Sample records for brittle star amphiura

  1. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Granberg, Maria E; Forbes, Valery E.


    to equilibrium partitioning between organism lipid content and organic content of the sediment. Biotransformation of Flu by brittle stars was very limited and unaffected by organic matter quality. A. filiformis contributed to the downward transport of Flu from the surface sediment to the burrow lining......Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu......), in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Brittle stars were exposed to a base sediment covered by a 2 cm Flu-spiked top layer (30 mug Flu/g dry wt. sed.), enriched to the same total organic carbon content with either refractory or labile organic matter. The labile carbon source was concentrated green...

  2. Interaction between water flow and oxygen deficiency on growth in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) (United States)

    Nilsson, H. C.


    Interactions between 'oxygen concentration' (normoxia: >80% oxygen saturation, and hypoxia: 18% oxygen saturation) and 'water flow velocity' (low: 0.1 cm s -1, and moderate: 0.5 cm s -1) were studied on growth rates in the brittle star Amphiura filiformis in a flow-through aquaria system. Effects of 'sublethal predation' on growth rates were investigated as 'number of amputated arms' (1 and 3 arms) and 'amputation of the disk'. A significant interaction between oxygen concentration and water flow velocity was observed in mean arm regeneration rate, but in both flow velocities higher mean arm regeneration rates were observed in normoxia compared to hypoxia. In hypoxia a positive response in arm regeneration rate was observed in moderate flow compared to low flow velocity. In normoxia, however, no response to flow velocity was observed. The latter observation indicates that Amphiura filiformis is able to maintain the ventilation of the burrow at low flow velocities, but in low oxygen concentrations hydrodynamic forces seem to affect growth. A significant interaction between oxygen concentration and disk amputation was observed in both arm and disk regeneration rates, indicating that the disk is the major organ for gas exchange in this species. The number of arms amputated, however, did not affect mean arm regeneration rate. The results obtained in this study suggest that the secondary production in subtidal infaunal populations could be negatively affected by low oxygen concentrations and that this response is even more negative in combination with low flow velocities in the near-bottom water.

  3. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Granberg, Maria E; Forbes, Valery E.


    Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu), in the infa......Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu...... to equilibrium partitioning between organism lipid content and organic content of the sediment. Biotransformation of Flu by brittle stars was very limited and unaffected by organic matter quality. A. filiformis contributed to the downward transport of Flu from the surface sediment to the burrow lining...

  4. Sometimes two arms are enough--an unusual life-stage in brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). (United States)

    Stöhr, Sabine; Alme, Øydis


    Off West Africa (Angola-Morocco), benthos samples were collected in the years 2005-2012. These contained 124 specimens of brittle stars with two long arms and three extremely short or absent arms and an elongated, narrow disc. These unusual brittle stars, as well as 33 specimens with five fully developed arms, were identified as Amphiura ungulata. The specimens with unequal arms were juvenile stages, whereas adults had five equal arms. The large number of specimens with unequal arms suggests that this condition is not the result of damage and regeneration, but a normal growth pattern in this species. This study documents the morphology by SEM, amends the species description, and discusses possible explanations for the evolution of this condition. Although brittle star species with unequal arm growth have been reported, this is an extreme case that was unknown before this study.

  5. De Novo Adult Transcriptomes of Two European Brittle Stars: Spotlight on Opsin-Based Photoreception.

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    Jérôme Delroisse

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to obtain a deeper and more complete view of transcriptomes. For non-model or emerging model marine organisms, NGS technologies offer a great opportunity for rapid access to genetic information. In this study, paired-end Illumina HiSeqTM technology has been employed to analyse transcriptomes from the arm tissues of two European brittle star species, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea. About 48 million Illumina reads were generated and 136,387 total unigenes were predicted from A. filiformis arm tissues. For O. aranea arm tissues, about 47 million reads were generated and 123,324 total unigenes were obtained. Twenty-four percent of the total unigenes from A. filiformis show significant matches with sequences present in reference online databases, whereas, for O. aranea, this percentage amounts to 23%. In both species, around 50% of the predicted annotated unigenes were significantly similar to transcripts from the purple sea urchin, the closest species to date that has undergone complete genome sequencing and annotation. GO, COG and KEGG analyses were performed on predicted brittle star unigenes. We focused our analyses on the phototransduction actors involved in light perception. Firstly, two new echinoderm opsins were identified in O. aranea: one rhabdomeric opsin (homologous to vertebrate melanopsin and one RGR opsin. The RGR-opsin is supposed to be involved in retinal regeneration while the r-opsin is suspected to play a role in visual-like behaviour. Secondly, potential phototransduction actors were identified in both transcriptomes using the fly (rhabdomeric and mammal (ciliary classical phototransduction pathways as references. Finally, the sensitivity of O.aranea to monochromatic light was investigated to complement data available for A. filiformis. The presence of microlens-like structures at the surface of dorsal arm plate of O. aranea could potentially explain phototactic

  6. A partial skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii (United States)

    Seaver, Ryan W.

    The formation of mineralized tissue was critical to the evolution and diversification of metazoans and remains functionally significant in most animal lineages. Of special importance is the protein found occluded within the mineral matrix, which facilitates the process of biomineralization and modulates the final mineral structure. These skeletal matrix proteins have well been described in several species, including the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, an important model organism. Biomineralization research is limited in other echinoderm classes. This research encompasses the first description of mineral matrix proteins in a member of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea. This work describes the skeletal matrix proteins of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii using bioinformatic and proteomic techniques. General characteristics of matrix protein are described and a number of candidate biomineralization related genes have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The unique evolutionary and biochemical properties of brittle star skeletal matrix proteins are also described.

  7. The complex simplicity of the brittle star nervous system. (United States)

    Zueva, Olga; Khoury, Maleana; Heinzeller, Thomas; Mashanova, Daria; Mashanov, Vladimir


    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers. We standardize the nomenclature of nerves and ganglia, and provide an anatomically accurate digital 3D model of the arm nervous system as a reference for future studies. Our results helped identify several general features characteristic to the adult echinoderm nervous system, including the extensive anatomical interconnections between the ectoneural and hyponeural components, neuroepithelial organization of the central nervous system, and the supporting scaffold of the neuroepithelium formed by radial glial cells. In addition, we provide further support to the notion that the echinoderm radial glia is a complex and diverse cell population. We also tested the suitability of a range of specific cell-type markers for studies of the brittle star nervous system and established that the radial glial cells are reliably labeled with the ERG1 antibodies, whereas the best neuronal markers are acetylated tubulin, ELAV, and synaptotagmin B. The transcription factor Brn1/2/4 - a marker of neuronal progenitors - is expressed not only in neurons, but also in a subpopulation of radial glia. For the first time, we describe putative ophiuroid proprioceptors associated with the hyponeural part of the central nervous system. Together, our data help establish both the general principles of neural architecture common to the phylum Echinodermata and the specific ophiuroid features.

  8. Aggregations of brittle stars can perform similar ecological roles as mussel reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Geraldi, NR


    Biogenic habitats, such as coral reefs, facilitate diverse communities. In aquatic systems, aggregations of mobile benthic species may play a similar ecological role to that of typically sessile biogenic habitats; however, this has rarely been considered. We quantified the abundance of sessile horse mussels Modiolus modiolus and aggregating brittle stars Ophiothrix fragilis and tested for correlations between the density of mussels (live and dead) and brittle stars each with (1) abundance, biomass, diversity, and assemblage structure of associated benthic macrofauna; and (2) percent organic matter of the sediment. We found that the abundance of live M. modiolus was positively associated with the abundance and biomass of macrofauna. The positive association between M. modiolus and macrofaunal abundance was further amplified with an increase in brittle stars and a decrease in dead mussel shells. Macrofaunal biomass was lower with a higher percentage of dead mussel shells, and macrofaunal diversity increased with greater abundances of live M. modiolus and brittle stars. Sediment organic matter was positively related to brittle star density, but not to the abundance of live or dead mussels. The positive relationship between brittle stars and sediment organic matter suggests that brittle stars could enhance rates of benthic- pelagic coupling. Given the importance of understanding the functional role of threatened habitats, it is essential that the underlying community patterns be understood through robust observational studies to then derive testable hypotheses to determine drivers. These findings provide novel insight into the ecological role of aggregations of mobile species, which is essential to prioritize conservation and restoration strategies.

  9. A brittle star-like robot capable of immediately adapting to unexpected physical damage. (United States)

    Kano, Takeshi; Sato, Eiki; Ono, Tatsuya; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Ishiguro, Akio


    A major challenge in robotic design is enabling robots to immediately adapt to unexpected physical damage. However, conventional robots require considerable time (more than several tens of seconds) for adaptation because the process entails high computational costs. To overcome this problem, we focus on a brittle star-a primitive creature with expendable body parts. Brittle stars, most of which have five flexible arms, occasionally lose some of them and promptly coordinate the remaining arms to escape from predators. We adopted a synthetic approach to elucidate the essential mechanism underlying this resilient locomotion. Specifically, based on behavioural experiments involving brittle stars whose arms were amputated in various ways, we inferred the decentralized control mechanism that self-coordinates the arm motions by constructing a simple mathematical model. We implemented this mechanism in a brittle star-like robot and demonstrated that it adapts to unexpected physical damage within a few seconds by automatically coordinating its undamaged arms similar to brittle stars. Through the above-mentioned process, we found that physical interaction between arms plays an essential role for the resilient inter-arm coordination of brittle stars. This finding will help develop resilient robots that can work in inhospitable environments. Further, it provides insights into the essential mechanism of resilient coordinated motions characteristic of animal locomotion.

  10. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star. (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh


    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  11. Brittle-stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the continental shelf and upper slope of the Colombian Caribbean


    Borrero-Pérez, G. H.; Benavides-Serrato, M.; Solano, Ó.; Navas S., G. R.


    An annotated brittle star list (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) collected by bottom trawling between 20 and 520 m depth during the INVEMAR-MACROFAUNA campaigns (1998-2001) along the continental shelf and upper slope of the Colombian Caribbean is presented. A total of 58 species were identified: 41 genera, 13 families and 2 orders, in which 35 species are new records for the Colombian Caribbean (28 are also new for the continental part of the Caribbean Sea). General and detailed figures are provid...

  12. Growth and production of the brittle stars Ophiura sarsii and Ophiocten sericeum (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) (United States)

    Ravelo, Alexandra M.; Konar, Brenda; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin


    Dense brittle star assemblages dominate vast areas of the Arctic marine shelves, making them key components of Arctic ecosystem. This study is the first to determine the population dynamics of the dominant shelf brittle star species, Ophiura sarsii and Ophiocten sericeum, through age determination, individual production and total turnover rate (P:B). In the summer of 2013, O. sarsii were collected in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (depth 35-65 m), while O. sericeum were collected in the central Beaufort Sea (depth 37-200 m). Maximum age was higher for O. sarsii than for O. sericeum (27 and 20 years, respectively); however, both species live longer than temperate region congeners. Growth curves for both species had similar initial fast growth, with an inflection period followed by a second phase of fast growth. Predation avoidance in addition to changes in the allocation of energy may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed age dependent growth rates. Individual production was higher for O. sarsii than for O. sericeum by nearly an order of magnitude throughout the size spectra. The distinct distribution pattern of the two species in the Alaskan Arctic may be determined by environmental characteristics such as system productivity. Both species had equally low turnover rates (0.2 and 0.1, respectively), similar to Antarctic species, but lower than temperate species. Such characteristics suggest that the dense brittle star assemblages that characterize the Arctic shelf system could have a recovery time from disturbance on the order of decades.

  13. Sequencing and analysis of the gastrula transcriptome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii

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    Vaughn Roy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gastrula stage represents the point in development at which the three primary germ layers diverge. At this point the gene regulatory networks that specify the germ layers are established and the genes that define the differentiated states of the tissues have begun to be activated. These networks have been well-characterized in sea urchins, but not in other echinoderms. Embryos of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii share a number of developmental features with sea urchin embryos, including the ingression of mesenchyme cells that give rise to an embryonic skeleton. Notable differences are that no micromeres are formed during cleavage divisions and no pigment cells are formed during development to the pluteus larval stage. More subtle changes in timing of developmental events also occur. To explore the molecular basis for the similarities and differences between these two echinoderms, we have sequenced and characterized the gastrula transcriptome of O. wendtii. Methods Development of Ophiocoma wendtii embryos was characterized and RNA was isolated from the gastrula stage. A transcriptome data base was generated from this RNA and was analyzed using a variety of methods to identify transcripts expressed and to compare those transcripts to those expressed at the gastrula stage in other organisms. Results Using existing databases, we identified brittle star transcripts that correspond to 3,385 genes, including 1,863 genes shared with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gastrula transcriptome. We characterized the functional classes of genes present in the transcriptome and compared them to those found in this sea urchin. We then examined those members of the germ-layer specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs of S. purpuratus that are expressed in the O. wendtii gastrula. Our results indicate that there is a shared ‘genetic toolkit’ central to the echinoderm gastrula, a key stage in embryonic development, though

  14. Large-scale gene expression study in the ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis provides insights into evolution of gene regulatory networks

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    David Viktor Dylus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary mechanisms involved in shaping complex gene regulatory networks (GRN that encode for morphologically similar structures in distantly related animals remain elusive. In this context, echinoderm larval skeletons found in brittle stars and sea urchins provide an ideal system. Here, we characterize for the first time the development of the larval skeleton in the ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis and compare it systematically with its counterpart in sea urchin. Results We show that ophiuroids and euechinoids, that split at least 480 Million years ago (Mya, have remarkable similarities in tempo and mode of skeletal development. Despite morphological and ontological similarities, our high-resolution study of the dynamics of genetic regulatory states in A. filiformis highlights numerous differences in the architecture of their underlying GRNs. Importantly, the A.filiformis pplx, the closest gene to the sea urchin double negative gate (DNG repressor pmar1, fails to drive the skeletogenic program in sea urchin, showing important evolutionary differences in protein function. hesC, the second repressor of the DNG, is co-expressed with most of the genes that are repressed in sea urchin, indicating the absence of direct repression of tbr, ets1/2, and delta in A. filiformis. Furthermore, the absence of expression in later stages of brittle star skeleton development of key regulatory genes, such as foxb and dri, shows significantly different regulatory states. Conclusion Our data fill up an important gap in the picture of larval mesoderm in echinoderms and allows us to explore the evolutionary implications relative to the recently established phylogeny of echinoderm classes. In light of recent studies on other echinoderms, our data highlight a high evolutionary plasticity of the same nodes throughout evolution of echinoderm skeletogenesis. Finally, gene duplication, protein function diversification, and cis-regulatory element

  15. Influence of sediment-organic matter quality on growth and polychlorobiphenyl bioavailability in Echinodermata (Amphiura filiformis)

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    Gunnarsson, J.S.; Granberg, M.E.; Nilsson, H.C.; Rosenberg, R.; Hellman, B.


    Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) content is considered to be a primary food source for benthic invertebrates and a major factor influencing the partitioning and bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants. Most studies report that both toxicity and uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by benthic organisms are inversely proportional to sediment TOC content. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the TOC quality for the bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants and the growth of benthic macrofauna. The common infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis was exposed to a base sediment covered by a {sup 14}C-polychlorobipenyl (3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) contaminated top layer (0--2 cm), enriched to the same TOC content with 31 g TOC/m{sup 2} of different quality and origin. The following carbon sources, ranging from labile to refractory, were used: (1) green macroalga (Ulva lactuca), (2) brown macroalga (Ascophyllum nodosum), (3) eelgrass (Zostera Marina), (4) phytoplankton (Ceratium spp.), and (5) lignins of terrestrial origin. Characterization of the organic matter quality was accomplished by measuring the content of amino acids, lipids, C, N, and polyphenolic compounds. The reactivity of the sedimentary organic matter was assessed by means of respiration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux measurements. The experiment was carried out in 1-L glass jars, each containing four brittle stars and the contaminated and enriched sediment. The jars were circulated in a flow-through mode with filtered seawater. Somatic growth (regeneration of a precut arm) and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}C-TCB were measured at 10 sampling occasions during 48 d of exposure. Growth rates, TCB uptake rates, and steady-state concentrations differed significantly between treatments and were correlated to the qualities of the organic substrates. The greatest TCB accumulation and growth were observed in

  16. Differential growth forms of the sponge Biemna fortis govern the abundance of its associated brittle star Ophiactis modesta (United States)

    Dahihande, Azraj S.; Thakur, Narsinh L.


    Marine intertidal regions are physically stressful habitats. In such an environment, facilitator species and positive interactions mitigate unfavorable conditions to the benefit of less tolerant organisms. In sponge-brittle star association, sponges effectively shelter brittle stars from biotic and abiotic stresses. The sponge, Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) was examined from two intertidal regions Anjuna and Mhapan along the Central West Coast of India for associated brittle star Ophiactis modesta (Brock, 1888) during 2013-2014. The study sites varied in suspended particulate matter (SPM). B. fortis at the high SPM habitat (Anjuna) had partially buried growth form and at the low SPM habitat (Mhapan) had massive growth form. O. modesta was abundantly associated with the massive growth form (50-259 individuals per 500 ml sponge) but rarely occurred in association with partially buried growth form (6-16 individuals per 500 ml sponge). In laboratory choice assay O. modesta showed equal preference to the chemical cues from both the growth forms of B. fortis. In addition, O. modesta showed significant preference to B. fortis compared to other sympatric sponges. These observations highlight the involvement of chemical cues in host recognition by O. modesta. Massive growth forms transplanted to the high SPM habitat were unable to survive but partially buried growth forms transplanted to the low SPM habitat were able to survive. Differential growth forms of the host sponge B. fortis at different abiotic stresses affect the abundance of the associated brittle star O. modesta.

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Effect and Down Regulation of TGF-β Induced by Ophiocoma erinaceus Brittle Star Crude Extract

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    Javad Baharara


    Full Text Available Background: Recent investigations get focused on characterization and isolation of natural compounds with pharmaceutical applications from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Marine invertebrate natural products have been proposed due to various structural diversity. Ophiocoma eraniceus (O. erinaceus is a brittle star species belonging to Echinodermata that distributed in Qeshm island in the Persian Gulf. Recent scientist researches have concentrated on discovery of natural resources with pharmacological and biomedical potential. Objectives: This experiment aimed to discover phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of O. erinaceus methanolic extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the phytochemical analysis were conducted to determine saponin, phenolic and flavonoid content of brittle star and the free radical scavenging activity with two in vitro assays. In addition, the effect of methanolic brittle star extract on TGF-β expression were analysed by RT-PCR. Results: The phytochemical studies established the presence of saponins, phenol, and flavonoids compounds in the brittle star extract and the antioxidant results from DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS (azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid revealed that O. erinaceus displayed antioxidant activity as dose dependent manner. On the other hand, O. erinaceus extract inhibited TGF-β expression which indicate anti-inflammatory properties of O. erinaceus. Conclusions: In conclusion, these results clearly exhibited that the O. erinaceus methanolic extract possess valuable constituents that may correspond as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent useful in biomedicine.

  18. Whole-body photoreceptor networks are independent of 'lenses' in brittle stars. (United States)

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren; Rahman, Imran A; Sigwart, Julia D; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther


    Photoreception and vision are fundamental aspects of animal sensory biology and ecology, but important gaps remain in our understanding of these processes in many species. The colour-changing brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii is iconic in vision research, speculatively possessing a unique whole-body visual system that incorporates information from nerve bundles underlying thousands of crystalline 'microlenses'. The hypothesis that these might form a sophisticated compound eye-like system regulated by chromatophores has been extensively reiterated, with investigations into biomimetic optics and similar supposedly 'visual' structures in living and fossil taxa. However, no photoreceptors or visual behaviours have ever been identified. We present the first evidence of photoreceptor networks in three Ophiocoma species, both with and without microlenses and colour-changing behaviour. High-resolution microscopy, immunohistochemistry and synchrotron tomography demonstrate that putative photoreceptors cover the animals' oral, lateral and aboral surfaces, but are absent at the hypothesized focal points of the microlenses. The structural optics of these crystal 'lenses' are an exaptation and do not fulfil any apparent visual role. This contradicts previous studies, yet the photoreceptor network in Ophiocoma appears even more widespread than previously anticipated, both taxonomically and anatomically. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. A Member of the Roseobacter Clade, Octadecabacter sp., is the Dominant Symbiont in the Brittle Star Amphipholis squamata. (United States)

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Tedford, Abbey Rose; Pankey, M Sabrina; Lesser, Michael P


    Symbiotic associations with subcuticular bacteria (SCB) have been identified and studied in many echinoderms, including the SCB of the brooding brittle star, Amphipholis squamata. Previous studies on the SCB of A. squamata placed the isolated bacterium, designated as AS1, in the genus Vibrio (Gammaproteobacteria), but subsequent studies suggested that the SCB of echinoderms belong to the Alphaproteobacteria. This study examines the taxonomic composition of SCB associated with A. squamata from the Northwest Atlantic using the 16S rRNA gene and next generation sequencing (NGS). Results show the presence of a single dominant bacterial type, within the Roseobacter clade, family Rhodobacteraceae, which composes 70-80% of the A. squamata microbiome. These Rhodobacteraceae sequences were identified as members of the genus Octadecabacter. Additionally, the original isolate, AS1, from the brittle star A. squamata also belongs in the genus Octadecabacter based on Sanger sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By comparison, adjacent seawater and sediment porewater communities were significantly more diverse, hosting bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. Thus, a distinct SCB community is present in A. squamata that is dominated by a member of the genus Octadecabacter, and is identical to the original isolate, AS1, from this brittle star.

  20. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis. (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F


    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  1. Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star, Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida

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    Massanori Okanishi


    Full Text Available The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5–15.4 µm was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid’s body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

  2. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

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    Aida Soheili


    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  3. The skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiothrix spiculata identifies C-type lectins and other proteins conserved in echinoderm skeleton formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Livingston


    Full Text Available Determining the identity and functional role of proteins involved in biomineralization and the formation of skeletons is critical to our understanding of the process. Proteomics has allowed rapid characterization of the proteins occluded within mineralized tissue, but the large numbers of proteins detected makes it difficult to assign the relative importance of each protein. We have taken a comparative approach, examining the skeletal proteome of different species of echinoderms in order to identify the proteins that are conserved and likely to be important. Our previous study comparing the skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii to the published proteomes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed some conservation of proteins, but indicated that the C-type lectin domain-containing spicule matrix proteins abundant in the sea urchin skeletal proteome were not conserved in the brittle star. Here we examine the skeletal proteome of a different species of brittle star, Ophiothrix spiculata. We have isolated the proteins from the skeleton of O. spiculata and performed LC/MS/MS to identify peptides present. Comparison to transcriptome and genome databases revealed the proteins present in the O. spiculata proteome. Despite being diverged for several million years, the two brittle stars have very similar proteins in their skeletons. Included is a fibrinogen C-like lectin and several C-type lectins proteins, which we describe in detail. The unusual number of C-type lectins found in the S. purpuatus skeleton and the repetitive regions seen in those spicule matrix proteins are not present in O. spiculata.

  4. Shallow-water brittle-star (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) assemblages from the Aptian (Early Cretaceous) of the North Atlantic:first insights into bathymetric distribution patterns


    Thuy, Ben; Gale, Andrew S.; Stöhr, Sabine; Wiese, Frank


    In spite of their excellent preservation potential and abundance, brittle-star microfossils are still an underexploited source of alpha-taxonomical data. Knowledge on the Lower Cretaceous fossil record of the ophiuroids is particularly patchy, hampering the use of the ophiuroids as a model organism to explore macroevolutionary, taphonomic and other further-reaching aspects. Here, we describe three ophiuroid assemblages mostly based on dissociated lateral arm plates from the early Aptian of Cu...

  5. Characterisation of artisanal mine waste on Buru Island, Indonesia and toxicity to the brittle star Amphipholis squamata. (United States)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thomas, Bernard; Howe, Pelli L; Male, Yusthinus; Clark, Malcolm W


    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation commenced on Buru Island, Indonesia, in 2012, but was halted in 2015 due to concerns of widespread Hg contamination. Much of the Hg used in the mining process is lost to trommel waste which is disposed of in settlement ponds that drain into adjacent waterways and into Kayeli Bay. Several thousand unmanaged trommel sites and associated tailing ponds exist on Buru Island. This study shows that waste from the Marloso trommel at the Gogrea site contained 203 mg/kg total Hg (THg), with a negligible proportion present as bioavailable methyl Hg (MeHg) and a low total organic carbon content. There are currently very few tools available for ecotoxicological risk assessment of mine tailings for tropical marine ecosystems, and we support the development of Tailings Toxicity Tests (TTTs) and describe laboratory toxicity test methods using the cosmopolitan benthic echinoderm Amphipholis squamata. Undiluted trommel waste caused 100% mortality of A. squamata within 48 h, and a 96-h LC50 of 6.7% w/w trommel waste (4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. Sub-lethal effects on the water vascular system of the brittle star were assessed by quantification of the Ability to Right Itself (ARI), and a 48-h EC50 of 7.3% w/w trommel waste (14.4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. The results show that trommel waste produced on Buru Island is highly contaminated with THg and is acutely toxic, raising serious concern for receiving ecosystems where Hg methylation to more toxic and bioavailable forms is likely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth, reproduction and possible recruitment variability in the abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatum (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the NE Atlantic (United States)

    Gage, John D.; Anderson, Roslyn M.; Tyler, Paul A.; Chapman, Rachel; Dolan, Emily


    Growth was studied from skeletal growth markers in the cosmopolitan abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatm. Samples for analysis were taken at five sites located in the southern (2900 m) and central (2000 m) Rockall Trough, at ca. 3000 and 4000 m in the Porcupine Seabight, and at 4850 m on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Growth bands were assumed to reflect an annual cycle in skeletal growth. Band measurements on arm vertebrae, standardised to disc diameter, were used to provide size-at-age data and size-increment data that took into account overgrowth of early bands in older individuals. The Richards growth function marginally provides best fit to pooled size-at-age data, although the asymptote-less Tanaka function and the Gompertz growth function also provided good fit to size-at-age data which showed a rather linear growth pattern with little indication of a growth asymptote. Log e transformed size-increment data were linearised by applying the Ford-Walford method to approximate Gompertz growth so that growth could be compared at the five sites. Grouped linear regression and analysis of covariance showed no significant differences between growth at the sites and a common fitted regression. However, pairwise comparisons suggest growth differences with increasing bathymetric separation. Oocyte size frequencies measured from histological preparations of the gonad of specimens from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicate marked reproductive periodicity, with spawn-out in late winter that is likely followed by planktotrophic early development in spring with benthic settlement in summer. Although usually rare in the trawl and epibenthic sled samples, several years of successful recruitment followed by a period when recruitment was low or absent might explain size structure observed in a single unusually large sample from the Rockall Trough. This is consistent with previous observations during the late 1990s of a large population increase on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

  7. Pre-zygotic factors best explain reproductive isolation between the hybridizing species of brittle-stars Acrocnida brachiata and A. spatulispina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). (United States)

    Muths, D; Davoult, D; Jolly, M T; Gentil, F; Jollivet, D


    The two brittle-stars Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu 1804) and A. spatulispina (Stöhr and Muths in J Mar Biol Assoc, 2009) exhibit strong spatial segregation along the coast of Brittany (France), the first being subtidally distributed relative to the other intertidal species. Despite a very high degree of mitochondrial DNA divergence, previous preliminary results hinted at the potential for hybridization to occur. Therefore, we specifically aim to determine local levels of hybridization between these two species and to investigate the relative roles of pre- and post- zygotic isolation processes acting to decrease local hybridization patterns. Mitochondrial DNA, allozymes and the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 region of the ribosomal DNA were all used on 529 brittle-stars sampled locally in June and September 2005, among six stations in Douarnenez Bay, a site situated at the tip of Brittany. Only 2.6% of all samples analyzed were identified as potential hybrids. However, these were twice more frequent in June, just after the reproductive period, than in September after selective mortality acted to reduce the proportions of hybrids. In addition to the abrupt bathymetric segregation between the two species, spawning asynchrony also clearly restricts hybridization to low levels, which shows the importance of pre-zygotic mechanisms in maintaining reproductive isolation. Moreover, both limited hybridization events and adult mortalities following reproduction tend to generate local genetic differentiation at the intra-species level. On the contrary, the genetic structure is homogenized by migration of juveniles or adults and hybrids mortalities over the summer period.

  8. An uncommon or just an ecologically demanding species? Finding of aggregations of the brittle-star Ophiothrix maculata on the Northwest African slope (United States)

    Calero, Belén; Ramos, Ana; Ramil, Fran


    Ophiuroidea constitutes the largest class of the phylum Echinodermata. It includes families with suspension-feeder behaviour that can be found in dense aggregations in all oceans worldwide. Ophiothrix maculata was known as a rare suspension-feeder brittle star, with only four records in the Eastern Central Atlantic dating from almost 100 years ago. During the ten multidisciplinary Spanish and Norwegian surveys carried out from 2004 to 2012 off Northwest Africa, between the Gibraltar Strait and the Sierra Leone border from 19 to 1888 m depth, we sampled 1298 stations. We gathered about one million individuals and 124 kg of brittle stars at 501 of the stations. Eight hundred and thirty-two specimens of Ophiothrix maculata were collected at six localities on the continental slope off Mauritania, Western Sahara and Guinea Bissau, at depths between 155 and 594 m. The Guinea Bissau samples represent the southernmost current record for the species. Even though Ophiothrix maculata has been previously recorded only in isolation, we discovered dense concentrations on the Mauritanian slope on the Wolof's Seamount (580 individuals) and off the Western Sahara, in a Lophelia pertusa reef (202 individuals). In this paper, we describe these findings and discuss the association of this species to hard-bottom habitats and high primary production areas, outside of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We also analyse what other factors may explain the patchy distribution of O. maculata on the Northwest African slope.

  9. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.


    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  10. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gondim


    Full Text Available We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, O. paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution.

  11. New evidence of brooding in the deep-sea brittle star Astrotoma agassizii Lyman, 1876 from a South Western Atlantic Canyon (United States)

    Berecoechea, Juan José; Brogger, Martín I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.


    The reproduction of the brittle star Astrotoma agassizii was studied from deep waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, based on samples collected in August 2012, and May and September 2013. Ten samples from 800 to 1400 m depths off Mar del Plata Canyon were studied. The species was found to be a brooding simultaneous hermaphrodite. Hermaphroditic gonads contained testis and ovaries inside the same sacs. Both, ovary and testis contained different stages of gametogenesis development simultaneously. Gonads contained several stages of oocytes in different stages of gametogenesis. The largest oocyte recorded was 800 μm diameter. Free spermatozoa were observed in the lumen of the testis, together with spermatogenic columns. Five individuals, from a total of 30 examined, resulted brooding, and most contained mature ovotestis at the same time. Incubation occurs in five of the ten bursal sacs, containing 15-20 young juveniles each. Maximum disc diameter recorded for a brood was 1100 μm. Herein we hypothesize that Astrotoma agassizii could be continuous breeder species in the deep-sea.

  12. Temporary expansion to shelf depths rather than an onshore-offshore trend: the shallow-water rise and demise of the modern deep-sea brittle star family Ophiacanthidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)


    Thuy, Ben


    Hypotheses on the age and possible antiquity of the modern deep-sea fauna put forward to date almost all agree on the assumption that the deep-sea fauna is largely the result of colonisation from shallow-water environments. Here, the fossil record of the Ophiacanthidae, a modern deep-sea brittle star family with extensive fossil occurrences at shelf depths, is systematically traced against a calibrated phylogeny. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Ophiacanthidae originated and greatly...

  13. The effect of copper and temperature on juveniles of the eurybathic brittle star Amphipholis squamata--exploring responses related to motility and the water vascular system. (United States)

    Black, James Geoffrey; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm W


    The limited availability of test organisms that represent tropical and deeper water environments is a significant concern when assessing the risk of contaminants in these environments. Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje 1828) is a widely distributed brittle star with many phylogenetic clades reported from different latitudes, and it also occurs from the intertidal zone to a depth of ∼1300 m. In the present study, the effect of copper on four behavioural responses and mortality of A. squamata were quantified at four different temperatures including 25, 20, 15 and 10°C. At 25°C the four behavioural responses and mortality were relatively sensitive to copper, with 96 h EC50 values of 25 (confidence interval 18-44), 24 (7-26), 32 (24-41), 29 (9-41) μg L(-1) for the measured ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down, curling behaviour, tube foot movement, and tube foot retraction respectively. The average 96-h LC50 value for copper at 25°C was 46 μg L(-1). Some endpoints investigated showed significant effects of reduced temperature compared to the optimal temperature. These effects were enhanced with increasing copper concentrations and significant differences in copper toxicity between temperature treatments were most notable when measuring the ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down where the EC50 changed from 25 (18 to 44) to 6 (-18 to 14) μg L(-1) with a reduction of temperature from 25 to 15°C. The results showed that A. squamata is relatively sensitive to copper and that further investigation into the effects of other stressors on these endpoints is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When Ontogeny Matters: A New Japanese Species of Brittle Star Illustrates the Importance of Considering both Adult and Juvenile Characters in Taxonomic Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martynov

    Full Text Available Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0-250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250-600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500-2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental

  15. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis. (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe


    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Temporary expansion to shelf depths rather than an onshore-offshore trend: the shallow-water rise and demise of the modern deep-sea brittle star family Ophiacanthidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy


    Full Text Available Hypotheses on the age and possible antiquity of the modern deep-sea fauna put forward to date almost all agree on the assumption that the deep-sea fauna is largely the result of colonisation from shallow-water environments. Here, the fossil record of the Ophiacanthidae, a modern deep-sea brittle star family with extensive fossil occurrences at shelf depths, is systematically traced against a calibrated phylogeny. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Ophiacanthidae originated and greatly diversified in the deep sea, with most extant clades having diverged by the end of the Triassic at the latest. During the Jurassic, the family temporarily invaded shelf environments, attaining relative abundances and diversities comparable to those found in coeval and modern deep-sea settings, and gradually declined in abundance subsequently, to become largely restricted to the deep-sea again. The pattern of temporary expansion to shelf environments suggested here underpins the potential of deep-sea environments to contribute significantly to shallow-water biodiversity; an aspect that has mostly been neglected so far. It is speculated that the large-scale ophiacanthid invasion of shelf environments around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was initiated by a change from thermohaline to halothermal circulation, attenuating the thermal stratification of the water column and thus providing opportunities for enhanced vertical migration of marine taxa.

  17. Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace


    This title will cover how stars form, different types of stars, their lifecycle, and the most important star to us--the Sun! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  18. [Cosmetology and brittle nails]. (United States)

    Abimelec, P


    The knowledge of manicure techniques and nail cosmetics compositions are a prerequisite to the understanding of their potential side effects. The brittle nail syndrome is a common problem that roughly affect 20% of women. We will review the etiologic hypothesis, describe the various presentations, and suggest a treatment for this perplexing problem.

  19. Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kukla, Lauren


    Climb Aboard! Explore planets and how they are formed! Meet key astronomers! Examine the history of mapping the stars! Investigate red giants, black and white dwarfs, neutron stars, supernovas, and black holes! See an infographic showing our solar system's statistics! Did You Know? facts and a Guidebook of the brightest stars complete your journey. Aligned to Common Core standards and correlated to state standards. Checkerboard Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  20. Fracture of brittle solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawn, Brian


    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  1. Brittle fracture properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, H.D.


    In this manual, the following topics are discussed: introduction to the fracture mechanics; theories of brittle fractures; solutions of the boundary value problems of cracks; conservation laws in elastostatics; methods to derive stress-intensity factors; three-dimensional problems; dynamic problems; thermo-elasticity; theories of cracked plates; rock mechanics; crack parameters in elastodynamics; formulae for stress-intensity factors and a programme using the finite element method [fr

  2. Global diversity of brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). (United States)

    Stöhr, Sabine; O'Hara, Timothy D; Thuy, Ben


    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the current status regarding the global diversity of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea, focussing on taxonomy and distribution patterns, with brief introduction to their anatomy, biology, phylogeny, and palaeontological history. A glossary of terms is provided. Species names and taxonomic decisions have been extracted from the literature and compiled in The World Ophiuroidea Database, part of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). Ophiuroidea, with 2064 known species, are the largest class of Echinodermata. A table presents 16 families with numbers of genera and species. The largest are Amphiuridae (467), Ophiuridae (344 species) and Ophiacanthidae (319 species). A biogeographic analysis for all world oceans and all accepted species was performed, based on published distribution records. Approximately similar numbers of species were recorded from the shelf (n = 1313) and bathyal depth strata (1297). The Indo-Pacific region had the highest species richness overall (825 species) and at all depths. Adjacent regions were also relatively species rich, including the North Pacific (398), South Pacific (355) and Indian (316) due to the presence of many Indo-Pacific species that partially extended into these regions. A secondary region of enhanced species richness was found in the West Atlantic (335). Regions of relatively low species richness include the Arctic (73 species), East Atlantic (118), South America (124) and Antarctic (126).

  3. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality. (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new tablet brittleness index. (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin


    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brittle behavior of SSC yokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, M.L.; Turner, J.R.


    In liquid helium at 4 K ultra--low carbon steel is known to be brittle. Fracture toughness and ultimate strength measured by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are used here to examine the brittle behavior of the SSC yokes. The fracture toughness K Ic of the material is used to estimate the maximum allowable length of pre--existing cracks. Tensile properties of the steel at 4 K are compared with maximum tensile stresses obtained from the ANSYS finite element analysis of the DSX201 cross--section. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Soft matter: Brittle for breakfast (United States)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas


    Crushing a brittle porous medium such as a box of cereal causes the grains to break up and rearrange themselves. A lattice spring model based on simple physical assumptions gives rise to behaviours that are complex enough to reproduce diverse compaction patterns.

  7. Possible mechanisms for a marine benthic regime shift in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Amaro, T.P.F.; Scheffer, M.; Duineveld, G.


    A sharp regime shift from a brittle star Amphiura filiformis dominated state to a burrowing mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea dominated situation was observed in a region of the North Sea known as the Frisian Front in the mid-1990s. No indications exist that food levels or other relevant conditions

  8. The benthic shift of the Frisian Front (Southern North Sea) ecosystem : possible mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.P.F.


    In the southern areas of the Frisian Front (southernNorth Sea), a drastic shift in the abundance of most of themacrobenthicfauna during 1992-1997 has also been revealed. Especially a shift in abundances from the brittle star Amphiura

  9. The influence of hypercapnia and the infaunal brittlestar Amphiura filiformis on sediment nutrient flux – will ocean acidification affect nutrient exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Widdicombe


    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the concomitant increased uptake of this by the oceans is resulting in hypercapnia-related reduction of ocean pH. Research focussed on the direct effects of these physicochemical changes on marine invertebrates has begun to improve our understanding of impacts at the level of individual physiologies. However, CO2-related impairment of organisms' contribution to ecological or ecosystem processes has barely been addressed. The burrowing ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis, which has a physiology that makes it susceptible to reduced pH, plays a key role in sediment nutrient cycling by mixing and irrigating the sediment, a process known as bioturbation. Here we investigate the role of A. filiformis in modifying nutrient flux rates across the sediment-water boundary and the impact of CO2- related acidification on this process. A 40 day exposure study was conducted under predicted pH scenarios from the years 2100 (pH 7.7 and 2300 (pH 7.3, plus an additional treatment of pH 6.8. This study demonstrated strong relationships between A. filiformis density and cycling of some nutrients; activity increases the sediment uptake of phosphate and the release of nitrite and nitrate. No relationship between A. filiformis density and the flux of ammonium or silicate were observed. Results also indicated that, within the timescale of this experiment, effects at the individual bioturbator level appear not to translate into reduced ecosystem influence. However, long term survival of key bioturbating species is far from assured and changes in both bioturbation and microbial processes could alter key biogeochemical processes in future, more acidic oceans.

  10. Behavior of Brittle Materials Under Dynamic Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanel, G


    Dynamic loading of brittle materials is related to many applications, including explosive excavation of rocks, design of ceramic armor, meteor impact on spacecraft windows, particle damage to turbine blades, etc...

  11. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.


    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  12. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje


    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  13. Sequentially linear analysis for simulating brittle failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, A.V.


    The numerical simulation of brittle failure at structural level with nonlinear finite
    element analysis (NLFEA) remains a challenge due to robustness issues. We attribute these problems to the dimensions of real-world structures combined with softening behavior and negative tangent stiffness at

  14. Assessment of Mudrock Brittleness with Micro-scratch Testing (United States)

    Hernandez-Uribe, Luis Alberto; Aman, Michael; Espinoza, D. Nicolas


    Mechanical properties are essential for understanding natural and induced deformational behavior of geological formations. Brittleness characterizes energy dissipation rate and strain localization at failure. Brittleness has been investigated in hydrocarbon-bearing mudrocks in order to quantify the impact of hydraulic fracturing on the creation of complex fracture networks and surface area for reservoir drainage. Typical well logging correlations associate brittleness with carbonate content or dynamic elastic properties. However, an index of rock brittleness should involve actual rock failure and have a consistent method to quantify it. Here, we present a systematic method to quantify mudrock brittleness based on micro-mechanical measurements from the scratch test. Brittleness is formulated as the ratio of energy associated with brittle failure to the total energy required to perform a scratch. Soda lime glass and polycarbonate are used for comparison to identify failure in brittle and ductile mode and validate the developed method. Scratch testing results on mudrocks indicate that it is possible to use the recorded transverse force to estimate brittleness. Results show that tested samples rank as follows in increasing degree of brittleness: Woodford, Eagle Ford, Marcellus, Mancos, and Vaca Muerta. Eagle Ford samples show mixed ductile/brittle failure characteristics. There appears to be no definite correlation between micro-scratch brittleness and quartz or total carbonate content. Dolomite content shows a stronger correlation with brittleness than any other major mineral group. The scratch brittleness index correlates positively with increasing Young's modulus and decreasing Poisson's ratio, but shows deviations in rocks with distinct porosity and with stress-sensitive brittle/ductile behavior (Eagle Ford). The results of our study demonstrate that the micro-scratch test method can be used to investigate mudrock brittleness. The method is particularly useful for

  15. Fabrication of brittle materials -- current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scattergood, R.O.


    The research initiatives in the area of precision fabrication will be continued in the upcoming year. Three students, T. Bifano (PhD), P. Blake (PhD) and E. Smith (MS), finished their research programs in the last year. Sections 13 and 14 will summarize the essential results from the work of the Materials Engineering students Blake and Smith. Further details will be presented in forthcoming publications that are now in preparation. The results from Bifano`s thesis have been published in adequate detail and need not be summarized further. Three new students, S. Blackley (MS), H. Paul (PhD), and S. Smith (PhD) have joined the program and will continue the research efforts in precision fabrication. The programs for these students will be outlined in Sections 15 and 16. Because of the success of the earlier work in establishing new process models and experimental techniques for the study of diamond turning and diamond grinding, the new programs will, in part, build upon the earlier work. This is especially true for investigations concerned with brittle materials. The basic understanding of material response of nominally brittle materials during machining or grinding operations remains as a challenge. The precision fabrication of brittle materials will continue as an area of emphasis for the Precision Engineering Center.

  16. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerberg, G.


    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed

  17. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G.


    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  18. Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent strain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Danuso, M.


    To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as strain values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb 3 Sn cables to strain has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent strain to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial strain state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent strain model.

  19. Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent strain model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; /Fermilab; Danuso, M.


    To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as strain values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn cables to strain has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent strain to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial strain state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent strain model.

  20. A probabilistic model of brittle crack formation (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Kunin, B.


    Probability of a brittle crack formation in an elastic solid with fluctuating strength is considered. A set Omega of all possible crack trajectories reflecting the fluctuation of the strength field is introduced. The probability P(X) that crack penetration depth exceeds X is expressed as a functional integral over Omega of a conditional probability of the same event taking place along a particular path. Various techniques are considered to evaluate the integral. Under rather nonrestrictive assumptions, the integral is reduced to solving a diffusion-type equation. A new characteristic of fracture process, 'crack diffusion coefficient', is introduced. An illustrative example is then considered where the integration is reduced to solving an ordinary differential equation. The effect of the crack diffusion coefficient and of the magnitude of strength fluctuations on probability density of crack penetration depth is presented. Practical implications of the proposed model are discussed.

  1. National conference on brittle fracture of materials and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings contain full texts of 28 contributions, out of which 10 fall within the INIS subject scope. These deal particularly with the effect of neutron radiation on the brittle fracture properties of structural steels used in nuclear facilities and with theoretical problems of brittle fracture of such steels in cyclic stress conditions. (Z.M.)

  2. Theory of friction based on brittle fracture (United States)

    Byerlee, J.D.


    A theory of friction is presented that may be more applicable to geologic materials than the classic Bowden and Tabor theory. In the model, surfaces touch at the peaks of asperities and sliding occurs when the asperities fail by brittle fracture. The coefficient of friction, ??, was calculated from the strength of asperities of certain ideal shapes; for cone-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.1 and for wedge-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.15. For actual situations which seem close to the ideal model, observed ?? was found to be very close to 0.1, even for materials such as quartz and calcite with widely differing strengths. If surface forces are present, the theory predicts that ?? should decrease with load and that it should be higher in a vacuum than in air. In the presence of a fluid film between sliding surfaces, ?? should depend on the area of the surfaces in contact. Both effects are observed. The character of wear particles produced during sliding and the way in which ?? depends on normal load, roughness, and environment lend further support to the model of friction presented here. ?? 1967 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. Scattering mechanical performances for brittle bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Qiao


    Full Text Available Scattering mechanical performances of brittle La- and Mg-based BMGs are found in the present study. Upon dynamic loading, there exist largely scattered fracture strengths even if the strain rates are under the same order, and the BMG systems are the same. The negative strain rate dependence for La- and Mg-based BMGs is obtained, i.e., a decreased fracture strength is dominating from quasi-static to dynamic compression. At cryogenic temperatures, distinguishingly low fracture strengths are available for these two brittle BMGs, and decreased tolerance to accommodate strains makes BMGs more and more brittle. It is concluded that the scattering mechanical performances of brittle BMGs should be carefully evaluated before actual applications.

  4. Brittle and semibrittle creep in a low porosity carbonate rock (United States)

    Nicolas, Aurélien; Fortin, Jérôme; Regnet, Jean-Baptiste; Dimanov, Alexandre; Guéguen, Yves


    The mechanical behavior of limestones at room temperature is brittle at low confining pressure and becomes semi-brittle with the increase of the confining pressure. The brittle behavior is characterized by a macroscopic dilatancy due to crack propagation, leading to a stress drop when cracks coalesce at failure. The semi-brittle behavior is characterized by diffuse deformation due to intra-crystalline plasticity (dislocation movements and twinning) and microcracking. The aim of this work is to examine the influence of pore fluid and time on the mechanical behavior. Constant strain rate triaxial deformation experiments and stress-stepping creep experiments were performed on white Tavel limestone (porosity 14.7%). Elastic wave velocity evolutions were recorded during each experiment and inverted to crack densities. Constant strain rate triaxial experiments were performed for confining pressure in the range of 5-90 MPa. For Pc≤55 MPa our results show that the behavior is brittle. In this regime, water-saturation decreases the differential stress at the onset of crack propagation and enhances macroscopic dilatancy. For Pc≥70 MPa, the behavior is semi-brittle. Inelastic compaction is due to intra-crystalline plasticity and micro-cracking. However, in this regime, our results show that water-saturation has no clear effect at the onset of inelastic compaction. Stress stepping creep experiments were performed in a range of confining pressures crossing the brittle-ductile transition. In the brittle regime, the time-dependent axial deformation is coupled with dilatancy and a decrease of elastic wave velocities, which is characteristic of crack propagation and/or nucleation. In the semi-brittle regime, the first steps are inelastic compactant because of plastic pore collapse. But, following stress steps are dilatant because of crack nucleation and/or propagation. However, our results show that the axial strain rate is always controlled by plastic phenomena, until the last

  5. Brittle and ductile friction and the physics of tectonic tremor (United States)

    Daub, Eric G.; Shelly, David R.; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, P.A.


    Observations of nonvolcanic tremor provide a unique window into the mechanisms of deformation and failure in the lower crust. At increasing depths, rock deformation gradually transitions from brittle, where earthquakes occur, to ductile, with tremor occurring in the transitional region. The physics of deformation in the transition region remain poorly constrained, limiting our basic understanding of tremor and its relation to earthquakes. We combine field and laboratory observations with a physical friction model comprised of brittle and ductile components, and use the model to provide constraints on the friction and stress state in the lower crust. A phase diagram is constructed that characterizes under what conditions all faulting behaviors occur, including earthquakes, tremor, silent transient slip, and steady sliding. Our results show that tremor occurs over a range of ductile and brittle frictional strengths, and advances our understanding of the physical conditions at which tremor and earthquakes take place.

  6. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V. [Central Scientific-Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  7. Identification of a Suitable 3D Printing Material for Mimicking Brittle and Hard Rocks and Its Brittleness Enhancements (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Zhu, J. B.


    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a computer-controlled additive manufacturing technique which is able to repeatedly and accurately fabricate objects with complicated geometry and internal structures. After 30 years of fast development, 3DP has become a mainstream manufacturing process in various fields. This study focuses on identifying the most suitable 3DP material from five targeted available 3DP materials, i.e. ceramics, gypsum, PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)), SR20 (acrylic copolymer) and resin (Accura® 60), to simulate brittle and hard rocks. Firstly, uniaxial compression tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties and failure patterns of the 3DP samples fabricated by those five materials. Experimental results indicate that among current 3DP techniques, the resin produced via stereolithography (SLA) is the most suitable 3DP material for mimicking brittle and hard rocks, although its brittleness needs to be improved. Subsequently, three methods including freezing, incorporation of internal macro-crack and addition of micro-defects were adopted to enhance the brittleness of the 3DP resin, followed by uniaxial compression tests on the treated samples. Experimental results reveal that 3DP resin samples with the suggested treatments exhibited brittle properties and behaved similarly to natural rocks. Finally, some prospective improvements which can be used to facilitate the application of 3DP techniques to rock mechanics were also discussed. The findings of this paper could contribute to promoting the application of 3DP technique in rock mechanics.

  8. Cuttability Assessment of Selected Rocks Through Different Brittleness Values (United States)

    Dursun, Arif Emre; Gokay, M. Kemal


    Prediction of cuttability is a critical issue for successful execution of tunnel or mining excavation projects. Rock cuttability is also used to determine specific energy, which is defined as the work done by the cutting force to excavate a unit volume of yield. Specific energy is a meaningful inverse measure of cutting efficiency, since it simply states how much energy must be expended to excavate a unit volume of rock. Brittleness is a fundamental rock property and applied in drilling and rock excavation. Brittleness is one of the most crucial rock features for rock excavation. For this reason, determination of relations between cuttability and brittleness will help rock engineers. This study aims to estimate the specific energy from different brittleness values of rocks by means of simple and multiple regression analyses. In this study, rock cutting, rock property, and brittleness index tests were carried out on 24 different rock samples with different strength values, including marble, travertine, and tuff, collected from sites around Konya Province, Turkey. Four previously used brittleness concepts were evaluated in this study, denoted as B 1 (ratio of compressive to tensile strength), B 2 (ratio of the difference between compressive and tensile strength to the sum of compressive and tensile strength), B 3 (area under the stress-strain line in relation to compressive and tensile strength), and B 9 = S 20, the percentage of fines (Brazilian tensile, and point load strengths of rocks using multiple regression analysis). The results suggest that the proposed simple regression-based prediction models including B 3, B 9, and B 9p outperform the other models including B 1 and B 2 and can be used for more accurate and reliable estimation of specific energy.

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  10. Fracture mechanics applied to the machining of brittle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, G.D.; Strenkowski, J.S.


    Research has begun on incorporating fracture mechanics into a model of the orthogonal cutting of brittle materials. Residual stresses are calculated for the machined material by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian finite element models and then used in the calculation of stress intensity factors by the Green`s Function Method.

  11. Hypervelocity impact and dynamic fragmentation of brittle materials (United States)

    Agrawal, Vinamra; Ortega, Alejandro; Meiron, Daniel


    The process of hypervelocity impact and dynamic fragmentation finds application in planetary formation, satellite design for micrometeorite impact damage mitigation, armor design and crater formations. In this work, we study high velocity impact induced dynamic fragmentation processes of brittle materials. We implement ideas of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) to perform fragmentation simulations on brittle materials in various geometries. The damage formulation was implemented on an existing computational framework capable of adaptive mesh refinement that operates on an Eulerian grid, thereby avoiding problems associated with grid entanglement in large deformation processes. A damage sensitive equation of state is developed for hyperelastic materials that depends on a damage variable D, the volume fraction of micro-cracks in the brittle material. The evolution of D is governed by a modified, thermodynamically consistent Grady-Kipp model that evolves damage at points of tensile eigenvalue stresses. We simulate sphere-on-sphere and sphere-on-plate impact events with ductile and brittle materials and study the resulting damage propagation. We validate our calculations with existing literature and comment on energy dissipation and optimal design. Caltech - JPL President's and Director's Fund.

  12. Finite element modelling of fibre-reinforced brittle materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kullaa, J.


    The tensile constitutive behaviour of fibre-reinforced brittle materials can be extended to two or three dimensions by using the finite element method with crack models. The three approaches in this study include the smeared and discrete crack concepts and a multi-surface plasticity model. The

  13. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in patients with 'brittle' diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVries, J H; Eskes, S A; Snoek, Frank J


    AIMS: To evaluate the effects of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) using implantable pumps on glycaemic control and duration of hospital stay in poorly controlled 'brittle' Dutch diabetes patients, and to assess their current quality of life. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were...

  14. Electromagnetic and neutron emissions from brittle rocks failure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which the coherent EM fields are able to produce neutron bursts in presence of sudden stress- drops or ... In particular, the. EM probe was used to detect the EM background noise for about 5 h before the beginning of .... or quasi-brittle materials, as rocks or concrete, generate EME only during sharp drops in stress.

  15. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report describes the making of a self-assembled coordination architecture that is named as a 'molecular star' since it resembles the shape of a star; more specifically a five-pointed star. This work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September 2017 issue and was featured in the cover.

  16. Microstructural Modeling of Brittle Materials for Enhanced Performance and Reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, Melissa Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teague, Melissa Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Theron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Theron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grutzik, Scott Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grutzik, Scott Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Brittle failure is often influenced by difficult to measure and variable microstructure-scale stresses. Recent advances in photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), including improved confocal laser measurement and rapid spectroscopic data collection have established the potential to map stresses with microscale spatial resolution (%3C2 microns). Advanced PLS was successfully used to investigate both residual and externally applied stresses in polycrystalline alumina at the microstructure scale. The measured average stresses matched those estimated from beam theory to within one standard deviation, validating the technique. Modeling the residual stresses within the microstructure produced general agreement in comparison with the experimentally measured results. Microstructure scale modeling is primed to take advantage of advanced PLS to enable its refinement and validation, eventually enabling microstructure modeling to become a predictive tool for brittle materials.

  17. Ductile-brittle transition in transverse isotropic fibrous networks (United States)

    Luo, Guoquan; Shi, Liping; Li, Mingwei; Zhong, Yesheng; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Jiazhi


    Anisotropic fibrous networks, especially transverse isotropic fibrous networks, are widely used to model the microstructures of biological tissues, polymer gels, fibrous thermal insulations, and other fibrous materials. In this letter, we build a three-dimensional transverse isotropic fibrous network model and study its mechanical properties along the through-thickness direction. We propose a measurement of anisotropy for transverse isotropic fibrous networks and then study the influence of anisotropy on the networks' mechanical properties, including its elastic modulus, maximum elongation, and stress-strain curve, by means of finite-element simulation. We also study theoretically the influence of anisotropy on maximum elongation. We find that as the anisotropy of the networks becomes stronger, the elastic modulus decreases and the maximum elongation increases, indicating a transition in mechanical properties from brittle to ductile. We identify this transition as the "ductile-brittle transition." This transition can help guide the design and regulate the mechanical properties of a transverse isotropic fibrous network.

  18. Reliability-based failure analysis of brittle materials (United States)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Ghosn, Louis J.


    The reliability of brittle materials under a generalized state of stress is analyzed using the Batdorf model. The model is modified to include the reduction in shear due to the effect of the compressive stress on the microscopic crack faces. The combined effect of both surface and volume flaws is included. Due to the nature of fracture of brittle materials under compressive loading, the component is modeled as a series system in order to establish bounds on the probability of failure. A computer program was written to determine the probability of failure employing data from a finite element analysis. The analysis showed that for tensile loading a single crack will be the cause of total failure but under compressive loading a series of microscopic cracks must join together to form a dominant crack.

  19. Brittle wear of silicate materials by Hertzian rubbing contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, N; Tordjeman, Ph; Augereau, F; Attal, J


    We studied the tribological properties of a structural series of 11 silicate materials to identify the main physical parameters that control the brittle wear of these materials. First, for each material we characterized Young's modulus E by ultrasonic microscopy, roughness σ by atomic force microscopy and crack pressure P c by Hertzian indentation testing. Second, we measured the static and dynamic friction coefficients μ S and μ D , respectively, with a ball probe tribometer for each material and for three hardnesses of the ball probe. The experiments showed that crack density, which quantified the brittle wear of the materials, was controlled by an adimensional number, C r = P c /μ S E. We show in this paper how this number takes into account the combined effects of the mechanical properties, the lubricating coating layer and the residual internal stresses of these materials

  20. Fundamental aspects of brittle damage processes -- discrete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcinovic, D.; Lubarda, V.


    The analysis of cooperative brittle processes are performed on simple discrete models admitting closed form solutions. A connection between the damage and fracture mechanics is derived and utilized to illustrate the relation between two theories. The performed analyses suggest that the stress concentrations (direct interaction between defects) represent a second order effect during the hardening part of the response in the case of disordered solids

  1. Star Wreck

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Tinyakov, Peter G; Tkachev, Igor I; Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Tkachev, Igor I.


    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the origin of the gamma-ray bursts.

  2. Guidelines for safe design of shipping packages against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 1992, the ninth meeting of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials recommended the publication of this TECDOC in an effort to promote the widest debate on the criteria for the brittle fracture safe design of transport packages. The published IAEA advice on the influence of brittle fracture on material integrity is contained in Appendix IX of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safety Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition, as amended 1990), Safety Series No. 37. This guidance is limited in scope, dealing only with ferritic steels in general terms. It is becoming more common for designers to specify materials other than austenitic stainless steel for packaging components. The data on ferritic steels cannot be assumed to apply to other metals, hence the need for further guidance on the development of relationships describing material properties at low temperatures. The methods described in this TECDOC will be considered by the Revision Panel for inclusion in the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and the supporting documents. If accepted by the Revision Panel, this advice will be a candidate for upgrading to a Safety Practice. In the interim period, this TECDOC offers provisional advice on brittle fracture evaluation. It is acknowledged that, at this stage, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of Member States or organizations under whose auspices this manuscript was produced. Refs and figs

  3. Brittle fracture tests at low temperature for transport cask materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ito, Chihiro; Arai, Taku; Saegusa, Toshiari


    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material were revised in 1985, and brittle fracture assessment at low temperature for transport packages are now required. This report discusses the applicability of the actual method for brittle fracture assessment of type-B transport cask materials used in JAPAN. The necessity of brittle fracture assessment at low temperature was estimated for each material of type-B transport casks used in Japan and the applicability was investigated. Dynamic fracture toughness values, K Id (J Id ), and RT NDT values of Low-Mn Carbon Steels, that are SA 350 Gr.LF1 Modify and SA 516 Gr.70 material which used in type-B transport cask body, were also obtained to check whether or not an easier and conventional test method, that prescribed in ASME CODE SECTION III, can be substituted for the dynamic fracture test method. And for bolt materials, which include 1.8Ni-0.8Cr-0.3Mo Carbon Steel and type 630 H Stainless Steel, toughness data were obtained for reference. (J.P.N.)

  4. Mechanical Properties and Brittle Behavior of Silica Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier


    Full Text Available Sets of silica gels: aerogels, xerogels and sintered aerogels, have been studied in the objective to understand the mechanical behavior of these highly porous solids. The mechanical behaviour of gels is described in terms of elastic and brittle materials, like glasses or ceramics. The magnitude of the elastic and rupture modulus is several orders of magnitude lower compared to dense glass. The mechanical behaviours (elastic and brittle are related to the same kinds of gel characteristics: pore volume, silanol content and pore size. Elastic modulus depends strongly on the volume fraction of pores and on the condensation reaction between silanols. Concerning the brittleness features: rupture modulus and toughness, it is shown that pores size plays an important role. Pores can be considered as flaws in the terms of fracture mechanics and the flaw size is related to the pore size. Weibull’s theory is used to show the statistical nature of flaw. Moreover, stress corrosion behaviour is studied as a function of environmental conditions (water and alcoholic atmosphere and temperature.

  5. The effect of shockwave profile shape on dynamic brittle failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.


    Full Text Available The role of shock wave loading profile is investigated for the failure processes in a brittle material. The dynamic damage response of ductile metals has been demonstrated to be critically dependent on the shockwave profile and the stress-state of the shock. Changing from a square to triangular (Taylor profile with an identical peak compressive stress has been reported to increase the “spall strength” by over a factor of two and suppress damage mechanisms. The spall strength of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA based on plate impact square-wave loading has been extensively reported in the literature. Here a triangular wave loading profile is achieved with a composite flyer plate of graded density in contrast to the square-wave loading. Counter to the strong dependence in wave profile in ductile metals, for WHA, both square and triangle wave profiles the failure is by brittle cleavage fracture with additional energy dissipation through crack branching in the more brittle tungsten particles, largely indistinguishable between wave profiles. The time for crack nucleation is negligible compared to the duration of the experiment and the crack propagation rate is limited to the sound speed as defined by the shock velocity.

  6. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear. (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius


    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  7. Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius


    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement–distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow. PMID:26806996

  8. Maternal provisioning in Ophionereis fasciata and O. schayeri: brittle stars with contrasting modes of development. (United States)

    Falkner, Inke; Byrne, Maria; Sewell, Mary A


    Evolutionary change from planktotrophic to lecithotrophic development in echinoderms is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We provide the first data on the major energetic constituents in the eggs of two ophiuroids, the planktotroph Ophionereis fasciata (egg diameter 103 microm) and the lecithotroph O. schayeri (egg diameter 248 microm), to document changes in maternal investment associated with the switch to lecithotrophy in O. schayeri. Lipid classes in the eggs of the two species did not differ except for the presence of small amounts of wax esters in the eggs of O. schayeri. Production of a large egg in O. schayeri is mostly due to enhanced deposition of one energy-storage lipid, triglyceride. The eggs of O. schayeri are not simply scaled-up versions of the ancestral-type eggs of O. fasciata. The relationship between lipid and protein content and egg volume conformed to the relationship previously established for echinoderm eggs. Surprisingly, total lipid and protein data for the eggs of O. schayeri grouped with data for the eggs of planktotrophic echinoderms. The eggs of O. schayeri are small compared with those of other echinoderms with lecithotrophic development, and their energetic contents may approach the minimum provisions necessary to permit development without feeding.

  9. Antitropical distributions and species delimitation in a group of ophiocomid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiocomidae). (United States)

    Naughton, K M; O'Hara, T D; Appleton, B; Cisternas, P A


    In this paper we examine the phylogeny and biogeography of the temperate genera of the Ophiocomidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) which have an interesting asymmetrical anti-tropical distribution, with two genera (Ophiocomina and Ophiopteris) previously considered to have a separate species in both the North and South hemispheres, and the third (Clarkcoma) diversifying in the southern Australian/New Zealand region. Our phylogeny, generated from one mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, revealed that Ophiopteris is sister to a mixed Ophiocomina/Clarkcoma clade. Ophiocomina was polyphyletic, with O. nigra and an undescribed species from the South Atlantic Ocean sister to a clade including Clarkcoma species and O. australis. The phylogeny also revealed a number of recently diverged lineages occurring within Clarkcoma, some of which are considered to be cryptic species due to the similarity in morphology combined with the apparent absence of interbreeding in a sympatric distribution, while the status of others is less certain. The phylogeny provides support for two transequatorial events in the group under study. A molecular clock analysis places both events in the middle to late Miocene. The analysis excludes a tectonic vicariance hypothesis for the antitropical distribution associated with the breakup of Pangaea and also excludes the hypothesis of more recent gene flow associated with Plio/Pleistocene glacial cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive behaviors of the sexually dimorphic brittle star Ophiodaphne formata (Koehler, 1905) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). (United States)

    Tominaga, Hideyuki; Komatsu, Miéko


    We investigated Ophiodaphne formata, an exceptional sexually dimorphic ophiuroid, in situ using scuba, and in the laboratory. Solitary males, solitary females, and pairs of coupled individuals were found associated with the irregular echinoid sand dollar Astriclypeus manni. We observed that coupled females, solitary males, and solitary females always hold their aboral surface against the oral surface of the host. Coupled males and females with disk diameters > 0.63 mm and > 3.7 mm, respectively, are considered to be ripe for reproduction. In order to couple, a solitary male approaches the margin of a female's disk, quickly inverts, interdigitates its arms with the female's, and keeps its mouth pressed against that of the female. At first, solitary males and females attach to their host singly and, secondly, couple with each other in order to engage in reproductive behavior. Solitary and coupled individuals are capable of changing their positions on the host, and transferring from one host to another. Coupled individuals separate after a period of attachment on the host.

  11. Star Polymers. (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G


    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  12. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta


    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  14. Experimental analysis and application of the effect of stress on continental shale reservoir brittleness (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Lv, Dawei; Jin, Lin; Ding, Wenlong


    Hydraulic fracturing is an effective measure of reservoir modification for the development of shale gas. The evaluation of rock brittleness can provide a basis for the optimization of fracturing. In this paper, the effect of stress on the brittleness of shale is systematically analyzed by designing triaxial mechanics tests. The strain analysis method was used to evaluate the shale brittleness. The research indicates that, with the increase of effective confining pressure, the value of the brittleness index (B 1) decreases. There is a linear and positive correlation between the average reduction ratio of B 1 and the buried depth. The stress has a significant effect on the shale brittleness. Therefore, the rock brittleness can be overestimated without considering the influence of the buried depth or the stress of formation when using the mineral composition method. Being affected by the stress, when the brittle mineral content of the shale reservoir is 70%, 65%, 60%, and 55%, the lower limit depth of the shale gas development is 5000 m, 4400 m, 3000 m, and 1800 m, respectively. However, when the brittle mineral content of the shale is less than 50%, the brittleness index is less than 50% in all of the buried depths. In this case, the shale will not have any commercial development potential. The logging interpretation results of the brittleness index conducted with stress correction are more consistent with the real situation, and thus, this method can be better used to help the optimization of the fracturing intervals of shale gas.

  15. Universal brittle-viscous transition in magmatic liquids (United States)

    Witcher, Taylor; Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Dingwell, Donald B.


    All explosive eruptions involve the transition in magma behaviour between dominantly viscous and transiently brittle. This can happen by exceeding a critical velocity or by exceeding a critical vesiculation rate in the volcanic conduit. In both cases the local shear rate exceeds the structural relaxation rate of the liquid, causing the liquid phase to become unrelaxed such that it may support fracture propagation. Here we collate a database of published observations in which natural, synthetic, and analogue magmas of a range of compositions were deformed by decompression-induced vesiculation or shear deformation under applied shear stresses. In all cases, a single characteristic structural relaxation timescale of the liquid is constrained and compared with the dominant timescale of deformation. We show that the ratio between these two timescales - a Deborah number (De) - can be used to scale the threshold between different behaviors. We find that irrespective of composition or experiment type, De = 0.01 defines the threshold between relaxed viscous flow and unrelaxed fracture propagation, and that De = 1 is a second threshold between fracture propagation and entirely brittle failure. These two thresholds are consistent with the onset of elasticity and peak elasticity, respectively, determined by rheological measurements in the frequency domain. When De is volcanic conduit, De is highest at the conduit margin, where the deformation timescale is lowest. Moving toward the conduit center De decreases, passing through the brittle threshold (De = 1), transitional behaviour (0.01 De De < 0.01) until reaching the center where the deformation timescale is highest and relaxed viscous flow dominates. We use these insights to explore the ratio between the two timescales for liquids of different compositions at typical eruptive temperatures to construct a universal deformation and relaxation map for different eruption styles.

  16. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund


    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  17. What controls the strength and brittleness of shale rocks? (United States)

    Rybacki, Erik; Reinicke, Andreas; Meier, Tobias; Makasi, Masline; Dresen, Georg


    With respect to the productivity of gas shales, in petroleum science the mechanical behavior of shales is often classified into rock types of high and low 'brittleness', sometimes also referred to as 'fraccability'. The term brittleness is not well defined and different definitions exist, associated with elastic properties (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), with strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength), frictional properties (cohesion, friction coefficient), hardness (indentation), or with the strain or energy budget (ratio of reversible to the total strain or energy, respectively). Shales containing a high amount of clay and organic matter are usually considered as less brittle. Similarly, the strength of shales is usually assumed to be low if they contain a high fraction of weak phases. We performed mechanical tests on a series of shales with different mineralogical compositions, varying porosity, and low to high maturity. Using cylindrical samples, we determined the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, static Young's modulus, the tensile strength, and Mode I fracture toughness. The results show that in general the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) linearly increases with increasing Young's modulus (E) and both parameters increase with decreasing porosity. However, the strength and elastic modulus is not uniquely correlated with the mineral content. For shales with a relatively low quartz and high carbonate content, UCS and E increase with increasing quartz content, whereas for shales with a relatively low amount for carbonates, but high quartz content, both parameters increase with decreasing fraction of the weak phases (clays, kerogen). In contrast, the average tensile strength of all shale-types appears to increase with increasing quartz fraction. The internal friction coefficient of all investigated shales decreases with increasing pressure and may approach rather high values (up to ≡ 1). Therefore, the mechanical strength and

  18. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.


    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Mikeš


    Full Text Available The quasicontinuum (QC method is a computational technique that can efficiently handle atomistic lattices by combining continuum and atomistic approaches. In this work, the QC method is combined with an adaptive algorithm, to obtain correct predictions of crack trajectories in failure simulations. Numerical simulations of crack propagation in elastic-brittle disordered lattices are performed for a two-dimensional example. The obtained results are compared with the fully resolved particle model. It is shown that the adaptive QC simulation provides a significant reduction of the computational demand. At the same time, the macroscopic crack trajectories and the shape of the force-displacement diagram are very well captured.

  20. Cohesive stresses and size effect in quasi-brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Cohesive stresses and size effect in quasi-brittle materials. 465. 10−3. 10−1. 101 r. 10−1. 100 σ n. /f' t. Figure 5. Size effect law for an edge crack with Dugdale's model. Expressed in terms of r = a0/cf ,s = 1/(1 + r), the far field nominal stress will be. σN = (. 0.903/α. ︸︷︷︸. B. ) ft. [. 1/. (. 1 + r. ︸︷︷︸ β. )]1/2 . (14).

  1. Estimation Criteria for Rock Brittleness Based on Energy Analysis During the Rupturing Process (United States)

    Ai, Chi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yu-wei; Zeng, Jia; Yang, Xin-liang; Wang, Ji-gang


    Brittleness is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock: it plays a significant role in evaluating the risk of rock bursts and in analysis of borehole-wall stability during shale gas development. Brittleness is also a critical parameter in the design of hydraulic fracturing. However, there is still no widely accepted definition of the concept of brittleness in rock mechanics. Although many criteria have been proposed to characterize rock brittleness, their applicability and reliability have yet to be verified. In this paper, the brittleness of rock under compression is defined as the ability of a rock to accumulate elastic energy during the pre-peak stage and to self-sustain fracture propagation in the post-peak stage. This ability is related to three types of energy: fracture energy, post-peak released energy and pre-peak dissipation energy. New brittleness evaluation indices B 1 and B 2 are proposed based on the stress-strain curve from the viewpoint of energy. The new indices can describe the entire transition of rock from absolute plasticity to absolute brittleness. In addition, the brittle characteristics reflected by other brittleness indices can be described, and the calculation results of B 1 and B 2 are continuous and monotonic. Triaxial compression tests on different types of rock were carried out under different confining pressures. Based on B 1 and B 2, the brittleness of different rocks shows different trends with rising confining pressure. The brittleness of red sandstone decreases with increasing confining pressure, whereas for black shale it initially increases and then decreases in a certain range of confining pressure. Granite displays a constant increasing trend. The brittleness anisotropy of black shale is discussed. The smaller the angle between the loading direction and the bedding plane, the greater the brittleness. The calculation B 1 and B 2 requires experimental data, and the values of these two indices represent only

  2. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.


    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  3. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  4. Star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.R.


    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  7. Challenges in the Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP) for EGS development beyond the brittle-ductile transition (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Muraoka, H.; Tsuchiya, N.; Ito, H.


    Development using Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) technologies is considered to be the best solution to the problems of the localized distribution of geothermal resources. However, it is considered that a number of problems, including low water recovery rate, difficulty in design of the reservoir, and induced earthquake, would appear in Japanese EGS. These problems in the development of EGS reservoirs cannot be readily solved in Japan because they are intrinsically related to the physical characteristics and tectonic setting of the brittle rock mass. Therefore, we have initiated the Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP), which will take a multidisciplinary scientific approach, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, water-rock interactions, rock mechanics, seismology, drilling technology, well-logging technology, and reservoir engineering. The science and technology required for the creation and control of geothermal reservoirs in superheated rocks in the ductile zone is at the frontier of modern research in most of the related disciplines. Solutions to the associated problems will not easily be found without international collaboration among researchers and engineers. For this reason, in March, 2013 we held a five-day ICDP-supported workshop in Japan to review and discuss various scientific and technological issues related to the JBBP. Throughout the discussions at the workshop on characteristics of the beyond-brittle rock mass and creation and control of EGS reservoirs in the ductile zone, it has concluded that there are two end-member reservoir models that should be considered (Fig. 1). The JBBP reservoir type-1 would be created near the top of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) and connected to pre-existing hydrothermal systems, which would increase productivity and provide sustainability. The JBBP reservoir type-2 would be hydraulically or thermally created beyond the BDT, where pre-existing fractures are less permeable, and would be hydraulically

  8. Acoustic emission during the compaction of brittle UO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegron, Lise


    One of the options considered for recycling minor actinides is to incorporate about 10% to UO 2 matrix. The presence of open pores interconnected within this fuel should allow the evacuation of helium and fission gases to prevent swelling of the pellet and ultimately its interaction with the fuel clad surrounding it. Implementation of minor actinides requires working in shielded cell, reducing their retention and outlawing additions of organic products. The use of fragmentable particles of several hundred micrometers seems a good solution to control the microstructure of the green compacts and thus control the open porosity after sintering. The goal of this study is to monitor the compaction of brittle UO 2 particles by acoustic emission and to link the particle characteristics to the open porosity obtained after the compact sintering. The signals acquired during tensile strength tests on individual granules and compacts show that the acoustic emission allows the detection of the mechanism of fragmentation and enables identification of a characteristic waveform of this fragmentation. The influences of compaction stress, of the initial particle size distribution and of the internal cohesion of the granules, on the mechanical strength of the compact and on the microstructure and open porosity of the sintered pellets, are analyzed. By its ability to identify the range of fragmentation of the granules during compaction, acoustic emission appears as a promising technique for monitoring the compaction of brittle particles in the manufacture of a controlled porosity fuel. (author) [fr

  9. Energy approach to brittle fracture in strain-gradient modelling (United States)

    Placidi, Luca; Barchiesi, Emilio


    In this paper, we exploit some results in the theory of irreversible phenomena to address the study of quasi-static brittle fracture propagation in a two-dimensional isotropic continuum. The elastic strain energy density of the body has been assumed to be geometrically nonlinear and to depend on the strain gradient. Such generalized continua often arise in the description of microstructured media. These materials possess an intrinsic length scale, which determines the size of internal boundary layers. In particular, the non-locality conferred by this internal length scale avoids the concentration of deformations, which is usually observed when dealing with local models and which leads to mesh dependency. A scalar Lagrangian damage field, ranging from zero to one, is introduced to describe the internal state of structural degradation of the material. Standard Lamé and second-gradient elastic coefficients are all assumed to decrease as damage increases and to be locally zero if the value attained by damage is one. This last situation is associated with crack formation and/or propagation. Numerical solutions of the model are provided in the case of an obliquely notched rectangular specimen subjected to monotonous tensile and shear loading tests, and brittle fracture propagation is discussed.

  10. Dynamic Initiation and Propagation of Multiple Cracks in Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Ren


    Full Text Available Brittle materials such as rock and ceramic usually exhibit apparent increases of strength and toughness when subjected to dynamic loading. The reasons for this phenomenon are not yet well understood, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. Based on dynamic fracture mechanics, the present work offers an alternate insight into the dynamic behaviors of brittle materials. Firstly, a single crack subjected to stress wave excitations is investigated to obtain the dynamic crack-tip stress field and the dynamic stress intensity factor. Second, based on the analysis of dynamic stress intensity factor, the fracture initiation sizes and crack size distribution under different loading rates are obtained, and the power law with the exponent of −2/3 is derived to describe the fracture initiation size. Third, with the help of the energy balance concept, the dynamic increase of material strength is directly derived based on the proposed multiple crack evolving criterion. Finally, the model prediction is compared with the dynamic impact experiments, and the model results agree well with the experimentally measured dynamic increasing factor (DIF.

  11. Why are brittleness and fracability not equivalent in designing hydraulic fracturing in tight shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Bai


    With the objective review and sensible definition of brittleness used in the present petro-physical field to identify the desirable fracturing intervals, the paper presents the ambiguities of using the brittleness to define the formation fracability and points out that the formation brittleness can be unrelated to the formation fracability. As an alternative approach, the paper provides an effective method to define the most fracable formation intervals in designing the hydraulic fracturing in tight shale gas formations.

  12. Brittle Creep of Tournemire Shale: Orientation, Temperature and Pressure Dependences (United States)

    Geng, Zhi; Bonnelye, Audrey; Dick, Pierre; David, Christian; Chen, Mian; Schubnel, Alexandre


    Time and temperature dependent rock deformation has both scientific and socio-economic implications for natural hazards, the oil and gas industry and nuclear waste disposal. During the past decades, most studies on brittle creep have focused on igneous rocks and porous sedimentary rocks. To our knowledge, only few studies have been carried out on the brittle creep behavior of shale. Here, we conducted a series of creep experiments on shale specimens coming from the French Institute for Nuclear Safety (IRSN) underground research laboratory located in Tournemire, France. Conventional tri-axial experiments were carried under two different temperatures (26˚ C, 75˚ C) and confining pressures (10 MPa, 80 MPa), for three orientations (σ1 along, perpendicular and 45˚ to bedding). Following the methodology developed by Heap et al. [2008], differential stress was first increased to ˜ 60% of the short term peak strength (10-7/s, Bonnelye et al. 2016), and then in steps of 5 to 10 MPa every 24 hours until brittle failure was achieved. In these long-term experiments (approximately 10 days), stress and strains were recorded continuously, while ultrasonic acoustic velocities were recorded every 1˜15 minutes, enabling us to monitor the evolution of elastic wave speed anisotropy. Temporal evolution of anisotropy was illustrated by inverting acoustic velocities to Thomsen parameters. Finally, samples were investigated post-mortem using scanning electron microscopy. Our results seem to contradict our traditional understanding of loading rate dependent brittle failure. Indeed, the brittle creep failure stress of our Tournemire shale samples was systematically observed ˜50% higher than its short-term peak strength, with larger final axial strain accumulated. At higher temperatures, the creep failure strength of our samples was slightly reduced and deformation was characterized with faster 'steady-state' creep axial strain rates at each steps, and larger final axial strain

  13. Brittle fracture in casing pipes; Sproeda brott i mantelroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Thoernblom, Kristian; Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Bergstroem, Gunnar [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)


    Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) has been observed in the casing pipe of large diameter district heating pipes on several occasions. An RCP crack is driven by hoop stresses in the casing pipe wall. It is a problem during installation work in cold weather. The casing pipe material is more brittle in low temperatures, and a temperature decrease will cause a hoop stress build-up since the thermal contraction of the casing pipe is constrained by the steel pipe and the PUR foam. RCP fracture has been documented at temperatures around -18 deg C but has likely, at some instances, occurred already at few degrees below 0 deg C. Three different polyethylene materials were evaluated with respect to the risk for brittle fracture of the casing pipe. One unimodal material of PE80 quality which have been used in casing to a large extent previously, one modern unimodal PE80 material which is used today and, finally, a bimodal PE80 material of a quality which currently is the dominant choice among pipe producers. Modern materials are in general much more resistant to brittle fracture, since it is an important design property for the raw material producers. Tests were done on casing of both large (up to 630 mm in diameter) and small (160 mm) dimension. A handling test was made where the pipes were cooled down and worked on with power tools in a manner similar to actual field work. An RCP fracture occurred at -25 deg C during cutting with angle grinder on a pipe with a diameter of 500 mm on the modern unimodal PE80 material. The same material also fractured during impact testing according to EN 253 at -20 deg C on both small and large diameter pipes. The bimodal PE80 resin passed both tests without fracture. A series of impact tests were done on pipes with diameter 160 mm with the purpose of determining critical temperatures and temperature stress levels with respect to brittle fracture. The results show that the bimodal material is so resistant that there is no real risk for RCP in

  14. Hydraulic Fracture and Toughening of a Brittle Layer Bonded to a Hydrogel. (United States)

    Lucantonio, Alessandro; Noselli, Giovanni; Trepat, Xavier; DeSimone, Antonio; Arroyo, Marino


    Brittle materials propagate opening cracks under tension. When stress increases beyond a critical magnitude, then quasistatic crack propagation becomes unstable. In the presence of several precracks, a brittle material always propagates only the weakest crack, leading to catastrophic failure. Here, we show that all these features of brittle fracture are fundamentally modified when the material susceptible to cracking is bonded to a hydrogel, a common situation in biological tissues. In the presence of the hydrogel, the brittle material can fracture in compression and can hydraulically resist cracking in tension. Furthermore, the poroelastic coupling regularizes the crack dynamics and enhances material toughness by promoting multiple cracking.

  15. Research of Joining Brittle Nonmetallic Materials with an Active Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák


    Full Text Available This paper deals with soldering high-purity brittle, nonmetallic materials such as SiO2, Si, and C (graphite. However, these materials exert poor wettability when using tin solder. Therefore, to reduce the wetting angle, an Sn solder alloyed with active Ti element was used. At a soldering temperature of 860°C and 15 min soldering time, the wetting angle on SiO2 ceramics was 30°, on silicon 42°, and on graphite 52°. All these wetting angles are below 90° and are acceptable for soldering. It has been shown that the bond in all joined materials (SiO2, Si, and C was of a diffusion character. New intermetallic products were formed on the boundary with nonmetal, thus allowing bond formation. The shear strength of SiO2 ceramics attained an average value of 17 MPa.

  16. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.


    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  17. Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.


    This special issues on Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior represents an outgrowth of presentations given at a symposium of the same title held at the 1991 ASME Applied Mechanics and Biomechanics Summer Conference at the Ohio State University. The symposium was organized to promote communication between researchers in three materials groups: rock, cementitious materials, ceramics and related composites. The enthusiastic response of both speakers and attendants at the ASME symposium convinced the organizer that it would be useful to put together a coherent volume which can reach a larger audience. It was decided that the papers individually and as a volume ought to provide a broader view, so that as much as possible, the work contained in each paper would be accessible to readers working in any of the three materials groups. Applied Mechanics Reviews presents an appropriate platform for achieving these objectives

  18. On Failure in Polycrystalline and Amorphous Brittle Materials (United States)

    Bourne, N. K.


    The performance of behaviour of brittle materials depends upon discrete deformation mechanisms operating during the loading process. The critical mechanisms determining the behaviour of armour ceramics have not been isolated using traditional ballistics. It has recently become possible to measure strength histories in materials under shock. The data gained for the failed strength of the armour are shown to relate directly to the penetration measured into tiles. Further the material can be loaded and recovered for post-mortem examination. Failure is by micro-fracture that is a function of the defects and then cracking activated by plasticity mechanisms within the grains and failure at grain boundaries in the amorphous intergranular phase. Thus it is the shock-induced plastic yielding of grains at the impact face that determines the later time penetration through the tile.

  19. Fracture statistics of brittle materials with intergranular cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdorf, S.B.


    When brittle materials are used for structural purposes, the initial design must take their relatively large dispersion in fracture stress properly into account. This is difficult when failure probabilities must be extremely low, because empirically based statistical theories of fracture, such as that of Weibull, cannot reliably predict the stresses corresponding to failure probabilities much lower than n -1 , where n is the number of specimens tested. Recently McClintock proposed a rational method of predicting the size distribution of intergranular cracks. The method assumed that large cracks are random aggregations of cracked grain boundaries. The present paper employs this method to find the size distribution of penny-shaped cracks, and also P(f), the probability of failure of a specimen of volume V subjected to a tensile stress sigma. The present paper is a pioneering effort, which should be applicable to ceramics and related materials

  20. Enclosed mechanical seal face design for brittle materials copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsi, J.A.


    Metal carbides are widely used as seal face material due to their hardness and wear resistance. Silicon carbide (SiC) has excellent performance as a seal face material, but it is relatively brittle and may break due to accidental overloads outside the boundary of normal operating conditions. In mechanical seals for nuclear primary coolant pumps, the shattered SiC pieces can get into the reactor system and cause serious damage. The conventional method of containing an SiC seal face is to shrink-fit it in a holder, which may lead the seal designer to contend with unwanted seal face deflections. This paper presents a successful, tested design which does not rely on shrink-fits. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Brittle fracture damage around the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Williams, J. N.; Toy, V.; Smith, S. A. F.; Boulton, C. J.; Massiot, C.; Mcnamara, D. D.


    We use field and drill-core samples to characterize macro- to micro-scale brittle fracture networks within the hanging-wall of New Zealand's Alpine Fault, an active plate-boundary fault that is approaching the end of its seismic cycle. Fracture density in the hanging-wall is roughly constant for distances of up to 500 m from the principal slip zone gouges (PSZs). Fractures >160 m from the PSZs are typically open and parallel to the regional mylonitic foliation or host rock schistosity, and likely formed as unloading joints during rapid exhumation of the hanging-wall at shallow depths. Fractures within c. 160 m of the PSZs are broadly oriented shear-fractures filled with gouge or cataclasite, and are interpreted to constitute the hanging-wall damage zone of the Alpine Fault. This is comparable to the 60-200 m wide "geophysical damage zone" estimated from low seismic wave velocities surrounding the Alpine Fault. Veins are pervasive within the c. 20 m-thick hanging-wall cataclasites and are most commonly filled by calcite, chlorite, muscovite and K-feldspar. Notably, there is a set of intragranular clast-hosted veins, as well as a younger set of veins that cross-cut both clasts and cataclasite matrix. The intragranular veins formed prior to cataclasis or during synchronous cataclasis and calcite-silicate mineralisation. Broad estimates for the depth of vein formation indicate that the cataclasites formed a c. 20 m wide actively deforming zone at depths of c. 4-8 km. Conversely, the cross-cutting veins are interpreted to represent off-fault damage within relatively indurated cataclasites following slip localization onto the <10 cm wide smectite-bearing PSZ gouges at depths of <4 km. Our observations therefore highlight a strong depth-dependence of the width of the actively deforming zone within the brittle seismogenic crust around the Alpine Fault.

  2. Fracture mechanisms in multilayer phosphorene assemblies: from brittle to ductile. (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao


    The outstanding mechanical performance of nacre has stimulated numerous studies on the design of artificial nacres. Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material, has a crystalline in-plane structure and non-bonded interaction between adjacent flakes. Therefore, multi-layer phosphorene assemblies (MLPs), in which phosphorene flakes are piled up in a staggered manner, may exhibit outstanding mechanical performance, especially exceptional toughness. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the dependence of the mechanical properties on the overlap distance between adjacent phosphorene layers and the number of phosphorene flakes per layer. The results indicate that when the flake number is equal to 1, a transition of fracture patterns is observed by increasing the overlap distance, from a ductile failure controlled by interfacial friction to a brittle failure dominated by the breakage of covalent bonds inside phosphorene flakes. Moreover, the failure pattern can be tuned by changing the number of flakes in each phosphorene layer. The results imply that the ultimate strength follows a power law with the exponent -0.5 in terms of the flake number, which is in good agreement with our analytical model. Furthermore, the flake number in each phosphorene layer is optimized as 2 when the temperature is 1 K in order to potentially achieve both high toughness and strength. Moreover, our results regarding the relations between mechanical performance and overlap distance can be explained well using a shear-lag model. However, it should be pointed out that increasing the temperature of MLPs could cause the transition of fracture patterns from ductile to brittle. Therefore, the optimal flake number depends heavily on temperature to achieve both its outstanding strength and toughness. Overall, our findings unveil the fundamental mechanism at the nanoscale for MLPs as well as provide a method to design phosphorene-based structures with targeted properties

  3. Computer-aided analysis of cutting processes for brittle materials (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, A. I.; Tikhonov, I. N.


    This paper is focused on 3D computer simulation of cutting processes for brittle materials and silicon wafers. Computer-aided analysis of wafer scribing and dicing is carried out with the use of the ANSYS CAE (computer-aided engineering) software, and a parametric model of the processes is created by means of the internal ANSYS APDL programming language. Different types of tool tip geometry are analyzed to obtain internal stresses, such as a four-sided pyramid with an included angle of 120° and a tool inclination angle to the normal axis of 15°. The quality of the workpieces after cutting is studied by optical microscopy to verify the FE (finite-element) model. The disruption of the material structure during scribing occurs near the scratch and propagates into the wafer or over its surface at a short range. The deformation area along the scratch looks like a ragged band, but the stress width is rather low. The theory of cutting brittle semiconductor and optical materials is developed on the basis of the advanced theory of metal turning. The fall of stress intensity along the normal on the way from the tip point to the scribe line can be predicted using the developed theory and with the verified FE model. The crystal quality and dimensions of defects are determined by the mechanics of scratching, which depends on the shape of the diamond tip, the scratching direction, the velocity of the cutting tool and applied force loads. The disunity is a rate-sensitive process, and it depends on the cutting thickness. The application of numerical techniques, such as FE analysis, to cutting problems enhances understanding and promotes the further development of existing machining technologies.

  4. Microstructural features of intergranular brittle fracture and cold cracking in high strength aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalpoor, M.; Eskin, D. G.; ten Brink, Gert; Katgerman, L.


    Intergranular brittle fracture has been mainly observed and reported in steel alloys and precipitation hardened At-alloys where intergranular precipitates cover a major fraction of the grain boundary area. 7xxx series aluminum alloys suffer from this problem in the as-cast condition when brittle

  5. Effect of Carbonitriding on the Susceptibility of Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels to Temper Brittleness (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Chirkov, E. Yu.


    The effect of carbonitriding as a finishing operation of hardening of the thread of drill pipes on the properties of the matrix metal, its temper brittleness in particular, is studied. The cold brittleness is evaluated with the help of tests for impact toughness. Steels for the production of drill pipe locks for operation at negative temperatures are recommended.

  6. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 753-756. Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... be composed of normal nuclear matter with hyperons and/or condensed mesons. The matter at ...

  7. Star Conquest


    Porrino Serrano, Fernando


    Star Conquest es un juego de mesa "print n play" de estrategia por turnos para dos o tres jugadores. Éste proyecto consiste en tomar el juego de mesa original y desarrollar una adaptación en forma de videojuego para distintas plataformas

  8. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  9. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio


    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  10. Carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzopardi, M.; Lequeux, J.; Rebeirot, E.


    Several stars of this type have just been detected in galaxies where they were not suspected and where they reveal a recent activity not really corresponding to current ideas. Data given by these observations allow the astrophysicists to improve the galaxy evolution models, in particular the evolution model of our galaxy [fr

  11. The ductile/brittle transition provides the critical test for materials failure theory (United States)

    Christensen, Richard M.


    It is reasoned that any materials failure theory that claims generality must give full account of ductile versus brittle failure behaviour. Any such proposed theory especially must admit the capability to generate the ductile/brittle transition. A derivation of the failure surface orientations from a particular isotropic materials failure theory reveals that uniaxial tension has its ductile/brittle transition at T/C = 1/2, where T and C are the uniaxial strengths. Between this information and the corresponding ductile/brittle transition in uniaxial compression it becomes possible to derive the functional form for the fully three-dimensional ductile/brittle transition. These same general steps of verification must be fulfilled for any other candidate general failure theory.

  12. Star Products and Applications


    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira


    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  13. Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.


    Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  15. Strangeon Stars (United States)

    Lu, Jiguang; Xu, Renxin

    Stable micro-nucleus is 2-flavored (u and d), whereas stable macro-nucleus could be 3-flavored (u, d, and s) if the light flavor symmetry restores there. Nucleons are the constituent of a nucleus, while strangeons are named as the constituent of 3-flavored baryonic matter. Gravity-compressed baryonic object created after core-collapse supernova could be strangeon star if the energy scale (˜0.5 GeV) cannot be high enough for quark deconfinement and if there occurs 3-flavor symmetry restoration. Strangeon stars are explained here, including their formation and manifestation/identification. Much work, coupled with effective micro-model of strangeon matter, is needed to take advantage of the unique opportunities advanced facilities will provide.

  16. Constitutive model describing dilatancy and cracking in brittle rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.C.; Gupta, Y.M.


    A micromechanical constitutive model, based on the responses of sliding cracks and elliptic cracks, is used to simulate the inelastic deformation of brittle rock. In addition to the usual incremental equations, the model has the following features: (1) activation equation that include the effects of friction and relate the far-field stresses of sliding and elliptic crack openings and lengths, (2) a stress intensity analysis of the sliding cracks that determines how much the cracks may grow, and (3) expressions for the crack strains that are constructed directly from the amount of crack sliding, opening, growth and the number of sliding and elliptic cracks in a given region. Numerical simulations of uniaxial and triaxial loading experiments on westerly granite were compared with experimental data to determine the validity of the constitutive model. These comparisons show that most of the uniaxial stress data and the loading portion of the triaxial data can be simulated quantitatively. The unloading portion of the triaxial data cannot be simulated properly, suggesting that a nonfrictional mechanism, not included in our model, may dominate the response in this region

  17. Scratch resistance of brittle thin films on compliant substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Wu, Linda Y.L.; Chwa, Edmund; Tham, Otto


    There has been intensive interest in studying the behavior of hard and brittle thin films on compliant substrates under scratch action. The examples include sol-gel protective coatings on plastic optical lenses, safe windows, and flexible electronic devices and displays. Hard ceramic coatings have been widely used to prolong the life of cutting tools and biomedical implants. In this work, the scratch resistance of sol-gel coatings with different amount of colloidal silica on polycarbonate substrates was tested by the pencil scratch test following the ISO 15184 standard. The scratch failure was found to be tensile trailing cracking in the coating and substrate gouging. The indentation hardness, elasticity modulus and fracture toughness of the coatings were determined and correlated to the observed pencil scratch hardness. Based on the analysis, the main factors to improve the scratch resistance are the elasticity modulus, thickness and fracture toughness of the coatings. General consideration for the improvement of scratch resistance of hard coatings on compliant substrates was also discussed

  18. Numerical modeling of macroscale brittle rock crushing during impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Salah A.; Abdelhaffez, Gamal S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    Several machines, such as crushers use the physical effect of compression to cause fragmentation 'crushing' of brittle rocks. As a consequence of the complex fragmentation process, crushers are still sized by empirical approaches. This paper present the results of a numerical study to understand some aspects of rock crushing phenomenon in terms of energy consumption. The study uses the discrete element approach of PFC2D code to simulate a stamp mill. The stamp mill has a simple crushing mechanism of a fixed kinetic energy delivered by a rigid ram impact. A single rock fragment crushing process dependent on the number of stamp mill ram blows is numerically examined. Both amount and type of energy generated by a ram blow are monitored besides the type of fractures generated. The model results indicate that the ram impact energy is mainly consumed in form of friction energy (up to 61 %) while strain energy stays at about 5 % of delivered energy. The energy consumed by crushing the rock represents only 32 % to 45 % of stamp mill energy and tends to decrease as the number of impacts increases. The rock fragmented matrix tends to convert into more friction energy with reduced number of new fractures as number of blows increase. The fragmentation caused by tensile is more often compared to those caused by shear, this behaviour increased with increasing number of ram blows. (orig.)

  19. A numerical analysis of crack growth in brittle microcracking composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biner, S.B.


    A set of numerical analyses of crack growth was performed to elucidate the mechanism of microcracking on the observed fracture behavior of brittle solids and composites. The random nucleation, orientation and size effects of discrete microcracks and resulting interactions are fully accounted for in a hybrid finite element model. The results indicate that the energy expenditure due the microcrack nucleation seems not to contribute significantly to the resistance to crack growth. The main controlling parameter appears to be elastic interaction of the microcracks with the main crack in the absence of a reinforcing phase; therefore, the microcrack density plays an important role. In the case of the composites, the interaction of the main crack with the stress fields of the reinforcing phase, rather than interaction of microcracks, is the controlling parameter for the resistance to the crack growth even in the presence of a large population of microcracks. It will be also shown that the crack branching and crack kinking can readily develop as a result of microcracking

  20. Comparison of ductile-to-brittle transition curve fitting approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.W.; Wu, S.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.


    Ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) curve fitting approaches are compared over the transition temperature range for reactor pressure vessel steels with different kinds of data, including Charpy-V notch impact energy data and fracture toughness data. Three DBT curve fitting methods have been frequently used in the past, including the Burr S-Weibull and tanh distributions. In general there is greater scatter associated with test data obtained within the transition region. Therefore these methods give results with different accuracies, especially when fitting to small quantities of data. The comparison shows that the Burr distribution and tanh distribution can almost equally fit well distributed and large data sets extending across the test temperature range to include the upper and lower shelves. The S-Weibull distribution fit is poor for the lower shelf of the DBT curve. Overall for both large and small quantities of measured data the Burr distribution provides the best description. - Highlights: ► Burr distribution offers a better fit than that of a S-Weibull and tanh fit. ► Burr and tanh methods show similar fitting ability for a large data set. ► Burr method can fit sparse data well distributed across the test temperature. ► S-Weibull method cannot fit the lower shelf well and show poor fitting quality.

  1. Ash production through brittle cataclasis during dome emplacement (United States)

    Kennedy, Lori; Russell, Kelly


    Fine-grained gouge (Mount Saint Helens. Here, we present grain size data from both the natural fault rocks from Mount Saint Helen's and experimentally generated gouge. Our triaxial rock deformation experiments were run at confining pressures (Pc) of 0, 25, 50, and 75MPa, at room temperature and strain rates of ~1 x 10-4/s. We performed experiments that were terminated after failure and experiments on frictional sliding of the gouge. Our starting material has low (6-8%) porosities, a uniform bulk composition (65 wt% SiO2) and is highly. The dacite experiments show a progressive increase in peak strength (100-700 MPa) with increasing Pc and all cores show brittle behavior, characterized by a rapid stress drop. Run products contain macroscopic fractures with deformation extremely localized around the shear fractures. Experimentally deformed dacites show extreme grain size reduction and the production of gouge. Gouge material can reach < 1 micron in diameter. Frictional sliding experiments generated more gouge than experiments stopped after failure. However, there is little modification of the finest grain sizes (<20 microns) because of frictional sliding. We propose that the large stress drop at failure generates the fine-grained gouge and subsequent sliding does not further reduce the grain size. The amount of energy required to produce the fine-grained material is calculated and we compare this to the energy required to generate volcanic ash from fragmentation.

  2. Fracture Resistance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Brittle Matrix Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk


    Roč. 290, - (2005), s. 167-174 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramic s /2./. Stará Lesná, 03.10.2004-06.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041003; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/02/0683 Keywords : fibre-reinforced ceramic s * glass matrix composites * chevron notch Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2005

  3. Application of a Brittle Damage Model to Normal Plate-on-Plate Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftenberg, Martin N


    A brittle damage model presented by Grinfeld and Wright of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code and applied to the simulation of normal plate-on-plate impact...

  4. Preventing and Treating Brittle Bones and Osteoporosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing and Treating Brittle Bones and Osteoporosis Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... at high risk due to low bone mass. Bone and Bone Loss Bone is living, growing tissue. ...

  5. Microstructural development of quartz gouge at the brittle-to-viscous-transition in shear experiments (United States)

    Richter, Bettina; Kilian, Rüdiger; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée


    We conducted a series of shear experiments on quartz gouge in a Griggs-type solid medium deformation apparatus to investigate the brittle-viscous transition. The starting material is obtained by crushing quartz single crystals (sieved grain size

  6. Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride (United States)


    Aluminum Nitride by GA Gazonas and JW McCauley Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL JJ Guo, KM Reddy, A Hirata, T Fujita, and MW Chen...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...their microscopic structure. In this study, we report a size induced brittle-to-ductile transition in single-crystal aluminum nitride (AlN). When the

  7. Correlation between the electric and acoustic signals emitted during compression of brittle materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermioni D. Pasiou


    Full Text Available An experimental protocol is described including a series of uni¬axial compression tests of three brittle materials (marble, mortar and glass. The Acoustic Emission (AE technique and the Pressure Stimulated Currents (PSC one are used since the recordings of both techniques are strongly related to the formation of cracking in brittle materials. In the present paper, the correlation of these techniques is investigated, which is finally proven to be very satisfactory.

  8. Development of a brittle fracture acceptance criterion for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Nickell, R.E.


    An effort has been undertaken to develop a brittle fracture acceptance criterion for structural components of nuclear material transportation casks. The need for such a criterion was twofold. First, new generation cask designs have proposed the use of ferritic steels and other materials to replace the austenitic stainless steel commonly used for structural components in transport casks. Unlike austenitic stainless steel which fails in a high-energy absorbing, ductile tearing mode, it is possible for these candidate materials to fail via brittle fracture when subjected to certain combinations of elevated loading rates and low temperatures. Second, there is no established brittle fracture criterion accepted by the regulatory community that covers a broad range of structural materials. Although the existing IAEA Safety Series number-sign 37 addressed brittle fracture, its the guidance was dated and pertained only to ferritic steels. Consultant's Services Meetings held under the auspices of the IAEA have resulted in a recommended brittle fracture criterion. The brittle fracture criterion is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics, and is the result of a consensus of experts from six participating IAEA-member countries. The brittle fracture criterion allows three approaches to determine the fracture toughness of the structural material. The three approaches present the opportunity to balance material testing requirements and the conservatism of the material's fracture toughness which must be used to demonstrate resistance to brittle fracture. This work has resulted in a revised Appendix IX to Safety Series number-sign 37 which will be released as an IAEA Technical Document within the coming year

  9. Modelling the time-dependent rheological behaviour of heterogeneous brittle rocks (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Tang, Chun-an; Zhao, Jian; Li, Lianchong; Heap, M. J.


    A 2-D numerical model for brittle creep and stress relaxation is proposed for the time-dependent brittle deformation of heterogeneous brittle rock under uniaxial loading conditions. The model accounts for material heterogeneity through a stochastic local failure stress field, and local material degradation using an exponential material softening law. Importantly, the model introduces the concept of a mesoscopic renormalization to capture the co-operative interaction between microcracks in the transition from distributed to localized damage. The model also describes the temporal and spatial evolution of acoustic emissions, including their size (energy released), in the medium during the progressive damage process. The model is first validated using previously published experimental data and is then used to simulate brittle creep and stress relaxation experiments. The model accurately reproduces the classic trimodal behaviour (primary, secondary and tertiary creep) seen in laboratory brittle creep (constant stress) experiments and the decelerating stress during laboratory stress relaxation (constant strain) experiments. Brittle creep simulations also show evidence of a 'critical level of damage' before the onset of tertiary creep and the initial stages of localization can be seen as early as the start of the secondary creep phase, both of which have been previously observed in experiments. Stress relaxation simulations demonstrate that the total amount of stress relaxation increases when the level of constant axial strain increases, also corroborating with previously published experimental data. Our approach differs from previously adopted macroscopic approaches, based on constitutive laws, and microscopic approaches that focus on fracture propagation. The model shows that complex macroscopic time-dependent behaviour can be explained by the small-scale interaction of elements and material degradation. The fact that the simulations are able to capture a similar time

  10. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics (United States)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu


    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  11. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal


    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  12. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research (United States)


    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’. PMID:27956517

  13. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido


    Analogue model experiments are widely used to gain insights into the evolution of geological structures. In this study, we present a direct comparison of experimental results of 14 analogue modelling laboratories using prescribed set-ups. A quantitative analysis of the results will document the variability among models and will allow an appraisal of reproducibility and limits of interpretation. This has direct implications for comparisons between structures in analogue models and natural field examples. All laboratories used the same frictional analogue materials (quartz and corundum sand) and prescribed model-building techniques (sieving and levelling). Although each laboratory used its own experimental apparatus, the same type of self-adhesive foil was used to cover the base and all the walls of the experimental apparatus in order to guarantee identical boundary conditions (i.e. identical shear stresses at the base and walls). Three experimental set-ups using only brittle frictional materials were examined. In each of the three set-ups the model was shortened by a vertical wall, which moved with respect to the fixed base and the three remaining sidewalls. The minimum width of the model (dimension parallel to mobile wall) was also prescribed. In the first experimental set-up, a quartz sand wedge with a surface slope of ˜20° was pushed by a mobile wall. All models conformed to the critical taper theory, maintained a stable surface slope and did not show internal deformation. In the next two experimental set-ups, a horizontal sand pack consisting of alternating quartz sand and corundum sand layers was shortened from one side by the mobile wall. In one of the set-ups a thin rigid sheet covered part of the model base and was attached to the mobile wall (i.e. a basal velocity discontinuity distant from the mobile wall). In the other set-up a basal rigid sheet was absent and the basal velocity discontinuity was located at the mobile wall. In both types of experiments

  14. The viscous to brittle transition in eruptions of clay suspensions (United States)

    Schmid, Diana; Scheu, Bettina; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben; Jolly, Art; Dingwell, Donald B.


    solid-like behaviour is a viscous to brittle transition and occurs between a kaolin mass fraction of 0.48 and 0.65, which is consistent with previous observations of the liquid and plastic rheological limits, respectively. We find that a Stokes' number balances the timescale of flow with the timescale of particle motion opposing flow. We suggest that the transition from regime 1 to regime 2 occurs when the relative velocity between the ejected material and the gas phase increases and the Stokes' number exceeds 1, leading to decoupling and shear-stresses at the ejected fluid interfaces. A capillary number characterizes the transition from elongated liquid structures (regime 2) to individual droplets (regime 3) in the liquid-dominated system when the relative velocity drops to a value at which surface tension can restore the droplets to spherical. Our results emphasize that the different rheology of muddy material exhibit different characteristic eruption styles and offers a way to classify them.

  15. On the Origin of the Non-brittle Rachis Trait of Domesticated Einkorn Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pourkheirandish


    Full Text Available Einkorn and emmer wheat together with barley were among the first cereals domesticated by humans more than 10,000 years ago, long before durum or bread wheat originated. Domesticated einkorn wheat differs from its wild progenitor in basic morphological characters such as the grain dispersal system. This study identified the Non-brittle rachis 1 (btr1 and Non-brittle rachis 2 (btr2 in einkorn as homologous to barley. Re-sequencing of the Btr1 and Btr2 in a collection of 53 lines showed that a single non-synonymous amino acid substitution (alanine to threonine at position 119 at btr1, is responsible for the non-brittle rachis trait in domesticated einkorn. Tracing this haplotype variation back to wild einkorn samples provides further evidence that the einkorn progenitor came from the Northern Levant. We show that the geographical origin of domesticated haplotype coincides with the non-brittle domesticated barley haplotypes, which suggest the non-brittle rachis phenotypes of einkorn and barley were fixed in same geographic area in today’s South-east Turkey.

  16. New approaches for evaluation of brittle strength of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, B.; Karzov, G.; Kostylev, V.; Gulenko, A.; Rivkin, E.


    Based on the Master curve conception, condition of brittle strength is formulated for heterogeneous distribution of stress intensity factor along crack front and non-monotonic, non-isothermic loading. This formulation includes the elaborated procedure for taking into account the effects of shallow cracks and biaxial loading on fracture toughness. It is concluded as follows: (1) A condition of brittle strength is formulated for reactor pressure vessel with crack-like flaw in probabilistic statement. As the condition of brittle strength it is taken condition P f f (bar) where P f is fracture probability, and P f (bar) is a given level of fracture probability. Formulation of this condition is based on the weakest link model and takes into account a variation of the stress intensity factor K I and K IC along the crack front. (2) Dependencies are proposed which allow to take into account the shallow crack effect and the biaxial loading effect on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels. (3) Using approaches presented in the present paper allows one to decrease conservatism and to increase adequacy of evaluations of brittle strength of reactor pressure vessels. Now these approaches have been included in Russian Standard on evaluation of brittle fracture of RPV of WWER type

  17. Ductile and brittle transition behavior of titanium alloys in ultra-precision machining. (United States)

    Yip, W S; To, S


    Titanium alloys are extensively applied in biomedical industries due to their excellent material properties. However, they are recognized as difficult to cut materials due to their low thermal conductivity, which induces a complexity to their deformation mechanisms and restricts precise productions. This paper presents a new observation about the removal regime of titanium alloys. The experimental results, including the chip formation, thrust force signal and surface profile, showed that there was a critical cutting distance to achieve better surface integrity of machined surface. The machined areas with better surface roughness were located before the clear transition point, defining as the ductile to brittle transition. The machined area at the brittle region displayed the fracture deformation which showed cracks on the surface edge. The relationship between depth of cut and the ductile to brittle transaction behavior of titanium alloys in ultra-precision machining(UPM) was also revealed in this study, it showed that the ductile to brittle transaction behavior of titanium alloys occurred mainly at relatively small depth of cut. The study firstly defines the ductile to brittle transition behavior of titanium alloys in UPM, contributing the information of ductile machining as an optimal machining condition for precise productions of titanium alloys.

  18. Determination techniques of characteristics of brittle fracture for materials on the CMEA 1-35 problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhutov, N.A.; Tananov, A.I.; Koshelev, P.F.; Zatsarinnyj, V.V.


    The problems concerning the development and improvement of the investigation techniques and the evaluation of the resistance to brittle fracture of a wide class of materials (the reactor ones, in particular) under different conditions of loading using modern test means are considered in the review. It is reflected in the plan of works on the theme 1-35.3 ''Development of the methods of determination of resistance to brittle fracture of the materials and elements of construct Specialists from CMEA member-countries took an active part in its implementation. The development of the 1-35.3 theme presupposes the creation of scientific bases of calculation methods of the details of machines and elements of constructions according to the criteria of resistance to brittle fracture. The results obtained when using the methods of fracture mechanics are of significant importance in the substantiation of strength and admissible defectiveness of large-size constructions operating under the extremum conditions [ru

  19. Study on electroplating technology of diamond tools for machining hard and brittle materials (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Jian Hua; Sun, Li Peng; Wang, Yue


    With the development of the high speed cutting, the ultra-precision machining and ultrasonic vibration technique in processing hard and brittle material , the requirement of cutting tools is becoming higher and higher. As electroplated diamond tools have distinct advantages, such as high adaptability, high durability, long service life and good dimensional stability, the cutting tools are effective and extensive used in grinding hard and brittle materials. In this paper, the coating structure of electroplating diamond tool is described. The electroplating process flow is presented, and the influence of pretreatment on the machining quality is analyzed. Through the experimental research and summary, the reasonable formula of the electrolyte, the electroplating technologic parameters and the suitable sanding method were determined. Meanwhile, the drilling experiment on glass-ceramic shows that the electroplating process can effectively improve the cutting performance of diamond tools. It has laid a good foundation for further improving the quality and efficiency of the machining of hard and brittle materials.


    Giordano, Peggy C; Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A


    Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively "cold and brittle" relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the "cold" and "brittle" dimensions of Hirschi's hypothesis. Regarding the "cold" assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the "brittle" description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict.

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Various Brittleness Indexes with Specific Ampere Draw in Rock Sawing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mikaeil


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop new statistical models for evaluating the specific ampere draw (SI based on rock brittleness index in rock sawing process. A variety of rocks, including carbonate and granite, were cut by a fully instrumented laboratory-sawing rig with two different types of circular diamond saws. Laboratory tests were performed at different depths of cut and feed rates. Multiple curvilinear regression analysis was utilized in order to estimate the SI from rock brittleness index and operational parameters. Validation of the developed models was checked by t and F tests. Results showed that among the different brittleness indexes, B3 has the best accuracy for both granite and carbonate rocks. Finally, it was concluded that the specific ampere draw can be reliably predicted using the proposed models for both hard and soft rocks.

  2. Extra-electron induced covalent strengthening and generalization of intrinsic ductile-to-brittle criterion (United States)

    Niu, Haiyang; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Liu, Peitao; Xing, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi


    Traditional strengthening ways, such as strain, precipitation, and solid-solution, come into effect by pinning the motion of dislocation. Here, through first-principles calculations we report on an extra-electron induced covalent strengthening mechanism, which alters chemical bonding upon the introduction of extra-valence electrons in the matrix of parent materials. It is responsible for the brittle and high-strength properties of Al12W-type compounds featured by the typical fivefold icosahedral cages, which are common for quasicrystals and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In combination with this mechanism, we generalize ductile-to-brittle criterion in a universal hyperbolic form by integrating the classical Pettifor's Cauchy pressure with Pugh's modulus ratio for a wide variety of materials with cubic lattices. This study provides compelling evidence to correlate Pugh's modulus ratio with hardness of materials and may have implication for understanding the intrinsic brittleness of quasicrystals and BMGs.

  3. Use of probability with linear elastic fracture mechanics in studying brittle fracture in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouris, G.M.; Shaffer, D.H.


    One phase is considered in the development of statistical methodology for a fracture mechanics analysis of the failure of nuclear steam supply system components, in particular that of brittle fracture in the beltline region of the pressure vessel resulting from various transients. It introduces a probability structure into the deterministic linear elastic fracture mechanics calculations. The resulting estimates of probability of brittle fracture reflect not only variation due to heterogeneity of vessel material but also uncertainties in the effect of embrittlement of the vessel steel due to neutron irradiation. Using importance sampling in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation it was estimated that, for the operational transients considered, the probability of brittle fracture conditional on the presence of an Appendix G (ASME Code.Sn13) flaw is less than 2 x 10sup(-10). (author)

  4. Analysis of a brittle-culm mutant of rice (Oryza sativa) induced bay gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doat, Jacqueline; Marie, R.


    An unexpected ''brittle-culm'' mutant has been screened in the progeny of the rice cultivar ''Balilla 28'' after a seed treatment by gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source. This property proved hereditable and true-breeding. It does not affect the high resistance to lodging of rice plants. Important difference were pointed out between control and mutant lines in cellulose content and 1 p. cent NaOH extracts: ''brittle-culm'' straw contains less cellulose and shows a degradation of glucid coupounds. The brittleness of plant tissues appears to be correlated with a partial depolymerization of cellulose, associated with a possible transformation from alpha- to beta- or gamma-cellulose [fr

  5. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.


    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Estimation of possibility of brittle fracture in high pressure boiler drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin', E.A.


    Paper presents the results of analysis of the problem to ensure brittle strength of high pressure boiler drums made with application of the present-day methods of linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics. The charts of the temperature boundaries of brittle fracture and of the critical factors of stress intensity plotted depending on the actual properties of the material and on dimensions of flaws are presented for standard size drums made of 22K and 16GNM steels. In the paper there are some examples of the practical application of the given charts [ru

  7. Micro- and macroapproaches in fracture mechanics for interpreting brittle fracture and fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekobori, T.; Konosu, S.; Ekobori, A.


    Classified are models of the crack growth mechanism, and in the framework of the fracture mechanics suggested are combined micro- and macroapproaches to interpreting the criterion of the brittle fracture and fatigue crack growth as fracture typical examples, when temporal processes are important or unimportant. Under the brittle fracture conditions the crack propagation criterion is shown to be brought with the high accuracy to a form analogous to one of the crack propagation in a linear fracture mechanics although it is expressed with micro- and macrostructures. Obtained is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental data

  8. Atomistic explanation of brittle failure of thermoelectric skutterudite CoSb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Hanus, Riley; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Snyder, G. Jeffrey


    CoSb 3 based skutterudite thermoelectric material has superior thermoelectric properties, but the low fracture toughness prevents its widespread commercial application. To determine the origin of its brittle failure, we examined the response of shear deformation in CoSb 3 along the most plausible slip system (010)/<100>, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the brittle failure of CoSb 3 arises from the formation of shear bands due to the destruction of Sb4-rings and the slippage of Co-octahedraes. This leads to the breakage of Co-octahedraes and cavitation, resulting in the crack opening and mechanical failure.

  9. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.


    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  10. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.


    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  11. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces


    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar


    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  12. Brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from seamounts in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean): first account, with descriptions of new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stohr, S.; Sautya, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden, Sabyasachi Sautya National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research – CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India, Baban... Ingole National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research – CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India, Keywords. Ophiophyllum, Astrophiura, Ophioleuce, taxonomy, systematics, morphology, scanning electron...

  13. A new brittle star from the early Carboniferous of Poland and its implications on Paleozoic modern-type ophiuroid systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy


    Full Text Available The fossil record of Paleozoic ophiuroids includes a number of forms which share striking similarities with modern relatives in terms of skeletal morphology. These so called modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroids yield an enormous potential for a better understanding of ophiuroid evolution, yet the scarcity of accurate and sufficiently detailed morphological descriptions available to date precludes any further-reaching assessments. Here, we describe an articulated ophiuroid specimen from the Late Tournaisian (early Carboniferous of Czatkowice quarry, southern Poland, as a new species Aganaster jagiellonicus sp. nov. The good preservation of the specimen allowed for a morphological analysis at a level comparable to recent ophiuroid descriptions. It shows remarkable morphological similarities with extant former ophiolepidids Ophiomusium and Ophiosphalma. The new find thus contributes to a solid basis for future investigations on the position of the modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroid in the phylogeny of the class.

  14. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.


    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  16. mSTAR (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mini-STAR (mSTAR) is a small satellite mission concept to test the hypothesis that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity and orientation of the...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  18. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.


    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  3. Long-term follow-up of children thought to have temporary brittle bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson CR


    Full Text Available Colin R Paterson1, Elizabeth A Monk21Department of Medicine (retired, 2School of Accounting and Finance, University of Dundee, Dundee, ScotlandBackground: In addition to nonaccidental injury, a variety of bone disorders may underlie the finding of unexplained fractures in young children. One controversial postulated cause is temporary brittle bone disease, first described in 1990.Methods: Eighty-five patients with fractures showing clinical and radiological features of temporary brittle bone disease were the subject of judicial hearings to determine whether it was appropriate for them to return home. Sixty-three patients did, and follow-up information was available for 61 of these. The mean follow-up period was 6.9 years (range 1–17, median 6.Results: We found that none of the children had sustained any further injuries that were thought to represent nonaccidental injury; no child was re-removed from home. Three children had fractures. In each case there was general agreement that the fractures were accidental. Had the original fractures in these children been the result of nonaccidental injury, it would have been severe and repeated; the average number of fractures was 9.1.Conclusion: The fact that no subsequent suspicious injuries took place after return home is consistent with the view that the fractures were unlikely to have been caused by nonaccidental injury, and that temporary brittle bone disease is a distinctive and identifiable disorder.Keywords: fractures, osteogenesis imperfecta, temporary brittle bone disease, nonaccidental injury

  4. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is an excellent way to produce ultraprecision surface finish. However, superabrasive diamond grits need ...

  5. Influence of some starch binders on the brittle fracture tendency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 16, 2006 ... The study was carried out to compare the binder effects of cassava and cocoyam starch with that of maize starch BP. The parameters investigated were the brittle fracture index (BFI), the tablet packing fraction (Pf), and tensile strength (T). Mucilages of the starches of varying concentrations; 15, 20, and.

  6. Brittle fracture phase-field modeling of a short-rod specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Ivana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tupek, Michael R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bishop, Joseph E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Predictive simulation capabilities for modeling fracture evolution provide further insight into quantities of interest in comparison to experimental testing. Based on the variational approach to fracture, the advent of phase-field modeling achieves the goal to robustly model fracture for brittle materials and captures complex crack topologies in three dimensions.

  7. On the origin of brittle fracture of entangled polymer solutions and melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Narimissa, Esmaeil; Huang, Qian


    A novel criterion for brittle fracture of entangled polymer liquids is presented: Crack initiation follows from rupture of primary C-C bonds, when the strain energy of an entanglement segment reaches the energy of the covalent bond. Thermal fluctuations lead to a short-time concentration of the s...

  8. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    \\R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is ... materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of micro components such as ...

  9. Algorithm to measure automatically the ductile/brittle fracture of Charpy test specimens (United States)

    Camargo, Anyela; Tickle, Andrew J.; Smith, Jeremy S.


    The Charpy impact test technique assesses the toughness of an engineering material. The test measures the amount of energy a specimen can resist before it is broken by the impact of a heavy pendulum. Estimation of toughness is carried out manually by a skilled operator; they assess the percentage of light-reflective brittle regions on the fracture area. Because this assessment is performed manually, there is some subjectivity in the results. This study proposes a machine-based-learning algorithm to estimate this measure automatically. The method consists of capturing a digital image of the fracture surface after impact, preprocessing it, dividing it up into 10×10 pixel segments, and extracting from each segment features associated with its texture. Feature vectors feed a classifier whose purpose is to distinguish between brittle and ductile images (binary output). To estimate toughness, the classifier's outputs are used to construct a binary image, which is postprocessed to determine the percentage of the brittle region. To assess the accuracy of the algorithm, automatically and manually classified images are compared. Results show that the algorithm proposed was able to distinguish between brittle and ductile regions successfully and could be used instead of the manually performed technique.

  10. Deterministic and stochastic analysis of size effects and damage evolution in quasi-brittle materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, M.A.; Borst, R. de


    This study presents some recent results on damage evolution in quasi-brittle materials including stochastic imperfections. The material strength is described as a random field and coupled to the response. The most probable configurations of imperfections leading to failure are sought by means of an

  11. Influence of some starch binders on the brittle fracture tendency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to compare the binder effects of cassava and cocoyam starch with that of maize starch BP. The parameters investigated were the brittle fracture index (BFI), the tablet packing fraction (Pf), and tensile strength (T). Mucilages of the starches of varying concentrations; 15, 20, and 25% (w/v) were ...

  12. A closer look at the ductile-brittle transition in solid particle erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Two types of solid particle erosion are often distinguished: brittle erosion and ductile erosion. In the first case, material is removed by crack formation (maximum erosion at 90° impact angle), in the latter case by cutting and ploughing (maximum erosion around 30° impact angle). When very low

  13. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  14. Development of small punch tests for ductile-brittle transition temperature measurement of temper embrittled Ni-Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, J.M.; Kameda, J.; Buck, O.


    Small punch tests were developed to determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) steels having various degrees of temper embrittlement and various microstructures. It was found that the small punch test clearly shows the ductile-brittle transition behavior of the temper-embrittled steels. The measured values were compared with those obtained from Charpy impact and uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of punch tip shape, a notch, and the strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition behavior were examined. It was found that the combined use of a notch, high strain rates, and a small punch tip strongly affects the ductile-brittle transition behavior. Considerable variations in the data were observed when the small punch tests were performed on coarse-grained steels. Several factors controlling embrittlement measurements of steels are discussed in terms of brittle fracture mechanisms

  15. America's Star Libraries (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry


    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  16. A Procedure for Determining Rock-Type Specific Hoek-Brown Brittle Parameter s (United States)

    Suorineni, F. T.; Chinnasane, D. R.; Kaiser, P. K.


    The Hoek-Brown failure criterion constants m and s are equivalent rock friction and cohesion parameters, respectively. On the laboratory scale, m depends on the rock type and texture (grain size), while s = 1 for all rocks. On the field scale, m is a function of rock type, texture, and rock mass quality (geological strength index, GSI), while s is simply a function of rock mass quality. The brittle Hoek-Brown damage initiation criterion ( m-zero criterion) is a modification to the conventional Hoek-Brown failure criterion with m = 0 and s = 0.11. The m-zero damage initiation criterion has been shown to better predict depths of failure in excavations in some moderate to massive (GSI ≥ 75) rock masses, but over predicts depths of failure in other rock types. It is now recognized that the Hoek-Brown brittle parameter ( s) is not the same for all hard, strong, brittle, moderate to massive rock masses, but depends on the rock type. However, there are no guidelines for its determination for specific rock types. This paper presents a semi-empirical procedure for the determination of rock-type specific brittle Hoek-Brown parameter s from the rock texture, mineralogical composition, and microstructure. The paper also differentiates between brittle and tenuous rocks. It is shown that, while the use of the term ‘brittle’ is appropriate for rock mechanical excavation and mode of failure in weak rocks with limited deformability, it is inappropriate for use in explaining the difference in resistance to stress-induced damage in different rock types, and can cause confusion. The terms ‘tenacity/toughness’ are introduced to describe rock resistance to stress-induced damage in excavation performance assessment, and a rock tenacity/toughness rating system is presented.

  17. A comprehensive method for the fracability evaluation of shale combined with brittleness and stress sensitivity (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiong; Ge, Hongkui; Wang, Daobing; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Hao


    An effective fracability evaluation on the fracture network is key to the whole process of shale gas exploitation. At present, neither a standard criteria nor a generally accepted evaluation method exist. Well log and laboratory results have shown that the commonly used brittleness index calculated from the mineralogy composition is not entirely consistent with that obtained from the elastic modulus of the rock, and is sometimes even contradictory. The brittle mineral reflects the brittleness of the rock matrix, and the stress sensitivity of the wave velocity reflects the development degree of the natural fracture system. They are both key factors in controlling the propagating fracture morphology. Thus, in this study, a novel fracability evaluation method of shale was developed combining brittleness and stress sensitivity. Based on this method, the fracability of three shale gas plays were evaluated. The cored cylindrical samples were loaded under uniaxial stress up to 30 MPa and the compressional wave velocities were obtained along the axis stress direction at each MPa stress. From the stress velocity evolution, the stress sensitivity coefficients could be obtained. Our results showed that the fracability of Niutitang shale is better than that of Lujiaping shale, and the fracability of Lujiaping shale is better than Longmaxi shale. This result is in good agreement with acoustic emission activity measurements. The new fracability evaluation method enables a comprehensive reflection of the characteristics of rock matrix brittleness and the natural fracture system. This work is valuable for the evaluation of hydraulic fracturing effects in unconventional oil and gas reservoirs in the future.

  18. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  19. Magnetism of hot stars (United States)

    Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.


    Strong, stable, and organised magnetic fields are present at the surfaces of a small fraction of OBA stars. These "fossil fields" exhibit uniform characteristics in stars over a tremendous range of stellar mass, age, temperature, and rotation rate. In hot O- and B-type stars, these magnetic fields couple efficiently to the stellar radiatively driven winds, strongly influencing stellar mass loss and rotation. In this article we review the characteristics of the known magnetic hot stars, discuss recent discoveries and insights, and describe recent theoretical progress toward understanding basic field properties and the influence of magnetic fields on hot star evolution.

  20. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian


    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen


    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  2. Ponderable soliton stars (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee


    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  3. Role of Brittle Behaviour of Soft Calcarenites Under Low Confinement: Laboratory Observations and Numerical Investigation (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco


    The strength decay that occurs in the post-peak stage, under low confinement stress, represents a key factor of the stress-strain behaviour of rocks. However, for soft rocks this issue is generally underestimated or even neglected in the solution of boundary value problems, as for example those concerning the stability of underground cavities or rocky cliffs. In these cases, the constitutive models frequently used in limit equilibrium analyses or more sophisticated numerical calculations are, respectively, rigid-plastic or elastic-perfectly plastic. In particular, most of commercial continuum-based numerical codes propose a variety of constitutive models, including elasticity, elasto-plasticity, strain-softening and elasto-viscoplasticity, which are not exhaustive in simulating the progressive failure mechanisms affecting brittle rock materials, these being characterized by material detachment and crack opening and propagation. As a consequence, a numerical coupling with mechanical joint propagation is needed to cope with fracture mechanics. Therefore, continuum-based applications that treat the simulation of the failure processes of intact rock masses at low stress levels may need the adoption of numerical techniques capable of implementing fracture mechanics and rock brittleness concepts, as it is shown in this paper. This work is aimed at highlighting, for some applications of rock mechanics, the essential role of post-peak brittleness of soft rocks by means of the application of a hybrid finite-discrete element method. This method allows for a proper simulation of the brittle rock behaviour and the related mechanism of fracture propagation. In particular, the paper presents two ideal problems, represented by a shallow underground cave and a vertical cliff, for which the evolution of the stability conditions is investigated by comparing the solutions obtained implementing different brittle material responses with those resulting from the assumption of perfectly

  4. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira


    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  5. Dark stars: a review. (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica


    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  6. Effect of chemical composition of copper alloys on their hot-brittleness and weldability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, M.V.


    Effect of different alloying elements on the hot crack formation in argon-arc welding of M1 copper has been studied. It is shown that the effective crystallization interval has a determining influence on hot-brittleness of low-alloyed high-thermal- and electric conducting welded copper alloys. The narrow is this interval the lower is linear schrinkage and the alloys inclined to the formation of crystallization cracks in welding to a lesser degree. Alloying elements with low solubility in copper in solid state broadening the crystallization interval affect negatively the alloy hot-brittleness. Such additives as zirconium are useful at 0.02-0.O5% content and at > 0.1% content are intolerable. As to cadmium, tin, magnesium, cerium and antimony additives they don't practically strengthen copper and its alloys at 700-800 deg C and they should not be introduced

  7. On the brittle-ductile behavior of iron meteorites - New experimental constraints (United States)

    Matsui, T.; Schultz, P. H.


    Impact trials were performed at the NASA vertical gun range to study low-temperature brittle-ductile transitions in meteoritic, steel and iron targets. The trials were performed to enhance the data base underlying the concept of formation of planetesimals in collisional coagulation. Impact velocities of 1.6-5.5 km/sec were used, as were temperatures from 100-300 K. Spallation was observed in the tests with meteorite samples, even at room temperature, and brittleness was enhanced at temperature below 200 C. Net mass losses were induced at the higher impact velocities. It is suggested that iron meteorite agglomerations could form in the inner solar region during nebular condensation, but would not form in farther-out regions such as the asteroid belt. The protoplanets could have an iron core, with metallicity decreasing with radius from the core, which may have happened with the earth.

  8. Brittleness and elastic limit of iron-aluminium 40 at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottu, J.P.


    Iron-aluminium 40 - a B2 ordered solid solution - was tensile tested to provide information on the brittleness of this alloy and its dependence on strain rate and temperature. For slow strain rates (0.34 per cent s -1 ) cleaved fracture prevails when temperature is kept below 400 deg. C, while a ductile rupture is observed, with an almost 100 per cent necking at higher temperatures. In this case, recrystallization occurs during the deformation. For higher strain rates - 335 per cent s -1 ), a ductility reduction - owed to intergranular fracture - precedes the brittle-ductile transition. This property may be bound to the peak on the yield stress temperature curve, which is itself connected to the ordered structure of this alloy. (author) [fr

  9. Micromechanics based permeability evolution in brittle materials at high strain rates (United States)

    Perol, T.; Bhat, H.


    We develop a micro-mechanics based permeability evolution model for brittle materials that are strain rate sensitive. Extending the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, developed by Bhat et al. (2012) we now relate the damage related strains (plastic strains) to calculate the evolution of micro-crack aperture. We then use the permeability model developed by Gueguen and Dienes (1989) and Simpson et al. (2001) to evaluate the permeability evolution. Permeability evolution computed using this model is shown to be in very good agreement with experimental results. Pore pressure evolution in a damaged medium, due to waste water injection for example, is then computed and we show that spatially variable permeability plays a major role in determining the pore pressure excess in the surrounding medium.

  10. Size-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Silica Glass Nanofibers. (United States)

    Luo, Junhang; Wang, Jiangwei; Bitzek, Erik; Huang, Jian Yu; Zheng, He; Tong, Limin; Yang, Qing; Li, Ju; Mao, Scott X


    Silica (SiO2) glass, an essential material in human civilization, possesses excellent formability near its glass-transition temperature (Tg > 1100 °C). However, bulk SiO2 glass is very brittle at room temperature. Here we show a surprising brittle-to-ductile transition of SiO2 glass nanofibers at room temperature as its diameter reduces below 18 nm, accompanied by ultrahigh fracture strength. Large tensile plastic elongation up to 18% can be achieved at low strain rate. The unexpected ductility is due to a free surface affected zone in the nanofibers, with enhanced ionic mobility compared to the bulk that improves ductility by producing more bond-switching events per irreversible bond loss under tensile stress. Our discovery is fundamentally important for understanding the damage tolerance of small-scale amorphous structures.

  11. Brittle-to-ductile transition of lithiated silicon electrodes: Crazing to stable nanopore growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haoran; Chew, Huck Beng, E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wang, Xueju; Xia, Shuman [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)


    Using first principle calculations, we uncover the underlying mechanisms explaining the brittle-to-ductile transition of Li{sub x}Si electrodes in lithium ion batteries with increasing Li content. We show that plasticity initiates at x = ∼ 0.5 with the formation of a craze-like network of nanopores separated by Si–Si bonds, while subsequent failure is still brittle-like with the breaking of Si–Si bonds. Transition to ductile behavior occurs at x ⩾ 1 due to the increased density of highly stretchable Li–Li bonds, which delays nanopore formation and stabilizes nanopore growth. Collapse of the nanopores during unloading of the Li{sub x}Si alloys leads to significant strain recovery.

  12. Brittleness estimation from seismic measurements in unconventional reservoirs: Application to the Barnett shale (United States)

    Perez Altimar, Roderick

    Brittleness is a key characteristic for effective reservoir stimulation and is mainly controlled by mineralogy in unconventional reservoirs. Unfortunately, there is no universally accepted means of predicting brittleness from measures made in wells or from surface seismic data. Brittleness indices (BI) are based on mineralogy, while brittleness average estimations are based on Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. I evaluate two of the more popular brittleness estimation techniques and apply them to a Barnett Shale seismic survey in order to estimate its geomechanical properties. Using specialized logging tools such as elemental capture tool, density, and P- and S wave sonic logs calibrated to previous core descriptions and laboratory measurements, I create a survey-specific BI template in Young's modulus versus Poisson's ratio or alternatively lambdarho versus murho space. I use this template to predict BI from elastic parameters computed from surface seismic data, providing a continuous estimate of BI estimate in the Barnett Shale survey. Extracting lambdarho-murho values from microseismic event locations, I compute brittleness index from the template and find that most microsemic events occur in the more brittle part of the reservoir. My template is validated through a suite of microseismic experiments that shows most events occurring in brittle zones, fewer events in the ductile shale, and fewer events still in the limestone fracture barriers. Estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) is an estimate of the expected total production of oil and/or gas for the economic life of a well and is widely used in the evaluation of resource play reserves. In the literature it is possible to find several approaches for forecasting purposes and economic analyses. However, the extension to newer infill wells is somewhat challenging because production forecasts in unconventional reservoirs are a function of both completion effectiveness and reservoir quality. For shale gas reservoirs

  13. Seeing Stars in Serpens (United States)


    Infant stars are glowing gloriously in this infrared image of the Serpens star-forming region, captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The reddish-pink dots are baby stars deeply embedded in the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to create it. A dusty disk of cosmic debris, or 'protoplanetary disk,' that may eventually form planets, surrounds the infant stars. Wisps of green throughout the image indicate the presence of carbon rich molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. On Earth, these molecules can be found on charred barbecue grills and in automobile exhaust. Blue specks sprinkled throughout the image are background stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The Serpens star-forming region is located approximately 848 light-years away in the Serpens constellation. The image is a three-channel, false-color composite, where emission at 4.5 microns is blue, emission at 8.0 microns is green, and 24 micron emission is red.

  14. Slowly pulsating B stars (United States)

    Waelkens, C.


    Photometric data obtained during several years of observations of seven B-type stars are analyzed, including HD 74195 (Omicron Velorum), HD 74560 (HD 3467), HD 123515 (HR 5296), HD 143309, HD 160124, HD 177863 (HR 7241), and HD 181558 (HR 7339). Results indicate that all seven stars are multiperiodic variables with periods of the order of days. Two periods were identified for HD 177863, three periods for HD 74560 and HD 181558, four periods for HD 123515, five periods for HD 74195, six periods for HD 143309, and eight periods for HD 160124. The multiperiodicity and the amplitude behavior of these stars point toward pulsation in high-radial-order g-modes in the stars. It is suggested that these stars form a distinct group of early-type variables, which are named here 'slowly pulsating B stars'.

  15. Ultrasonic detection of ductile-to-brittle transitions in free-cutting aluminum alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejezchlebová, J.; Seiner, Hanuš; Ševčík, Martin; Landa, Michal; Karlík, M.


    Roč. 69, January 2015 (2015), s. 40-47 ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : aluminum alloys * laser ultrasound * ductile-to-brittle * elastic constants * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2015

  16. The effect of the dislocation image force on the brittle behaviour of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.


    The dislocation image force due to the free surface of a finite width specimen makes the plastic zone at a crack tip larger. The effect of the dislocation image force on the fracture behaviour of materials with different geometrical shapes is discussed. It is found that the ratio V/A as an indication of the brittle behaviour of structural components is reasonable for elastic-plastic fracture. (author)

  17. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  18. Implementation of a Mechanochemical Model for Dynamic Brittle Fracture in SIERRA (United States)


    an issue in a test where the loading is applied very rapidly and there are elastic waves propagating back and forth. A wave propagating past would...Failure Pattern Formation in Brittle Ceramics and Glasses. In 23rd International Symposium on Ballistics, April 2007, Tarragona, Spain, 2007. 6...The Law of Elasticity for Isotropic and Quasi-Isotropic Substances by Finite Deformations. Journal of Rheology 1931, 2, 169. 27 13. Anand, L. On H

  19. Contact mechanics at nanometric scale using nanoindentation technique for brittle and ductile materials. (United States)

    Roa, J J; Rayon, E; Morales, M; Segarra, M


    In the last years, Nanoindentation or Instrumented Indentation Technique has become a powerful tool to study the mechanical properties at micro/nanometric scale (commonly known as hardness, elastic modulus and the stress-strain curve). In this review, the different contact mechanisms (elastic and elasto-plastic) are discussed, the recent patents for each mechanism (elastic and elasto-plastic) are summarized in detail, and the basic equations employed to know the mechanical behaviour for brittle and ductile materials are described.

  20. The effect of Lüders’ flow on brittle fracture initiation in pearlitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Jurášek, L.; Holzmann, Miloslav


    Roč. 567-568, - (2008), s. 413-416 ISSN 0255-5476. [MSMF /5./. Brno, 27.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200410502; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : cleavage fracture * Lüders’ flow * brittle fracture initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  1. Nagyszombat and the stars (United States)

    Zsoldos, E.

    Péter Pázmány, founder of the University of Nagyszombat, considered stars in terms inherited from medieval times. The theses, connected to the university graduation, soon left this definition, and imagined stars as made from sublunar elements. The 1753 decree of the Empress Maria Theresia ordered university professors to publish textbooks. These textbooks, together with the theses showed a definite improvement, defining stars according to contemporary knowledge.

  2. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de


    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  3. Numerical model of thermo-mechanical coupling for the tensile failure process of brittle materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu


    Full Text Available A numerical model of thermal cracking with a thermo-mechanical coupling effect was established. The theory of tensile failure and heat conduction is used to study the tensile failure process of brittle materials, such as rock and concrete under high temperature environment. The validity of the model is verified by thick-wall cylinders with analytical solutions. The failure modes of brittle materials under thermal stresses caused by temperature gradient and different thermal expansion coefficient were studied by using a thick-wall cylinder model and an embedded particle model, respectively. In the thick-wall cylinder model, different forms of cracks induced by temperature gradient were obtained under different temperature boundary conditions. In the embedded particle model, radial cracks were produced in the medium part with lower tensile strength when temperature increased because of the different thermal expansion coefficient. Model results are in good agreement with the experimental results, thereby providing a new finite element method for analyzing the thermal damage process and mechanism of brittle materials.

  4. Prediction of brittleness based on anisotropic rock physics model for kerogen-rich shale (United States)

    Qian, Ke-Ran; He, Zhi-Liang; Chen, Ye-Quan; Liu, Xi-Wu; Li, Xiang-Yang


    The construction of a shale rock physics model and the selection of an appropriate brittleness index ( BI) are two significant steps that can influence the accuracy of brittleness prediction. On one hand, the existing models of kerogen-rich shale are controversial, so a reasonable rock physics model needs to be built. On the other hand, several types of equations already exist for predicting the BI whose feasibility needs to be carefully considered. This study constructed a kerogen-rich rock physics model by performing the selfconsistent approximation and the differential effective medium theory to model intercoupled clay and kerogen mixtures. The feasibility of our model was confirmed by comparison with classical models, showing better accuracy. Templates were constructed based on our model to link physical properties and the BI. Different equations for the BI had different sensitivities, making them suitable for different types of formations. Equations based on Young's Modulus were sensitive to variations in lithology, while those using Lame's Coefficients were sensitive to porosity and pore fluids. Physical information must be considered to improve brittleness prediction.

  5. Formulation and computational aspects of plasticity and damage models with application to quasi-brittle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.

  6. Investigation into crack resistance of building steels during dynamic initiation and propagation of brittle cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, E.M.; Makhutov, N.A.


    Possibilities to determine the characteristics of steel crack resistance at the stage of crack initiation and propagation are studied according to the results of the impact bend test of standard samples with a crack, when the P-f oscillograms (loading-deflection) have been recorded. The investigation has been carried out for low-carbon and low-alloyed steels widely applied for building structures. It is shown that during the impact bend testing of standard samples with a crack in brittle and quasibrittle states the time of sample strain before the initiation of unstable crack turns out to be similar to the time of crack propagation. This fact conditions the mode of strain diagram as approximately symmetric as to the maximum load and, consequently, is the reason for the levelling of specific energy of elastic strains and specific energy of crack propagation. During the transition from plastic to brittle fractures with the temperature decrease under conditions of the dynamic loading the rate of the crack propagation vsub(p) increases by two orders, constituting approximately 0.002 from the rate of the elastic waves movement at plastic state and up to 0.25 at brittle ones [ru

  7. Cyclic flattened Brazilian disc tests for measuring the tensile fatigue properties of brittle rocks. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Xu, Nuwen; Zhao, Tao


    We propose a cyclic flattened Brazilian disc (FBD) testing method to measure the tensile fatigue properties of brittle rocks. Our method has obvious merits in its specimen preparation and experimental operation. Two parallel flattens are introduced in the disc specimen, which facilitate easily and uniformly loading the specimen without special loading devices required. Moreover, the contact regions between two flattens and loading planes barely change during the entire loading and unloading process, ensuring a consistent contact condition. With certain appropriate loading angles, this method guarantees that the very first breakage of the specimen occurs at the center of the disc, which is the prerequisite of the Brazilian-type indirect tensile tests. To demonstrate our new method, nine cyclic FBD tensile tests are conducted. The fatigue load-deformation characteristics of FBD specimens are revealed. The tensile fatigue lives of tested specimens are observed to increase with the increase in cyclic loading frequency. Our proposed method provides a convenient and reliable approach to indirectly measure the fatigue tensile properties of brittle rocks and other brittle solids subjected to cyclic tensile loadings.

  8. Strain Rate Dependent Ductile-to-Brittle Transition of Graphite Platelet Reinforced Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmananda Pramanik


    Full Text Available In previous research, the fractal dimensions of fractured surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites were estimated applying classical method on 3D digital microscopic images. The fracture energy and fracture toughness were obtained from fractal dimensions. A noteworthy observation, the strain rate dependent ductile-to-brittle transition of vinyl ester based nanocomposites, is reinvestigated in the current study. The candidate materials of xGnP (exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets reinforced and with additional CTBN (Carboxyl Terminated Butadiene Nitrile toughened vinyl ester based nanocomposites that are subjected to both quasi-static and high strain rate indirect tensile load using the traditional Brazilian test method. High-strain rate indirect tensile testing is performed with a modified Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB. Pristine vinyl ester shows ductile deformation under quasi-static loading and brittle failure when subjected to high-strain rate loading. This observation reconfirms the previous research findings on strain rate dependent ductile-to-brittle transition of this material system. Investigation of both quasi-static and dynamic indirect tensile test responses show the strain rate effect on the tensile strength and energy absorbing capacity of the candidate materials. Contribution of nanoreinforcement to the tensile properties is reported in this paper.

  9. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang


    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  10. Numerical model of thermo-mechanical coupling for the tensile failure process of brittle materials (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Ren, Fengyu; Wang, Daguo


    A numerical model of thermal cracking with a thermo-mechanical coupling effect was established. The theory of tensile failure and heat conduction is used to study the tensile failure process of brittle materials, such as rock and concrete under high temperature environment. The validity of the model is verified by thick-wall cylinders with analytical solutions. The failure modes of brittle materials under thermal stresses caused by temperature gradient and different thermal expansion coefficient were studied by using a thick-wall cylinder model and an embedded particle model, respectively. In the thick-wall cylinder model, different forms of cracks induced by temperature gradient were obtained under different temperature boundary conditions. In the embedded particle model, radial cracks were produced in the medium part with lower tensile strength when temperature increased because of the different thermal expansion coefficient. Model results are in good agreement with the experimental results, thereby providing a new finite element method for analyzing the thermal damage process and mechanism of brittle materials.

  11. Síndrome das unhas frágeis Brittle nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izelda Maria Carvalho Costa


    Full Text Available A síndrome das unhas frágeis é queixa comum, caracterizada por aumento da fragilidade das lâminas ungueais. Afeta quase 20% da população geral, sendo mais comum em mulheres. Clinicamente se manifesta com onicosquizia e onicorrexe - distúrbios nos fatores de adesão intercelular das unhas se manifestam como a primeira, ao passo que alterações da matriz apresentamse com onicorrexe. Mesmo sendo tão usual e afetando os pacientes de maneira importante em seu cotidiano, o tratamento das unhas frágeis avançou pouco nas últimas décadas e ainda se baseia principalmente no uso da biotina.Brittle nail syndrome is a common condition, characterized by increased fragility of the nail plates. It affects almost 20% of the population, being more usual in women. Clinical manifestations of brittle nails are onychoschizia and onychorexis - disorders of intercellular adhesive factors are expressed as the first, while disorders of the nail matrix manifest as onychorexis. Despite being so common and causing much more than only cosmetic problems to the patient, the treatment of brittle nails has had little improvement over the past decades and is still mainly based on the daily use of biotin.

  12. Brittleness index calculation and evaluation for CBM reservoirs based on AVO simultaneous inversion (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Dong, Shouhua; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Haolong; Chen, Guiwu


    In this paper, a new approach is proposed for coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir brittleness index (BI) calculations. The BI, as a guide for fracture area selection, is calculated by dynamic elastic parameters (dynamic Young's modulus Ed and dynamic Poisson's ratio υd) obtained from an amplitude versus offset (AVO) simultaneous inversion. Among the three different classes of CBM reservoirs distinguished on the basis of brittleness in the theoretical part of this study, class I reservoirs with high BI values are identified as preferential target areas for fracturing. Therefore, we derive the AVO approximation equation expressed by Ed and υd first. This allows the direct inversion of the dynamic elastic parameters through the pre-stack AVO simultaneous inversion, which is based on Bayes' theorem. Thereafter, a test model with Gaussian white noise and a through-well seismic profile inversion is used to demonstrate the high reliability of the inversion parameters. Accordingly, the BI of a CBM reservoir section from the Qinshui Basin is calculated using the proposed method and a class I reservoir section detected through brittleness evaluation. From the outcome of this study, we believe the adoption of this new approach could act as a guide and reference for BI calculations and evaluations of CBM reservoirs.

  13. Calving Geometry of Thwaites Glacier Linked to Semi-brittle Ice Dynamics (United States)

    Logan, L. C.; Lavier, L.; Choi, E.; Tan, E.; Catania, G. A.; Holt, J.


    In the coming decades the linkage between ice dynamics, basal melt, and calving will play a central role in the flow of Thwaites Glacier, which has undergone vast and recent retreat. We explore this connection using a 3D, transient, thermomechanical ice flow model under different basal melt scenarios. Our use of a semi-brittle ice rheology enables the time-dependent development and tracking of surface and basal crevasses that determine the calving rate at this location. With the use of adaptive re-meshing, we are able to simulate the glacier's retreat response to different boundary forcings. We show that the resulting characteristic pinch-and-swell model geometries in the floating tongue compare well with airborne radar data acquired across the grounding line and floating tongue of Thwaites Glacier. These geometric features may be reproduced using this semi-brittle rheology, and further, are linked directly to the calving rate of Thwaites Glacier (and others). The use of semi-brittle rheology on decadal time scales may help provide constraints on the near-term future behavior of glaciers vulnerable to ocean-induced retreat, as this rheology targets the complex interaction of ice failure, basal melt, and flow.

  14. Numerical simulation of ductile-brittle behaviour of cracks in aluminium and bcc iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharopoulos, Marios


    The principal aim of the present dissertation is to investigate the role of sharp cracks on the mechanical behaviour of crystals under load at the atomic scale. The question of interest is how a pure crystal, which contains a single crack in mechanical equilibrium, deforms. Two metals were considered: aluminium, ductile at any temperature below its melting point, and iron, being transformed from ductile to brittle upon decreasing temperature below T=77 K. Cohesive forces in both metals were modeled via phenomenological n-body potentials. A (010)[001] mode I nano-crack was introduced in the perfect crystalline lattice of each of the studied metals by using appropriate displacements ascribed by anisotropic elasticity. At T=0 K, equilibrium crack configurations were obtained via energy minimization with a mixed type of boundary conditions. Both models revealed that the crack configurations remained stable under a finite range of applied stresses due to the lattice trapping effect. The present thesis proposes a novel approach to interpret the intrinsic mechanical behaviour of the two metallic systems under loading. In particular, the ductile or brittle response of a crystalline system can be determined by examining whether the lattice trapping barrier of a pre-existing crack is sufficient to cause the glide of pre-existing static dislocations on the available slip systems. Simulation results along with experimental data demonstrate that, according to the model proposed, aluminium and iron are ductile and brittle at T=0 K, respectively. (author) [fr

  15. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  16. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  17. Massive soliton stars (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee


    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  18. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D


    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  19. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  20. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars


    Michaud, G.; Richer, J.


    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  1. Polymer Reinforced, Non-Brittle, Light-Weight Cryogenic Insulation for Reduced Life Cycle Costs, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to fabricate a composite aerogel foam. This material is designed to be impact resistant, non-brittle, non-water-retaining and insulating...

  2. A new in situ technique for studying deformation and fracture in thin film ductile/brittle laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.A.; Milligan, W.W.


    A new technique for studying deformation and fracture of thin film ductile/brittle laminates is described. The laminates are prepared by sputtering a brittle coating on top of an electropolished TEM thin foil. The composites are then strained in situ in the TEM. In this preliminary investigation, the composites consisted of a ductile aluminum substrate and a brittle silicon coating. Cracks in the brittle film grew discontinuously in bursts several micrometers in length. The crack opening displacement initiated plastic deformation in the ductile film, thus dissipating energy and allowing crack arrest. The interface was well bonded, and delamination was not observed. Due to the good interfacial bond and the crack opening behind the crack tip, it was possible to study very large plastic deformations and ductile fracture in the aluminum in situ, without buckling of the foil. The possibility of micromechanical modeling of the fracture behavior is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  3. Merging strangeon stars (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zhou, En-Ping; Li, Yun-Yang; Xu, Ren-Xin


    The state of supranuclear matter in compact stars remains puzzling, and it is argued that pulsars could be strangeon stars. What would happen if binary strangeon stars merge? This kind of merger could result in the formation of a hyper-massive strangeon star, accompanied by bursts of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation (and even a strangeon kilonova explained in the paper). The tidal polarizability of binary strangeon stars is different from that of binary neutron stars, because a strangeon star is self-bound on the surface by the fundamental strong force while a neutron star by the gravity, and their equations of state are different. Our calculation shows that the tidal polarizability of merging binary strangeon stars is favored by GW170817. Three kinds of kilonovae (i.e., of neutron, quark and strangeon) are discussed, and the light curve of the kilonova AT 2017 gfo following GW170817 could be explained by considering the decaying strangeon nuggets and remnant star spin-down. Additionally, the energy ejected to the fireball around the nascent remnant strangeon star, being manifested as a gamma-ray burst, is calculated. It is found that, after a prompt burst, an X-ray plateau could follow in a timescale of 102 ‑ 103 s. Certainly, the results could be tested also by further observational synergies between gravitational wave detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) and X-ray telescopes (e.g., the Chinese HXMT satellite and eXTP mission), and especially if the detected gravitational wave form is checked by peculiar equations of state provided by the numerical relativistical simulation.

  4. Protecting against failure by brittle fracture in ferritic-steel shipping containers greater than four-in. thick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.W.


    This report presents methods for protecting against brittle fracture spent-fuel shipping containers made from ferritic-steel forgings greater than four in. thick. Both fracture arrest and fracture initiation criteria were examined as bases for establishing requirements for the design and selection of materials for shipping containers. This report also includes a discussion of the brittle-fracture sensitivity of the containers to various processes used in container fabrication. 19 figures, 3 tables

  5. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars (United States)

    Minti, Hari


    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  6. Influence of benthic macrofauna on the geotechnical and geophysical properties of surficial sediment, North Sea (United States)

    Rowden, A. A.; Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.


    Spatial and temporal variations in the structure of an Amphiura-Echinocardium macrobenthic community were studied in relation to geotechnical and geophysical properties of the seabed at a muddy-sand site in the seasonally stratified region of the southern North Sea. Vertical profiles of geotechnical properties were recorded in sediments collected by box corer. Maxima in water, organic matter, and fine particle contents coincided with the presence of the burrowing brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea in the upper and lower parts, respectively, of the cores. A significant relationship existed between the abundance of A. filiformis and the water content of the upper 0.05 m of the bed. There were important temporal variations in rigidity modulus, derived from acoustic shear wave propagation in freshly recovered cores, of the upper 0.06 m of the sediment. The rigidity modulus was 45% greater in January than in May and this has been related to the burrowing/feeding activity of the macrobenthic community; there was an inverse relationship between A. filiformis abundance and bed rigidity. Thus the bed had a lower bulk density and lower rigidity in summer due to biological modification of the sediment fabric. This implies that the bed was less resistant to erosion in the summer. Such an effect may be important during summer storms in the shallowest parts of the seasonally stratified zone (ie close to shelf fronts).

  7. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.


    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  8. Hyperons in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.


    Generalized beta equilibrium involving nucleons, hyperons, and isobars is examined for neutron star matter. The hyperons produce a considerable softening of the equation of state. It is shown that the observed masses of neutron stars can be used to settle a recent controversy concerning the nuclear compressibility. Compressibilities less than 200 MeV are incompatible with observed masses. 7 refs., 9 figs

  9. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC


    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars.

  10. Science Through ARts (STAR) (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence


    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  11. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner


    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  12. Rotating stars in relativity. (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)


    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  14. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  15. Interactions among contaminant exposure route, kinetics and toxicity in marine deposit-feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette

    of a contaminant is bioavailable. The relationship among different combinations of exposure route (water vs. sediment), kinetics (i.e. uptake, internal fate, elimination) and toxicity were investigated in the polychaete Capitella species I and the brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Fluoranthene was used......Many of the chemicals having the greatest likelihood of causing damage in ecological systems, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals are of persistent and/or hydrophobic character. Deposit-feeders may be important in facilitating the removal of organic contaminants from bulk...... and more ecologically relevant methods for use in risk assessment, relationships among adverse effects, time-dependent availability, internal transport and potential for trophic transfer need to be addressed....

  16. Dense Axion Stars. (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong


    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  17. Cohesive stress heterogeneities and the transition from intrinsic ductility to brittleness (United States)

    Tanguy, D.


    The influence of nanoscale cavities on the fracture of the Σ 33 {554 }[110 ] symmetrical tilt grain boundary is studied by atomistic simulations. The crack crystallography is chosen such that dislocation emission is easy. A transition from a ductile behavior of the tip to a brittle one is obtained for a dense (coverage beyond 15% and intercavity spacing smaller than 4 nm) distribution of small cavities (sizes in-between 1 and 2 nm). The results are in good agreement with recent experiments from the literature. Even at the highest coverage, the character of the crack is highly sensitive to the initial position of the tip and a mixture of ductile and brittle responses is found. This complexity is beyond the usual criterion based on the drop of the work of separation with the amount of damage in the structure. It is shown that a heterogeneous cohesive zone model, with parameters extracted from the simulations and enriched with a criterion for plasticity, can explain the simulations and reproduce the transition. Additional simulations show that outside this range of small sizes and dense packing, which gives essentially a two-dimensional response (either crack opening or infinite straight dislocation emission), dislocation half-loops appear for intercavity spacing starting at about 4 nm. They constitute, together with regions of low coverage/small cavities, efficient obstacles to brittle cracking. These results could be guidelines to designing interfaces more resistant to solute embrittlement, in general. The cohesive zone model is generic. Furthermore, the {554} single crystal was used to determine to which extent the results depend on the details of the core structure versus the cavity distribution. These elements show that the conclusions reached have a generic character.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia ePistone


    Full Text Available The transition from viscous to brittle behaviour in magmas plays a decisive role in determining the style of volcanic eruptions. While this transition has been determined for one- or two-phase systems, it remains poorly constrained for natural magmas containing silicic melt, crystals, and gas bubbles. Here we present new experimental results on shear-induced fracturing of three-phase magmas obtained at high-temperature (673-1023 K and high-pressure (200 MPa conditions over a wide range of strain-rates (5·10-6 s-1 to 4·10-3 s-1. During the experiments bubbles are deformed (i.e. capillary number are in excess of 1 enough to coalesce and generate a porous network that potentially leads to outgassing. A physical relationship is proposed that quantifies the critical stress required for magmas to fail as a function of both crystal (0.24 to 0.65 and bubble volume fractions (0.09 to 0.12. The presented results demonstrate efficient outgassing for low crystal fraction ( 0.44 promote gas bubble entrapment and inhibit outgassing. The failure of bubble-free, crystal-bearing systems is enhanced by the presence of bubbles that lower the critical failure stress in a regime of efficient outgassing, while the failure stress is increased if bubbles remain trapped within the crystal framework. These contrasting behaviours have direct impact on the style of volcanic eruptions. During magma ascent, efficient outgassing reduces the potential for an explosive eruption and favours brittle behaviour, contributing to maintain low overpressures in an active volcanic system resulting in effusion or rheological flow blockage of magma at depth. Conversely, magmas with high crystallinity experience limited loss of exsolved gas, permitting the achievement of larger overpressures prior to a potential sudden transition to brittle behaviour, which could result in an explosive volcanic eruption.

  19. Connection between twinning and brittle fracture in Fe-Cr-Co-Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, V.A.; Chumlyakov, Yu.I.; Korotaev, A.D.; Aparova, L.A.


    Plasticity dependence on crystal orientation, on deformation temperature and structure state of alloy is investigated in Fe-28 % Cr-10 % Co-2 % Mo (at. %) monocrystals. Isostructure decomposition results in increase of critical shearing stresses τ cr , in change of deformation mechanism from slipping into twinning and abrupt reduction of plasticity. Brittleness - ductility transition is detected in high-stable structure states τ cr >280 MPa. Explanation of plasticity abrupt reduction of high-stable crystals using estimation of change of deformation mechanism and of deforming stress high level is given

  20. Corrosion damage examples and brittleness affecting containing carbon steel materials of the PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, L.; Dordonat, M.; Guttmann, D.; Calle, P.


    Intercrystalline corrosion has been observed in carbon steel heat exchanger tubes. Waterproof turbine boxes composed of graphite rings and carbon steel, some coated with a KANIGEN chemical nickel, may develop a galvanic coupling corrosion between the graphite rings and the carbon steel body. In a steam impulsion pipe circuit, fatigue corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may appear. Brittleness of carbon steel is linked to an anomalous composition with an excess content of phosphorus and nitrogen. Lamellar wrenchings are observed on steam pipes connection. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Extended drop testing with precracked DCI-casks and evaluations on safety against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, K.E.; Frenz, H.; Gogolin, B.


    This paper is a summary of a research study as part of comparable efforts in Japan, France and the USA aimed at developing principles, procedures and material data for the brittle fracture safe design of thickwalled shipping containers made from ductile cast iron (DCI) and other material susceptible - in principle - to nonductile failure. Furthermore, the application of fracture mechanics was to be qualified as an alternative method, relative to the experimental approach applied in previous licensing procedures in Germany and to be demonstrated by subjecting a full-size precracked prototype to drop tests. (J.P.N.)

  2. Brittle-fracture statistics for the determination of the strength of fuel particle coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.; Schuster, H.


    Two influences on characteristic strength values of brittle materials were investigated: the specimen number which is limited in the laboratory by practical reasons, and the procedure for fitting the Weibull formalism to experimental results. The study was performed with respect to the evaluation of the strength of coatings of HTR-fuel particles. Strength values following Weibull statistics were produced artificially to simulate experimental results. The applicability of four different methods was studied to get best fits of the Weibull parameters to these values. The relation of the scatter of strength values and Weibull parameter to the specimen number is determined. (orig./GSCH) [de

  3. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature compilation for site characterization and geological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millnes, A.G.


    The present report arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating longterm safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust has been reviewed, and key references chosen and arranged, with the particular geology of the Olkiluoto site in mind. The result is a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics, which are of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, such as those typical for Olkiluoto. The report is subdivided into six Chapters, covering (1) background information, (2) important aspects of the fabric of intact rock, (3) fracture mechanics and brittle microtectonics, (4) fracture data acquisition and processing, for the statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems, (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones for deterministic modelling, and (6) the regional geological framework of the Olkiluoto site. The Chapters are subdivided into a number of Sections, and each Section into a number of Topics. The citations are mainly collected under each Topic, embedded in a short explanatory text or listed chronologically without comment. The systematic arrangement of Chapters, Sections and Topics is such that the Table of Contents can be used to focus quickly on the theme of interest without the necessity of looking

  4. Comparative investigation of micro-flaw models for the simulation of brittle fracture in rock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, E


    Full Text Available investigation of micro-flaw models for the simulation of brittle fracture in rock E. Sellers, J. Napier Abstract The search for a numerical method to model fracture formation around deep level gold mine excava- tions had led to the development of the DIGS... geotechnical applications, it is important to be able to synthesize explicit damage processes as equivalent continuum models. It is hoped that the present work will provide a means to construct damage models that can summarize ef?ciently, at a scale of metres...

  5. Brittle and ductile rupture of 16MND5 steel. Irradiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mundheri, M.; Soulat, P.; Pineau, A.


    Toughness tests have been made on 16MND5 steel (A508Cl3 steel) - before and after irradiation at 290 0 C (3.10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV). It is shown that toughness is lowered following the irradiation and that it is a decreasing function of the thickness of the test pieces. In parallel, tests on three geometries of entailed specimens, prepared in the non-irradiated material, have been made at different temperatures to apply the methodology of local approach of ductile-brittle rupture [fr

  6. Brittle versus ductile deformation as the main control of the deep fluid circulation in continental crust (United States)

    Violay, Marie; Madonna, Claudio; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP) and the Taupo Volcanic Zone-Deep geothermal drilling project in New Zealand (TVZ-DGDP) proposed a new concept of engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile rocks. This system has several advantages including (1) a simpler design and control of the reservoir due to homogeneous rock properties and stress states in the ductile domain ,(2) possible extraction of supercritical fluids (3) less probability for induced earthquakes. However, it is at present unknwon what and how porosity and permeability can be engineered in such environments. It has been proposed that the magmatic chamber is surrounded by a hot and ductile carapace through which heat transfer is conductive because the plastic behaviour of the rock will close possible fluid pathways. Further outward, as temperature declines, the rock will encounter the brittle-ductile transition with a concomitant increase in porosity and permeability. The thickness of the conduction-dominated, ductile boundary zone between the magmatic chamber and the convecting geothermal fluid directly determines the rate of heat transfer. To examine the brittle to ductile transition in the context of the Japanese crust, we conducted deformation experiments on very-fine-grain granite in conventional servocontrolled, gas-medium triaxial apparatus (from Paterson instrument). Temperature ranged from 600° C to 1100° C and effective confining pressure from 100 to 150 MPa. Dilatancy was measured during deformation. The method consisted in monitoring the volume of pore fluid that flows into or out of the sample at constant pore pressure. Permeability was measured under static conditions by transient pressure pulse method. Mechanical and micro-structural observations at experimental constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 indicated that the granite was brittle and dilatant up to 900 ° C. At higher temperatures the deformation mode becomes macroscopically ductile, i

  7. Dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Kishida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Sogabe, Y.


    A new test method has been developed to measure the resistance of dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loadings. The Brazilian disks with center-cracks have been fractured under oblique impact loadings in diametral-compression. The dynamic stress intensity factors of mode I and II are evaluated from the superposition integrals of the step response functions for the cracked disk. The experimental results are presented to elucidate the influence of loading rate on the combined mode fracture toughness for ceramics and glasses. (orig.)

  8. Brittle tectonic history document the late- to post-orogenic evolution in the Lufilian Arc, RDCongo (United States)

    Kipata, Louis; Delvaux, Damien; Ntabwoba Sebagenzi, Mwene; Cailteux, Jean-Jacques; Sintubin, Manuel


    Pan-African orogenic processes in Centra Africa involve intracontinental collision but also late-orogenic and intraplate processes that occurred in dominantly brittle conditions and can be documented by fault kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstructions. The Congo and Tanzania cratons in Central Africa are surrounded by Pan-African belts orogenic belts which all entered almost synchronously in collision stage in the early Paleozoic. While their tectonic history up to the collision stage is increasingly better documented by ductile deformation and metamorphic studies, their late evolution remain poorly known as soon as they enter in the brittle deformation regime. This results in an incomplete understanding of the orogenic processes, especially when the transition from ductile to the brittle regime occurred at the end of the orogenic compression. In this case, the last compressional stages and the entire late orogenic extension and extensional collapse stages remain undocumented. This is the case for the Lufilian orogeny which developed along the southern margin of the Congo Craton in Central Africa during the pan-African and was marked by a collisional event with crustal thickening and white schist formation at 550-530 Ma. The Lufilian Arc which forms the external part of the Lufilian orogeny developed as an arcuate fold-and-thrust belt. Its foreland is formed by the Kundelungu plateau, between the Bangweulu block and the Kibaran belt. This entire region is also tectonically active, as part of the incipient SW branch of the East African rift system. The long period between the paroxysm of the Lufilian orogeny and the late Neogene to Quaternary rifting has been investigated by fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction in open mines spread over the entire arc and foreland. Paleostress tensors were computed from 23 sites totaling 1900 fault-slip data by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and a succession of 8 brittle

  9. Process diagnostics for precision grinding brittle materials in a production environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A


    Precision grinding processes are steadily migrating from research laboratory environments into manufacturing production lines as precision machines and processes become increasingly more commonplace throughout industry. Low-roughness, low-damage precision grinding is gaining widespread commercial acceptance for a host of brittle materials including advanced structural ceramics. The development of these processes is often problematic and requires diagnostic information and analysis to harden the processes for manufacturing. This paper presents a series of practical precision grinding tests developed and practiced at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that yield important information to help move a new process idea into production

  10. Strategy for characterizing fracture toughness in the ductile to brittle transition regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerens, J.; Zerbst, U.; Schwalbe, K.H.


    A tentative method is proposed for treating the scatter and size effects of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition regime. The method is aimed at the determination of the probability function for initiation of fast growing cleavage cracks under the plane strain condition. The practical relevance of this method has been checked with toughness data sets obtained from various CT-specimen sizes and CCT-specimens of a pressure vessel tested at two different temperatures in the transition regime. (orig.)

  11. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev


    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of stars (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.


    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  13. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian


    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  14. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the features used in estimating luminosities of ordinary giant stars are just those whose abundance ... This difference between the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of CH stars and the. J stars, which belong to .... that the first group was binaries, as for the CH stars of the solar vicinity, while those of the second group ...

  15. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity. WHY do neutron stars have such strong magnetic fields? Conservation of magnetic flux of the collapsing stellar core. ∫ B.ds (over surface of the star) = constant; Radius of the star collapses from ~ 5x108 to 1x104 metres; Hence, ...

  16. Observational Effects of Strange Stars


    Lu, T.


    In this talk, after briefly reviewing some historical remarks concerning strange stars, the achievements in physics and dynamical behavior of strange stars are discussed. Especially, various observational effects in distinguishing strange stars from neutron stars such as mechanical effects, cooling effects, phase transition and related interesting phenomena are stressed.

  17. Northern star js plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter


    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  18. SX Phoenicis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Mateo, M.


    The purpose of this paper is to review the basic observational information concerning SX Phe stars, including recent findings such as the discovery of about 40 low-luminosity variable stars in the Carina dwarf galaxy and identification of at least one SX Phe star in the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that at least some BSs are binary systems comes from the discovery of two contact binaries and a semidetached binary among the 50 BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466. Since these systems will coalesce on a time scale 500 Myr, it stands to reason that many (if not most) BSs are coalesced binaries. The merger hypothesis also explains the relatively-large masses (1.0-1.2 solar masses) that have been derived for SX Phe stars and halo BSs, and may also account for the nonvariable BSs in the 'SX Phe instability strip'. 132 refs

  19. Planets Around Neutron Stars (United States)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.


    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  20. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H


    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  1. Recent highlights from STAR (United States)

    Zha, Wangmei


    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment takes advantage of its excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities at mid-rapidity to explore the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The STAR collaboration presented 7 parallel and 2 plenary talks at Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 and covered various topics including heavy flavor measurements, bulk observables, electro-magnetic probes and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  2. Star of Bethlehem (United States)

    Hughes, D.; Murdin, P.


    The biblical Star of Bethlehem, which heralded the birth of Jesus Christ, is only mentioned in the Gospel of St Matthew 2. The astrologically significant 7 bc triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces is the most likely candidate, although a comet/nova in 5 bc and a comet in 4 bc cannot be ruled out. There is also the possibility that the star was simply fictitious....

  3. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation. (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C


    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  4. A systematic concept of assuring structural integrity of components and parts for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko


    Concepts of assuring structural integrity of plant components have been developed under limited conditions of either highly ductile or brittle materials. There are some cases where operation in more and more severe conditions causes a significant reduction in ductility for materials with a high ductility before service. Use of high strength steels with relatively reduced ductility is increasing as industry applications. Current concepts of structural integrity assurance under the limited conditions of material properties or on the requirement of no significant changes in material properties even after long service will fail to incorporate expected technological innovations. A systematic concept of assuring the structural integrity should be developed for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle materials. Objectives of the on-going research are to propose a detail of the systematic concept by considering how we can develop the concept without restricting materials and for systematic considerations on a broad range of material properties from highly ductile materials through brittle materials. First, background of concepts of existing structural codes for components of highly ductile materials or for structural parts of brittle materials are discussed. Next, issues of existing code for parts of brittle materials are identified, and then resolutions to the issues are proposed. Based on the above-mentioned discussions and proposals, a systematic concept is proposed for application to components with reduced ductility materials and for applying to components of materials with significantly changing material properties due to long service. (author)

  5. Brittle Creep Failure, Critical Behavior, and Time-to-Failure Prediction of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchong Wang


    Full Text Available Understanding the time-dependent brittle deformation behavior of concrete as a main building material is fundamental for the lifetime prediction and engineering design. Herein, we present the experimental measures of brittle creep failure, critical behavior, and the dependence of time-to-failure, on the secondary creep rate of concrete under sustained uniaxial compression. A complete evolution process of creep failure is achieved. Three typical creep stages are observed, including the primary (decelerating, secondary (steady state creep regime, and tertiary creep (accelerating creep stages. The time-to-failure shows sample-specificity although all samples exhibit a similar creep process. All specimens exhibit a critical power-law behavior with an exponent of −0.51 ± 0.06, approximately equal to the theoretical value of −1/2. All samples have a long-term secondary stage characterized by a constant strain rate that dominates the lifetime of a sample. The average creep rate expressed by the total creep strain over the lifetime (tf-t0 for each specimen shows a power-law dependence on the secondary creep rate with an exponent of −1. This could provide a clue to the prediction of the time-to-failure of concrete, based on the monitoring of the creep behavior at the steady stage.

  6. A micromechanical constitutive model for the dynamic response of brittle materials "Dynamic response of marble" (United States)

    Haberman, Keith


    A micromechanically based constitutive model for the dynamic inelastic behavior of brittle materials, specifically "Dionysus-Pentelicon marble" with distributed microcracking is presented. Dionysus-Pentelicon marble was used in the construction of the Parthenon, in Athens, Greece. The constitutive model is a key component in the ability to simulate this historic explosion and the preceding bombardment form cannon fire that occurred at the Parthenon in 1678. Experiments were performed by Rosakis (1999) that characterized the static and dynamic response of this unique material. A micromechanical constitutive model that was previously successfully used to model the dynamic response of granular brittle materials is presented. The constitutive model was fitted to the experimental data for marble and reproduced the experimentally observed basic uniaxial dynamic behavior quite well. This micromechanical constitutive model was then implemented into the three dimensional nonlinear lagrangain finite element code Dyna3d(1998). Implementing this methodology into the three dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element code allowed the model to be exercised on several preliminary impact experiments. During future simulations, the model is to be used in conjunction with other numerical techniques to simulate projectile impact and blast loading on the Dionysus-Pentelicon marble and on the structure of the Parthenon.

  7. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials. (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia


    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  8. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  9. Margin failures in brittle dome structures: relevance to failure of dental crowns. (United States)

    Qasim, Tarek; Ford, Chris; Bush, Mark B; Hu, Xiaozhi; Malament, Kenneth A; Lawn, Brian R


    Margin cracks in loaded brittle dome structures are investigated. Dome structures consisting of glass shells filled with polymer resin, simulating the essential features of brittle crowns on tooth dentin, provide model test specimens. Disk indenters of diminishing elastic modulus are used to apply axisymmetric loading to the apex of the domes. Previous studies using hard indenters have focused on fractures initiating in the near-contact region of such specimens, including radial cracks at the glass undersurface directly below the contact axis. Here, we focus on fractures initiating at the remote support margins. Margin cracks can become dominant when loading forces are distributed over broad contact areas, as in biting on soft matter, here simulated by balsa wood disks. Cracks preinitiated at the dome edges during the specimen preparation propagate under load around the dome side into segmented, semilunar configurations reminiscent of some all-ceramic crown failures. Finite element analysis is used to determine the basic stress states within the dome structures, and to confirm a shift in maximum tensile stress from the near-contact area to the dome sides with more compliant indenters. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Life Predicted in a Probabilistic Design Space for Brittle Materials With Transient Loads (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Palfi, Tamas; Reh, Stefan


    Analytical techniques have progressively become more sophisticated, and now we can consider the probabilistic nature of the entire space of random input variables on the lifetime reliability of brittle structures. This was demonstrated with NASA s CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code combined with the commercially available ANSYS/Probabilistic Design System (ANSYS/PDS), a probabilistic analysis tool that is an integral part of the ANSYS finite-element analysis program. ANSYS/PDS allows probabilistic loads, component geometry, and material properties to be considered in the finite-element analysis. CARES/Life predicts the time dependent probability of failure of brittle material structures under generalized thermomechanical loading--such as that found in a turbine engine hot-section. Glenn researchers coupled ANSYS/PDS with CARES/Life to assess the effects of the stochastic variables of component geometry, loading, and material properties on the predicted life of the component for fully transient thermomechanical loading and cyclic loading.

  11. Constraining timing and fluid sources of brittle fault gouge formation within the Naxos detachment, Greece (United States)

    Mancktelow, N. S.; Zwingmann, H.; Mulch, A.


    Neotectonic brittle faults are associated with near-surface deformation. Displacement on the fault planes often forms fault gouge composed of rock fragments and authigenic illite due to fluid flow and water rock interaction. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the potential to determine the absolute timing of brittle fault history and its fluid sources using isotopic dating techniques and hydrogen stable isotope signatures of authigenic clay minerals. To obtain reliable isotopic data accurate size separation using high-speed centrifuges combined with mineral characterization (SEM, TEM, XRD etc.) of the separates is required prior to isotopic analyses. We report K-Ar illite age data obtained from a clay fault gouge within the Naxos detachment. Eight clay-size fractions from the detachment document a narrow age range between 10.3 to 9.0 Ma, with an average of 9.7 ± 0.5 Ma (± 1σ). These results are well aligned with published regional and local age constraints. Argon diffusion modeling indicates that authigenic gouge clay minerals remain closed after initial formation and align well within the cooling history. Authigenic clay hydrogen δD values yield values ranging from -89 to -95 ‰, indicating interaction with meteoric water. Clay gouge formed in a limited time, temperature and depth range window suggesting it could have acted as a lubricant promoting movement on the Naxos detachment, with correspondingly rapid exhumation and cooling of the underlying footwall.

  12. Brittle-ductile transition for nuclear applications in contact with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Almazan, L.; Auger, T.; Gorse, D.


    In this work is studied the mercury embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel 316L and ferritic-martensitic steel T91 at ambient temperature in carrying out tensile tests on CCT (Center Cracked Tension) specimens at solicitation velocities between 1.67*10 -8 and 6.67*10 -3 m.s -1 . The results reveal that these two steels are sensitive to mercury embrittlement. A ductile-brittle transition of the steel 316L in contact to mercury in terms of the deformation velocity is observed. The early beginnings of such a transition are visible too on the steel T91 in the experiment conditions. On a some range of the solicitation velocity, the presence of mercury modifies the plastic behaviour of the material in inhibiting the nucleation-growth of the cavities. For these two steels in contact with mercury, in the area of velocities for which a brittle rupture is observed, it appears that the fracture is produced by de-cohesion of shear bands. (O.M.)

  13. Micromechanics of rock damage: Advances in the quasi-brittle field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhi Zhu


    Full Text Available Constitutive models play an essential role in numerical modeling and simulation of nonlinear deformation, progressive damage and failure of rock-like materials and structures. Recent advances in the quasi-brittle field show that upscaling methods by homogenization have provided a new efficient way to derive macroscopic formulations of rocks from their microstructure information and local properties and then to model nonlinear mechanical behaviors identified at laboratory. This paper aims first at relating the mechanical phenomena on sample scale to their respective mechanisms on microscale. Main focus is put on unilateral effects due to crack's opening/closure transition, material anisotropy induced by crack growth in some preferred directions and multiphysical coupling at microcracks. After a brief introduction to the linear homogenization method and its application to crack problems, we present some recent advances achieved in the combined homogenization/thermodynamics framework, including anisotropic unilateral damage-friction coupling, theoretical failure prediction in conjunction with deformation analyses, poromechanical coupling, analytical solutions and numerical implementation with application to typical brittle rocks.

  14. Micromechanical local approach to brittle failure in bainite high resolution polycrystals: A short presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Guyen, C.N.; Osipov, N.; Cailletaud, G.; Barbe, F.; Marini, B.; Petry, C.


    The problem of determining the probability of failure in a brittle material from a micromechanical local approach has recently been addressed in few works, all related to bainite polycrystals at different temperatures and states of irradiation. They have separately paved the ground for a full-field modelling with high realism in terms of constitutive modelling and microstructural morphology. This work first contributes to enhance this realism by assembling the most pertinent/valuable characteristics (dislocation density based model, large deformation framework, fully controlled triaxiality conditions, explicit microstructure representation of grains and sub-grains,... ) and by accounting for a statistically representative Volume Element; this condition indeed must be fulfilled in order to capture rare events like brittle micro-fractures which, in the stress analysis, correspond to the tails of distribution curves. The second original contribution of this work concerns the methodology for determining fracture probabilities: rather than classically - and abruptly - considering a polycrystal as broken as soon as an elementary link (grain or sub-grain) has failed, the possibility of microcrack arrest at microstructural barriers is introduced, which enables to determine the probability of polycrystal failure according to different scenarios of multiple micro-fractures. (authors)

  15. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)


    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  16. Young Stars with SALT (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.


    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  17. Massive star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshavskij, V.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)


    The structure and evolution of 16 (Sun mass), 32 (Sun mass), and 64 (Sun mass) stars with the initial chemical composition X=0.602, Y=0.354, and Z=0.044 (X 12 = 0.00619 and X 16 = 0.01847) are analyzed from the initial main sequence to a complete burnup of oxygen in the nucleus of a red supergiant. At the stage of helium buring in the nucleus the evolutionary track of the star is determined by the equilibrium condition in the zone of varying chemical composition, and at later stages by energy losses due to neutrino emission. In the absence of neutrino emission the external convective zone propagates into regions occupied by the former hydrogen and helium layer sources. This may lead to considerable anomalies in the chemical composition at the star surface and to the decrease of the carbon-oxygen nucleus mass. With regard to neutrino energy losses the structure of layer sources and of the star itself becomes more complicated, thereby increasing the evolution time. Estimation is made of the change in, carbon, and oxygen contents in the interstellar space over the Galaxy's lifetime as a result of the evolution of massive stars. Some consequences of rotation and meridional circulations are discussed. A study of the structure and evolution of hydrogen-helium massive stars before firing of carbon in the nucleus is made

  18. Collapsing Enormous Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    One of the big puzzles in astrophysics is how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) managed to grow to the large sizes weve observed in the very early universe. In a recent study, a team of researchers examines the possibility that they were formed by the direct collapse of supermassive stars.Formation MysterySMBHs billions of times as massive as the Sun have been observed at a time when the universe was less than a billion years old. But thats not enough time for a stellar-mass black hole to grow to SMBH-size by accreting material so another theory is needed to explain the presence of these monsters so early in the universes history. A new study, led by Tatsuya Matsumoto (Kyoto University, Japan), poses the following question: what if supermassive stars in the early universe collapsed directly into black holes?Previous studies of star formation in the early universe have suggested that, in the hot environment of these primordial times, stars might have been able to build up mass much faster than they can today. This could result in early supermassive stars roughly 100,000 times more massive than the Sun. But if these early stars end their lives by collapsing to become massive black holes in the same way that we believe massive stars can collapse to form stellar-mass black holes today this should result in enormously violent explosions. Matusmoto and collaborators set out to model this process, to determine what we would expect to see when it happens!Energetic BurstsThe authors modeled the supermassive stars prior to collapse and then calculated whether a jet, created as the black hole grows at the center of the collapsing star, would be able to punch out of the stellar envelope. They demonstrated that the process would work much like the widely-accepted collapsar model of massive-star death, in which a jet successfully punches out of a collapsing star, violently releasing energy in the form of a long gamma-ray burst (GRB).Because the length of a long GRB is thought to

  19. Brittle Cornea Syndrome: Case Report with Novel Mutation in the PRDM5 Gene and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Avgitidou


    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy presented with acute corneal hydrops on the left eye and spontaneous corneal rupture on the right eye. A diagnosis of brittle cornea syndrome was confirmed by molecular analysis. A novel mutation, the homozygous variant c.17T>G, p.V6G, was found in the gene for PR-domain-containing protein 5 (PRDM5 in exon 1. Brittle cornea syndrome is a rare connective tissue disease with typical ocular, auditory, musculoskeletal, and cutaneous disorders. Almost all patients suffer from declined vision due to corneal scarring, thinning, and rupture. The most common ophthalmologic findings include keratoconus, progressive central corneal thinning, high myopia, irregular astigmatism, retinal detachment, and high risk for spontaneous corneal or scleral rupture. In addition to describing the case with a novel mutation here we review the current literature on brittle cornea syndrome pathogenesis, clinical findings, and therapy.

  20. Capsules with evolving brittleness to resist the preparation of self-healing concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruyaert, E.


    Full Text Available Capsules for self-healing concrete have to possess multifunctional properties and it would be an enormous advantage in the valorization process when they could also be mixed in. Therefore, we aimed to develop capsules with evolving brittleness. Capsules with high initial flexibility were prepared by adding a plasticizer to an ethyl cellulose matrix. During hardening of the concrete, the plasticizing agent should leach out to the moist environment yielding more brittle capsules which break upon crack appearance. The tested capsules could easily be mixed in during concrete production. However, incompatibility issues between the capsule wall and the inner polymeric healing agent appeared. Moreover, the capsules became insufficiently brittle and the bond strength to the cementitious matrix was too weak. Consequently, multilayer capsules were tested. These capsules had a high impact resistance to endure concrete mixing and were able to break upon crack formation.Las cápsulas para la auto-reparación del hormigón tienen que poseer propiedades multifuncionales. Una enorme ventaja en el proceso para su valorización se obtendría si aquellas pudieran resistir con éxito el mezclado. Por lo tanto, nos propusimos desarrollar cápsulas cuya fragilidad evoluciona. Cápsulas con una alta flexibilidad inicial se prepararon mediante la adición de un plastificante a una matriz de etil celulosa. Durante el endurecimiento del hormigón, el agente plastificante debe filtrarse hacia el medio ambiente húmedo produciendo cápsulas más frágiles que se rompen con el surgimiento de fisuras. Las cápsulas pudieron ser fácilmente mezcladas durante la producción de hormigón. Sin embargo, aparecieron problemas de incompatibilidad entre la pared de la cápsula y el agente de curación polimérico interior. Por otra parte, las cápsulas se comportaron insuficientemente frágiles y con una baja adherencia hacia la matriz cementicia. En consecuencia, se probaron las c

  1. Assessment of Ductile, Brittle, and Fatigue Fractures of Metals Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hutiu


    Full Text Available Some forensic in situ investigations, such as those needed in transportation (for aviation, maritime, road, or rail accidents or for parts working under harsh conditions (e.g., pipes or turbines would benefit from a method/technique that distinguishes ductile from brittle fractures of metals—as material defects are one of the potential causes of incidents. Nowadays, the gold standard in material studies is represented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. However, SEM instruments are large, expensive, time-consuming, and lab-based; hence, in situ measurements are impossible. To tackle these issues, we propose as an alternative, lower-cost, sufficiently high-resolution technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT to perform fracture analysis by obtaining the topography of metallic surfaces. Several metals have been considered in this study: low soft carbon steels, lamellar graphite cast iron, an antifriction alloy, high-quality rolled steel, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron. An in-house developed Swept Source (SS OCT system, Master-Slave (MS enhanced is used, and height profiles of the samples’ surfaces were generated. Two configurations were used: one where the dimension of the voxel was 1000 μm3 and a second one of 160 μm3—with a 10 μm and a 4 μm transversal resolution, respectively. These height profiles allowed for concluding that the carbon steel samples were subject to ductile fracture, while the cast iron and antifriction alloy samples were subjected to brittle fracture. The validation of OCT images has been made with SEM images obtained with a 4 nm resolution. Although the OCT images are of a much lower resolution than the SEM ones, we demonstrate that they are sufficiently good to obtain clear images of the grains of the metallic materials and thus to distinguish between ductile and brittle fractures—especially with the higher resolution MS/SS-OCT system. The investigation is finally extended to the most useful case of

  2. Circulation of Stars (United States)

    Boitani, P.


    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  3. Stars a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew


    Stars: A Very Short Introduction looks at how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, leaving remnants such as black holes. Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. Understanding stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, the existence of planets, and the history of our entire Universe. This VSI explores the science of stars, the mechanisms that allow them to form, the processes that allow them to shine, and the results of their death.

  4. Lithium in LMC carbon stars


    Hatzidimitriou, D.; Morgan, D. H.; Cannon, R. D.; Croke, B. F. W.


    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of ...

  5. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling


    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  6. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.


    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  7. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  8. The twinkling of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, E.; Parry, G.; Pike, E.R.; Pusey, P.N.


    This article collects together some of the main ideas and experimental results on the twinkling of stars. Statistical methods are used to characterise the features of the scintillation and to investigate the ways in which these depend on the zenith angle of the star, the bandwidth of the light and various other parameters. Some new results are included which demonstrate the advantages of using photon counting methods in experiments on stellar scintillation. Since the twinkling of stars is a consequence of the turbulence in the Earth's magnetic atmosphere then measurements can be used to deduce some features of the structure of the turbulence. Some of the experiments designed to do this are discussed and the results reported. (author)

  9. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved (United States)


    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  10. Displacement Forecasting Method in Brittle Crack Surrounding Rock Under Excavation Unloading Incorporating Opening Deformation (United States)

    Li, X. J.; Yang, W. M.; Wang, L. G.; Butler, I. B.


    Splitting failure, which is recognized as a special engineering geology phenomenon, occurs continually in the brittle rock mass of caverns during underground excavation. In this paper, a splitting model of linear slippage crack groups is built with fracture mechanics, energy analysis, and crack extension theories. Considering intrinsic cracks in rock mass and change of outer stress, intrinsic cracks propagate into macroscopical splitting cracks that are approximately parallel to the side wall of caverns. The splitting criterion of cavern rock mass and the method for predicting displacement in view of splitting opening displacement are proposed. In the end, the forecasting method is applied to the Jinping-I Hydropower Station, underground caverns engineering in China, the splitting failure zone and forecasting displacement are accordant with the monitoring data. The new forecasting displacement method is proven to contribute to the construction of similar underground caverns.

  11. Nominally brittle cracks in inhomogeneous solids: From microstructural disorder to continuum-level scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eBarés


    Full Text Available We analyze the intermittent dynamics of cracks in heterogeneous brittle materials and the roughness of the resulting fracture surfaces by investigating theoretically and numerically crack propagation in an elastic solid of spatially-distributed toughness. The crack motion split up into discrete jumps, avalanches, displaying scale-free statistical features characterized by universal exponents. Conversely, the ranges of scales are non-universal and the mean avalanche size and duration depend on the loading microstructure and specimen parameters according to scaling laws which are uncovered. The crack surfaces are found to be logarithmically rough. Their selection by the fracture parameters is formulated in term of scaling laws on the structure functions measured on one-dimensional roughness profiles taken parallel and perpendicular to the direction of crack growth.

  12. The Influence of Brittle Daniels System Characteristics on the Value of Load Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM). The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM. A value of SHM analysis is performed within...... the framework of the Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory and requires (1) structur al performance modelling and prediction, (2) structural integrity management models, (3) the (pre-posterior) modelling of SHM and (4) the coupling of SHM and the structural performance models. The pre-posterior decision...... theoretical framework facilitates that the value of SHM can be quantified before the SHM system is quantified and before data are acquired. The results of this study support decisions to select structural systems for which the SHM strategy load monitoring is optimal....

  13. Morphological study of elastic-plastic-brittle transitions in disordered media (United States)

    Kale, Sohan; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin


    We use a spring lattice model with springs following a bilinear elastoplastic-brittle constitutive behavior with spatial disorder in the yield and failure thresholds to study patterns of plasticity and damage evolution. The elastic-perfectly plastic transition is observed to follow percolation scaling with the correlation length critical exponent ν ≈1.59 , implying the universality class corresponding to the long-range correlated percolation. A quantitative analysis of the plastic strain accumulation reveals a dipolar anisotropy (for antiplane loading) which vanishes with increasing hardening modulus. A parametric study with hardening modulus and ductility controlled through the spring level constitutive response demonstrates a wide spectrum of behaviors with varying degree of coupling between plasticity and damage evolution.

  14. Understanding ductile-to-brittle transition of metallic glasses from shear transformation zone dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Q. Jiang


    Full Text Available A theoretical model that takes into account the free-volume aided cooperative shearing of shear transformation zones (STZs is developed to quantitatively understand the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT of metallic glasses. The STZ dilatational strain is defined as the ratio of STZ-activated free volume to STZ volume itself. The model demonstrates that the STZ dilatational strain will increase drastically and exceed the characteristic shear strain of STZ as temperature decreases below a critical value. This critical temperature is in good agreement with the experimentally measured DBT temperature. Our results suggest that the DBT of metallic glasses is underpinned by the transition of atomic-cluster motions from STZ-type rearrangements to dilatational processes (termed tension transformation zones (TTZs.

  15. Strain field evolution at the ductile-to-brittle transition: a case study on ice (United States)

    Chauve, Thomas; Montagnat, Maurine; Lachaud, Cedric; Georges, David; Vacher, Pierre


    This paper presents, for the first time, the evolution of the local heterogeneous strain field around intra-granular cracking in polycrystalline ice, at the onset of tertiary creep. Owing to the high homologous temperature conditions and relatively low compressive stress applied, stress concentration at the crack tips is relaxed by plastic mechanisms associated with dynamic recrystallization. Strain field evolution followed by digital image correlation (DIC) directly shows the redistribution of strain during crack opening, but also the redistribution driven by crack tip plasticity mechanisms and recrystallization. Associated local changes in microstructure induce modifications of the local stress field evidenced by crack closure during deformation. At the ductile-to-brittle transition in ice, micro-cracking and dynamic recrystallization mechanisms can co-exist and interact, the later being efficient to relax stress concentration at the crack tips.

  16. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  17. Stress-driven local-solution approach to quasistatic brittle delamination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Thomas, M.; Panagiotopoulos, Ch.


    Roč. 22, April (2015), s. 645-663 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : unilateral adhesive contact * brittle limit * rate-independent processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2015

  18. Brittle Cornea Syndrome Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Zinc-Finger 469 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Elisabeth; Knappskog, Per Morten; Midtbø, Marit


    Purpose: To investigate the diverse clinical manifestations, identify the causative mutation and explain the association with red hair in a family with brittle cornea syndrome (BCS). Methods: Eight family members in three generations underwent ophthalmic, dental, and general medical examination...... mapping with SNP markers, DNA sequencing, and MC1R genotyping. Results: At 42 and 48 years of age, respectively, both affected individuals were blind due to retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. They had extremely thin and bulging corneas, velvety skin, chestnut colored hair, scoliosis, reduced BMD......, dental anomalies, hearing loss and minor cardiac defects. The morphologies of the skin biopsies were normal except that in some areas slightly thinner collagen fibrils were seen in one of the affected individuals. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation of ZNF469, c.10016G...

  19. New Methods in Exploring Old Topics: Case Studying Brittle Diabetes in the Family Context. (United States)

    Günther, Moritz Philipp; Winker, Peter; Wudy, Stefan A; Brosig, Burkhard


    In questing for a more refined quantitative research approach, we revisited vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling for the analysis of time series data in the context of the so far poorly explored concept of family dynamics surrounding instable diabetes type 1 (or brittle diabetes). We adopted a new approach to VAR analysis from econometrics referred to as the optimized multivariate lag selection process and applied it to a set of raw data previously analyzed through standard approaches. We illustrated recurring psychosomatic circles of cause and effect relationships between emotional and somatic parameters surrounding glycemic control of the child's diabetes and the affective states of all family members. The optimized multivariate lag selection process allowed for more specific, dynamic, and statistically reliable results (increasing R(2) tenfold in explaining glycemic variability), which were derived from a larger window of past explanatory variables (lags). Such highly quantitative versus historic more qualitative approaches to case study analysis of psychosomatics surrounding diabetes in adolescents were reflected critically.

  20. Brittle-to-ductile transition in polycrystalline aluminum containing gallium in the grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, A; Izumi, J; Ina, K; Koizumi, H, E-mail: [Deaprtment of Physics, Meiji University, Higashi-mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 214-8571 (Japan)


    It is well known that aluminum/gallium couple causes liquid metal embrittlement. Gallium atoms penetrate the grain boundaries of polycrystalline aluminum and degrade it. Polycrystalline aluminum specimens were contacted with a small droplet of gallium for 24 h. After gallium was removed from the surface of the specimens, tensile tests were performed between 77 K and 313 K. The specimens are ductile below 230 K and brittle above 303 K, the melting temperature of gallium. Between 280 K and 300 K, the maximum stress is larger in the specimens heated from 77 K than in those cooled from 313 K. This thermal history dependence of the maximum stress is considered to be attributed to the solidification of supercooled gallium in the grain boundaries.

  1. Generalized Continuum: from Voigt to the Modeling of Quasi-Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Salim Fuina


    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the generalized continuum theories to incorporate the effects of the microstructure in the nonlinear finite element analysis of quasi-brittle materials and, thus, to solve mesh dependency problems. A description of the problem called numerically induced strain localization, often found in Finite Element Method material non-linear analysis, is presented. A brief historic about the Generalized Continuum Mechanics based models is presented, since the initial work of Voigt (1887 until the more recent studies. By analyzing these models, it is observed that the Cosserat and microstretch approaches are particular cases of a general formulation that describes the micromorphic continuum. After reporting attempts to incorporate the material microstructure in Classical Continuum Mechanics based models, the article shows the recent tendency of doing it according to assumptions of the Generalized Continuum Mechanics. Finally, it presents numerical results which enable to characterize this tendency as a promising way to solve the problem.

  2. Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wagner Schenkel; Buarque, Lia; Voshell, Martin; Branlat, Matthieu; Woods, David D.; Gomes, Jose Orlando


    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response System in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation training. (authors)

  3. A discrete element model of brittle damages generated by thermal expansion mismatch of heterogeneous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Damien


    Full Text Available At the macroscopic scale, such media as rocks or ceramics can be seen as homogeneous continuum. However, at the microscopic scale these materials involve sophisticated micro-structures that mix several phases. Generally, these micro-structures are composed by a large amount of inclusions embedded in a brittle matrix that ensures the cohesion of the structure. These materials generally exhibit complex non linear mechanical behaviors that result from the interactions between the different phases. This paper proposes to study the impact of the diffuse damages that result from the thermal expansion mismatch between the phases in presence. The Discrete Element Method (DEM that naturally take into account discontinuities is proposed to study these phenomena.

  4. A dimensional analysis approach to fatigue in quasi-brittle materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi


    Full Text Available In this study, a generalized Barenblatt and Botvina dimensional analysis approach to fatigue crack growth is proposed in order to highlight and explain the deviations from the classical power-law equations used to characterize the fatigue behaviour of quasi-brittle materials. According to this theoretical approach, the microstructural-size (related to the volumetric content of fibres in fibre-reinforced concrete, the crack-size, and the size-scale effects on the Paris’ law and the Wöhler equation are presented within a unified mathematical framework. Relevant experimental results taken from the literature are used to confirm the theoretical trends and to determine the values of the incomplete self-similarity exponents. All these information are expected to be useful for the design of experiments, since the role of the different dimensionless numbers governing the phenomenon of fatigue is herein elucidated.

  5. Stability analysis of quasi-brittle materials - creep under multiaxial loading (United States)

    Challamel, Noël; Lanos, Christophe; Casandjian, Charles


    The aim of this paper is to develop a simple time-dependent Continuum Damage Mechanics model applied to quasi-brittle materials such as rock or concrete. The three-dimensional constitutive visco-damage model describes phenomena like relaxation, creep and rate-dependent loading using a unified framework. A material stability analysis devoted to creep tests highlights a general creep stress stability domain. This convex domain is connected to the property of the associated time-independent Continuum Damage Mechanics model. More particularly, the boundary of this domain in the creep stress space coincides with the invertibility condition of the constitutive matrix considering infinitely slow loading. Phenomenon as creep failure under high-sustained load is explained quite simply within stability theory. Creep failure appears as the manifestation of a saddle-node bifurcation phenomenon.

  6. Construction of stess-strain curves for brittle materials by indentation in a wide temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milman Yu.V.


    Full Text Available A test method procedure for constructing stress-strain curves by indentation of brittle and low plastic materials under temperature ranging from 20 to 900°C was developed recently by Yu. Milman, B. Galanov et al. According to this test method procedure stress-strain curves σ - Є for Si, Ge, SiC, TiB2 and WC/Co hard alloy were constructed in the above temperature region and mechanical parameters such as elastic point, σe, yield stress, σs, etc. were extracted by using the measurement results obtained by a set of trihedral pyramid indenters with different angles at the tip, γ1, ranging from 45 to 85°C.

  7. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.


    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  8. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.


    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  9. Brittle deformation during Alpine basal accretion and the origin of seismicity nests above the subduction interface (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Angiboust, Samuel; Monié, Patrick; Oncken, Onno; Guigner, Jean-Michel


    Geophysical observations on active subduction zones have evidenced high seismicity clusters at 20-40 km depth in the fore-arc region whose origin remains controversial. We report here field observations of pervasive pseudotachylyte networks (interpreted as evidence for paleo-seismicity) in the now-exhumed Valpelline continental unit (Dent Blanche complex, NW. Alps, Italy), a tectonic sliver accreted to the upper plate at c. 30 km depth during the Paleocene Alpine subduction. Pre-alpine granulite-facies paragneiss from the core of the Valpelline unit are crosscut by widespread, mm to cm-thick pseudotachylyte veins. Co-seismic heating and subsequent cooling led to the formation of Ti-rich garnet rims, ilmenite needles, Ca-rich plagioclase, biotite microliths and hercynite micro-crystals. 39Ar-40Ar dating yields a 51-54 Ma age range for these veins, thus suggesting that frictional melting events occurred near peak burial conditions while the Valpelline unit was already inserted inside the duplex structure. In contrast, the base of the Valpelline unit underwent synchronous ductile and brittle, seismic deformation under water-bearing conditions followed by a re-equilibration at c. 40 Ma (39Ar-40Ar on retrograded pseudotachylyte veins) during exhumation-related deformation. Calculated rheological profiles suggest that pseudotachylyte veins from the dry core of the granulite unit record upper plate micro-seismicity (Mw 2-3) formed under very high differential stresses (>500 MPa) while the sheared base of the unit underwent repeated brittle-ductile deformation at much lower differential stresses (<40 MPa) in a fluid-saturated environment. These results demonstrate that some of the seismicity clusters nested along and above the plate interface may reflect the presence of stiff tectonic slivers rheologically analogous to the Valpelline unit acting as repeatedly breaking asperities in the basal accretion region of active subduction zones.

  10. The "brittle response" to Parkinson's disease medications: characterization and response to deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martinez-Ramirez

    Full Text Available Formulate a definition and describe the clinical characteristics of PD patients with a "brittle response" (BR to medications versus a "non-brittle response" (NBR, and characterize the use of DBS for this population.An UF IRB approved protocol used a retrospective chart review of 400 consecutive PD patients presenting to the UF Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration. Patient records were anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis. SPSS statistics were used to analyze data.Of 345 included patients, 19 (5.5% met criteria for BR PD. The BR group was comprised of 58% females, compared to 29% in the NBR group (P = .008. The former had a mean age of 63.4 compared to 68.1 in the latter. BR patients had lower mean weight (63.5 vs. 79.6, P = <.001, longer mean disease duration (12.6 vs. 8.9 years, P = .003, and had been on LD for more years compared to NBR patients (9.8 vs. 5.9, P = .001. UPDRS motor scores were higher (40.4 vs. 30.0, P = .001 in BR patients. No differences were observed regarding the Schwab and England scale, PDQ-39, and BDI-II. Sixty-three percent of the BR group had undergone DBS surgery compared to 18% (P = .001. Dyskinesias were more common, severe, and more often painful (P = <.001 in the BR group. There was an overall positive benefit from DBS.BR PD occurred more commonly in female patients with a low body weight. Patients with longer disease duration and longer duration of LD therapy were also at risk. The BR group responded well to DBS.

  11. Validation of a New Elastoplastic Constitutive Model Dedicated to the Cyclic Behaviour of Brittle Rock Materials (United States)

    Cerfontaine, B.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.; Taiebat, M.


    Old mines or caverns may be used as reservoirs for fuel/gas storage or in the context of large-scale energy storage. In the first case, oil or gas is stored on annual basis. In the second case pressure due to water or compressed air varies on a daily basis or even faster. In both cases a cyclic loading on the cavern's/mine's walls must be considered for the design. The complexity of rockwork geometries or coupling with water flow requires finite element modelling and then a suitable constitutive law for the rock behaviour modelling. This paper presents and validates the formulation of a new constitutive law able to represent the inherently cyclic behaviour of rocks at low confinement. The main features of the behaviour evidenced by experiments in the literature depict a progressive degradation and strain of the material with the number of cycles. A constitutive law based on a boundary surface concept is developed. It represents the brittle failure of the material as well as its progressive degradation. Kinematic hardening of the yield surface allows the modelling of cycles. Isotropic softening on the cohesion variable leads to the progressive degradation of the rock strength. A limit surface is introduced and has a lower opening than the bounding surface. This surface describes the peak strength of the material and allows the modelling of a brittle behaviour. In addition a fatigue limit is introduced such that no cohesion degradation occurs if the stress state lies inside this surface. The model is validated against three different rock materials and types of experiments. Parameters of the constitutive laws are calibrated against uniaxial tests on Lorano marble, triaxial test on a sandstone and damage-controlled test on Lac du Bonnet granite. The model is shown to reproduce correctly experimental results, especially the evolution of strain with number of cycles.

  12. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.


    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  13. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W


    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  14. Synthetic guide star generation (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA


    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  15. The Drifting Star (United States)


    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  16. The physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, A C


    The Physics of Stars, Second Edition, is a concise introduction to the properties of stellar interiors and consequently the structure and evolution of stars. Strongly emphasising the basic physics, simple and uncomplicated theoretical models are used to illustrate clearly the connections between fundamental physics and stellar properties. This text does not intend to be encyclopaedic, rather it tends to focus on the most interesting and important aspects of stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis. In the Second Edition, a new chapter on Helioseismology has been added, along with a list

  17. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.


    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  18. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.


    We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

  19. [Star anise poisoning in infants]. (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L


    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  20. Kepler observations of Am stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Ripepi, V.; Cantanzaro, G.


    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra for two pulsating Am stars in the Kepler field. The stellar parameters derived in this way are important because parameters derived from narrow-band photometry may be affected by the strong metal lines in these stars. We analyse the Kepler time...... series of ten known Am stars and find that six of them clearly show δ Scuti pulsations. The other four appear to be non-pulsating. We derive fundamental parameters for all known pulsating Am stars from ground-based observations and also for the Kepler Am stars to investigate the location...... of the instability strip for pulsating Am stars. We find that there is not much difference between the Am-star instability strip and the δ Scuti instability strip. We find that the observed location of pulsating Am stars in the HR diagram does not agree with the location predicted from diffusion calculations. Based...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  2. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.


    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  7. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  11. UX Ori-Type Stars (United States)

    Grinin, V.


    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Enterprise Servers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Enterprise Servers that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  16. Analysis of intergranular crack propagation in brittle polycrystals with a generalized finite element method and network algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabir, Z.; Van der Giessen, E.; Duarte, C.A.; Simone, A.


    Two different approaches to intergranular crack propagation in brittle polycrystals are contrasted. Crack paths resulting from a method that allows a detailed description of the stress field within a polycrystal are compared to cracks dictated by topological considerations. In the first approach, a

  17. Mutations in PRDM5 in Brittle Cornea Syndrome Identify a Pathway Regulating Extracellular Matrix Development and Maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Emma M. M. Burkitt; Spencer, Helen L.; Daly, Sarah B.; Manson, Forbes D. C.; Zeef, Leo A. H.; Urquhart, Jill; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Bonshek, Richard; Tosounidis, Ioannis; Mohan, Meyyammai; Madden, Colm; Dodds, Annabel; Chandler, Kate E.; Banka, Siddharth; Au, Leon; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Khan, Naz; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Wilson, Meredith; Rohrbach, Marianne; Colombi, Marina; Giunta, Cecilia; Black, Graeme C. M.


    Extreme corneal fragility and thinning, which have a high risk of catastrophic spontaneous rupture, are the cardinal features of brittle cornea syndrome (BCS), an autosomal-recessive generalized connective tissue disorder. Enucleation is frequently the only management option for this condition,

  18. Accurate description of near-crack-tip fields for the estimation of inelastic zone extent in quasi-brittle materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Šestáková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav

    525-526, č. 1 (2013), s. 529-532 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1551 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : crack * near-crack-tip fields * Williams series * quasi-brittle fracture Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  19. Comparing P-stars with Observations


    Cea, Paolo


    P-stars are compact stars made of up and down quarks in $\\beta$-equilibrium with electrons in a chromomagnetic condensate. P-stars are able to account for compact stars as well as stars with radius comparable with canonical neutron stars. We compare p-stars with different available observations. Our results indicate that p-stars are able to reproduce in a natural manner several observations from isolated and binary pulsars.

  20. Asteroseismology of Scuti Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these difficulties have influenced are also discussed.

  1. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 817–825. Hadrons in compact stars. DEBADES BANDYOPADHYAY. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India ... There is a growing interplay between the physics of dense matter in relativistic .... Kaplan and Nelson [7] first showed in a chiral SU(3)L × SU(3)R model that.

  2. Millet's Shooting Stars (United States)

    Beech, M.


    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  3. Reaching for the Stars (United States)

    Terry, Dorothy Givens


    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  4. Interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.; Wade, R.A.


    This book reviews the theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting binary stars. The topics discussed embrace the following features of these objects: their orbits, evolution, mass transfer, angular momentum losses, X-ray emission, eclipses, variability, and other related phenomena. (U.K.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a-large acceptance collider detector, commissioned at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1999. STAR has developed a software framework supporting simulation, reconstruction and analysis in offline production, interactive physics analysis and online monitoring environments that is well matched both to STAR's present status of transition between Fortran and C++ based software and to STAR's evolution to a fully OO software base. This paper presents the results of two years effort developing a modular C++ framework based on the ROOT package that encompasses both wrapped Fortran components (legacy simulation and reconstruction code) served by IDL-defined data structures, and fully OO components (all physics analysis code) served by a recently developed object model for event data. The framework supports chained components, which can themselves be composite subchains, with components (''makers'') managing ''data sets'' they have created and are responsible for. An St-DataSet class from which data sets and makers inherit allows the construction of hierarchical organizations of components and data, and centralizes almost all system tasks such as data set navigation, I/O, database access, and inter-component communication. This paper will present an overview of this system, now deployed and well exercised in production environments with real and simulated data, and in an active physics analysis development program

  6. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At normal nuclear matter density, neutron star matter mainly consists of neutrons, protons and electrons. The particle population is so arranged as to attain a min- imum energy configuration maintaining electrical charge neutrality and chemical equilibrium. At higher baryon density, hyperon formation becomes energetically.

  7. Alignement experience in STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Margetis, S; Lauret, J; Perevozchikov, V; Van Buren, G; Bouchef, J


    The STAR experiment at RHIC uses four layers of silicon strip and silicon drift detectors for secondary vertex reconstruction. An attempt for a direct charm meson measurement put stringent requirements on alignment and calibration. We report on recent alignment and drift velocity calibration work performed on the inner silicon tracking system.

  8. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.


    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal

  9. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa


    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. I see falling stars

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Tamra B


    "Young children are naturally curious about the world around them. I See Falling Stars offers answers to their most compelling questions about meteors. Age-appropriate explanations and appealing photos encourage readers to continue their quest for knowledge. Additional text features and search tools, including a glossary and an index, help students locate information and learn new words."-- Provided by publisher.

  11. Astrometric microlensing of stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominik, M; Sahu, KC


    Because of dramatic improvements in the precision of astrometric measurements, the observation of light centroid shifts in observed stars due to intervening massive compact objects ("astrometric microlensing") will become possible in the near future. Upcoming space missions, such as SIM and GAIA,

  12. Gas Between the Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    backstage. Keywords. Thermal equilibrium, interstellar gas, galaxies. The discovery of the interstellar gas itself was serendipitous. In. RESONANCE | November 2016. 985 ... ment, the electron is usually knocked down from the aligned case ..... it was asserted that explosions that some stars end their nuclear burning phase ...

  13. High p physics at STAR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sub sub

    physics pp. 933–944. High p. T physics at STAR. SUBHASIS CHATTOPADHYAY, for the STAR Collaboration. Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India. Abstract. We discuss the capabilities of STAR in exploring the physics at high pT in ultrarelativis- tic heavy-ion colisions from RHIC at.

  14. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Carbon stars have been reviewed on several previous occasions, most recently by. Wallerstein & Knapp (1998). A conference devoted to this topic was held in 1996. (Wing 2000) and two meetings on AGB stars (Le Bertre et al. 1999; Kerschbaum et al. 2007) also contain much on carbon stars. This review ...

  15. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature Supplement 2010: an Update of Posiva Working Report 2006-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.


    Posiva Working Report 2006-25 arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating long-term safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust was reviewed up to and including year 2005. The result was a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, particularly heterogeneous migmatitic and metamorphic rocks like those that make up the Olkiluoto bedrock. The present report is a supplement to WR 2006-25, covering the 5-year period 2006-2010, with some key earlier references and an Annotated Bibliography. The present report is subdivided into five chapters, listing recent literature on (1) background subjects and basic principles, (2) the fabric of Olkiluoto-type intact rock (gneisses, migmatites, fault rocks), (3) formation and characteristics of brittle deformation features (fracture mechanics, brittle microtectonics), (4) fracture data acquisition and processing (statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems), and (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones (for deterministic and dynamic modelling), corresponding to the first five chapters of the earlier report

  16. A Vanishing Star Revisited (United States)


    VLT Observations of an Unusual Stellar System Reinhold Häfner of the Munich University Observatory (Germany) is a happy astronomer. In 1988, when he was working at a telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory, he came across a strange star that suddenly vanished off the computer screen. He had to wait for more than a decade to get the full explanation of this unusual event. On June 10-11, 1999, he observed the same star with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope (ANTU) and the FORS1 astronomical instrument at Paranal [1]. With the vast power of this new research facility, he was now able to determine the physical properties of a very strange stellar system in which two planet-size stars orbit each other. One is an exceedingly hot white dwarf star , weighing half as much as the Sun, but only twice as big as the Earth. The other is a much cooler and less massive red dwarf star , one-and-a-half times the size of planet Jupiter. Once every three hours, the hot star disappears behind the other, as seen from the Earth. For a few minutes, the brightness of the system drops by a factor of more than 250 and it "vanishes" from view in telescopes smaller than the VLT. A variable star named NN Serpentis ESO PR Photo 30a/99 ESO PR Photo 30a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 468 pix - 152k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 936 pix - 576k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2304 x 2695 pix - 4.4M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 30a/99 : The sky field around the 17-mag variable stellar system NN Serpentis , as seen in a 5 sec exposure through a V(isual) filter with VLT ANTU and FORS1. It was obtained just before the observation of an eclipse of this unsual object and served to centre the telescope on the corresponding sky position. The field shown here measures 4.5 x 4.5 armin 2 (1365 x 1365 pix 2 ; 0.20 arcsec/pix). The field is somewhat larger than that shown in Photo 30b/99 and has the same orientation to allow comparison: North is about 20° anticlockwise from the top and East is 90° clockwise from that direction. The

  17. Star identification methods, techniques and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun


    This book summarizes the research advances in star identification that the author’s team has made over the past 10 years, systematically introducing the principles of star identification, general methods, key techniques and practicable algorithms. It also offers examples of hardware implementation and performance evaluation for the star identification algorithms. Star identification is the key step for celestial navigation and greatly improves the performance of star sensors, and as such the book include the fundamentals of star sensors and celestial navigation, the processing of the star catalog and star images, star identification using modified triangle algorithms, star identification using star patterns and using neural networks, rapid star tracking using star matching between adjacent frames, as well as implementation hardware and using performance tests for star identification. It is not only valuable as a reference book for star sensor designers and researchers working in pattern recognition and othe...

  18. Neutron stars and quark stars: Two coexisting families of compact stars?


    Schaffner-Bielich, J.


    The mass-radius relation of compact stars is discussed with relation to the presence of quark matter in the core. The existence of a new family of compact stars with quark matter besides white dwarfs and ordinary neutron stars is outlined.

  19. Failure processes in soft and quasi-brittle materials with nonhomogeneous microstructures (United States)

    Spring, Daniel W.

    Material failure pervades the fields of materials science and engineering; it occurs at various scales and in various contexts. Understanding the mechanisms by which a material fails can lead to advancements in the way we design and build the world around us. For example, in structural engineering, understanding the fracture of concrete and steel can lead to improved structural systems and safer designs; in geological engineering, understanding the fracture of rock can lead to increased efficiency in oil and gas extraction; and in biological engineering, understanding the fracture of bone can lead to improvements in the design of bio-composites and medical implants. In this thesis, we numerically investigate a wide spectrum of failure behavior; in soft and quasi-brittle materials with nonhomogeneous microstructures considering a statistical distribution of material properties. The first topic we investigate considers the influence of interfacial interactions on the macroscopic constitutive response of particle reinforced elastomers. When a particle is embedded into an elastomer, the polymer chains in the elastomer tend to adsorb (or anchor) onto the surface of the particle; creating a region in the vicinity of each particle (often referred to as an interphase) with distinct properties from those in the bulk elastomer. This interphasial region has been known to exist for many decades, but is primarily omitted in computational investigations of such composites. In this thesis, we present an investigation into the influence of interphases on the macroscopic constitutive response of particle filled elastomers undergoing large deformations. In addition, at large deformations, a localized region of failure tends to accumulate around inclusions. To capture this localized region of failure (often referred to as interfacial debonding), we use cohesive zone elements which follow the Park-Paulino-Roesler traction-separation relation. To account for friction, we present a new

  20. A phenomenological molecular model for yielding and brittle-ductile transition of polymer glasses. (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Cheng, Shiwang; Lin, Panpan; Li, Xiaoxiao


    This work formulates, at a molecular level, a phenomenological theoretical description of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in tensile extension, exhibited by all polymeric glasses of high molecular weight (MW). The starting point is our perception of a polymer glass (under large deformation) as a structural hybrid, consisting of a primary structure due to the van der Waals bonding and a chain network whose junctions are made of pairs of hairpins and function like chemical crosslinks due to the intermolecular uncrossability. During extension, load-bearing strands (LBSs) emerge between the junctions in the affinely strained chain network. Above the BDT, i.e., at "warmer" temperatures where the glass is less vitreous, the influence of the chain network reaches out everywhere by activating all segments populated transversely between LBSs, starting from those adjacent to LBSs. It is the chain network that drives the primary structure to undergo yielding and plastic flow. Below the BDT, the glassy state is too vitreous to yield before the chain network suffers a structural breakdown. Thus, brittle failure becomes inevitable. For any given polymer glass of high MW, there is one temperature TBD or a very narrow range of temperature where the yielding of the glass barely takes place as the chain network also reaches the point of a structural failure. This is the point of the BDT. A theoretical analysis of the available experimental data reveals that (a) chain pullout occurs at the BDT when the chain tension builds up to reach a critical value f(cp) during tensile extension; (b) the limiting value of f(cp), extrapolated to far below the glass transition temperature T(g), is of a universal magnitude around 0.2-0.3 nN, for all eight polymers examined in this work; (c) pressurization, which is known [K. Matsushige, S. V. Radcliffe, and E. Baer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 1853 (1976)] to make brittle polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ductile at room

  1. Brittle-to-viscous behaviour of quartz gouge in shear experiments (United States)

    Richter, Bettina; Stunitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée


    In order to study the microstructure development across the brittle-viscous transition and to derive the corresponding flow laws, we performed shear experiments on quartz gouge in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus. The starting material is a crushed quartz single crystal (sieved grain size strain-rate-stepping experiments were conducted at strain rates between ˜2.5 x 10-6 s-1 and ˜2.5 x 10-4 s-1. Other experiments were conducted at constant strain rates of ˜2.5 x 10-6 s-1, ˜2.5 x 10-5 s-1, ˜2.5 x 10-4 s-1 and ˜2.5 x 10-3 s-1. At high confining pressure, the strength of the samples decreases with increasing temperature for all strain rates. The largest decrease occurred between 650 ° C and 700 ° C at shear strain rates of ˜2.5 x 10-5 s-1. At the same time, the pressure dependence of strength is positive for T ≤ 650 ° C while an inverse pressure dependence is observed at T > 650 ° C. For T strain rates of ˜2.5 x 10-5 s-1 a change in the deformation process occurs from one dominated by cataclastic flow to one dominated by crystal plasticity. The microstructure reveals a less abrupt transition in terms of operating processes, because brittle and viscous processes are equally active around 650 ° C. With increasing temperature the volume fraction of recrystallised grains increases, and at 900 ° C - 1000 ° C recrystallisation is nearly complete at strains of γ ˜ 3. The crystallographic preferred orientation of the c-axis evolves from a random distribution at low temperatures towards two peripheral maxima at intermediate temperatures. At high temperatures the c-axis show a single Y-maximum. At high temperature, the stress exponent is n = 2.1 ± 0.2. The activation energy Q is 193 ± 12 kJ/mol at strain rates of 10-5 s-1, at faster strain rates the activation energy drops down to Q = 119 ± 12 kJ/mol. This small stress exponent at high temperatures indicates a combination of deformation processes (diffusion in very fine grained material and dislocation

  2. Experimental Determination of the Fracture Toughness and Brittleness of the Mancos Shale, Utah. (United States)

    Chandler, Mike; Meredith, Phil; Crawford, Brian


    non-linearity. This produces hysteresis during cyclic loading, allowing for the calculation of a brittleness coefficient using the residual displacement after successive loading cycles. This can then be used to define a brittleness corrected Fracture Toughness, KIcc. We report anisotropic KIcc values and a variety of supporting measurements made on the Mancos Shale in the three principle Mode-I crack orientations (Arrester, Divider and Short-Transverse) using a modified Short-Rod sample geometry. The Mancos is an Upper Cretaceous shale from western Colorado and eastern Utah with a relatively high siliclastic content for a gas target formation. The Short-Rod methodology involves the propagation of a crack through a triangular ligament in a chevron-notched cylindrical sample [3]. A very substantial anisotropy is observed in the loading curves and KIcc values for the three crack orientations, with the Divider orientation having KIcc values 25% higher than the other orientations. The measured brittleness for these Mancos shales is in the range 1.5-2.1; higher than for any other rocks we have found in the literature. This implies that the material is extremely non-linear. Increases in KIcc with increasing confining pressure are also investigated, as Shale Gas reservoirs occur at depths where confining pressure may be as high as 35MPa and temperature as high as 100oC. References [1] C.A. Green, P. Styles & B.J. Baptie, "Preese Hall Shale Gas Fracturing", Review & Recommendations for Induced Seismic Mitigation, 2012. [2] N.R. Warpinski & M.B. Smith, "Rock Mechanics and Fracture Geometry", Recent advances in Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Monograms, Vol. 12, pp. 57-80, 1990. [3] F. Ouchterlony, "International Society for Rock Mechanics Commision on Testing Methods: Suggested Methods for Determining the Fracture Toughness of Rock", International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 25, 1988.

  3. Elastic geobarometry and the role of brittle failure on pressure release (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Mattia Luca; Angel, Ross John; Rustioni, Greta; Milani, Sula; Nimis, Paolo; Chiara Domeneghetti, Maria; Marone, Federica; Harris, Jeff W.; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo


    Mineral inclusions trapped in their hosts can provide fundamental information about geological processes. Recent developments in elastic geobarometry, for example, allow the retrieval of encapsulation pressures for host-inclusion pairs. In principle this method can be applied to any mineral-mineral pair so long as both the residual pressure on an inclusion (Pinc), and the equations of state for both host and inclusion are either known or determined (Angel et al., 2015). However, Angel et al. (2014) outlined some boundary conditions, one of which was that deformation in the host-inclusion pair has to be purely elastic. Thus this caveat would exclude from analysis all the inclusions that are surrounded by cracks, indicative of brittle deformation, which may result in partial or complete release of the Pinc. If however the effects of cracks surrounding trapped mineral inclusions could be quantitatively modelled, then the applicability of "elastic" geobarometry might be extended to a much larger number of inclusion-host pairs. We report the results of a pilot experiment in which the stress states (i.e. the residual pressure) have been determined for 10 olivine inclusions still entrapped in 5 diamonds. Inclusion pressures were determined from the unit-cell volumes of the olivines measured in-situ in the diamonds by X-ray diffraction. The olivine equations of state were determined from the olivine compositions by in-situ X-ray structure refinement. Values of Pinc range from 0.19 to 0.53 GPa. In order to quantify the degree of brittle failure surrounding the inclusions, the same set of samples were also investigated by synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography (SRXTM at TOMCAT, Swiss LightSource). Preliminary results showed that at the spatial resolution of our experiments (pixel size of 0.34μm), 90% of the inclusions trapped in our set of diamonds were surrounded by cracks. The volume of the cracks has been determined from 3D reconstruction with an accuracy of about 4%. Our

  4. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo


    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  5. Forced-rupture of cell-adhesion complexes reveals abrupt switch between two brittle states (United States)

    Toan, Ngo Minh; Thirumalai, D.


    Cell adhesion complexes (CACs), which are activated by ligand binding, play key roles in many cellular functions ranging from cell cycle regulation to mediation of cell extracellular matrix adhesion. Inspired by single molecule pulling experiments using atomic force spectroscopy on leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), expressed in T-cells, bound to intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM), we performed constant loading rate (rf) and constant force (F) simulations using the self-organized polymer model to describe the mechanism of ligand rupture from CACs. The simulations reproduce the major experimental finding on the kinetics of the rupture process, namely, the dependence of the most probable rupture forces (f*s) on ln rf (rf is the loading rate) exhibits two distinct linear regimes. The first, at low rf, has a shallow slope, whereas the slope at high rf is much larger, especially for a LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex with the transition between the two occurring over a narrow rf range. Locations of the two transition states (TSs) extracted from the simulations show an abrupt change from a high value at low rf or constant force, F, to a low value at high rf or F. This unusual behavior in which the CACs switch from one brittle (TS position is a constant over a range of forces) state to another brittle state is not found in forced-rupture in other protein complexes. We explain this novel behavior by constructing the free energy profiles, F(Λ)s, as a function of a collective reaction coordinate (Λ), involving many key charged residues and a critical metal ion (Mg2+). The TS positions in F(Λ), which quantitatively agree with the parameters extracted using the Bell-Evans model, change abruptly at a critical force, demonstrating that it, rather than the molecular extension, is a good reaction coordinate. Our combined analyses using simulations performed in both the pulling modes (constant rf and F) reveal a new mechanism for the two loading regimes observed in the

  6. Dependence of the brittle ductile transition on strain-rate-dependent critical homologous temperature (United States)

    Davis, Paul M.


    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to

  7. Developing an Experimental Simulation Method for Rock Avalanches: Fragmentation Behavior of Brittle Analogue Material (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno


    Gravitational mass movement on earth and other planets show a scale dependent behavior, of which the physics is not fully understood. In particular, the runout distance for small to medium sized landslides (volume dynamics control small and large landslides/rock avalanches. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this scale dependent behavior, but no consensus has been reached. Experimental simulations of rock avalanches usually involve transport of loose granular material down a chute. Though such granular avalanche models provide important insights into avalanche dynamics, they imply that the material fully disintegrate instantaneously. Observations from nature, however, suggests that a transition from solid to "liquid" occurs over some finite distance downhill, critically controlling the mobility and energy budget of the avalanche. Few experimental studies simulated more realistically the material failing during sliding and those were realized in a labscale centrifuge, where the range of volumes/scales is limited. To develop a new modeling technique to study the scale dependent runout behavior of rock avalanches, we designed, tested and verified several brittle materials allowing fragmentation to occur under normal gravity conditions. According to the model similarity theory, the analogue material must behave dynamically similar to the rocks in natural rock avalanches. Ideally, the material should therefore deform in a brittle manner with limited elastic and ductile strains up to a certain critical stress, beyond which the material breaks and deforms irreversibly. According to scaling relations derived from dimensional analysis and for a model-to-prototype length ratio of 1/1000, the appropriate yield strength for an analogue material is in the order of 10 kPa, friction coefficient around 0.8 and stiffness in the order of MPa. We used different sand (garnet, quartz) in combination with different matrix materials (sugar, salt, starch, plaster) to cement

  8. The skeletal proteome of the sea star Patiria miniata and evolution of biomineralization in echinoderms. (United States)

    Flores, Rachel L; Livingston, Brian T


    Proteomic studies of skeletal proteins have revealed large, complex mixtures of proteins occluded within the mineral. Many skeletal proteomes contain rapidly evolving proteins with repetitive domains, further complicating our understanding. In echinoderms, proteomic analysis of the skeletal proteomes of mineralized tissues of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus prominently featured spicule matrix proteins with repetitive sequences linked to a C-type lectin domain. A comparative study of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii skeletal proteome revealed an order of magnitude fewer proteins containing C-type lectin domains. A number of other proteins conserved in the skeletons of the two groups were identified. Here we report the complete skeletal proteome of the sea star Patiria miniata and compare it to that of the other echinoderm groups. We have identified eighty-five proteins in the P. miniata skeletal proteome. Forty-two percent of the proteins were determined to be homologous to proteins found in the S. purpuratus skeletal proteomes. An additional 34 % were from similar functional classes as proteins in the urchin proteomes. Thirteen percent of the P. miniata proteins had homologues in the O. wendtii skeletal proteome with an additional 29% showing similarity to brittle star skeletal proteins. The P. miniata skeletal proteome did not contain any proteins with C-lectin domains or with acidic repetitive regions similar to the sea urchin or brittle star spicule matrix proteins. MSP130 proteins were also not found. We did identify a number of proteins homologous between the three groups. Some of the highly conserved proteins found in echinoderm skeletons have also been identified in vertebrate skeletons. The presence of proteins conserved in the skeleton in three different echinoderm groups indicates these proteins are important in skeleton formation. That a number of these proteins are involved in skeleton formation in vertebrates suggests a common origin for

  9. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  10. From stars to planets (United States)

    Gazzano, Jean-Christophe; Deleuil, Magali; De Laverny, Patrick; Blanco, Alejandra Recio; Bouchy, François; Gandolfi, Davide; Loeillet, Benoît


    A large program of multi-fibre (FLAMES) spectroscopic observations of the stellar population in two CoRoT/Exoplanet field with the GIRAFFE/VLT, took place in spring 2008. It aims at characterizing the brightest dwarf population and providing the ground for statistical analysis of the planetary population found by CoRoT. To perform such an ambitious analysis, we use an automated software based on the MATISSE algorithm, originally designed for the GAIA/RVS spectral analysis. This software derives the atmospheric stellar parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity and the overall metallicity. Further improvements are foreseen in order to measure also individual abundances. By comparing the main physical and chemical properties of the host stars to those of the stellar population they belong to, this will bring new insights into the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems and the star-planet connection.

  11. White Dwarf Stars (United States)


    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at or . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  12. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.


    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  13. Structure of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, C.K.


    Structure of neutron stars consisting of a cold and catalyzed superdense matter were investigated by integrating the equations for hydrostatic equilibrium based on the General Relativity theory. The equations of state were obtained with the help of semiempirical nuclear mass formulae. A large phase transition was found between the nuclear and subnuclear density regions. The density phase transition points were calculated as 6.2 x 10 11 and 3.8 x 10 13 g/cm 3 . Due to such a large phase transition, the equation of state practically consists of two parts: The nuclear and subnuclear phases wich are in contact under the thermodynamical equilibrium at the corresponding pressure. Some macroscopic properties of neutron stars are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Historical Variable Star Catalogs


    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi


    Slides from my talk during one of the Historical Astronomy Division sessions at AAS 225 in Seattle, WA (January 2015). A brief history of the variable star catalogs Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin assembled at Harvard, and the update to them that some of our students at AMNH have done.(Figshare only previews the first few slides. Download the PDF to see all of them!)

  15. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine


    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  16. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.


    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  17. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.


    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  18. What are the stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Ganesan


    The outstanding question in astronomy at the turn of the twentieth century was: What are the stars and why are they as they are? In this volume, the story of how the answer to this fundamental question was unravelled is narrated in an informal style, with emphasis on the underlying physics. Although the foundations of astrophysics were laid down by 1870, and the edifice was sufficiently built up by 1920, the definitive proof of many of the prescient conjectures made in the 1920s and 1930s came to be established less than ten years ago. This book discusses these recent developments in the context of discussing the nature of the stars, their stability and the source of the energy they radiate.  Reading this book will get young students excited about the presently unfolding revolution in astronomy and the challenges that await them in the world of physics, engineering and technology. General readers will also find the book appealing for its highly accessible narrative of the physics of stars.  “... The reade...

  19. Dynamic Response and Failure Mechanism of Brittle Rocks Under Combined Compression-Shear Loading Experiments (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng


    A novel method is developed for characterizing the mechanical response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under dynamic compression-shear loading: an inclined cylinder specimen using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. With the specimen axis inclining to the loading direction of SHPB, a shear component can be introduced into the specimen. Both static and dynamic experiments are conducted on sandstone specimens. Given carefully pulse shaping, the dynamic equilibrium of the inclined specimens can be satisfied, and thus the quasi-static data reduction is employed. The normal and shear stress-strain relationships of specimens are subsequently established. The progressive failure process of the specimen illustrated via high-speed photographs manifests a mixed failure mode accommodating both the shear-dominated failure and the localized tensile damage. The elastic and shear moduli exhibit certain loading-path dependence under quasi-static loading but loading-path insensitivity under high loading rates. Loading rate dependence is evidently demonstrated through the failure characteristics involving fragmentation, compression and shear strength and failure surfaces based on Drucker-Prager criterion. Our proposed method is convenient and reliable to study the dynamic response and failure mechanism of rocks under combined compression-shear loading.

  20. Shear-Induced Brittle Failure along Grain Boundaries in Boron Carbide. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaokun; Coleman, Shawn P; Lasalvia, Jerry C; Goddard, William A; An, Qi


    The role that grain boundaries (GBs) can play on mechanical properties has been studied extensively for metals and alloys. However, for covalent solids such as boron carbide (B 4 C), the role of GB on the inelastic response to applied stresses is not well established. We consider here the unusual ceramic, boron carbide (B 4 C), which is very hard and lightweight but exhibits brittle impact behavior. We used quantum mechanics (QM) simulations to examine the mechanical response in atomistic structures that model GBs in B 4 C under pure shear and also with biaxial shear deformation that mimics indentation stress conditions. We carried out these studies for two simple GB models including also the effect of adding Fe atoms (possible sintering aid and/or impurity) to the GB. We found that the critical shear stresses of these GB models are much lower than that for crystalline and twinned B 4 C. The two GB models lead to different interfacial energies. The higher interfacial energy at the GB only slightly decreases the critical shear stress but dramatically increases the critical failure strain. Doping the GB with Fe decreases the critical shear stress of at the boundary by 14% under pure shear deformation. In all GBs studied here, failure arises from deconstructing the icosahedra within the GB region under shear deformation. We find that Fe dopant interacts with icosahedra at the GB to facilitate this deconstruction of icosahedra. These results provide significant insight into designing polycrystalline B 4 C with improved strength and ductility.

  1. Compressive Fracture of Brittle Geomaterial: Fractal Features of Compression-Induced Fracture Surfaces and Failure Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren


    Full Text Available Compressive fracture is one of the most common failure patterns in geotechnical engineering. For better understanding of the local failure mechanism of compressive fractures of brittle geomaterials, three compressive fracture tests were conducted on sandstone. Edge cracked semicircular bend specimens were used and, consequently, fresh and unfilled compressive fracture surfaces were obtained. A laser profilometer was employed to measure the topography of each rough fracture surface, followed by fractal analysis of the irregularities of the obtained compression-induced fracture surfaces using the cubic cover method. To carry out a contrastive analysis with the results of compressive fracture tests, three tension mode fracture tests were also conducted and the fractal features of the obtained fracture surfaces were determined. The obtained average result of the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced surfaces was 2.070, whereas the average result was 2.067 for the tension-induced fracture surfaces. No remarkable differences between the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced and tension-induced fracture surfaces may indicate that compressive fracture may occur, at least on the investigative scale of this work, in a similar manner to tension fracture.

  2. Temporary brittle bone disease: relationship between clinical findings and judicial outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Paterson


    Full Text Available There is a wide differential diagnosis for the child with unexplained fractures including non-accidental injury, osteogenesis imperfecta and vitamin D deficiency rickets. Over the last 20 years we and others have described a self-limiting syndrome characterised by fractures in the first year of life. This has been given the provisional name temporary brittle bone disease. This work had proved controversial mostly because the fractures, including rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures, were those previously regarded as typical or even diagnostic of non-accidental injury. Some have asserted that the condition does not exist. Over the years 1985 to 2000 we investigated 87 such cases with fractures with a view to determining the future care of the children. In 85 of these the judiciary was involved. We examined the clinical and radiological findings in the 33 cases in which there was a judicial finding of abuse, the 24 cases in which the parents were exonerated and the 28 cases in which no formal judicial finding was made. The three groups of patients were similar in terms of demographics, age at fracturing and details of the fractures. The clinical similarities between the three groups of patients contrasts with the very different results of the judicial process.

  3. Comparison of Machining Temperature in High Speed Grinding of Metallic Materials and Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chongjun


    Full Text Available Grinding has always been a high energy expenditure process, which generally produce massive grinding heat and possibly produce thermal damage in workpiece ground surface. Therefore, a good understanding of grinding temperature characteristics is important to lower the thermal effect on the workpiece quality. However, the grinding temperature characteristic differs when grinding of different materials, especially for those hard-to-machine materials (eg. Titanium alloys and ceramics. Therefore, this paper is devoted to investigate different grinding temperature characteristics for metallic materials and brittle materials. In order to detect the grinding temperature, a grindable thermocouple technique with NI-DAQ device is adopted in diamond wheel grinding of ceramics and CBN grinding of Titanium alloys. The results show that the temperature characteristics for ceramics is totally different with Titanium alloys. When the grinding wheel speed increases, the grinding temperature increases all the way when grinding of Titanium alloys. However, there is a temperature turning point for grinding of ceramics. When the wheel speed surpasses the turning point, the grinding temperature goes down and closes at a relatively low temperature.

  4. Insensitivity to Flaws Leads to Damage Tolerance in Brittle Architected Meta-Materials. (United States)

    Montemayor, L C; Wong, W H; Zhang, Y-W; Greer, J R


    Cellular solids are instrumental in creating lightweight, strong, and damage-tolerant engineering materials. By extending feature size down to the nanoscale, we simultaneously exploit the architecture and material size effects to substantially enhance structural integrity of architected meta-materials. We discovered that hollow-tube alumina nanolattices with 3D kagome geometry that contained pre-fabricated flaws always failed at the same load as the pristine specimens when the ratio of notch length (a) to sample width (w) is no greater than 1/3, with no correlation between failure occurring at or away from the notch. Samples with (a/w) > 0.3, and notch length-to-unit cell size ratios of (a/l) > 5.2, failed at a lower peak loads because of the higher sample compliance when fewer unit cells span the intact region. Finite element simulations show that the failure is governed by purely tensile loading for (a/w) meta-materials may give rise to their damage tolerance and insensitivity of failure to the presence of flaws even when made entirely of intrinsically brittle materials.

  5. Reducing forces during drilling brittle hard materials by using ultrasonic and variation of coolant (United States)

    Schopf, C.; Rascher, R.


    The process of ultrasonic machining is especially used for brittle hard materials as the additional ultrasonic vibration of the tool at high frequencies and low amplitudes acts like a hammer on the surface. With this technology it is possible to drill holes with lower forces, therefor the machining can be done faster and the worktime is much less than conventionally. A three-axis dynamometer was used to measure the forces, which act between the tool and the sample part. A focus is set on the sharpness of the tool. The results of a test series are based on the Sauer Ultrasonic Grinding Centre. On the same machine it is possible to drill holes in the conventional way. Additional to the ultasonic Input the type an concentration of coolant is important for the Drilling-force. In the test there were three different coolant and three different concentrations tested. The combination of ultrasonic vibration and the right coolant and concentration is the best way to reduce the Forces. Another positive effect is, that lower drilling-forces produce smaller chipping on the edge of the hole. The way to reduce the forces and chipping is the main issue of this paper.

  6. Residual stress evaluation in brittle coatings using indentation technique combined with in-situ bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Steinbrech, R.W.; Tanabe, Yuji; Hara, Toshiaki


    The indentation crack length approach was adopted and further elaborated to evaluate residual stress and toughness of the brittle coatings: two kinds of glass coatings on steel. The influence of the residual stress on indentation cracking was examined in as-received coating condition and by in-situ superimposing a counteracting tensile stress. For purpose of providing reference toughness values stress-free pieces of separated coating material have also been examined. Thus results of the two complementary sets of experiments were assumed to prove self-consistently toughness and residual stress data of the coating. In particular, the in-situ bending of specimen in combination with the indentation test allowed us to vary deliberately the residual stress situation in glass coating. Thus experiments which utilized the combination of bending test and micro-indentation were introduced as a method to provide unambiguous information about residual compressive stress. Toughness and residual compressive stress of glass coatings used in this study were 0.46-0.50 MPa·m 1/2 and 94-111 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a thermoelastic calculation of the residual compressive stress was performed and it is found that the value of residual compressive stress at coating surface of specimen was 90-102 MPa. (author)

  7. Size effect on brittle and ductile fracture of two-dimensional interlinked carbon nanotube network (United States)

    Jing, Yuhang; Aluru, N. R.


    The mechanical properties of two-dimensional (2D) interlinked carbon nanotube (CNT) network are investigated using ab initio calculation and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with Reaxff force field. The simulation results show that bulk 2D interlinked CNT network has good mechanical properties along the axial direction which can be comparable to that of single-walled CNT and graphene, but has better ductility along the radial direction than single-walled CNT and graphene. In addition, the mechanical properties of 2D interlinked CNT network ribbon along the radial direction depend strongly on the size of the ribbon. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio decrease as the size increases while the fracture strain increases with the size increasing. By analyzing the atomic structural (both bond length and atomic von Mises stress) evolution of the ribbons, the mechanism of a brittle-to-ductile transition is revealed. The exploration of the mechanical properties of the 2D interlinked CNT network paves the way for application of the relevant devices that can benefit from the high Young's modulus, high tensile strength, and good ductility.

  8. On the ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of martensitic alloys neutron irradiated to 26 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.; Gelles, D.S.


    Charpy impact tests were conducted on specimens made of HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo in various heat treatment conditions which were irradiated in EBR-II to 26 dpa at 390 to 500 0 C. The results are compared with previous results on specimens irradiated to 13 dpa. HT-9 base metal irradiated at low temperatures showed a small additional increase in ductile brittle transition temperature and a decrease in upper shelf energy from 13 to 26 dpa. No fluence effect was observed in 9Cr-1Mo base metal. The 9Cr-1Mo weldment showed degraded DBTT but improved USE response compared to base metal, contrary to previous findings on HT-9. Significant differences were observed in HT-9 base metal between mill annealed material and normalized and tempered material. The highest DBTT for HT-9 alloys was 50 0 C higher than for the worst case in 9Cr-1Mo alloys. Fractography and hardness measurements were also obtained. Significant differences in fracture appearance were observed in different product forms, although no dependence on fluence was observed. Failure was controlled by the preirradiation microstructure

  9. Enrichment of pathogenic alleles in the brittle cornea gene, ZNF469, in keratoconus. (United States)

    Lechner, Judith; Porter, Louise F; Rice, Aine; Vitart, Veronique; Armstrong, David J; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Wright, Alan F; Inglehearn, Chris F; Black, Graeme C; Simpson, David A; Manson, Forbes; Willoughby, Colin E


    Keratoconus, a common inherited ocular disorder resulting in progressive corneal thinning, is the leading indication for corneal transplantation in the developed world. Genome-wide association studies have identified common SNPs 100 kb upstream of ZNF469 strongly associated with corneal thickness. Homozygous mutations in ZNF469 and PR domain-containing protein 5 (PRDM5) genes result in brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) Types 1 and 2, respectively. BCS is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder associated with extreme corneal thinning and a high risk of corneal rupture. Some individuals with heterozygous PRDM5 mutations demonstrate a carrier ocular phenotype, which includes a mildly reduced corneal thickness, keratoconus and blue sclera. We hypothesized that heterozygous variants in PRDM5 and ZNF469 predispose to the development of isolated keratoconus. We found a significant enrichment of potentially pathologic heterozygous alleles in ZNF469 associated with the development of keratoconus (P = 0.00102) resulting in a relative risk of 12.0. This enrichment of rare potentially pathogenic alleles in ZNF469 in 12.5% of keratoconus patients represents a significant mutational load and highlights ZNF469 as the most significant genetic factor responsible for keratoconus identified to date. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Experimental assessment of welded joints brittle fracture on the crack arrest criterion for WWER-1000 RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumin, A.A.; Timofeev, B.T.


    The crack arrest fracture toughness in a vessel steel used in WWER-1000 reactor, namely in steel 15Kh2NMFA and its submerged arc welded joints, produced with Sv-08KhGNMTA, Sv-12 Kh2NMFA welding wires and NF-18 M, FZ-16 A welding fluxes, is under study. Experimental studies are carried out using three heats with the chemical composition meeting the specifications. Weld specimens 100-200 mm thick are subjected to tempering according various regimes to induce the embrittlement and simulate mechanical properties (yield strength and ductile-brittle transition temperature) corresponding to those at the end of service life under neutron radiation effect. Base metal and weld properties are compared. The wide scatter is noted for experimental data on fracture toughness temperature dependences. A possibility to use the dependence of K Ia = f (T-T k ) for determining the crack arrest fracture toughness is discussed taking in account that K Ia is a stress intensity factor calculated within the frame of static fracture mechanics [ru

  11. Fabric transition with dislocation creep of a carbonate fault zone in the brittle regime (United States)

    Kim, Sungshil; Ree, Jin-Han; Han, Raehee; Kim, Nahyeon; Jung, Haemyeong


    Fabric transition by a switch in the dominant slip system of minerals in the plastic regime can be induced by changes in temperature, strain rate, or water content. We propose here this fabric transition by frictional heating in seismogenic fault zones in the brittle regime. The Garam Thrust in the Taebaeksan Basin of South Korea has a hanging wall of Cambrian dolostone juxtaposed against a footwall of Ordovician limestone and records a minimum displacement of 120 m. In a 10 cm thick plastically deformed layer adjacent to the principal slip layer of the fault zone, the lattice preferred orientation of calcite grains suggests that the dominant slip system changes, approaching the principal slip layer, from r 〈02-21〉 and e-twinning, through r 〈02-21〉 and basal 〈a〉, to basal 〈a〉. This fabric transition requires a high temperature-gradient of 40 °C/cm, which we infer to result from frictional heating of the seismic fault zone. We suggest that fabric transition within a thin plastically deformed layer adjacent to the principal slip layer of a fault zone indicates an unusually steep temperature gradient and provides strong evidence of seismic slip.

  12. A Size and Boundary Effects Model for Quasi-Brittle Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Gao


    Full Text Available The fracture behaviors of quasi-brittle materials are commonly specimen size (size effect and crack size (boundary effect dependent. In this study, a new failure model is developed for characterizing the size and boundary effects. The derivative of the energy release rate is firstly introduced to predict the nominal strength dominated by the strength mechanism. Combined with the energy criterion for the energy mechanism, an asymptotic model is developed to capture the effect of any crack size on the nominal strength, and its expression for geometrically similar specimens is also established, which is able to characterize the size effect. Detailed comparisons of the proposed model with the size effect law and the boundary effect model are performed, respectively. The nominal strength predictions based on the proposed model are validated with the experimental results of cracked three-point bending beam specimens made of concrete, of limestone and of hardened cement paste and compared with the model predictions given by the size effect law and the boundary effect model.

  13. Standard test method for splitting tensile strength for brittle nuclear waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method is used to measure the static splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of brittle nuclear waste forms. It provides splitting tensile-strength data that can be used to compare the strength of waste forms when tests are done on one size of specimen. 1.2 The test method is applicable to glass, ceramic, and concrete waste forms that are sufficiently homogeneous (Note 1) but not to coated-particle, metal-matrix, bituminous, or plastic waste forms, or concretes with large-scale heterogeneities. Cementitious waste forms with heterogeneities >1 to 2 mm and 5 mm can be tested using this procedure provided the specimen size is increased from the reference size of 12.7 mm diameter by 6 mm length, to 51 mm diameter by 100 mm length, as recommended in Test Method C 496 and Practice C 192. Note 1—Generally, the specimen structural or microstructural heterogeneities must be less than about one-tenth the diameter of the specimen. 1.3 This test method can be used as a quality control chec...

  14. New Methods in Exploring Old Topics: Case Studying Brittle Diabetes in the Family Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Philipp Günther


    Full Text Available Background. In questing for a more refined quantitative research approach, we revisited vector autoregressive (VAR modeling for the analysis of time series data in the context of the so far poorly explored concept of family dynamics surrounding instable diabetes type 1 (or brittle diabetes. Method. We adopted a new approach to VAR analysis from econometrics referred to as the optimized multivariate lag selection process and applied it to a set of raw data previously analyzed through standard approaches. Results. We illustrated recurring psychosomatic circles of cause and effect relationships between emotional and somatic parameters surrounding glycemic control of the child’s diabetes and the affective states of all family members. Conclusion. The optimized multivariate lag selection process allowed for more specific, dynamic, and statistically reliable results (increasing R2 tenfold in explaining glycemic variability, which were derived from a larger window of past explanatory variables (lags. Such highly quantitative versus historic more qualitative approaches to case study analysis of psychosomatics surrounding diabetes in adolescents were reflected critically.

  15. Elastoplastic Analysis of Circular Openings in Elasto-Brittle-Plastic Rock Mass Based on Logarithmic Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available Rock-like materials, such as coal and soft rock, often manifest larger deformation features. The prediction values for displacement and failure region based on the commonly used small strain (SS theory are generally larger than the field test results. Based on the Euler coordinate system, the logarithmic strain (LS is employed to describe the actual deformation behavior. Both of the stresses and displacement of circular opening in elasto-brittle-plastic rock mass are formulated with differential equations. And a simple approach is proposed to solve the differential equations. The results show that the plastic radius depends on the elastic parameters, that is, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, which is different from SS theory. And the plastic radius and displacement of LS rock mass are smaller than those of SS rock mass, and the displacement of LS rock mass is absolutely smaller than the excavation radius. The proposed solutions can provide theoretical foundation for the optimization of supporting structure in underground engineering.

  16. Mechanics guided design of hybrid laser/waterjet system for machining hard and brittle materials (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, Dinesh

    The two main objectives of this work is (1) to develop a mathematical model to efficiently capture the fracture behavior of materials undergoing thermal shock and (2) to design and develop a mechanics based hybrid laser/waterjet manufacturing process that will be able to machine hard and brittle materials at higher speeds and with better cut quality. The mathematical model relates the temperature generated during the machining process to the fracture behavior observed during machining. The hybrid manufacturing processes produces a synergetic effect of both laser and waterjet processes and overcomes the disadvantages of both of them. The temperature distribution is obtained from the Green's solution of the Fourier Heat Conduction equation. Uncoupled thermoelastic stresses are obtained from the temperature distribution which in-turn is related to the stress intensity factor/Griffith Energy for Mode I crack growth by Bueckner's weight function approach. This model can also be used to predict fracture behavior for given laser processing conditions. This model can also be used to manipulate transformational stresses that occur during machining of high conductive materials. This model can be easily extended to many multi-physics problems involving thermo-elastic behavior.

  17. Fracture criterion for brittle materials based on statistical cells of finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cords, H.; Kleist, G.; Zimmermann, R.


    An analytical consideration of the Weibull Statistical Analysis of brittle materials established the necessity of including one additional material constant for a more comprehensive description of the failure behaviour. The Weibull analysis is restricted to infinitesimal volume elements in consequence of the differential calculus applied. It was found that infinitesimally small elements are in conflict with the basic statistical assumption and that the differential calculus is not needed in fact since nowadays most of the stress analyses are based on finite element calculations, and these are most suitable for a subsequent statistical analysis of strength. The size of a finite statistical cell has been introduced as the third material parameter. It should represent the minimum volume containing all statistical features of the material such as distribution of pores, flaws and grains. The new approach also contains a unique treatment of failure under multiaxial stresses. The quantity responsible for failure under multiaxial stresses is introduced as a modified strain energy. Sixteen different tensile specimens including CT-specimens have been investigated experimentally and analyzed with the probabilistic fracture criterion. As a result it can be stated that the failure rates of all types of specimens made from three different grades of graphite are predictable. The accuracy of the prediction is one standard deviation. (orig.) [de

  18. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars (United States)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.


    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  19. Feedback Regulated Star Formation: From Star Clusters to Galaxies


    Dib, Sami


    This paper summarises results from semi-analytical modelling of star formation in protocluster clumps of different metallicities. In this model, gravitationally bound cores form uniformly in the clump following a prescribed core formation efficiency per unit time. After a contraction timescale which is equal to a few times their free-fall times, the cores collapse into stars and populate the IMF. Feedback from the newly formed OB stars is taken into account in the form of stellar winds. When ...

  20. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.


    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  1. StarDOM: From STAR format to XML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, Jens P.; Nilges, Michael; Ehrlich, Lutz


    StarDOM is a software package for the representation of STAR files as document object models and the conversion of STAR files into XML. This allows interactive navigation by using the Document Object Model representation of the data as well as easy access by XML query languages. As an example application, the entire BioMagResBank has been transformed into XML format. Using an XML query language, statistical queries on the collected NMR data sets can be constructed with very little effort. The BioMagResBank/XML data and the software can be obtained at

  2. An analytical study on the effects of strain gradient on the fracture statistics of quasi-brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haiyan; Fok, Alex Siu-Lun


    A deterministic model with material strain-softening has been employed to predict the failure process of quasi-brittle materials subjected to different strain gradients. The failures of beams in pure bending and L-shape specimens in tension are simulated using this model, and the influence of material damage rate on the failure process is studied. The effect of statistical variations in the material properties on the fracture statistics of the components is then considered. The model correctly predicts the changes in the magnitude and distribution of the failure loads of specimens with different strain gradients. The results can help explain the influence of strain gradient on the fracture statistics of quasi-brittle materials.

  3. Damage law identification of a quasi brittle ceramic from a b ending test using digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meille S.


    Full Text Available The quasi brittle ceramics show a non linear mechanical behaviour resulting most of the time in a dissymetry between their tensile and compressive stress-strain laws. The characterization of their fracture strengths might be biased if elastic linear formulae are used to analyze classical tests like bending tests. Based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC, a methodology is proposed to characterize materials with dissymmetric behaviours. Applying specific DIC decomposition functions for bending, compressive and tensile tests, a stress-strain model and its damage law are identified for aluminium titanate, a damageable micro cracked ceramic. This identification method using DIC can obviously be applied to other quasi brittle materials.

  4. Coexisting of ductile and brittle behaviors at depth during continental crust eclogitization (Mt. Emilius klippe, Western Alps) (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Yamato, P.; Hertgen, S.; Angiboust, S.


    Eclogitic rocks provide key constraints on both the evolution (P-T-t-ɛ paths) and the deformation modes of the crust along the subduction interface and therefore are crucial for the understanding of tectonics at large scale. Here we present some preliminary results of a microstructural study on eclogitized mafic dykes exposed within granulites from the continental basement silver of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Internal Alps, Italy). In this region, highly deformed eclogites characterized by a strong layering between garnetite and clinopyroxenite bands is the most predominant feature. These different levels present very heterogeneous deformation patterns, and while the garnet-rich levels tend to have a brittle behavior, the deformation within clinopyroxene-rich levels is possibly accommodated by creep. This is evidenced by the presence of elongated grains, subgrain boundaries and intense grain size reduction close to rigid garnets. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements in garnets indicate a quasi-random distribution. In most of the clinopyroxenes levels nevertheless, the CPO is relatively strong, with multiples of uniform distribution varying from 4 to 5.5 (value of 1 is random texture). This CPO in the clinopyroxenes is characterized by a strong alignment of poles (001) parallel to the lineation and (100) and [010] distributed along girdles cross-cutting the foliation plane. These mylonitic rocks are sometimes found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks formed at, or nearly close to, the metamorphic peak in eclogite facies. Therefore, the materials along the subduction interface at these P-T conditions (i.e., ~2.0-2.5 GPa; 500-550°C) can locally be brittle where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. We propose a model that involves creep deformation, heterogeneous fluid circulation, and local brittle behavior to explain the co-existence of ductile and brittle features developed in the same depth region.

  5. Towards understanding the influence of porosity on mechanical and fracture behaviour of quasi-brittle materials : Experiments and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D; Savija, B.; Smith, G.E.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Lowe, T.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.


    In this work, porosity-property relationships of quasi-brittle materials are explored through a combined experimental and numerical approach. In the experimental part, hemihyrate gypsum plaster powder (CaSO 4 ⋅1/2H 2 O CaSO4⋅1/2H2O) and expanded spherical polystyrene beads (1.5–2.0 mm dia.) have

  6. Growth of a brittle crack (001) in 3D bcc iron crystal with a Cu nano-particle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhnáková, Alena; Machová, Anna; Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga


    Roč. 83, February (2014), s. 229-234 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : brittle crack extension * 3D * mode I * bcc iron * Cu nano-particle * molecular dynamics * acoustic emission Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  7. Ductile–brittle behavior at blunted cavities in 3D iron crystals uncovered and covered by copper atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelikán, Vladimír; Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga; Spielmannová, Alena; Machová, Anna


    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 191-200 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0789; GA AV ČR KJB200760802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : molecular dynamics * bcc iron crystal * blunted cavity * copper cover * ductile–brittle behavior Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  8. First stars evolution and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Praha 4, (Czech Republic); Klapp, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)]. e-mail:


    The first stars in the universe were massive and luminous with typical masses M {>=} 100M. Metal-free stars have unique physical characteristics and exhibit high effective temperatures and small radii. These so called Population III stars were responsible for the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. In this work, we study the structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of 100, 200, 250 and 300M galactic and pregalactic Population III mass losing stars with metallicities Z 10{sup -6} and Z = 10{sup -9}, during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 structure and evolution equations together with boundary conditions, and a set of 30 nuclear reactions, are solved simultaneously, obtaining the star's structure, evolution, isotopic abundances and their ratios. Motivated by recent stability analysis, almost all very massive star (VMS) calculations during the past few years have been performed with no mass loss. However, it has recently been claimed that VMS should have strong mass loss. We present in this work new VMS calculations that includes mass loss. The main difference between zero-metal and metal-enriched stars lies in the nuclear energy generation mechanism. For the first stars, nuclear burning proceeds in a non-standard way. Since Population III stars can reach high central temperatures, this leads to the first synthesis of primary carbon through the 3 {alpha} reaction activating the CNO-cycles. Zero-metal stars produce light elements, such as He, C, N and O. Thus, very massive pregalactic Population III stars experienced self-production of C, either at the zero-age main sequence or in later phases of central hydrogen burning. In advanced evolutionary phases, these stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium through supernova explosions. (Author)

  9. Abundances in stars with exoplanets


    Israelian, Garik


    Extensive spectroscopic studies of stars with and without planets have concluded that stars hosting planets are significantly more metal-rich than those without planets. More subtle trends of different chemical elements begin to appear as the number of detected extrasolar planetary systems continues to grow. I review our current knowledge concerning the observed abundance trends of various chemical elements in stars with exoplanets and their possible implications.

  10. Numerical study of rotating relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.


    The equations of structure for rotating stars in general relativity are presented and put in a form suitable for computer calculations. The results of equilibrium calculations for supermassive stars, neutron stars, and magnetically supported stars are reported, as are calculations of collapsing, rotating, and magnetized stars in the slowly changing gravitational field approximation. (auth)

  11. The Uhuru star aspect sensor. (United States)

    Jagoda, N.; Austin, G.; Mickiewicz, S.; Goddard, R.


    Description of the star sensor used in the spin-stabilized Uhuru satellite for the purpose of detecting and locating stellar X-ray sources. The star sensor had the capability of detecting fourth-magnitude stars to within 1 arc minute of azimuth and 2 arc minutes of elevation. This was achieved with the aid of a slightly modified 76-mm, f/0.87 Super Farron lens, an 'n' shaped reticle located in the focal plane, and an RCA CF70114F photomultiplier serving as the detection element. The star sensor is composed of three major components - a high-voltage power supply, the photomultiplier, and an amplifier.

  12. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  13. The birth of star clusters

    CERN Document Server


    All stars are born in groups. The origin of these groups has long been a key question in astronomy, one that interests researchers in star formation, the interstellar medium, and cosmology. This volume summarizes current progress in the field, and includes contributions from both theorists and observers. Star clusters appear with a wide range of properties, and are born in a variety of physical conditions. Yet the key question remains: How do diffuse clouds of gas condense into the collections of luminous objects we call stars? This book will benefit graduate students, newcomers to the field, and also experienced scientists seeking a convenient reference.

  14. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.


    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  15. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.


    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  16. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  17. Stars of heaven

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A


    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic human

  18. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki


    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  19. O3 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, N.R.


    A brief review of the 10 known objects in this earliest spectral class is presented. Two new members are included: HD 64568 in NGC 2467 (Puppis OB2), which provides the first example of an O3 V((f*)) spectrum; and Sk -67 0 22 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which is intermediate between types O3 If* and WN6-A. In addition, the spectrum of HDE 269810 in the LMC is reclassified as the first of type O3 III (f*). The absolute visual magnitudes of these stars are rediscussed

  20. Benchmarking the Sandbox: Quantitative Comparisons of Numerical and Analogue Models of Brittle Wedge Dynamics (Invited) (United States)

    Buiter, S.; Schreurs, G.; Geomod2008 Team


    When numerical and analogue models are used to investigate the evolution of deformation processes in crust and lithosphere, they face specific challenges related to, among others, large contrasts in material properties, the heterogeneous character of continental lithosphere, the presence of a free surface, the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones, and the observation that several deformation mechanisms may be active simultaneously. These pose specific demands on numerical software and laboratory models. By combining the two techniques, we can utilize the strengths of each individual method and test the model-independence of our results. We can perhaps even consider our findings to be more robust if we find similar-to-same results irrespective of the modeling method that was used. To assess the role of modeling method and to quantify the variability among models with identical setups, we have performed a direct comparison of results of 11 numerical codes and 15 analogue experiments. We present three experiments that describe shortening of brittle wedges and that resemble setups frequently used by especially analogue modelers. Our first experiment translates a non-accreting wedge with a stable surface slope. In agreement with critical wedge theory, all models maintain their surface slope and do not show internal deformation. This experiment serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions for taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work. The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge, which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. The models accommodate shortening by formation of forward and backward shear zones. We compare surface slope, rate of dissipation of energy, root-mean-square velocity, and the location, dip angle and spacing of shear zones. All models show similar cross-sectional evolutions that demonstrate reproducibility to first order. However

  1. Residual Porosity as An Explanation for Ductile-Brittle Behaviour During Dome Extrusion: Experimental Constraints (United States)

    Kennedy, L.; Russell, J. K.; Nelles, E.


    Decompression of rising magmas causes gas exsolution and a concomitant increase in magma porosity. Slow ascent commonly results in cooling and crystallization of the residual melt on the same time scale. Thus, slow ascending magmas commonly produce domes that are typically at or below their Tg, or have undergone degassing-induced crystallization. These magmas can be either highly porous or nonporous. For example, high residual porosity indicates that the system had low permeability and was quenched before the porosity could be removed. This quenching of primary porosity could be induced by cooling of the melt to below Tg, or by crystallization of the melt to produce a solid framework. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the effects of porosity on the strength and failure behaviour of dacite dome rocks. Our triaxial rock deformation experiments were run at confining pressures (Pc) of 0, 25, 50, and 75MPa, at room temperature and strain rates of ~1 x 10-4 s-1. Our starting material has both low (6-8%) and high (17-24%) porosities, a uniform bulk composition (65 wt% SiO2) and is either highly crystalline or has a glassy matrix. The low porosity dacite experiments show a progressive increase in peak strength (100-700 MPa) with increasing Pc and all cores show brittle behavior, characterized by a rapid stress drop. Run products contain macroscopic fractures with deformation extremely localized around the shear fractures. Experimentally deformed dacites show extreme grain size reduction and the production of gouge. We ran two sets of experiments on low porosity rocks: one for which the gear train was stopped just at failure and one for which, after failure and creation of the fracture surface, frictional sliding continued along the fracture. Grain size from the experimentally generated gouge was measured using a grain size laser particle analyzer. The vast majority of ultra-fine grained particles (Mount Saint Helen’s formed as a result of the microseismicity and that

  2. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Liu

    Full Text Available Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1, a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  3. Brittle to ductile transition in a model of sheared granular materials (United States)

    Ma, X.; Elbanna, A. E.


    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of deformation and failure in sheared fault gouge is critical for the development of physics-based earthquake rupture simulations that are becoming an essential ingredient in next generation hazard and risk models. To that end, we use the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory, a non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics framework to describe viscoplastic deformation and localization in gouge materials as a first step towards developing multiscale models for earthquake source processes that are informed by high-resolution fault zone physics. The primary ingredient of the STZ theory is that inelastic deformation occurs at rare and local non-interacting soft zones known as the shear transformation zones. The larger the number of these STZs the more disordered (the more loose) the layer is. We will describe an implementation of this theory in a 2D/3D finite element framework, accounting for finite deformation, under both axial and shear loading and for dry and saturated conditions. We examine conditions under which a localized shear band may form and show that the initial value of disorder (or the initial porosity) plays an important role. In particular, our simulations suggest that if the material is more compact initially, the behavior is more brittle and the plastic deformation localizes with generating large strength drop. On the other hand, an initially loose material will show a more ductile response and the plastic deformations will be distributed more broadly. We will further show that incorporation of pore fluids alters the localization pattern and changes the stress slip response due to coupling between gouge volume changes (compaction and dilation) and pore pressure build up. We validate the model predictions by comparing them to available experimental observations on strain localization and fault gouge strength evolution. Finally, we discuss the implications of our model for gouge friction and dynamic weakening.

  4. Cadmium Accumulation and Its Toxicity in Brittle Culm 1 (bc1, a Fragile Rice Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-sheng SHAO


    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation and toxicity in rice plants were characterized and identified by using brittle culm 1 (bc1, a fragile rice mutant and its wild type (Shuangkezao, an indica rice as materials by hydroponics. The low Cd level didn't obviously affect the growth parameters in both rice genotypes, but under high Cd levels (1.0 and 5.0 μmol/L, the growth of both rice plants were substantially inhibited. Moreover, bc1 tended to suffer more seriously from Cd toxicity than Shuangkezao. Cd accumulation in both rice plants increased with the increase of Cd levels. There was a significant difference in Cd accumulation between the two rice genotypes with constantly higher Cd concentration in bc1, which also accumulated more Cd at 0, 0.1, and 1.0 μmol/L Cd levels. The same case was found in the two rice plants grown on Cd-contaminated soil. This suggested that cell wall might play an important role in Cd accumulation in rice plants by the physiological mechanisms. The malondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities in rice plants were affected differently under Cd treatments, and which implied that POD might play the main role in detoxifying active oxygen free radical. A significant difference in antioxidative system between the two rice genotypes was found with constantly higher MDA content, SOD and POD activities in bc1. In summary, bc1 accumulated more Cd and appeared to be more sensitive to Cd stress compared with its wild type.

  5. Brittle cornea syndrome associated with a missense mutation in the zinc-finger 469 gene. (United States)

    Christensen, Anne E; Knappskog, Per M; Midtbø, Marit; Gjesdal, Clara G; Mengel-From, Jonas; Morling, Niels; Rødahl, Eyvind; Boman, Helge


    To investigate the diverse clinical manifestations, identify the causative mutation and explain the association with red hair in a family with brittle cornea syndrome (BCS). Eight family members in three generations underwent ophthalmic, dental, and general medical examinations, including radiologic examination of the spine. Bone mineral density (BMD) and serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and biochemical markers for bone turnover were measured. Skin biopsies were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Molecular genetic studies included homozygosity mapping with SNP markers, DNA sequencing, and MC1R genotyping. At 42 and 48 years of age, respectively, both affected individuals were blind due to retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. They had extremely thin and bulging corneas, velvety skin, chestnut colored hair, scoliosis, reduced BMD, dental anomalies, hearing loss, and minor cardiac defects. The morphologies of the skin biopsies were normal except that in some areas slightly thinner collagen fibrils were seen in one of the affected individuals. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation of ZNF469, c.10016G>A, that was predicted to affect the fourth of the five zinc finger domains of ZNF469 by changing the first cysteine to a tyrosine (p.Cys3339Tyr). Both affected individuals were homozygous for the common red hair variant R151C at the MC1R locus. BCS is a disorder that affects a variety of connective tissues. Reduced BMD and atypical dental crown morphology have not been reported previously. The results confirm that BCS is associated with mutations in ZNF469. The association with red hair in some individuals with BCS is likely to occur by chance.

  6. Evaluation of fracture mechanics analyses used in RPV integrity assessment regarding brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinereau, D.; Faidy, C.; Valeta, M.P.; Bhandari, S.; Guichard, D.


    Electricite de France has conducted during these last years some experimental and numerical research programmes in order to evaluate fracture mechanics analyses used in nuclear reactor pressure vessels structural integrity assessment, regarding the risk of brittle fracture. These programmes included cleavage fracture tests on large scale cladded specimens containing subclad flaws with their interpretations by 2D and 3D numerical computations, and validation of finite element codes for pressurized thermal shocks analyses. Four cladded specimens made of ferritic steel A508 C13 with stainless steel cladding, and containing shallow subclad flaws, have been tested in four point bending at very low temperature in order to obtain cleavage failure. The specimen failure was obtained in each case in base metal by cleavage fracture. These tests have been interpreted by two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element computations using different fracture mechanics approaches (elastic analysis with specific plasticity corrections, elastic-plastic analysis, local approach to cleavage fracture). The failure of specimens are conservatively predicted by different analyses. The comparison between the elastic analyses and elastic-plastic analyses shows the conservatism of specific plasticity corrections used in French RPV elastic analyses. Numerous finite element calculations have also been performed between EDF, CEA and Framatome in order to compare and validate several fracture mechanics post processors implemented in finite element programmes used in pressurized thermal shock analyses. This work includes two-dimensional numerical computations on specimens with different geometries and loadings. The comparisons show a rather good agreement on main results, allowing to validate the finite element codes and their post-processors. (author). 11 refs, 24 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in Low-/High-Permeability, Quasi-Brittle and Heterogeneous Rocks (United States)

    Pakzad, R.; Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.


    In this study, an elastic-brittle-damage constitutive model was incorporated into the coupled fluid/solid analysis of ABAQUS to iteratively calculate the equilibrium effective stress of Biot's theory of consolidation. The Young's modulus, strength and permeability parameter of the material were randomly assigned to the representative volume elements of finite element models following the Weibull distribution function. The hydraulic conductivity of elements was associated with their hydrostatic effective stress and damage level. The steady-state permeability test results for sandstone specimens under different triaxial loading conditions were reproduced by employing the same set of material parameters in coupled transient flow/stress analyses of plane-strain models, thereby indicating the reliability of the numerical model. The influence of heterogeneity on the failure response and the absolute permeability was investigated, and the post-peak permeability was found to decrease with the heterogeneity level in the coupled analysis with transient flow. The proposed model was applied to the plane-strain simulation of the fluid pressurization of a cavity within a large-scale block under different conditions. Regardless of the heterogeneity level, the hydraulically driven fractures propagated perpendicular to the minimum principal far-field stress direction for high-permeability models under anisotropic far-field stress conditions. Scattered damage elements appeared in the models with higher degrees of heterogeneity. The partially saturated areas around propagating fractures were simulated by relating the saturation degree to the negative pore pressure in low-permeability blocks under high pressure. By replicating previously reported trends in the fracture initiation and breakdown pressure for different pressurization rates and hydraulic conductivities, the results showed that the proposed model for hydraulic fracture problems is reliable for a wide range of

  8. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-Like Protein, Functions in Cellulose Assembly through Binding Cellulose Microfibrils (United States)

    Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua


    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity. PMID:23990797

  9. Role of Austenite in Brittle Fracture of Bond Region of Super Duplex Stainless Steel (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yoshihiko; Ikeuchi, Kenji; Kuroda, Toshio

    Weld simulation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) was performed to investigate the mechanism by which austenite affects the toughness of super duplex stainless steel. Thermal cycles of various peak temperatures in the range from 1373 K to 1673 K corresponding to the HAZ were applied to SAF2507 super duplex stainless steel specimens. Charpy impact test was carried out using the specimens after the weld simulation, and the fracture surfaces were observed by SEM using three-dimensionally reconstruction technique. Austenite content decreased with increasing the peak temperature when the peak temperature exceeded 1473 K and the impact value decreased with increasing the peak temperature and decreasing the austenite content. The thermal cycle of the peak temperature of 1673 K corresponding to weld bond region caused decreasing of austenite content which was 22% lower than that of the base metal. The ductile-brittle transition temperature was measured. As a result the temperature increased rapidly in the weld bond region, the peak temperature of which exceeded 1623 K by the grain growth of ferrite matrix occurring subsequently to the completely dissolution of austenite. The morphology of the fracture surfaces after impact testing at 77 K showed cleavage fracture of ferrite. The {100} orientations of cleavage fracture facets were measured using three-dimensional images of the fracture surfaces and the results were visualized as the orientation color maps. The results showed that there were cleavage fractures consisting of a few facets parallel to each other. It was considered that a few facets existed in one ferrite grain. It was concluded that Widmanstätten austenite divided the large fracture into smaller cleavage facets in a ferrite grain and then suppressed the degradation of bond toughness of duplex stainless steel.

  10. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars


    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  11. Al-Sufi's Investigation of Stars, Star Clusters and Nebulae (United States)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. R.; Orchiston, W.


    The distinguished Arabic astronomer, Al-Sufi (AD 903-986) is justly famous for his Book of the Fixed Stars, an outstanding Medieval treatise on astronomy that was assembled in 964. Developed from Ptolemy's Algamest, but based upon al-Sufi's own stellar observations, the Book of the Fixed Stars has been copied down through the ages, and currently 35 copies are known to exist in various archival repositories around the world. Among other things, this major work contains 55 astronomical tables, plus star charts for 48 constellations. For the first time a long-overdue English translation of this important early work is in active preparation. In this paper we provide biographical material about Al-Sufi and the contents of his Book of the Fixed Stars, before examining his novel stellar magnitude system, and his listing of star clusters and nebulae (including the first-ever mention of the Great Nebula in Andromeda).

  12. The Stars of Heaven (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.


    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic humans and their alien peers (who embark on a journey beyond the reader's wildest imagination). This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers. Told in Pickover's inimitable blend of fascinating state-of-the-art science and whimsical science fiction, and packed with numerous diagrams and illustrations, The Stars of Heaven unfolds a world of paradox and mystery, one that will intrigue anyone who has ever pondered the night sky with wonder.

  13. Charged boson stars (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Rueda H., Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo


    We study time-independent, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating systems minimally coupled to a scalar field with U(1) gauge symmetry: charged boson stars. We find numerical solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations coupled to the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is shown that bound stable configurations exist only for values of the coupling constant less than or equal to a certain critical value. The metric coefficients and the relevant physical quantities, such as the total mass and charge, turn out to be, in general, bound functions of the radial coordinate, reaching their maximum values at a critical value of the scalar field at the origin. We discuss the stability problem from both the quantitative and qualitative point of view. We take into account the electromagnetic contribution to the total mass and investigate the stability issue considering the binding energy per particle. We verify the existence of configurations with positive binding energy in which objects that are apparently bound can be unstable against small perturbations, in full analogy with the effect observed in the mass-radius relation of neutron stars.

  14. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered (United States)


    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  15. Feedback Regulated Star Formation: From Star Clusters to Galaxies (United States)

    Dib, S.

    This paper summarises results from semi-analytical modelling of star formation in protocluster clumps of different metallicities. In this model, gravitationally bound cores form uniformly in the clump following a prescribed core formation efficiency per unit time. After a contraction timescale which is equal to a few times their free-fall times, the cores collapse into stars and populate the IMF. Feedback from the newly formed OB stars is taken into account in the form of stellar winds. When the ratio of the effective wind energy of the winds to the gravitational energy of the system reaches unity, gas is removed from the clump and core and star formation are quenched. The power of the radiation driven winds has a strong dependence on metallicity and increases with increasing metallicity. Thus, winds from stars in the high metallicity models lead to a rapid evacuation of the gas from the protocluster clump and to a reduced star formation efficiency, SFE_exp , as compared to their low metallicity counterparts. By combining SFE_exp with the timescales on which gas expulsion occurs, we derive the metallicity dependent star formation rate per unit time in this model as a function of the gas surface density SUMg .This is combined with the molecular gas fraction in order to derive the dependence of the surface density of star formation SUM(SFR) on SUMg . This feedback regulated model of star formation reproduces very well the observed star formation laws extending from low gas surface densities up to the starburst regime. Furthermore, the results show a dependence of SUM(SFR) on metallicity over the entire range of gas surface densities, and can also explain part of the scatter in the observations.

  16. Subcuticular bacteria from the brittle star Ophiactis balli (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) represent a new lineage of extracellular marine symbionts in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. (United States)

    Burnett, W J; McKenzie, J D


    Many species of echinoderms, in all five extant classes, contain subcuticular bacterial symbionts (SCB). The role of these extracellular symbionts and the nature of the relationship remain unclear. We have sequenced 16S rRNA genes from symbionts to determine their phylogenetic affinities. Symbionts of an ophiuroid, Ophiactis balli, appear closely related to bacteria within the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria, including intracellular endosymbionts and pathogens. SCB are clearly of separate origin from other documented major groups of marine symbiotic bacteria. PMID:9143108

  17. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z


    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.

  18. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.; Miralles, J.A.; Rea, N.; Cenarro, A.J.; Figueras, F.; Hernández-Monteagudo, J.; Bueno, T.; Valdivielso, L.


    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of May 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  20. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.

    Direct ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals variable chromospheric structures and mass motions. Spectroscopy also demonstrates the changes of wind opacity, speeds, and mass loss in luminous stars. Cool stars have complex chromospheres that need to be considered in construction of stellar atmospheric models and subsequent spectral analyses.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  3. Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten

    Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...

  4. Pulsations in Subdwarf B Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Subdwarf B stars play a significant role in close binary evolution and in the hot star content of old stellar populations, in particular in giant elliptical galaxies. While the question of their origin poses several problems for stellar evolution theory, one of their most fascinating properties is the presence of ...

  5. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas


    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  6. Boson Stars and Boson Shells (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kulshreshtha, Usha; Kulshreshtha, Daya Shankar


    In this work we present a broad formalism for a study of the models of black holes, boson stars, boson shells and wormholes. The studies of boson stars and boson shells in a theory involving Scalar field, U(1) gauge field and a shelf interacting scalar potential coupled to gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant Λ are presented in details.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We discuss the kaon-nucleon interaction and its consequences for the change of the properties of the kaon in the medium. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron stars under various scenarios as well its effects for neutron star properties are reviewed.

  8. STARS: A Year in Review (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011


    The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System[TM] (STARS) is a program of AASHE, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. AASHE is a member-driven organization with a mission to empower higher education to lead the sustainability transformation. STARS was developed by AASHE with input and insight from…

  9. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Neutron stars: population; magnetic fields; X-ray binaries: evolution; millisecond pulsars: inter-connections. Abstract. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes ...

  10. Formation of stars and star clusters in colliding galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, Pierre-Emmanuel


    Mergers are known to be essential in the formation of large-scale structures and to have a significant role in the history of galaxy formation and evolution. Besides a morphological transformation, mergers induce important bursts of star formation. These starburst are characterised by high Star Formation Efficiencies (SFEs) and Specific Star Formation Rates, i.e., high Star Formation Rates (SFR) per unit of gas mass and high SFR per unit of stellar mass, respectively, compared to spiral galaxies. At all redshifts, starburst galaxies are outliers of the sequence of star-forming galaxies defined by spiral galaxies. We have investigated the origin of the starburst-mode of star formation, in three local interacting systems: Arp 245, Arp 105 and NGC 7252. We combined high-resolution JVLA observations of the 21-cm line, tracing the HI diffuse gas, with UV GALEX observations, tracing the young star-forming regions. We probe the local physical conditions of the Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM) for independent star-forming regions and explore the atomic-to-dense gas transformation in different environments. The SFR/HI ratio is found to be much higher in central regions, compared to outer regions, showing a higher dense gas fraction (or lower HI gas fraction) in these regions. In the outer regions of the systems, i.e., the tidal tails, where the gas phase is mostly atomic, we find SFR/HI ratios higher than in standard HI-dominated environments, i.e., outer discs of spiral galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Thus, our analysis reveals that the outer regions of mergers are characterised by high SFEs, compared to the standard mode of star formation. The observation of high dense gas fractions in interacting systems is consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations; it results from the increase of the gas turbulence during a merger. The merger is likely to affect the star-forming properties of the system at all spatial scales, from large scales, with a globally enhanced turbulence

  11. Dark stars in Starobinsky's model (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Lopes, Ilídio


    In the present work we study non-rotating dark stars in f (R ) modified theory of gravity. In particular, we have considered bosonic self-interacting dark matter modeled inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate, while as far as the modified theory of gravity is concerned we have assumed Starobinsky's model R +a R2. We solve the generalized structure equations numerically, and we obtain the mass-to-ratio relation for several different values of the parameter a , and for two different dark matter equation-of-states. Our results show that the dark matter stars become more compact in the R-squared gravity compared to general relativity, while at the same time the highest star mass is slightly increased in the modified gravitational theory. The numerical value of the highest star mass for each case has been reported.

  12. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian


    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  13. Flares on a Bp Star (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.


    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D. J.


    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.

  15. Quasi-brittle material behavior under cyclic loading: from virtual testing to structural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassaux, Maxime


    Macroscopic constitutive laws are developed not only because they allow for large-scale computations but also because refine dissipative mechanisms observed at lower scales. Within the framework of this study, the development of such models is carried out in the context of seismic loading, that is to say reverse cyclic loading, applied to the quasi-brittle materials and more precisely, concrete-like materials. Nowadays, robust and predictive macroscopic constitutive laws are still rare because of the complexity of cracking related phenomena. Among the challenges to face, the material parameters identification is far from being the easiest due to the lack of experimental data. Indeed, the difficulties to carry out cyclic tests on concrete-like materials are numerous. To overcome these difficulties, a virtual testing approach based on a refine model is proposed in this study in order to feed continuum models with the missing material parameters. Adopting a microscopic point of view, a representative volume element is seen as a structure. The microscopic model has been developed with the aim to require a minimal number of material parameters which only need basic mechanical tests to be identified. From an existing lattice model developed to deal with monotonic loading, several enhancements have been realized in order to extend its range of applicability, making it capable of dealing with complex multi-axial cyclic loadings. The microscopic model has been validated as a virtual testing machine that is able to help the identification procedure of continuous constitutive laws. This identification approach has been applied on a new constitutive law developed within the framework of isotropic continuum damage mechanics accounting for cyclic related effects. In particular, the concept of regularized unilateral effect has been introduced to describe the progressive crack closure. The macroscopic model has been calibrated with the help from the aforementioned virtual testing

  16. Beyond Brittle Deformation: Insights into Seismogenic Slip Processes from Natural and Experimental Faults (United States)

    Holdsworth, R.; De Paola, N.; Bullock, R. J.; Collettini, C.; Viti, C.; Nielsen, S. B.


    Shear displacements in upper crustal faults are typically localized within cm- to m-thick high strain fault cores composed of interlayered tabular domains of cataclasite and gouge. Evidence from exhumed/exposed seismic faults shows that the great majority of co-seismic slip is taken up along narrow (PSS). Even in unconsolidated materials deformed near to the surface, seismogenic slip is observed to localize within discrete, narrow PSZs. Theoretical studies suggest that in all but the shallowest settings, the natural PSZs may be sufficiently thin to generate localised frictional heating that potentially promotes thermally-activated dynamic weakening mechanisms. We can recreate these processes in the laboratory using displacement-controlled friction experiments performed in a rotary shear apparatus on fault gouges of known composition deformed at seismic slip rates (v > 1ms-1) and normal stresses of up to 20 MPa. A sequential sampling approach is used in which slip is arrested at different stages of the observed friction evolution (e.g. post-compaction, peak friction, steady state after weakening). This allows the evolution of gouge microstructures and deformation mechanisms in the experimental samples to be: a) related to the evolving temperature regimes in the PSZ and changing mechanical behavior; and b) compared to natural PSZ/PSSs. Using this approach we have investigated the behavior and deformation mechanisms of gouges made of common, rock-forming minerals (calcite, clays, olivine, quartz) both in pure form and, in some cases, as mixed compositions deformed under a range of experimental conditions. We have studied the effects of varying confining pressure, fluid content (room humidity vs water saturated) and composition (de-ionized water vs brine) and slip rate (e.g. seismic vs. sub-seismic). Our findings - and those of others - reveal a startling diversity of 'non-brittle' micro- to nano-scale deformation processes (e.g. viscous GBS, particulate flow). This

  17. Brittle reactivation of mylonitic fabric and the origin of the Cenozoic Rio Santana Graben, southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Gontijo-Pascutti, Ambrosina; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Terra, Emanuele La; Almeida, Julio C. H.


    In the Ribeira belt, southeastern Brazil, the Precambrian mylonitic fabric mainly formed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny (640-480 Ma) and was reactivated as fault zones in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The reactivation process led to the development of the System of Continental Rifts of southeastern Brazil, from the Paleogene to the Quaternary. We investigated the brittle reactivation of a mylonitic zone, which is part of a major mylonitic belt, Arcádia-Areal. We used geological and geomorphological mapping, resistivity survey, controlled source audiomagnetotelluric survey, and luminescence dating. Our results indicate that this shear zone was reactivated and formed a 15 km long and 2 km wide sedimentary-filled trough, the Rio Santana Graben. It is located on the northwest border of a major structure, the Guanabara Graben, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The Rio Santana Graben forms an almost entirely fault-bounded, NE-elongated depression that was accommodated entirely within the Arcádia-Areal shear zone. The graben consists of two main depocenters separated by a relay ramp. The graben formed by means of multistage activity of several faults during at least two main periods. The first period formed silicified fault breccia and occurred during alkaline magmatism in the Paleogene. The second formed fault breccia and gouge in shallow conditions and occurred at least until the Quaternary. The NE-trending and NW-dipping Precambrian fabric was reactivated as dip-slip and strike-slip faults. These faults triggered clastic-sediment deposition at least 300 m thick. The upper part of the graben consists of Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediment fill, which yielded maximum luminescence deposition ages from 49 to 13 ka in the center of the trough. An organic layer at the top of the Quaternary alluvial deposits yielded 14C ages at ˜6000 years BP. The lower part of the graben may be composed of Paleogene to Neogene sedimentary deposits, which occur in other

  18. Proton femtoscopy at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbroszczyk, H.P.


    The analysis of two-particle femtoscopy provides a powerful tool to study the properties of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. Applied to identical and nonidentical hadron pairs, it makes the study of space-time evolution of the source in femtoscopic scale possible. Baryon femtoscopy allows extraction of the radii of produced sources which can be compared to those deduced from identical pion studies, providing additional information about source characteristics. In this paper we present the correlation functions obtained for protons and antiprotons for Au + Au collisions at √ s NN = 62.4 and 200 GeV. On the other hand, as STAR experiment participates in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program, we present theoretical predictions of p - p , p-bar - p-bar and p - p-bar femtoscopic measurements, based on UrQMD simulation for √ s NN = 5-39 GeV

  19. Star spotting at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    This June, two American celebrities (and physics enthusiasts!) came to CERN. Brian Cox gave Mike Einziger (right), lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, the star treatment in the ATLAS cavern. Jesse Dylan embraces the spirit of ATLAS! Mike Einziger, lead guitarist with the rock band Incubus, visited CERN on Friday 13 June between concerts in Finland and England. Einziger, a lifelong science enthusiast descended into the ATLAS and CMS caverns and visited the SM18 test magnet facility during his brief tour of CERN. Einziger learned about the LHC through watching online lectures from University of Manchester and ATLAS physicist Brian Cox, and was thrilled to have the chance to see the detectors in person. The musician has created an orchestral piece, inspired in part by the work being done at CERN for the LHC, which will have its debut in Los Angeles on 23 August. Just over a week earlier, Jesse Dylan, Hollywood film director a...

  20. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.


    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  1. Reach for the stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.


    Nuclear astrophysics is trying to find out why some elements, such as iron, are more abundant in the solar system than others such as gold; and to unravel the processes which lead to different abundances for the elements and their isotopes. The elements originate in the hot cores of giant stars at stages in the cyclic process of stellar nucleosynthesis. Very short lived exotic isotopes which are important in astrophysical processes can be studied at heavy-ion accelerators such as GANIL at Caen in France, where intense beams of high energy heavy ions are being used to synthesize short-lived neutron-rich nuclei and measure their properties. Some of these experiments and the equipment used are described. In particular the isotopic anomaly formed in calcium where calcium-46, which should be more abundant, is actually less abundant in the Solar System. (UK)

  2. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.


    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  3. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters (United States)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  4. The role of chemical processes and brittle deformation during shear zone formation and its potential geophysical implications (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Leydier, Thomas; Mahan, Kevin; Albaric, Julie; Trap, Pierre; Marquer, Didier


    Ductile shear zones in the middle and lower continental crust are the locus of interactions between mechanical and chemical processes. Chemical processes encompass metamorphic reactions, fluid-rock interactions, fluid flow and chemical mass-transfer. Studying these processes at the grain scale, and even the atom scale, on exposed inactive shear zones can give insights into large-scale geodynamics phenomena (e.g. crustal growth and mountain building through the reconstruction of P-T-t-D-Ɛ evolutionary paths. However, other major issues in earth sciences can be tackled through these studies as well. For instance, the mechanism of fluid flow and mass transfer in the deep crust where permeability should be small and transient is still largely debated. Studying exhumed inactive shear zones can also help to interpret several new geophysical observations like (1) the origin of tremor and very low frequency earthquakes observed in the ductile middle and lower crust, (2) mechanisms for generating slow slip events and (3) the physical origin of puzzling crustal anisotropy observed in major active crustal shear zones. In this contribution, we present a collection of data (deformation, petrology, geochemistry, microtexture) obtained on various shear zones from the Alps that were active within the viscous regime (T > 450°C). Our observations show that the development of a shear zone, from its nucleation to its growth and propagation, is not only governed by ductile deformation coeval with reactions but also involves brittle deformation. Although brittle deformation is a very short-lived phenomenon, our petrological and textural observations show that brittle failure is also associated with fluid flow, mass transfer, metasomatic reactions and recrystallization. We speculate that the fluids and the associated mineralogical changes involved during this brittle failure in the ductile crust might play a role in earthquake / tremor triggering below the brittle - ductile transition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Recent results in theory and simulation of star-polymer--colloid mixtures are reviewed. We present the effective interaction between hard, colloidal particles and star polymers in a good solvent derived by monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments. The relevant parameters are the size ratio q between the stars and the colloids, as well as the number of polymeric arms f (functionality attached to the common center of the star. By covering a wide range of q's ranging from zero (star against a flat wall up to about 0.5, we establish analytical forms for the star-colloid interaction which are in excellent agreement with simulation results. By employing this cross interaction and the effective interactions between stars and colloids themselves, a demixing transition in the fluid phase is observed and systematically investigated for different arm numbers and size ratios. The demixing binodals are compared with experimental observations and found to be consistent. Furthermore, we map the full two-component system on an effective one-component description for the colloids, by inverting the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equations. Some recent results for the depletion interaction and freezing transitions are shown.

  6. Spectroscopy of λ Bootis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiter, U.


    λ Bootis stars are defined as metal-poor Population I A- to F-type stars, which exhibit nearly solar element abundance for C, N, O and S (e.g. Paunzen E., Weiss W.W., Heiter U. and North P., 1997, A and AS 123, 93). The classification of λ Bootis stars based on photometric indices or low resolution spectra is not sufficient for a final decision concerning a membership to this group. A detailed spectroscopic investigation is necessary to rule out stars with similar classification spectra but different abundance patterns. Therefore a program on abundance analyses of λ Bootis candidates was established, which makes use of a software package that enables the analysis of high signal-to-noise spectra with high resolution (R = 30000 to 60000). The first part of the thesis deals with the effects of using several different codes for the model atmosphere calculation on the synthetic spectra of three stars with different atmospheric parameters and degrees of underabundance. It is shown that using opacity distribution functions (ODFs) calculated for individual abundance patterns instead of pretabulated solar scaled ODFs does not change the synthetic spectra significantly. On the other hand, for the coolest star the treatment of overshooting within the calculation of the convective flux has a non-negligible influence on the derived abundance. Taking these findings into account, the results of the application of the abundance analysis tools on eleven candidate λ Bootis stars are presented in the second part of the thesis. They are based on high resolution echelle spectra obtained by the author at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Asiago, Italy). Two of these stars were found to be spectroscopic binaries during the analysis. Particular consideration is given to the estimation of the errors of the derived abundance and the problems faced when examining stars with large differences in abundance of different elements and large rotational broadening of the spectral lines

  7. Brittle/Ductile deformation at depth during continental crust eclogitization (Mont-Emilius klippe, Western Internal Alps). (United States)

    Hertgen, Solenn; Yamato, Philippe; Morales, Luiz; Angiboust, Samuel


    Eclogitic rocks are important for understanding tectonics at large scale as they provide key constraints on both the evolution (P-T-t-ɛ paths) and the deformation modes of the crust along the subduction interface. We herein focus our study on eclogitized mafic dykes remnants exposed within granulites from the continental basement silver of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Internal Alps, Italy). These eclogites exhibit highly deformed garnetite and clinopyroxenite levels. In some places, these rocks with a ± mylonitic aspect can be found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks formed close to metamorphic peak conditions in eclogite facies. Especially, the garnet-rich levels tend to behave in a brittle fashion while deformation within clinopyroxene-rich levels is mostly accommodated by creep. This is evidenced by the presence of elongated grains, subgrain boundaries and intense grain size reduction close to rigid garnets. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements in garnets indicate a quasi-random distribution. In most of the clinopyroxenes levels nevertheless, the CPO is relatively strong, with multiples of uniform distribution varying from 4 to 5.5 (value of 1 is random texture). This CPO is characterized by a strong alignment of poles (001) parallel to the lineation and (100) and [010] distributed along girdles cross-cutting the foliation plane. Our study thus attests that the materials along the subduction interface at P~2.0-2.5 GPa and T~500-550°C can locally be brittle where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. In addition to this deformation analysis, we present a petrological study of these eclogites, from the outcrop to the microscopic scale, tracking the chemical evolution associated to the observed deformation. Based on all these data, we finally propose a tectono-metamorphic history for these rocks allowing to explain the co-existence of ductile and brittle features developed in the same metamorphic facies, and

  8. Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test, part I., experimental results


    Tanguy, Benoit; Besson, Jacques; Piques, Roland; Pineau, André


    International audience; This study is devoted to the ductile–brittle transition behavior of a French A508 Cl3 (16MND5) steel. Due to its importance for the safety assessment of PWR vessels, a full characterization of this steel with Charpy V-notch test in this range of temperature was undertaken. The aim of this study is to provide a wide experimental database and microstructural observations to supply, calibrate and validate models used in a local approach methodology. Mechanical and fractur...

  9. Crack initiation at a V-notch—comparison between a brittle fracture criterion and the Dugdale cohesive model (United States)

    Henninger, Carole; Leguillon, Dominique; Martin, Eric


    The cohesive zone models are an alternative to fracture criteria for the prediction of crack initiation at stress concentration points in brittle materials. We propose here a comparison between the so-called mixed criterion involving a twofold condition (energy and stress) and the Dugdale cohesive model. The predictions of the critical load leading to failure are in perfect agreement and both models conclude that the initial process is unstable except in case of a pre-existing crack. To cite this article: C. Henninger et al., C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  10. Effect of thermomechanical treatment on the resistance of low-carbon low-alloy steel to brittle fracture (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Del'gado Reina, S. Yu.; Golosienko, S. A.; Pazilova, U. A.; Khlusova, E. I.


    Structure and mechanical properties of rolled plates (20-35 mm thick) of low-carbon low-alloy steel subjected to thermomechanical treatment (TMT) according to various regimes under laboratory and industrial conditions have been studied. Structural factors that favor obtaining high mechanical properties have been established. The retarding action of TMT on softening upon tempering has been revealed. The reasons for the decrease in the resistance to brittle fracture of the steel subjected to TMT, repeated quenching from the temperature of the furnace heating, and tempering have been determined.

  11. New illustrated stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Chris; Nicolson, Iain; Stott, Carole


    Stars & Plantes, written by experts and popular science writers, is a comprehensive overview of our Universe - what is it, where it came from and how we discovered it. This intriguing, information-rich new reference book contains over 300 stunning images from the Hubble Telescope and leading observatories from around the world as well as diagrams to explain the finer points of theory. With extensive sections on everything from the Solar System to how stars form Stars & Planets will appeal to beginners and the serious stargazer alike.

  12. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Individual Stars Within Binary Star Systems


    Quintana, Elisa V.; Adams, Fred C.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.


    We calculate herein the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation around a solar type star that has a binary companion with semimajor axis larger than the terrestrial planet region. We perform more than one hundred simulations to survey binary parameter space and to account for sensitive dependence on initial conditions in these dynamical systems. As expected, sufficiently wide binaries leave the planet formation process largely unaffected. As a rough approximation, binary stars with per...

  13. Star-formation rate in compact star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Izotova, I. Y.; Izotov, Y. I.


    We use the data for the Hβ emission-line, far-ultraviolet (FUV) and mid-infrared 22 μm continuum luminosities to estimate star formation rates averaged over the galaxy lifetime for a sample of about 14000 bursting compact star-forming galaxies (CSFGs) selected from the Data Release 12 (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The average coefficient linking and the star formation rate SFR0 derived from the Hβ luminosity at zero starburst age is found to be 0.04. We compare s with some commonly used SFRs which are derived adopting a continuous star formation during a period of {˜} 100 Myr, and find that the latter ones are 2-3 times higher. It is shown that the relations between SFRs derived using a geometric mean of two star-formation indicators in the UV and IR ranges and reduced to zero starburst age have considerably lower dispersion compared to those with single star-formation indicators. We suggest that our relations for determination are more appropriate for CSFGs because they take into account a proper temporal evolution of their luminosities. On the other hand, we show that commonly used SFR relations can be applied for approximate estimation within a factor of {˜} 2 of the averaged over the lifetime of the bursting compact galaxy.

  14. EMACSS: Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS (United States)

    Alexander, Poul E. R.; Gieles, Mark


    The star cluster evolution code Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS (EMACSS) is a simple yet physically motivated computational model that describes the evolution of some fundamental properties of star clusters in static tidal fields. The prescription is based upon the flow of energy within the cluster, which is a constant fraction of the total energy per half-mass relaxation time. According to Henon's predictions, this flow is independent of the precise mechanisms for energy production within the core, and therefore does not require a complete description of the many-body interactions therein. Dynamical theory and analytic descriptions of escape mechanisms is used to construct a series of coupled differential equations expressing the time evolution of cluster mass and radius for a cluster of equal-mass stars. These equations are numerically solved using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration kernel; the results were benchmarked against a data base of direct N-body simulations. EMACSS is publicly available and reproduces the N-body results to within 10 per cent accuracy for the entire post-collapse evolution of star clusters.

  15. The Neutron Star Zoo (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.


    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi, A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era

  17. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  18. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  19. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keek, L.


    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  20. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal