent. In our study we analysed a Transition Network project, a Danish village built from scratch by its...

  15. Leading change: evidence-based transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brennan; Allen, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a framework for evidence-based transition of patient populations within an acute care pediatric institution. Transition within a hospital is foreseeable, given the ever-changing needs of the patients within an evolving healthcare system. These changes include moving patient populations because of expansion, renovation, or cohorting similar patient diagnoses to provide care across a continuum. Over the past 1 to 2 years, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas has experienced a wide variety of transition. To provide a smooth transition for patients and families into new care areas resulting in a healthy work environment for all team members. The planning phase for patient population moves, and transition should address key aspects to include physical location and care flow, supplies and equipment, staffing model and human resources (HR), education and orientation, change process and integrating teams, and family preparation. It is imperative to consider these aspects in order for transitions within a healthcare system to be successful. During a time of such transitions, the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is a highly valuable team member offering a unique perspective and methodological approach, which is central to the new initiative's overall success. The themes addressed in this article on evidence-based transition are organized according to the CNS spheres of influence: system/organization, patient/family, and nursing. An evidence-based transition plan was developed and implemented successfully with the support from the CNS for 3 patient populations. Organizational leadership gained an increased awareness of the CNS role at the conclusion of each successful transition. The CNS plays a pivotal role as clinical experts and proponents of evidence-based practice and effects change in the system/organization, nursing, and patient/family spheres of influence. While transitions can be a source of stress for leaders

  16. CIEMAT analyses of transition fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient design of strategies for the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy or the phase-out of this technology is possible after the study of transition scenarios from the current fuel cycle to a future one with advanced technologies and concepts. CIEMAT has participated in numerous fuel cycle scenarios studies for more than a decade and, from some years ago, special attention has been put in the study of transition scenarios. In this paper, the main characteristics of each studied transition scenario are described. The main results and partial conclusions of each scenario are also analyzed. As general conclusions of transition studies, we highlight that the advantages of advanced technologies in transition scenarios can be obtained by countries or regions with sufficiently large nuclear parks, with a long-term implementation of the strategy. For small countries, these advantages are also accessible with an affordable cost, by means of the regional collaboration during several decades. (authors)

  17. Continuous and discontinuous transitions to synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoqing; Garnier, Nicolas B

    2016-11-01

    We describe how the transition to synchronization in a system of globally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators changes from continuous to discontinuous when the nature of the coupling is moved from diffusive to reactive. We explain this drastic qualitative change as resulting from the co-existence of a particular synchronized macrostate together with the trivial incoherent macrostate, in a range of parameter values for which the latter is linearly stable. In contrast to the paradigmatic Kuramoto model, this particular state observed at the synchronization transition contains a finite, non-vanishing number of synchronized oscillators, which results in a discontinuous transition. We consider successively two situations where either a fully synchronized state or a partially synchronized state exists at the transition. Thermodynamic limit and finite size effects are briefly discussed, as well as connections with recently observed discontinuous transitions.

  18. Unconventional phase transitions in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    According to classical textbooks on thermodynamics or statistical physics, there are only two types of phase transitions: continuous, or second-order, in which the latent heat L is zero, and first-order, in which L ≠ 0. Present-day textbooks and monographs also mention another, stand-alone type—the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, which exists only in two dimensions and shares some features with first- and second-order phase transitions. We discuss examples of non-conventional thermodynamic behavior (i.e., which is inconsistent with the theoretical phase transition paradigm now universally accepted). For phase transitions in smectic liquid crystals, mechanisms for nonconventional behavior are proposed and the predictions they imply are examined.

  19. The agricultural and the democratic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known...... as the democratic transition. Elsewhere we have shown that it is almost as strong as the agricultural transition. Recently, a method has been presented to weed out spuriousness. It makes the democratic transition go away by turning income insignificant, when it is supplemented by a set of formal controls. We show...... that the same method makes the agricultural transition go away as well. Hence, it seems to be a method that kills far too much, as suggested by the subtitle. This suggestion leads to a discussion of the very meaning of long-run causality....

  20. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  1. Transition problems and play as transitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap betwen pre-school and schoo. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental...... functions, among others the development of children's learning motive. From the view of activity theori, transition to formal education entails crossing boundaries from the activity system play to the activity system of school learning. The transition can be facilitated by developing a 'transitory activity...... system', which mediates between the two systems, ensuring that the result of one system serves as a tool for the next. Advanced forms of play might make up a transitory activity system. The paper describes different forms of play crossing the boundaies of role play (frame-play, aesthetic theme play...

  2. Revisiting the flocking transition using active spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, A P; Tailleur, J

    2013-08-16

    We consider an active Ising model in which spins both diffuse and align on lattice in one and two dimensions. The diffusion is biased so that plus or minus spins hop preferably to the left or to the right, which generates a flocking transition at low temperature and high density. We construct a coarse-grained description of the model that predicts this transition to be a first-order liquid-gas transition in the temperature-density ensemble, with a critical density sent to infinity. In this first-order phase transition, the magnetization is proportional to the liquid fraction and thus varies continuously throughout the phase diagram. Using microscopic simulations, we show that this theoretical prediction holds in 2D whereas the fluctuations alter the transition in 1D, preventing, for instance, any spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  3. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  4. Topological transitions in the theory of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Y.; Melnikov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a realisation of the topological transitions hypothesis are presented. The basic difficulties in the construction of quantum topological transition theory are connected with a necessity to introduce a new non-local interaction defined on a space of topological states. So the general method of construction and study of topological transitions classical models is formulated as a necessary step towards a corresponding quantum description. Their local properties, including an asymptotic behaviour in the neighbourhood of the transition, are studied and applications to problems of gravitation and cosmology are given. The method used is shown to lead to a scalar-tensor theory of topological transitions. Different variants of this theory and its main features are discussed. (author)

  5. Automated transit planning, operation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rongfang

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the successful implementations of automated transit in various international locations, such as Paris, Toronto, London, and Kuala Lumpur, and investigates the apparent lack of automated transit applications in the urban environment in the United States. The book begins with a brief definition of automated transit and its historical development. After a thorough description of the technical specifications, the author highlights a few applications from each sub-group of the automated transit spectrum. International case studies display various technologies and their applications, and identify vital factors that affect each system and performance evaluations of existing applications. The book then discusses the planning and operation of automated transit applications at both macro and micro levels. Finally, the book covers a number of less successful concepts, as well as the lessons learned, allow ng readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

  6. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  7. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  8. Music: Creativity and Structure Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocini, Emanuela

    Music, compared to other complex forms of representation, is fundamentally characterized by constant evolution and a dynamic succession of structure reference models. This is without taking into account historical perspective, the analysis of forms and styles, or questions of a semantic nature; the observation rather refers to the phenomenology of the music system. The more abstract a compositional model, the greater the number and frequency of variables that are not assimilated to the reference structure; this "interference" which happens more often than not in an apparently casual manner, modifies the creative process to varying but always substantial degrees: locally, it produces a disturbance in perceptive, formal and structural parameters, resulting more often than not in a synaesthetic experience; globally, on the other hand, it defines the terms of a transition to a new state, in which the relations between elements and components modify the behavior of the entire system from which they originated. It is possible to find examples of this phenomenon in the whole range of musical production, in particular in improvisations, in the use of the Basso Continuo, and in some contrapuntal works of the baroque period, music whose temporal dimension can depart from the limits of mensurability and symmetry to define an open compositional environment in continuous evolution.

  9. Phase transitions of quadrupolar fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OShea, S.F.; Dubey, G.S.; Rasaiah, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Gibbs ensemble simulations are reported for Lennard-Jones particles with embedded quadrupoles of strength Q * =Q/(εσ 5 ) 1/2 =2.0 where ε and σ are the Lennard-Jones parameters. Calculations revealing the effect of the dispersive forces on the liquid endash vapor coexistence were carried out by scaling the attractive r -6 term in the Lennard-Jones pair potential by a factor λ ranging from 0 to 1. Liquid endash vapor coexistence is observed for all values of λ including λ=0 for Q * =2.0, unlike the corresponding dipolar fluid studied by van Leeuwen and Smit et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3991 (1993)] which showed no phase transition below λ=0.35 when the reduced dipole moment μ * =2.0. The simulation data are analyzed to estimate the critical properties of the quadrupolar fluid and their dependence on the strength λ of the dispersive force. The critical temperature and pressure show a clear quadratic dependence on λ, while the density is less confidently identified as being linear in λ. The compressibility is roughly linear in λ. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

  11. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  12. Patterning via optical saturable transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Precious

    For the past 40 years, optical lithography has been the patterning workhorse for the semiconductor industry. However, as integrated circuits have become more and more complex, and as device geometries shrink, more innovative methods are required to meet these needs. In the far-field, the smallest feature that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength. This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbe limit (after Prof. Ernst Abbe who first recognized this), effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons >300nm from patterning nanostructures barrier is developed and experimentally verified. This approach, which I refer to as Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions (POST) has the potential for massive parallelism, enabling the creation of nanostructures and devices at a speed far surpassing what is currently possible with conventional optical lithographic techniques. The fundamental understanding of this technique goes beyond optical lithography in the semiconductor industry and is applicable to any area that requires the rapid patterning of large-area two or three-dimensional complex geometries. At a basic level, this research intertwines the fields of electrochemistry, material science, electrical engineering, optics, physics, and mechanical engineering with the goal of developing a novel super-resolution lithographic technique.

  13. Phase transition stability within ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Wang, D.

    1992-01-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics is applied to analyse nucleation, both in metals and ceramics, in order to distinguish the stability of metastable under cooled melts. The hypothesis of local equilibrium has been used to apply research results from equilibrium thermodynamics, for the study of irreversible processes. The under cooling equation for homogenous nucleation only depends on a coefficient which is not related to the melting point of the material. The calculated critical under cooling values for metals are compared with experimental data. The metastable phase formation of plasma-sprayed alumina and zircon coatings has been discussed based on irreversible thermodynamics. A critical under cooling parameter (β) is defined. The metastable phase formation of plasma-sprayed alumina and zircon has been discussed. The analysis shows that γ-Al 2 O 3 is first formed in the coating since it has a lower β value than α-Al 2 O 3 . Zircon dissociates into ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , and rapid quenching of plasma spraying prevents their re association. The cooling rate determines whether t-ZrO 2 or c-ZrO 2 will form in the sprayed coating. It can be confirmed by the experiments that the content of t-ZrO 2 will increase correspondingly as the sprayed particle size decreases. At high transition temperatures, c-ZrO 2 will be formed because of the anisotropic thermal expansion behaviour in the crystal structure. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Transition in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Not long ago, nuclear energy was forecast to be the dominant force in the utility industry. An environmentally safe clean and inexpensive way to produce electricity would be welcomed by all. Civil engineering challenges on the leading edge of technology awaited the designer and constructor. As we now know, changes within the past 10 years have taken place that radically alter this outlook. Energy demand, thought to be ever increasing, was shocked by the rising costs. Plant construction delays, coupled with ever increasing regulatory requirements and higher interest rates, fueled the spiral or more cost. Economy of operation became overwhelmed by utility debt burden. Where is the nuclear utility industry now and what direction can we foresee. this symposium addresses the nuclear industry past, present, and future. The first session highlights some lessons learned from past experiences that must be applied in the future to be beneficial. Existing and future challenges are presented in the sessions on plant modifications and nuclear waste and decommissioning. The final session looks at the nuclear industry in transition from the perspectives of the different segments that make up the industry

  15. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  16. Three laws of energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The paper formulates and explores a hypothesis on three general energy transition laws: the law of stable long-term energy costs to income ratio; the law of improving energy quality; and the law of growing energy productivity. These laws are essential for shaping long-term projections and checking for their consistency. All three are rooted in amazingly stable in time and universal across countries energy costs to income ratios. Limited energy purchasing power sets up thresholds, which, if exceeded, bring asymmetry to energy demand to price elasticity. The author believes, that the theoretical postulate on the substantial substitution among production factors, which is used in the production functions theory, may be incorrect. In reality, innovations mainly lead to the substitution of a low-quality production factor with the same yet of a better-quality. Improving energy quality with stable costs to income ratio is accompanied by growing energy productivity. Energy costs to income thresholds are indicators allowing for better projections of oil prices

  17. Notochord to Nucleus Pulposus Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lisa; Harfe, Brian D

    2015-10-01

    A tissue that commonly deteriorates in older vertebrates is the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebrae. Age-related changes in the intervertebral discs are thought to cause most cases of back pain. Back pain affects more than half of people over the age of 65, and the treatment of back pain costs 50-100 billion dollars per year in the USA. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of three distinct regions: a thick outer ring of fibrous cartilage called the annulus fibrosus, a gel-like material that is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus called the nucleus pulposus, and superior and inferior cartilaginous end plates. The nucleus pulposus has been shown to be critical for disc health and function. Damage to this structure often leads to disc disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the embryonic notochord, a rod-like structure present in the midline of vertebrate embryos, gives rise to all cell types found in adult nuclei pulposi. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of the notochord into nuclei pulposi is unknown. In this review, we discuss potential molecular and physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the notochord to nuclei pulposi transition.

  18. Nuclear energy in transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transition countries, respectively the countries that have in the year's 89/90 broken with the communist political and economy system are passing through difficult years. From their traditional markets within the closely interconnected socialist economy system, which has disintegrated, they have to reorient themselves to new, often saturated and sophisticated markets. To integrate into Europe as equal partners, rather then remain poor relatives, they must reduce this development gap in a reasonable time, not longer than 15 years. Slower pace would not give acceptable perspective to their young people and they would look for it elsewhere, thereby reducing creative forces for progress. Examples of economic development show that sustained growth of GDP is impossible without similar industrial growth, which, in turn, requires corresponding increase of energy use. In the same time these countries are the parts of densely populated European region and are subject to emission restriction of effluents with local or global effects. It is difficult to see how these countries could attain their development goals, whilst respecting their Kyoto obligations, without supplying increased energy demand from nuclear sources. (author)

  19. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Samuel; Hottovy, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes - open versus closed cells - fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells (POCs) as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. Similar viewpoints of deep convection and self-organized criticality will also be discussed. With these new conceptual viewpoints, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions. The research of S.N.S. is partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship, ONR Young Investigator Award N00014-12-1-0744, and ONR MURI Grant N00014-12-1-0912.

  20. Black women in menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik

    2010-01-01

    To describe the experience of menopausal symptoms of midlife Black women in the United States. Qualitative online forum using a feminist perspective. Internet communities for midlife women and Blacks. Twenty midlife Black women recruited using a quota sampling method. A 6-month online forum was conducted with seven discussion topics on menopausal symptoms. The discussion topics were posted sequentially on the forum site, and the women posted messages at their convenience over 6 months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified themes were raised to be strong, accepting a natural aging process, silent and without knowledge, and our own experience. The women tried to be strong during their menopausal transitions while dealing with other important family matters. The women did not report their menopausal symptoms and were silent about or downplayed their symptoms, but many emphasized the importance of education about menopausal symptoms and highlighted their own lack of knowledge. These women generally did not talk about their symptoms because they believed that nobody except other Black midlife women could understand their menopausal experience. Health care providers need to develop a mechanism to deliver the necessary knowledge about menopausal symptoms and management strategies to Black midlife women in their health care practices.