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Sample records for british oncological association

  1. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested

  2. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  3. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknelly, Andrew [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital (United Kingdom); Day, Jane [Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Waterfront Building, Neptune Quay, Ipswich (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.day@ucs.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Xerostomia is the most common side effect of external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et-al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504.]. A survey was carried out in British oncology departments to determine what treatment regimes, to minimise xerostomia, are used for patients with head-and-neck cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was designed that asked departments which of the identified methods they used, why a method might not be currently employed, and whether its use had ever been considered. The study found that there are wide disparities between the techniques employed by oncology departments to avoid and reduce xerostomia in patients with cancers of the head and neck. The National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, [National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Improving outcomes in head and neck cancers: the manual. London: Office of Public Sector Information; 2004.] for example, recommends that patients are given dental care and dietary advice but some departments did not appear to be doing this. Less than half of departments stated that they offer complementary therapies and less than 40% prescribed pilocarpine, a saliva-stimulant. Only two respondents stated that they use amifostine, a radioprotector, during radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. The results also suggested a move toward using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for treating head-and-neck cancers which offers better normal tissue sparing than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia

  4. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xerostomia is the most common side effect of external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et-al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504.]. A survey was carried out in British oncology departments to determine what treatment regimes, to minimise xerostomia, are used for patients with head-and-neck cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was designed that asked departments which of the identified methods they used, why a method might not be currently employed, and whether its use had ever been considered. The study found that there are wide disparities between the techniques employed by oncology departments to avoid and reduce xerostomia in patients with cancers of the head and neck. The National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, [National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Improving outcomes in head and neck cancers: the manual. London: Office of Public Sector Information; 2004.] for example, recommends that patients are given dental care and dietary advice but some departments did not appear to be doing this. Less than half of departments stated that they offer complementary therapies and less than 40% prescribed pilocarpine, a saliva-stimulant. Only two respondents stated that they use amifostine, a radioprotector, during radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. The results also suggested a move toward using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for treating head-and-neck cancers which offers better normal tissue sparing than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia

  5. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  6. British Association of Clinical Anatomists: Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual General Meeting, 1983

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented.

  7. Exploring Brand Associations and the Impact it has on Generation Y British-Indians and Non-British Indians: A Study of Luxury Fashion Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Sashidharan, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Project The main aim of the project is to explore the role of brand associations and conduct a comparative study to see the impact it has on the generation Y British Indian and Non-British Indian consumers purchasing luxury fashion brands. The three type of brand associations that would be tested are: product attributes, brand personality and country of origin. Methodology The methodology consisted of qualitative research, by which data was collected using semi-structur...

  8. Association between burnout and anger in oncology versus ophthalmology health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, M R A; Bruno, A; Carroccio, C; Cedro, C; La Torre, D; Di Rosa, A E; Zoccali, R; Aragona, M; La Torre, F; Mattei, A; Angelone, A M; Di Orio, F

    2006-10-01

    The prevalence of burnout in oncology staff was compared with that of the ophthalmology staff, who normally present a low prevalence of burnout as described in this literature. The correlation of burnout with the emotion of anger was also investigated. Thirty-six subjects working in an oncology department and 32 working in an ophthalmology department were examined using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The oncology group showed higher mean scores on the MBI Emotive Exhaustion and Depersonalization scales with respect to ophthalmology staff. Correlation analysis showed that increasing burnout was associated with higher anger expressed towards the environment and loss of anger control. Anger, as a response to frustration, appears to be a feature constantly associated with the clinical expression of burnout and it should not be underestimated in theoretical and preventive contexts.

  9. Results of the 2004 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to document adequacy of training, career plans after residency, use of the in-service examination, and motivation for choice of radiation oncology as a specialty. Methods and Materials: In 2004, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology residents in the United States. Results: The survey was returned by 297 residents (response rate, 54%). Of the respondents, 29% were female and 71% male. The most popular career choice was joining an established private practice (38%), followed by a permanent academic career (29%). Residents for whom a permanent academic career was not their first choice were asked whether improvements in certain areas would have led them to be more likely to pursue an academic career. The most commonly chosen factors that would have had a strong or moderate influence included higher salary (81%), choice of geographic location (76%), faculty encouragement (68%), and less time commitment (68%). Of respondents in the first 3 years of training, 78% believed that they had received adequate training to proceed to the next level of training. Of those in their fourth year of training, 75% believed that they had received adequate training to enter practice. Conclusions: Multiple factors affect the educational environment of physicians in training. Data describing concerns unique to resident physicians in radiation oncology are limited. The current survey was designed to explore a variety of issues confronting radiation oncology residents. Training programs and the Residency Review Committee should consider these results when developing new policies to improve the educational experiences of residents in radiation oncology

  10. Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gerressu, Makeda; Mercer, Catherine H; Graham, Cynthia A.; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior t...

  11. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808

  12. Protestants, Catholics, and Masonic Conspiracies: The British Association in Montreal (1884).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toal, Ciaran

    2016-03-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS), like many nineteenth-century institutions, sought to avoid controversy by excluding the discussion of political and religious topics from its proceedings. Nonpartisanship was a veneer it could hide behind. Yet during the Montreal meeting of 1884-the first time the association ventured beyond the comfortable confines of the British Isles-this "middle way" was tested. While local and visiting Anglophones, many of them BAAS members, viewed the proceedings and character of the association as "decidedly friendly" to religion and as promoting the broad interests of Protestants, Montreal's episcopacy and French-speaking press rallied against the anti-Catholic BAAS, accusing it of harboring a dangerous Masonic clique. In different material and social spaces, the relationship between science, religion, and the association was conceived in distinct ways. In examining this case, this essay seeks to augment the growing body of scholarship within science studies that recognizes the importance of writing both the history and the geography of encounters between science and religion. PMID:27197410

  13. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor-node-metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors.

  14. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abusamra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi oncology society and Saudi urological association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate to.

  15. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders : recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, DS; Anderson, IM; Nutt, DJ; Bandelow, B; Bond, A; Davidson, JRT; den Boer, JA; Fineberg, NA; Knapp, M; Scott, J; Wittchen, HU

    2005-01-01

    These British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines cover the range and aims of treatment for anxiety disorders. They are based explicitly on the available evidence and are presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision making in primary and secondary medical care. They may also serve

  16. Geochemistry of coal and associated sedimentary rocks from Elk Valley Coalfield, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Cameron, A.R.; Labonte, M.; Grieve, D.A.; Beaton, A.P. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology)

    1992-01-01

    This report is on analysis of coal seams in the Elk Valley Coalfield of British Columbia for their maceral composition, using reflected light and geochemistry. Detailed elemental analysis were carried out.

  17. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'. PMID:26256312

  18. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America. Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74% of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55% had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48% cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents. Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  19. Functional Movement Is Negatively Associated with Weight Status and Positively Associated with Physical Activity in British Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have suggested that overweight and obesity in childhood are associated with poorer functional movement performance, no study appears to have examined this issue in a pediatric population. The relations between BMI, ambulatory physical activity and functional movement screen (FMS performance were compared in 58, 10-11-year-old children. Total FMS score was significantly, negatively correlated with BMI (=.0001 and positively related to PA (=.029. Normal weight children scored significantly better for total FMS score compared to children classified as overweight/obese (=.0001. Mean ± S.D. of FMS scores were 15.5±2.2 and 10.6±2.1 in normal weight and overweight/obese children, respectively. BMI and PA were also significant predictors of functional movement (=.0001, Adjusted 2=.602 with BMI and PA predicting 52.9% and 7.3% of the variance in total FMS score, respectively. The results of this study highlight that ambulatory physical activity and weight status are significant predictors of functional movement in British children. Scientists and practitioners therefore need to consider interventions which develop functional movement skills alongside physical activity and weight management strategies in children in order to reduce the risks of orthopaedic abnormality arising from suboptimal movement patterns in later life.

  20. 2016 Laboratory guidelines for postvasectomy semen analysis: Association of Biomedical Andrologists, the British Andrology Society and the British Association of Urological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P; Woodward, B J; Muneer, A; Kirkman-Brown, J C

    2016-07-01

    Post-vasectomy semen analysis (PVSA) is the procedure used to establish whether sperm are present in the semen following a vasectomy. PVSA is presently carried out by a wide variety of individuals, ranging from doctors and nurses in general practitioner (GP) surgeries to specialist scientists in andrology laboratories, with highly variable results.Key recommendations are that: (1) PVSA should take place a minimum of 12 weeks after surgery and after a minimum of 20 ejaculations. (2) Laboratories should routinely examine samples within 4 h of production if assessing for the presence of sperm. If non-motile sperm are observed, further samples must be examined within 1 h of production. (3) Assessment of a single sample is acceptable to confirm vasectomy success if all recommendations and laboratory methodology are met and no sperm are observed. Clearance can then be given. (4) The level for special clearance should be methods contained within these guidelines. Surgeons are responsible both preoperatively and postoperatively for the counselling of patients and their partners regarding complications and the possibility of late recanalisation after clearance. These 2016 guidelines replace the 2002 British Andrology Society (BAS) laboratory guidelines and should be regarded as definitive for the UK in the provision of a quality PVSA service, accredited to ISO 15189:2012, as overseen by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). PMID:27083211

  1. Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a consensus statement from British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Auriacombe, Sophie; Ballard, Clive; Broich, Karl; Bullock, Roger; Feldman, Howard; Ford, Gary; Knapp, Martin; McCaddon, Andrew; Iliffe, Steve; Jacova, Claudia; Jones, Roy; Lennon, Sean; McKeith, Ian; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Purandare, Nitin; Richardson, Mervyn; Ritchie, Craig; Thomas, Alan; Warner, James; Wilcock, Gordon; Wilkinson, David

    2006-11-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) coordinated a meeting of experts to review the evidence on the drug treatment for dementia. The level of evidence (types) was rated using a standard system: Types 1a and 1b (evidence from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials or at least one controlled trial respectively); types 2a and 2b (one well-designed study or one other type of quasi experimental study respectively); type 3 (non-experimental descriptive studies); and type 4 (expert opinion). There is type 1a evidence for cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease; memantine for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease; and for the use of bright light therapy and aromatherapy. There is type 1a evidence of no effect of anti inflammatory drugs or statins. There is conflicting evidence regarding oestrogens, with type 2a evidence of a protective effect of oestrogens but 1b evidence of a harmful effect. Type 1a evidence for any effect of B12 and folate will be forthcoming when current trials report. There is type 1b evidence for gingko biloba in producing a modest benefit of cognitive function; cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of people with Lewy body disease (particularly neuropsychiatric symptoms); cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in treatment cognitive impairment associated with vascular dementia; and the effect of metal collating agents (although these should not be prescribed until more data on safety and efficacy are available). There is type 1b evidence to show that neither cholinesterase inhibitors nor vitamin E reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in people with mild cognitive impairment; and there is no evidence that there is any intervention that can prevent the onset of dementia. There is type 1b evidence for the beneficial effects of adding memantine to cholinesterase inhibitors, and type 2b evidence of positive switching outcomes from one

  2. Pharmacogenomics in Pediatric Oncology: Review of Gene-Drug Associations for Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc

    2016-01-01

    During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee's work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested.

  3. Pharmacogenomics in Pediatric Oncology: Review of Gene—Drug Associations for Clinical Use †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc

    2016-01-01

    During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee’s work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested. PMID:27618021

  4. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson Sigrid; Shirreffs Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations wi...

  5. Association of PrP genotype with lamb production traits in four commercial breeds of British upland sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Kay; Moore, R C; Bishop, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Selection of sheep on PrP genotype to reduce risks of classical scrapie outbreaks is now widespread in the British sheep industry. However a recurring concern from breeders is that PrP genotype may be unfavourably associated with lamb performance. In this study we report the results from our investigations into this claim using performance data from 12,673 PrP genotyped lambs in four breeds of upland and crossing sheep: Beulah (4014), Blue Faced Leicester (725), Lleyn (5208) and North Country...

  6. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas R E

    2011-05-01

    These guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology address the scope and targets of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. A consensus meeting, involving experts in schizophrenia and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from the participants and interested parties, and cover the pharmacological management and treatment of schizophrenia across the various stages of the illness, including first-episode, relapse prevention, and illness that has proved refractory to standard treatment. The practice recommendations presented are based on the available evidence to date, and seek to clarify which interventions are of proven benefit. It is hoped that the recommendations will help to inform clinical decision making for practitioners, and perhaps also serve as a source of information for patients and carers. They are accompanied by a more detailed qualitative review of the available evidence. The strength of supporting evidence for each recommendation is rated.

  7. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  8. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  9. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. PMID:26136156

  10. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions: Prevalence and associations among persons living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braitstein Paula

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To measure the prevalence of and associations among impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons living with HIV in British Columbia to inform support and care programs, policy and research. Methods A cross-sectional population-based sample of persons living with HIV in British Columbia was obtained through an anonymous survey sent to members of the British Columbia Persons With AIDS Society. The survey addressed the experience of physical and mental impairments, and the experience and level of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Associations were measured in three ways: 1 impact of types of impairment on social restriction; 2 impact of specific limitations on social restriction; and 3 independent association of overall impairments and limitations on restriction levels. Logistic regression was used to measure associations with social restriction, while ordinal logistic regression was used to measure associations with a three-category measure of restriction level. Results The survey was returned by 762 (50.5% of the BCPWA participants. Over ninety percent of the population experienced one or more impairments, with one-third reporting over ten. Prevalence of activity limitations and participation restrictions was 80.4% and 93.2%, respectively. The presence of social restrictions was most closely associated with mental function impairments (OR: 7.0 for impairment vs. no impairment; 95% CI: 4.7 – 10.4. All limitations were associated with social restriction. Among those with ≤ 200 CD4 cells/mm3, odds of being at a higher restriction level were lower among those on antiretrovirals (OR: 0.3 for antiretrovirals vs. no antiretrovirals; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9, while odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 3.6 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 0.9–14.2; OR: 24.7 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 4.9–125.0. Among those

  11. Climatic associations of British species distributions show good transferability in time but low predictive accuracy for range change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rapacciuolo

    Full Text Available Conservation planners often wish to predict how species distributions will change in response to environmental changes. Species distribution models (SDMs are the primary tool for making such predictions. Many methods are widely used; however, they all make simplifying assumptions, and predictions can therefore be subject to high uncertainty. With global change well underway, field records of observed range shifts are increasingly being used for testing SDM transferability. We used an unprecedented distribution dataset documenting recent range changes of British vascular plants, birds, and butterflies to test whether correlative SDMs based on climate change provide useful approximations of potential distribution shifts. We modelled past species distributions from climate using nine single techniques and a consensus approach, and projected the geographical extent of these models to a more recent time period based on climate change; we then compared model predictions with recent observed distributions in order to estimate the temporal transferability and prediction accuracy of our models. We also evaluated the relative effect of methodological and taxonomic variation on the performance of SDMs. Models showed good transferability in time when assessed using widespread metrics of accuracy. However, models had low accuracy to predict where occupancy status changed between time periods, especially for declining species. Model performance varied greatly among species within major taxa, but there was also considerable variation among modelling frameworks. Past climatic associations of British species distributions retain a high explanatory power when transferred to recent time--due to their accuracy to predict large areas retained by species--but fail to capture relevant predictors of change. We strongly emphasize the need for caution when using SDMs to predict shifts in species distributions: high explanatory power on temporally-independent records

  12. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  13. Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C infection in correctional institutions in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préfontaine, R; Chaudhary, R; Mathias, R

    1994-07-01

    The factors associated with infection with hepatitis B (hbv) and C viruses (hcv) were studied in residents of correctional institutions in British Columbia. Four hundred and fifteen residents volunteered to participate in this study. Among 415 residents tested, 28% were positive for hvb or hcv markers. Sixty-five per cent of the residents positive for hbv markers were also infected with hcv. However, in hbv-negative residents, only 14% were positive for antibody to hcv (anti-hcv). The highest rates for hbv and hcv were in 25- to 44-year-old residents. The analysis of risk factors and infection predictors in 354 residents showed that intravenous drug use and history of hepatitis were associated with infection with both hbv and hcv. The relative risk for hbv in intravenous drug users was 4.4 times that in nonusers; for hcv relative risk was 3.4 times. In the group with history of hepatitis, the relative risk was 6.2 and 4.5 times for hbv and hcv, respectively. The multivariate analysis of the data showed that both intravenous drug use and a history of hepatitis were significant (P<0.0001). Tattooing or history of transfusion was not associated with increased risk for hcv, but tattooing and age were significant factors for hbv. PMID:22346493

  14. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  15. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  16. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  17. Assessment of online visibility of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS): a strategic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Serriah, M; Wong, L; Dhariwal, D; Banks, R J

    2014-02-01

    The Internet is a powerful method of acquiring and sharing information. In marketing and business, online visibility is vital for publicity and the reputation of an organisation. To our knowledge, the importance of such visibility in medicine in general, and in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) services in the UK, has not previously been investigated. We aimed to provide a better understanding of the way that patients use the Internet by asking 450 patients to complete a questionnaire when they attended outpatient OMFS departments at 2 centres. We also assessed the online visibility of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS) and investigated the correlation between the strength of online visibility and professional reputation. Results from the self-administered, anonymous, validated questionnaires showed that 82% of patients agreed that the Internet was a powerful source of information, and two-thirds associated online visibility with a good reputation. However, the perceived online visibility of the BAOMS was poor (2%). This study mirrors findings in business publications, and confirms the link between online visibility and professional reputation. It also shows that there is a gap between patients' perceptions and the level of uptake of professional resources. We propose various strategies to bridge this gap and to promote the online visibility and professional reputation of the BAOMS and of OMFS services in the UK.

  18. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  19. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent findings have raised concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes and hyperlipidemia in the US, a population with high selenium status. In the UK, a population with lower selenium status, there is little data on the association of selenium status with cardio-met...

  20. Personality, behavior and environmental features associated with OXTR genetic variants in British mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Connelly

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR is associated with factors that are related to features of reproduction as well as the currently emerging fields of mood and emotional response.We analysed data from over 8000 mothers who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. We determined reproductive, emotional and personality differences related to the two SNPs rs53576 and rs2254298 of the oxytocin receptor gene to determine whether there was evidence in this population for: (i associations with emotional and personality differences, and (ii behavioural or environmental links with these SNPs using a hypothesis free approach with over 1000 types of exposure.Our analyses of 7723 women showed that there were no differences in 11 mood, social or relationship characteristics associated with the rs2254298, and just one with rs53576 (with emotional loneliness--one statistically significant out of 22 tests is no more than would be expected by chance. There were no interactions with childhood abuse. Using a hypothesis-free approach we found few indicators of environmental or behavioural differences associated with rs2254298, but there was an excess of associations with eating habits with rs53576. The findings included an association with dieting to lose weight, and habits typical of bulimia for the women with GG. The nutrition of the women also showed negative associations of the GG genotype with 13 nutrients, including vitamins D, B12 and retinol, and intake of calcium, potassium and iodine.We conclude that this large database of pregnant women was unable to provide confirmation of the types of personality associated with these two OXTR SNPs, but we have shown some evidence of eating differences in those with GG on rs53576. Confirmation of our hypothesis free associations using other data sets is important.

  1. Oncologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Th. Georgiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with malignancies are subject to develop a unique set of urgent and life-threatening complications. These emergency problems can be the result of the disease itself, the result from the therapy directed against the cancer or the result of previously existing pathological conditions not related to cancer. In some cases, these problems are the first symptom of the tumor. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the oncologic emergencies. Method: The method of this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the on-line data base 'Pubmed'. Results: Tumor lysis syndrome, malignant spinal cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome, cardiovascular emergencies, acute renal failure, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, metabolic emergencies, neutropenic infection, acute pulmonary problems, acute hemorrhage and hematuria are the most important oncologic emergencies. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of the oncologic emergencies and prompt interventions can be lifesaving. However, staging of the tumor, response to current treatment, overall prognosis and patient and family wishes should be assessed in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan.

  2. Associations between clinical and sociodemographic data and patterns of communication in pediatric oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kohlsdorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pediatric communication directly contributes to treatment adherence, fewer symptoms, better clinical responses, healthier treatment adaptation and management of psychosocial issues. This study aimed to evaluate associations between the clinical and sociodemographic data of caregivers and children and the communicative patterns of pediatricians. Three oncohematology physicians and 44 child-caregiver dyads took part, with audio recording of 146 medical consultations. The physicians interacted more often with older children, offering more guidance, clarifying doubts, and asking for information. The number of questions from children and caregivers was positively correlated with the physician’s communicative behaviors. However, there was no association between the age of the children and the number of doubts of the patients. The diagnosis, treatment time, family income, marital status and caregiver’s level of education were associated with the amount of interaction provided by physicians to the children and caregivers. This study offers subsides relevant to psychosocial interventions that may improve communication in pediatric oncohematology settings.

  3. Association of systolic blood pressure drop with intravenous administration of itraconazole in children with hemato-oncologic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyeong Jin Lee,1,* Bongjin Lee,2,* June Dong Park,2 Hyung Joo Jeong,2 Yu Hyeon Choi,2 Hee Young Ju,1 Che Ry Hong,1 Ji Won Lee,1 Hyery Kim,1 Dong In Suh,3 Kyung Duk Park,1 Hyoung Jin Kang,1 Hee Young Shin,1 Hyo Seop Ahn1 1Department of Pediatrics, Cancer Research Institute, 2Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Although few adverse effects have been reported for itraconazole, a widely used antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenia, we found intravenous (IV itraconazole to be associated with serious cases of blood pressure (BP drop. We therefore evaluated the incidence and risk factors for BP drop during IV administration of the drug.Materials and methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with hemato-oncologic disease who were treated with IV itraconazole from January 2012 to December 2013. By analyzing systolic BP (SBP measurements made from 4 hours before through to 4 hours after itraconazole administration, we evaluated the changes in SBP and the risk factors for an SBP drop, especially clinically meaningful (≥20% drops.Results: Itraconazole was administered 2,627 times to 180 patients. The SBP during the 4 hours following itraconazole administration was lower than during the 4 hours before administration (104 [53.0–160.33 mmHg] versus 105 [59.8–148.3 mmHg]; P<0.001. The decrease in SBP was associated with the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT (P=0.012 and the use of inotropic (P=0.005 and hypotensive drugs (P=0.021. A clinically meaningful SBP drop was seen in 5.37% (141 out of 2,627 of the administrations, and the use of inotropics (odds ratio [OR] 6.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–13.92; P<0.001, reducing the dose of inotropics (OR 8.08; 95% CI 1.39–46.94; P=0

  4. Sexuality and the drive for muscularity: evidence of associations among British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Diwell, Rachel; McCreary, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between sexuality and body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear among men. This study examined whether men's drive for muscularity can be considered a correlate of their sexuality. A community-based sample of 292 heterosexual men from London, UK, completed a survey consisting of measures of drive for muscularity, sociosexuality, sexual assertiveness, sexual esteem, and sexual sensation seeking. A multiple regression analysis showed that greater drive for muscularity was predicted by more unrestricted sociosexuality (i.e., a greater proclivity for short-term, transient relationships), greater sexual sensation seeking, and greater sexual assertiveness, once the effects of participant age and body mass index had been accounted for. Possible avenues for intervention based on a sex-positive approach are discussed in conclusion. PMID:25201097

  5. British and Irish Association of Law Librarians (BIALL) Legal Information Literacy Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Choolhun, N; R. Bird(School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland)

    2012-01-01

    The Association hosts an annual conference which features a members’ ‘Have your say’ session. At the 2011 session, a BIALL member based in the commercial sector voiced their concern at the legal research competency of recent joiners to their firm, stating that senior partners were asking in-house law librarians to verify the research presented by new trainees. This member also queried the role of academic law librarians, questioning how legal research skills are being taught at academic and v...

  6. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use

  7. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdm9007@nyp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Zeidan, Youssef H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Tung, Kaity [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  8. Acute gastro-intestinal illness and its association with hydroclimatic factors in British Columbia, Canada: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rising global temperatures and expected shifts in regional hydroclimatology in a changing climate are likely to influence the risk of infectious waterborne illness. This study examines the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of waterborne gastro-intestinal illness and contributes to our currently limited understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health. Using time-series regression analysis, we examine the associations between three hydroclimatic factors (monthly temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and the monthly occurrence of AGI illness in two communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The two communities were selected as study sites to represent the dominant hydroclimatic regimes that characterize the province of BC: the rainfall-dominated hydroclimatic regime and snowmelt-dominated hydroclimatic regime Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatic factors play a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI illness in this setting. Further, this study has highlighted that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic factors on waterborne illness vary across different hydroclimatic settings. We conclude that the watershed may be an appropriate context within which we can and should enhance our understanding of water-related climate change impacts on health. Examining the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of infectious disease is key to understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health and developing appropriate adaptation responses.

  9. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  10. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  11. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...... guidelines and governance practices. The case captures the intricacies of corporate management and provides a realistic overview of the complexities that often surround leadership approaches and executive decisions. Hence, it can be used in various graduate and executive courses in strategic management......, leadership development and corporate governance that all grapple with issues of responsible ethical behaviour. This case is part of the CBS free case collection (visit www.thecasecentre.org/CBSfreecases for more information on the collection). This case can be downloaded by educators as a clean pdf...

  12. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  13. Recommendations for the use of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) in children with hemato-oncological disorders: management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis. On behalf of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Paola; Saracco, Paola; Grassi, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Banov, Laura; Carraro, Francesca; Crocoli, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Molinari, Angelo Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC), used for the management of children with hemato-oncological disorders, are burdened by a significant incidence of mechanical, infective, or thrombotic complications. These complications favor an increasing risk in prolongation of hospitalization, extra costs of care, and sometimes severe life-threatening events. No guidelines for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis are available for children. To this aim, members of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) reviewed the pediatric and adult literature to propose the first recommendations for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis in children with hemato-oncological disorders.

  14. The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Blazevich, Anthony J; Boreham, Colin; Cooper, Ashley R; Crank, Helen; Ekelund, Ulf; Fox, Kenneth R; Gately, Paul; Giles-Corti, Billie; Gill, Jason M R; Hamer, Mark; McDermott, Ian; Murphy, Marie; Mutrie, Nanette; Reilly, John J; Saxton, John M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is for Conditioned individuals. All healthy adults aged 18-65 years should aim to take part in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, or at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or equivalent combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Moderate-intensity activities are those in which heart rate and breathing are raised, but it is possible to speak comfortably. Vigorous-intensity activities are those in which heart rate is higher, breathing is heavier, and conversation is harder. Aerobic activities should be undertaken in bouts of at least 10 min and, ideally, should be performed on five or more days a week. All healthy adults should also perform muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days a week. Weight training, circuit classes, yoga, and other muscle-strengthening activities offer additional health benefits and may help older adults to maintain physical independence. Beginners should work steadily towards meeting the physical activity levels recommended for all healthy adults. Even small increases in activity will bring some health benefits in the early stages and it is important to set achievable goals that provide success, build confidence, and increase motivation. For example, a beginner might be asked to walk an extra 10 min every other day for several weeks to slowly reach the recommended levels of activity for all healthy adults. It is also critical that beginners find activities they enjoy and gain support in becoming more active from family and friends. Conditioned individuals who have met the physical

  15. Results of the 2003 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) surveys of residents and chief residents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To document demographic characteristics of current residents, career motivations and aspirations, and training program policies and resources. Methods: In 2003, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted two nationwide surveys: one of all U.S. radiation oncology residents and one of chief residents. Results: The Chief Residents' Survey was completed by representatives from all 77 programs (response rate, 100%). The Residents' Survey was returned by 229 respondents (response rate, 44%). In each, 32% of respondents were female. The most popular career after residency was private practice (46%), followed by permanent academic practice (28%). Changes that would entice those choosing private practice to consider an academic career included more research experience as a resident (76%), higher likelihood of tenure (69%), lesser time commitment (66%), and higher salary (54%). Although the majority of respondents were satisfied with educational experience overall, a number of programs were reported to provide fewer resources than required. Conclusions: Median program resources and numbers of outliers are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess the relative adequacy of experience in their own programs. Policy-making bodies and individual programs should consider these results when developing interventions to improve educational experiences of residents and to increase retention of radiation oncologists in academic practice

  16. Technical guidelines for head and neck cancer IMRT on behalf of the Italian association of radiation oncology - head and neck working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) requires robust training and experience. Thus, in 2011, the Head and Neck Cancer Working Group (HNCWG) of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) organized a study group with the aim to run a literature review to outline clinical practice recommendations, to suggest technical solutions and to advise target volumes and doses selection for head and neck cancer IMRT. The main purpose was therefore to standardize the technical approach of radiation oncologists in this context. The following paper describes the results of this working group. Volumes, techniques/strategies and dosage were summarized for each head-and-neck site and subsite according to international guidelines or after reaching a consensus in case of weak literature evidence

  17. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology.

  18. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties

  19. Sarcoma Cell Line Screen of Oncology Drugs and Investigational Agents Identifies Patterns Associated with Gene and microRNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Beverly A; Polley, Eric; Kunkel, Mark; Evans, David; Silvers, Thomas; Delosh, Rene; Laudeman, Julie; Ogle, Chad; Reinhart, Russell; Selby, Michael; Connelly, John; Harris, Erik; Monks, Anne; Morris, Joel

    2015-11-01

    The diversity in sarcoma phenotype and genotype make treatment of this family of diseases exceptionally challenging. Sixty-three human adult and pediatric sarcoma lines were screened with 100 FDA-approved oncology agents and 345 investigational agents. The investigational agents' library enabled comparison of several compounds targeting the same molecular entity allowing comparison of target specificity and heterogeneity of cell line response. Gene expression was derived from exon array data and microRNA expression was derived from direct digital detection assays. The compounds were screened against each cell line at nine concentrations in triplicate with an exposure time of 96 hours using Alamar blue as the endpoint. Results are presented for inhibitors of the following targets: aurora kinase, IGF-1R, MEK, BET bromodomain, and PARP1. Chemical structures, IC50 heat maps, concentration response curves, gene expression, and miR expression heat maps are presented for selected examples. In addition, two cases of exceptional responders are presented. The drug and compound response, gene expression, and microRNA expression data are publicly available at http://sarcoma.cancer.gov. These data provide a unique resource to the cancer research community. PMID:26351324

  20. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  1. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice--British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington, October 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health reported an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections epidemiologically associated with drinking Odwalla brand unpasteurized apple juice or Odwalla juice mixtures containing apple juice from a coffee shop chain, grocery stores, or other locations. A case was defined as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or a stool culture yielding E. coli O157:H7 in a person who became ill after September 30, 1996, and drank Odwalla juice within 10 days before illness onset. As of November 6, British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington had reported a total of 45 cases. PMID:8965797

  2. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  3. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder : A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, David S.; Anderson, Ian M.; Nutt, David J.; Allgulander, Christer; Bandelow, Borwin; den Boer, Johan A.; Christmas, David M.; Davies, Simon; Fineberg, Naomi; Lidbetter, Nicky; Malizia, Andrea; McCrone, Paul; Nabarro, Daniel; O'Neill, Catherine; Scott, Jan; van der Wee, Nic; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 2005 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders provides an update on key steps in diagnosis and clinical management, including recognition, acute treatment, longer-term treatment, combination treat

  4. The prospective association between childhood cognitive ability and somatic symptoms and syndromes in adulthood : the 1958 British birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Eva M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; White, Peter D.; Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability is negatively associated with functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in childhood. Lower childhood cognitive ability might also predict FSS and functional somatic syndromes in adulthood. However, it is unknown whether this association would be modified by subjective and obje

  5. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  6. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology.

  7. CELF4 Variant and Anthracycline-Related Cardiomyopathy: A Children’s Oncology Group Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexia; Sun, Can-Lan; Quiñones-Lombraña, Adolfo; Singh, Purnima; Landier, Wendy; Hageman, Lindsey; Mather, Molly; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Armenian, Saro H.; Winick, Naomi; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Dreyer, Zoann E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Blanco, Javier G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interindividual variability in the dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and cardiomyopathy suggests that genetic susceptibility could play a role. The current study uses an agnostic approach to identify genetic variants that could modify cardiomyopathy risk. Methods A genome-wide association study was conducted in childhood cancer survivors with and without cardiomyopathy (cases and controls, respectively). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a prespecified threshold for statistical significance were independently replicated. The possible mechanistic significance of validated SNP(s) was sought by using healthy heart samples. Results No SNP was marginally associated with cardiomyopathy. However, SNP rs1786814 on the CELF4 gene passed the significance cutoff for gene-environment interaction (Pge = 1.14 × 10−5). Multivariable analyses adjusted for age at cancer diagnosis, sex, anthracycline dose, and chest radiation revealed that, among patients with the A allele, cardiomyopathy was infrequent and not dose related. However, among those exposed to greater than 300 mg/m2 of anthracyclines, the rs1786814 GG genotype conferred a 10.2-fold (95% CI, 3.8- to 27.3-fold; P < .001) increased risk of cardiomyopathy compared with those who had GA/AA genotypes and anthracycline exposure of 300 mg/m2 or less. This gene-environment interaction was successfully replicated in an independent set of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor proteins control developmentally regulated splicing of TNNT2, the gene that encodes for cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a biomarker of myocardial injury. Coexistence of more than one cTnT variant results in a temporally split myofilament response to calcium, which causes decreased contractility. Analysis of TNNT2 splicing variants in healthy human hearts suggested an association between the rs1786814 GG genotype and coexistence of more than one TNNT2 splicing variant (90.5% GG v 41.7% GA

  8. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men. PMID:27245103

  9. Gaps in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  10. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Amelia A. Gibson; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consum...

  11. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid A. Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS (2008–2011; n = 1590, classified into: (a non-consumers of soft drinks (NC; (b LCB consumers; (c sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumers; or (d consumers of both beverages (BB, based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  12. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  13. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  14. Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Ann Knight

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 and folate are critical micronutrients needed to support the increased metabolic demands of pregnancy. Recent studies from India have suggested that low vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with increased obesity; however differences in diet, antenatal vitamin supplementation, and socioeconomic status may limit the generalisability of these findings. We aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationship of circulating serum vitamin B12 and folate at 28 weeks' gestation with maternal adiposity and related biochemical markers in a white non diabetic UK obstetric cohort.Anthropometry and biochemistry data was available on 995 women recruited at 28 weeks gestation to the Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health. Associations between B12 and folate with maternal BMI and other obesity-related biochemical factors (HOMA-R, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and AST were explored using regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders (socioeconomic status, vegetarian diet, vitamin supplementation, parity, haemodilution (haematocrit.Higher 28 week BMI was associated with lower circulating vitamin B12 (r = -0.25; P<0.001 and folate (r = -0.15; P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis higher 28 week BMI remained an independent predictor of lower circulating B12 (β (95% CI = -0.59 (-0.74, -0.44 i.e. for every 1% increase in BMI there was a 0.6% decrease in circulating B12. Other markers of adiposity/body fat metabolism (HOMA-R, triglycerides and AST were also independently associated with circulating B12. In a similar multiple regression AST was the only independent obesity-related marker associated with serum folate (β (95% CI = 0.16 (0.21, 0.51.In conclusion, our study has replicated the previous Indian findings of associations between lower serum B12 and higher obesity and insulin resistance during pregnancy in a non-diabetic White British population. These findings may have important implications for

  15. Body image and personality among British men: associations between the Big Five personality domains, drive for muscularity, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Karis; Swami, Viren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined associations between the Big Five personality domains and measures of men's body image. A total of 509 men from the community in London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, body appreciation, the Big Five domains, and subjective social status, and provided their demographic details. The results of a hierarchical regression showed that, once the effects of participant body mass index (BMI) and subjective social status had been accounted for, men's drive for muscularity was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=.29). In addition, taking into account the effects of BMI and subjective social status, men's body appreciation was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=-.35) and Extraversion (β=.12). These findings highlight potential avenues for the development of intervention approaches based on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and body image.

  16. Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: The potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Stephen Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    A case of left bundle branch block and a dilated, nonhypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver as an ‘energy tonic’ is described. The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E. This is the first case of gold and silver cardiomyopathy in humans, and highlights the risks of these colloidal metal ‘health supplements’.

  17. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  18. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients. PMID:26053050

  19. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients.

  20. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  1. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  2. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  3. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  4. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  5. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  6. 1927: a British eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  7. Oncology and palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    Bausewein, Claudia; Hartenstein, R.

    2000-01-01

    Oncology developed as a discipline over the last decades. Treatment is concentrated on cure or palliation of the illness with the help of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Palliative care has its origin in the hospice movement that started around 1960 in the UK. Centre of care is the patient and his family. Focus of care has moved from quantity to quality of life. Symptom control, communication, rehabilitation and care for the dying are main areas of palliative care. Palliative care and ...

  8. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  9. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  10. Social workers welcome refugees to the UK – joint statement and call for action by the Association of Professors of Social Work (APSW), British Association of Social Workers (BASW), Joint University Council Social Work Education Committee (JUC SWEC) and Social Work Action Network (SWAN).

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kate

    2015-01-01

    In November 2015, the Association of Professors of Social Work, the British Association of Social Workers, the Joint University Council Social Work Education Committee, and the Social Work Action Network (SWAN) agreed a joint statement and call for action on the refugee crisis across the EU. This statement was also supported by colleagues from the legal community in their call for action to the UK government and appeared on Monday 12 October 2015 in The Times and The Guardian. Dr. Kate Smith ...

  11. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for postmastectomy radiotherapy PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS ASTROnews Supersize it: Big Data comes to radiation oncology research. PRO Official clinical practice journal of ASTRO. Bimonthly journal dedicated to improving ...

  12. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi, E-mail: surbhi.grover@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sosnowicz, Stasha [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  13. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  14. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  15. Fourth Sino-British Local Government Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,

  16. Penile Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter E.; Philippe E. Spiess; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations o...

  17. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China:report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Roger Luo; Ge Zhang; Li Xu; Pascal Qian; Li Yan; Jian Ding; Helen X. Chen; Hao Liu; Man-Cheong Fung; Maria Koehler; Jean Pierre Armand; Lei Jiang; Xiao Xu

    2014-01-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and ful development of novel cancer medicines in China.

  18. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensadoun RJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available René-Jean Bensadoun,1 Phillipe Humbert,2 Jean Krutman,3 Thomas Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 André Rougier,6 Sophie Seite,6 Brigitte Dreno71Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex, 2Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois-Perret, 6La Roche-Posay Laboratoire Pharmaceutique, Asnières, 7Department of Cancero-Dermatology, Hôtel Dieu, CHU Nantes, FranceAbstract: Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients.Keywords: skin care, cosmetic, dermatological toxicity, folliculitis

  20. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  1. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care. PMID:21116746

  2. Puget sound oncology nursing education cooperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, V T; Hogeland-Drummond, S; Purrier, M; Tofthagen, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Leadership & Professional Development feature is to provide readers with information, ideas, and exemplars of leadership competencies and professional roles in oncology nursing. Manuscripts submitted to the Leadership & Professional Development feature should be prepared according to the Information for Authors published in the Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF) but limited to six to eight double-spaced typed pages. Submit two copies of the manuscript using IBM-compatible software along with a computer disk copy, or submit a copy of the manuscript as an e-mail attachment to Joan Such Lockhart, PhD, RN, CORLN, ONF Associate Editor, 1365 Simona Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15201; lockhart /duq.edu (e-mail). Manuscripts should be referenced and include tables, figures, or illustrations as appropriate. Ideas for possible manuscripts are welcome.

  3. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care.

  4. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  5. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  6. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  7. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These

  8. Molecular oncology of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Soh, Junichi; Aokage, Keiju; Yamane, Masaomi; Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-08-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has made it possible to elucidate the molecular biological abnormalities in lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS and P53 genes, loss of specific alleles, and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes were the major abnormalities investigated between 1980 and the 2000s. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that cause oncogene addiction were discovered in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially in adenocarcinomas. Because they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), a great deal of knowledge has been acquired in regard to both EGFR and other genes in the EGFR family and their downstream genes. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC; and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers that have this translocation. These discoveries graphically illustrate that molecular biological findings are directly linked to the development of clinical oncology and to improving the survival rates of lung cancer patients. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular biological knowledge acquired thus far in regard to lung cancer, especially NSCLC, and the future possibilities. PMID:21850578

  9. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals. PMID:27484061

  10. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Karahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20 were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60% as a clinical nurse (62.6% and have a Bachelor Degree in Nursing (63.5%. The mean working years in oncology was 4 years. Half of them stated receiving information on drug interactions mostly through in-service education and courses/congresses in last 5 years. The majority of them (84.3% indicated that they are considering the possibility of drug interactions when they are scheduling the medication administration time. More than half of the responders (59.1% encountered drug interactions; however, few explored drug interactions with food, drinks, and nutritional supplements. Their practices to assess possibility of drug interactions were reviewing the drug prospectus (78.3%; consulting with their colleagues (58.3% and searching on the available website (42.6% and looking at the drug interaction (39.1%. More than half (65.2% stated lack of any system to identify drug interactions in their workplace. Nearly half of them indicated to including the drug interaction into patient education mostly for food-drug (73.9% and drug-drug (63.5% interactions. Conclusions: Almost all indicated the needs for further education on drug interactions and suggested to have guideline/packet guide.

  11. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  12. Radiation Oncology reviewer acknowledgement 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The editorial team of Radiation Oncology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in 2015. Without the participation of skilful reviewers, no academic journal could succeed, and we are grateful to the committed individuals who have given their time and expertise to the peer review of manuscripts for Radiation Oncology. We look forward to your continued support in 2016

  13. Oncology in primary health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book Oncology in the primary health care, constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)

  14. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  15. The Evolving Role of Nivolumab in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer for Second-Line Treatment: A New Cornerstone for Our Treatment Algorithms. Results From an International Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare; Besse, Benjamin; Brahmer, Julie Renee; Crinò, Lucio; Felip, Enriqueta; de Marinis, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide that currently has only a few available treatment options in patients with no driver mutations. The therapeutic options for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progress after first-line chemotherapy have been limited from a long time. Docetaxel has remained a cornerstone of second-line treatment for more than 20 years, but it is associated with an unfavorable safety profile. Recently, the results from immunotherapy treatment with anti-PD1 and PD-L1 inhibitors has changed our current knowledge base and increased therapeutic options for patients with NSCLC in the second-line setting. The results of 2 randomized phase III trials assessing nivolumab in lung cancer, Check-Mate-017 and Check-Mate-057, have deeply changed our current clinical practice and raised several discussion points. This paper explores the recent findings about nivolumab for the treatment of NSCLC in the second-line setting by analyzing recent trial findings and discussing their implications in clinical practice and future directions. The paper also summarizes the conclusions from an International Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology. PMID:26908078

  16. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingjieGuan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC. The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations. The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1 USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province, China; 2 the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program, which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3 USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research, which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4 USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer, which has reached significant international impact.

  17. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  18. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  19. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  20. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  1. Oncology of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferret oncology is in full evolution. Many types of tumors are mentioned. They affect all the systems of the organism: the endocrine, hemo-lymphatic, integument, digestive, reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary or respiratory systems. Insulinoma, adrenocortical tumors and lymphoma are the three mostly seen tumors. Complementary examination have been developed too. CBC, biochemistry, radiography and ultrasonography can now be completed by cytology, immunohistochemistry, endoscopies, scan, I.R.M. or scintigraphy. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be associated. They allow recovery or, if not a palliative solution. (author)

  2. Re: Long-Term Analysis of Oncological Outcomes after Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy in Europe: Results from a Multicentre Study by the European Association of Urology (EAU Section of Uro-Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Albisinni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Open radical cystectomy (ORC is the gold standard treatment option for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. However, evolution is still going on. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for laparoscopic (LRC and robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC as well as in kidney and prostate procedures. In the European Urology Association (EAU guidelines, LRC or RARC are still accepted as investigational options. This remarkable study presented long-term oncological results after LRC. In this multicentric study, 503 patients were included with a mean age of 68 years and median follow-up of 50 months. In previous studies with LRC, patients were younger and with lower stage of disease which was accepted as a bias in reviews. Pathological stage distribution was about 1/3 for groups except pT4 (9%. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 14. Although extent of lymphadenectomy in this study was not same between centers and it should be a limitation; median number of nodes was acceptable according to the EAU guidelines (<10. Bricker technique was the most urinary diversion type in this study (69%. The most interesting part in this study was elevated complications. 60 patients (12% were re-operated within first 30 days. Minor complication rate was 36% (Clavien 1+2. Major complication rate was similar with ORC studies. Conversion rate was 3.4%. Overall positive surgical margin rate was 5.8% (29 patients while it was a little bit high in pT2b disease (3 of 29. This result should be questioned. It might be explained by ‘learning curve’. Techniques were not standardized between centers although experienced surgeons were in the study. This was one of the limitations of this study. Global recurrence-free survival (RFS, cancer-specific survival (CSS and overall survival (OS9 rates at five years were 66%, 75% and 62%, respectively. These results were comparable with open series in the literature. Lack of randomization is another limitation. All patients had a

  3. Why do thin people have elevated all-cause mortality? Evidence on confounding and reverse causality in the association of adiposity and COPD from the British Women's Heart and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dale

    Full Text Available Low adiposity has been linked to elevated mortality from several causes including respiratory disease. However, this could arise from confounding or reverse causality. We explore the association between two measures of adiposity (BMI and WHR with COPD in the British Women's Heart and Health Study including a detailed assessment of the potential for confounding and reverse causality for each adiposity measure. Low BMI was found to be associated with increased COPD risk while low WHR was not (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.1 versus OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-1.6. Potential confounding variables (e.g. smoking and markers of ill-health (e.g. unintentional weight loss were found to be higher in low BMI but not in low WHR. Women with low BMI have a detrimental profile across a broad range of health markers compared to women with low WHR, and women with low WHR do not appear to have an elevated COPD risk, lending support to the hypothesis that WHR is a less confounded measure of adiposity than BMI. Low adiposity does not in itself appear to increase the risk of respiratory disease, and the apparent adverse consequences of low BMI may be due to reverse causation and confounding.

  4. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with severe renal involvement in association with transthyretin Gly47Glu in Dutch, British and American-Finnish families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, EB; Hawkins, PN; Benson, MD; Lachmann, HJ; Bybee, A; Hazenberg, BPC

    2004-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with more than 80 different transthyretin (TTR) mutations. The clinical features of FAP are broad and variable, but knowledge of the pattern and natural history of disease associated with particular mutations neve

  5. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  6. 78 FR 63222 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... ] (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... relevance and potential use of such measures in the pediatric development plans of oncology products....

  7. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology...

  8. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... late stage development for various adult oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider...

  9. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee...

  10. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  11. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  12. Palliative medicine and medical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, M; Amadori, D

    2001-04-01

    Traditionally, medical oncology and palliative care have been considered two distinct and separate disciplines, both as regards treatment objectives and delivery times. Palliative care in terminal stages, aimed exclusively at evaluating and improving quality of life, followed antitumor therapies, which concentrated solely on quantitative results (cure, prolongation of life, tumoral mass shrinkage). Over the years, more modern concepts have developed on the subject. Medical oncology, dealing with the skills and strategic co-ordination of oncologic interventions from primary prevention to terminal phases, should also include assessment and treatment of patients' subjective needs. Anticancer therapies should be evaluated in terms of both the quantitative and qualititative impact on patients' lives. Hence, the traditional view of palliative care has to be modified: it constitutes a philosophical and methodological approach to be adopted from the early phases of illness. It is not the evident cultural necessity of integrating medical oncology with palliative medicine that may be a matter of argument, but rather the organizational models needed to put this combined care into practice: should continuous care be guaranteed by a single figure, the medical oncologist, or rather by an interdisciplinary providers' team, including full-time doctors well-equipped for palliative care? In this paper the needs of cancer patients and the part that a complete oncologist should play to deal with such difficult and far-reaching problems are firstly described. Then, as mild provocation, data and critical considerations on the ever increasing needs of palliative care, the present shortcomings in quality of life and pain assessment and management by medical oncologists, and the uncertain efficacy of interventional programmes to change clinical practice are described. Finally, a model of therapeutic continuity is presented. which in our view is realistic and feasible: an Oncologic

  13. Role of Lifetime Body Mass Index in the Association Between Age at Puberty and Adult Lipids: Findings From Men and Women in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Mary B.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Why early puberty is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. The relationship between puberty and lipids is unclear. Our aim was to assess whether age at puberty was associated with triglyceride and total low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at age 53 years. Methods Participants in a national birth cohort were examined at 15 years, when pubertal stage for boys was assessed and age at menarche reported by the girls' mothers. At 53 years, 30...

  14. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.

  15. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  16. ESTRO 2012 Strategy Meeting: Vision for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to modern radiation oncology treatment programmes is now recognised as an essential component of high-quality cancer treatment and central to optimal patient care. Looking to the future, ESTRO strongly believes that further development of the discipline will be critically important to the future strategic development of multidisciplinary cancer care. On behalf of the Board and membership of ESTRO, this document outlines the Society’s Vision for the development of the discipline of Radiation and Clinical Oncology together with the associated priority action areas that will collectively and strategically direct the Society’s activities in the forthcoming years.

  17. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  18. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  19. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  20. Lung function and airway obstruction: associations with circulating markers of cardiac function and incident heart failure in older men-the British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S.G.; Shaper, A. G.; Papacosta, O.; LENNON, L; Welsh, P.; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The association between lung function and cardiac markers and heart failure (HF) has been little studied in the general older population. We have examined the association between lung function and airway obstruction with cardiac markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and risk of incident HF in older men. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective study of 3242 men aged 60-79 years without prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for an ...

  1. Lung function and airway obstruction: associations with circulating markers of cardiac function and incident heart failure in older men-the British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, Goya; Shaper, Gerald; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Welsh, Paul; Whincup, Peter,

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between lung function and cardiac markers and heart failure (HF) has been little studied in the general older population. We have examined the association between lung function and airway obstruction with cardiac markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and risk of incident HF in older men. Methods and results Prospective study of 3242 men aged 60–79 years without prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for a...

  2. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104751

  3. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104750

  4. A Survey of Nursing Home Organizational Characteristics Associated with Potentially Avoidable Hospital Transfers and Care Quality in One Large British Columbia Health Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Margaret J.; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; McGrail, Kimberlyn M.; Andrusiek, Dug; Globerman, Judith; Berg, Shannon; Cox, Michelle B.; Salomons, Kia; Volker, Jan; Ronald, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalization of nursing home residents can be futile as well as costly, and now evidence indicates that treating nursing home residents in place produces better outcomes for some conditions. We examined facility organizational characteristics that previous research showed are associated with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and with…

  5. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  6. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  7. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  8. Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget Ann Knight; Shields, Beverley M; Adam Brook; Anita Hill; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Hattersley, Andrew T; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 and folate are critical micronutrients needed to support the increased metabolic demands of pregnancy. Recent studies from India have suggested that low vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with increased obesity; however differences in diet, antenatal vitamin supplementation, and socioeconomic status may limit the generalisability of these findings. We aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationship of circulating serum vitamin B12 and fol...

  9. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray’s proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control

  10. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machtay, Mitchell, E-mail: Mitchell.machtay@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Department of Statistics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Department of Statistics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Albain, Kathy [Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (United States); Sause, William T. [LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control

  11. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  12. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (a

  13. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  14. Associations between Familial Factor, Trait Conscientiousness, Gender and the Occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available To investigate social, familial, and psychological factors in influencing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Some 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, and 50 years of age. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes at age 50 years was the outcome measure.Some 5,032 participants with data on parental social class, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels, and type 2 diabetes (all measured at age 50 years were included in the study. Available information also included whether cohort members' parents or siblings had diabetes. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that sex (OR=0.63: 0.42-0.92, p<.05, family history (OR=3.40: 1.76-6.55, p<.01, and trait conscientiousness (OR=0.76: 0.64-0.90, p<.001 were all significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It appears that the occurrence of type 2 diabetes is greater among men than women (4.3% vs 2.5%.Familial (genetic and non-genetic and psychological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  15. The association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health cohort study and a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessling Matthew

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been inconsistent results from case-control studies assessing the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease (CHD. Most studies have included predominantly men and the association in women is unclear. Since lipid levels vary between the sexes the antioxidant effect of PON1 and any genes associated with it may also vary by sex. We have examined the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CHD in a large cohort of British women and combined the results from our cohort study with those from all other published studies. Results The distribution of genotypes was the same among women with CHD and those without disease. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of having CHD comparing those with either the QR or RR genotype to those with QQ genotype (dominant model of association was 1.03 (0.89, 1.21 and the per allele odds ratio was 0.98 (0.95, 1.01. In a meta-analysis of this and 38 other published studies (10,738 cases and 17,068 controls the pooled odds ratio for the dominant effect was 1.14 (1.08, 1.20 and for the per allele effect was 1.10 (1.06, 1.13. There was evidence of small study bias in the meta-analyses and the dominant effect among those studies with 500 or more cases was 1.05 (0.96, 1.15. Ethnicity and reporting of whether the genotyping was done blind to the participants clinical status also contributed to heterogeneity between studies, but there was no difference in effect between studies with 50% or more women compared to those with fewer women and no difference between studies of healthy populations compared to those at high risk (with diabetes, renal disease of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Conclusion There is no robust evidence that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism is associated with CHD risk in Caucasian women or men.

  16. Evaluation of burnout syndrome in oncology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Senem; Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Ozsaran, Zeynep; Uslu, Ruchan; Yalman, Deniz; Aras, Arif B

    2010-09-01

    Burnout is an important occupational problem for health care workers. We aimed to assess the burnout levels among oncology employees and to evaluate the sociodemographic and occupational factors contributing to burnout levels. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, which is designed to measure the three stages of burnout-emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA), was used. The study sample consisted of 90 participants with a median age of 34 (range 23-56). The mean levels of burnout in EE, DP and PA stages were 23.80 +/- 10.98, 5.21 +/- 4.99, and 36.23 +/- 8.05, respectively, for the entire sample. Among the 90 participants, 42, 20, and 35.6% of the employees had high levels of burnout in the EE, DP, and PA substage, respectively. Sociodemographic and occupational factors associated with higher levels of burnout included age of less than 35, being unmarried, being childless, >40 work hours per week, working on night shifts, and burnout. Furthermore, employees who are not pleased with working in oncology field, who would like to change their specialty if they have an opportunity, and whose family and social lives have been negatively affected by their work experienced higher levels of burnout. Burnout syndrome may influence physical and mental health of the employee and affects the quality of health care as well. Therefore, several individual or organizational efforts should be considered for dealing with burnout.

  17. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  18. Genetic Diversity and the Presence of Two Distinct Groups in Ophiostoma clavigerum Associated with Dendroctonus ponderosae in British Columbia and the Northern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Hamelin, R C; Six, D L; Breuil, C

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The sapstaining fungal pathogen Ophiostoma clavigerum is associated with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which is currently the most destructive forest pest in North America. The genetic diversity of O. clavigerum populations collected from five sites in Canada and two sites in the United States was estimated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Genomic DNA from 170 O. clavigerum isolates was digested with EcoRI and PstI and amplified with six primer sets. A total of 469 AFLP markers consisting of 243 monomorphic and 226 polymorphic loci were scored. The overall genetic diversity of the O. clavigerum population was low (Hs = 0.0531) and the differentiation of the seven O. clavigerum populations was moderate (Phi = 0.143). Genetic distances among the populations were not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.3235, P = 0.074). Two genetically distinct groups in the O. clavigerum populations were shown by unique AFLP profiles and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. Further work to characterize biological differences between the two groups will be needed to confirm whether cryptic species are present in the O. clavigerum population. PMID:18944182

  19. Screening for type 2 diabetes is feasible, acceptable, but associated with increased short-term anxiety: A randomised controlled trial in British general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevost A Toby

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility and uptake of a diabetes screening programme; to examine the effects of invitation to diabetes screening on anxiety, self-rated health and illness perceptions. Methods Randomised controlled trial in two general practices in Cambridgeshire. Individuals aged 40–69 without known diabetes were identified as being at high risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes using patient records and a validated risk score (n = 1,280. 355 individuals were randomised in a 2 to 1 ratio into non-invited (n = 238 and invited (n = 116 groups. A stepwise screening programme confirmed the presence or absence of diabetes. Six weeks after the last contact (either test or invitation, a questionnaire was sent to all participants, including non-attenders and those who were not originally invited. Outcome measures included attendance, anxiety (short-form Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory-STAI, self-rated health and diabetes illness perceptions. Results 95 people (82% of those invited attended for the initial capillary blood test. Six individuals were diagnosed with diabetes. Invited participants were more anxious than those not invited (37.6 vs. 34.1 STAI, p-value = 0.015, and those diagnosed with diabetes were considerably more anxious than those classified free of diabetes (46.7 vs. 37.0 STAI, p-value = 0.031. Non-attenders had a higher mean treatment control sub-scale (3.87 vs. 3.56, p-value = 0.016 and a lower mean emotional representation sub-scale (1.81 vs. 2.68, p-value = 0.001 than attenders. No differences in the other five illness perception sub-scales or self-rated health were found. Conclusion Screening for type 2 diabetes in primary care is feasible but may be associated with higher levels of short-term anxiety among invited compared with non-invited participants. Trial registration ISRCTN99175498

  20. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  1. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  2. The British gas market; Le marche gazier britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    The tension observed on the British gas market has raised many worries and questions. The last meeting of the French gas association (AFG) aimed at shading light and at supplying some elements of analysis necessary for the correct understanding of the British gas market problem. The volatility of the spot market, its capacity to adjust the supply and demand and the role of long-term contracts in ensuring the security of supplies were explained and debated by a various panel of high level orators: P.W. Wright (Sheffield univ.), J. Harvard (deputy director, Gas Markets, Dept. of trade and industry), S. Caudron (manager business development, Statoil) and P. Vedrenne (managing director, Gaselys). They also examined the trends chosen by the British government to supply corrective measures. (J.S.)

  3. Labelling And Alienation In A British Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The article reports the construction and testing of a short scale of alienation. The scale is used in a British secondary school to explore associations between the criterion measure and children's self concept of academic ability, self esteem, extraversion, and placement in high/low ability groupings. (Editor)

  4. 2012版英国制药工业协会Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则介绍%Introduction of Association The British Pharmaceutical Industry ’ s guidelines for phase 1 clinical trials of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况赟; 黄洁; 金承怀; 华烨; 阳国平

    2014-01-01

    Phase 1 clinical trials is a key step for new drugs from basic experiments to human verification.Developed countries have formulated the corresponding laws , regulations and policies and guiding principles.Association The British Pharmaceutical Industry ( ABPI ) released a 2012 version of guidelines for phase 1 clinical trials.It provided professional guidances for some important problems in phase 1 clinical trials ( such as risk assessment , contracts and agreements , confidentiality , subjects , in-vestigational medicinal products and so on ).This paper makes a brief in-troduction of guiding principles for phase 1 clinical trials on the 2012 ver-sion of the ABPI.%Ⅰ期临床试验是新药开发从临床前研究进入人体试验的关键一步。发达国家均制定了相应的法规政策和指导原则。英国制药工业协会( ABPI)发布了2012版Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则,其对Ⅰ期临床试验中重点关注的问题(如风险评估、合同和协议、保密、试验对象及试验用药品等)提供了专业的指导。本文就2012版ABPI Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则进行简要的介绍。

  5. Nuclear medical oncology; Nuklearmedizinische Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd J.; Buck, Andreas K.; Schwaiger, Markus (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2007-07-01

    Modern nuclear oncology is based on molecular imaging techniques and radiotherapy. The book is aimed to integrate efficiently nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy into oncologic patient management. The book covers the following topics: Chapter 1: basics: instrumentation (SPECT, PET, PET/CT), digital image processing, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection, nuclear medical dosimetry, radiotherapy planning. Chapter 2: diagnostics: PET and PET/CT, skeleton metastases diagnostics, lymphoma diagnostics in case of mammary carcinomas and malign melanoma, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidin) diagnostics. Chapter 3: therapy: Radiotherapy of thyroid carcinomas, radioimmunotherapy of malign melanomas and in haematology, MIBG therapy, radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors, radiotherapy of skeleton metastases, intercavitary and locoregional therapy, 32{sup 3}2 phosphor therapy of polycythaemia vera.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Fenn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. Advancements in early and improved diagnosis could help prevent a significant number of these deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique which has received considerable attention recently with regards to applications in clinical oncology. Raman spectroscopy has the potential not only to improve diagnosis of cancer but also to advance the treatment of cancer. A number of studies have investigated Raman spectroscopy for its potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cancers. In this paper the most recent advances in dispersive Raman spectroscopy, which have demonstrated promising leads to real world application for clinical oncology are reviewed. The application of Raman spectroscopy to breast, brain, skin, cervical, gastrointestinal, oral, and lung cancers is reviewed as well as a special focus on the data analysis techniques, which have been employed in the studies.

  7. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  8. Generalities of the oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  10. Cardiovascular safety monitoring during oncology drug development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J Rick; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Karnad, Dilip R; Cabell, Christopher H; Lieberman, Ronald; Kothari, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of cardiac and cardiovascular toxicity are prominent components of drug safety endeavors during drug development and clinical practice. Oncologic drugs bring several challenges to both domains. First, during drug development, it is necessary to adapt the ICH E14 "Thorough QT/QTc Study" because the cytotoxic nature of many oncologics precludes their being administered to healthy individuals. Second, appropriate benefit-risk assessments must be made by regulators: given the benefit these drugs provide in life-threatening illnesses, a greater degree of risk may be acceptable when granting marketing authorization than for drugs for less severe indications. Third, considerable clinical consideration is needed for patients who are receiving and have finished receiving pharmacotherapy. Paradoxically, although such therapy has proved very successful in many cases, with disease states going into remission and patients living for many years after cessation of treatment, cardiotoxicities can manifest themselves relatively soon or up to a decade later. Oncologic drugs have been associated with various off-target cardiovascular responses, including cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and hypertension. Follow-up attention and care are, therefore, critical. This article reviews the process of benefit-risk estimation, provides an overview of nonclinical and preapproval clinical assessment of cardiovascular safety of oncology drugs, and discusses strategies for monitoring and management of patients receiving drugs with known cardiotoxicity risk. These measures include cardiac function monitoring, limitation of chemotherapy dose, use of anthracycline analogs and cardioprotectants, and early detection of myocardial cell injury using biomarkers. PMID:24451296

  11. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.L. Meiss-de Haas

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care the hospital. Research design: Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods: Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting: Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results: Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan.

  12. Oncological hadrontherapy and the TERA project

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    1996-01-01

    The first hour is devoted to a review of the techniques of conventional radiotherapy and of the European statistics on cancer treated and cured with the various techniques. In the second lesson the most recent applications of hadron accelerators to t Italian "Hadrontherapy Project" is introduced. This project (described in detail in the last lesson) foresees three independent but coherent activities :i) the construction of a large National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherary; (ii) the design and development of relatively small and "cheap" proton accelerators ("compact accelerators"), with which various centres could be equipped within reasonable cost boundaries; (iii) a multimedia information network (RITA) connecting a large number of Associated Centres with the Centres having hadron beams, so to select before any travelling the patients to be irradiated.

  13. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  14. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee...

  15. Osteonecrose dos maxilares associada ao uso de bisfosfonatos: importante complicação do tratamento oncológico Bisphosphonate-associated jaws osteonecrosis: an important complication of oncology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio T. Martins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os bisfosfonatos são um grupo de medicamentos utilizados no tratamento de doenças malignas metastáticas e em outras doenças ósseas como osteoporose e doença de Paget. A despeito dos seus benefícios, uma importante complicação denominada de osteonecrose dos maxilares vem sendo observada nos pacientes usuários crônicos dos bisfosfonatos que se caracteriza clinicamente por exposições ósseas na região maxilofacial persistente, acompanhadas de osteomielite, geralmente sintomáticas e cujo tratamento é complexo. Este estudo tem por objetivo revisar a literatura sobre a osteonecrose associada ao uso dos bisfosfonatos, em especial, em oncologia, no período de 2003 a 2008. Serão apresentados e discutidos os fatores de risco, aspectos etiopatogênicos, clínicos, imagenológicos, terapêuticos e preventivos desta doença. Devido à dificuldade de tratamento da osteonecrose associada aos bisfosfonatos, o foco deve ser a prevenção, sendo o ideal a eliminação de quadros infecciosos orais antes da terapia com os bisfosfonatos ter sido iniciada e minimizar traumas em boca após o uso destes medicamentos.Bisphosphonates are drugs used in the treatment of malignant metastatic diseases and in other bone lesions such as osteoporosis and Paget´s disease. Besides their benefits, jaw osteonecrosis, an important side effect, has been observed in long-term users of these drugs. Jaw osteonecrosis is clinically characterized by prolonged maxillary and mandible bone exposure accompanied by osteomyelitis. These lesions are usually symptomatic and difficult to treat. This study has the objective of reviewing publications from 2003 to 2008 about bisphosphonate-associated jaw osteonecrosis, in particular in relation to oncology. Risk factors, and etiopathological, clinical, radiographic, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of this condition are presented and discussed. Due to the difficulty to treat this disease, the focus must be prevention, with the

  16. British Telecom and Project Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  17. Opioid Misuse Behaviors in Adolescents and Young Adults in a Hematology/Oncology Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Kern, Kathleen Danielle; Long, Sarah A.; An, Angel Qi; Faughnan, Lane G.; Anghelescu, Doralina L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the occurrence and psychosocial correlates of aberrant opioid-associated behavior (AOB) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematology and oncology patients prescribed opioid therapy. Methods Structured retrospective chart reviews were conducted for AYA patients (N = 398) accepted for active treatment at a large pediatric hematology/oncology institution over a 17-month period. Opioid therapy was documented in the records of 94 out of the 398 patients. The records of thos...

  18. Clinical practice guidelines on cancer-associated thrombosis: a review on scope and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Agnes Y Y; Peterson, Erica A; Wu, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Cancer-associated thrombosis is a well-recognized complication in patients with cancer. It imposes significant patient morbidity and anxiety, increases personal and societal financial burden, and is the second-leading cause of death in this population. There have been increasing research efforts to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and optimize its treatment but the quality of evidence is diverse. To assist clinicians in providing care based on best-available evidence, many international and national organizations have issued clinical practice guidelines. Among these, the most highly cited resources include those developed by the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology. Nationally-based guidelines have also been published by various groups, including the Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the French National Federation of the League of Centers Against Cancer, and the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. This review will cover fundamental aspects of clinical practice guideline development and evaluation, summarize the scope and methodology of published guidelines on the management of cancer-associated thrombosis and assess the quality of selected, international guidelines using the validated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool. Areas of consensus and uncertainties will be briefly highlighted. PMID:27067964

  19. Are depressive symptoms more common among British South Asian patients compared with British White patients with cancer? A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Karen; Ibrahim, Kausher; Kumar, Sawan; Mitchell, Alex J; Rudd, Nicky; Symonds, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey investigated whether there were ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among British South Asian (BSA) patients with cancer compared with British White (BW) patients during 9 months following presentation at a UK Cancer Centre. We examined associations between depressed mood, coping strategies and the burden of symptoms. Design Questionnaires were administered to 94 BSA and 185 BW recently diagnosed patients with cancer at baseline and at 3 and 9 mont...

  20. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  1. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, K.; van Sluijs, E M F; Steele, R. M.; Stephen, A M; Dunn, V.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Griffin, S. J.; Ekelund, U.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual b...

  2. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. New Technologies in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Bortfeld, Thomas; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in radiation oncology, many of which have originated from physics and engineering sciences. After an introductory section on basic aspects of 3D medical imaging, the role of 3D imaging in the context of radiotherapy is explored in a series of chapters on the various modern imaging techniques. A further major section addresses 3D treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy, with consideration of both external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Subsequently the modern techniques of 3D conformal radiotherapy are described, including stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy, and radiotherapy with charged particles.

  4. Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons Heidi E; Reidy Anne; Hutchins Jessica R; von Gruenigen Vivian E; Daly Barbara J; Eldermire Elisa M; Fusco Nancy L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. Methods A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a diagnosis of recurrent cancer. Patients completed...

  5. Use of Homeopathy in Pediatric Oncology in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Seifert; Peter Kaatsch; Genn Kameda; Friedrich Edelhäuser; Claudia Spix; Alfred Längler

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathy is a frequently used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. We present results comparing responses of homeopathy users (HUs) and users of other forms of CAM (NHUs) in pediatric oncology (PO) in Germany. Differences between these two groups (usage, associated demographic characteristics, previous experience with CAM) are investigated. 186 (45.2%) of the 367 CAM users were exposed to homeopathy. The treatment duration amounted to a median of 601 days for HUs and 282 ...

  6. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients. Attention to…

  7. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  8. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  9. Report from the OECI Oncology Days 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten, van W.H.; Stanta, G.; Bussolati, G.; Riegman, P.; Hoefler, G.; Becker, K.F.; Folprecht, G.; Truini, M.; Haybaeck, J.; Buiga, R.; Dono, M.; Bagg, A.; Lopez Guerrero, J.A.; Zupo, S.; Lemare, F.; Lorenzo, de F.; Goedbloed, N.; Razavi, D.; Lovey, J.; Cadariu, P.A.; Rollandi, G.A.; Paparo, F.; Pierotti, M.; Ciuleanu, T.; de Paoli, P.; Weiner, G.; Saghatchian, M.; Lombardo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 OECI Oncology Days was held at the ‘Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta’ Oncology Institute in Cluj, Romania, from 12 to 13 June. The focus of this year’s gathering was on developments in personalised medicine and other treatment advances which have made the cost of cancer care too high for many region

  10. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; Van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; Van Mierlo, R.; Van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncolog

  11. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.

  12. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  13. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  14. Minimum requirements on a QA program in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April, 1994, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine published a ''Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology:'' a report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee. This is a comprehensive QA program which is likely to become the standard for such programs in the United States. The program stresses the interdisciplinary nature of QA in radiation oncology involving the radiation oncologists, the radiotherapy technologies (radiographers), dosimetrists, and accelerator engineers, as well as the medical physicists. This paper describes a comprehensive quality assurance program with the main emphasis on the quality assurance in radiation therapy using a linear accelerator. The paper deals with QA for a linear accelerator and simulator and QA for treatment planning computers. Next the treatment planning process and QA for individual patients is described. The main features of this report, which should apply to QA programs in any country, emphasizes the responsibilities of the medical physicist. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

  15. Oncologic Outcomes After Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. Scott; Smith, Richard V.; Moore, Eric; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc; Ganly, Ian; Kraus, Dennis H.; Teng, Marita S.; Miles, Brett A.; White, Hilliary; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Mehta, Vikas; Kiyosaki, Krista; Damrose, Edward J.; Wang, Steven J.; Kupferman, Michael E.; Koh, Yoon Woo; Genden, Eric M.; Holsinger, F. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Large patient cohorts are necessary to validate the efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVES To review oncologic outcomes of TORS from a large multi-institutional collaboration and to identify predictors of disease recurrence and disease-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective review of records from 410 patients undergoing TORS for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012, was performed. Pertinent data were obtained from 11 participating medical institutions. INTERVENTIONS Select patients received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy before or after TORS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Locoregional control, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were calculated. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing to evaluate individual variable association with these outcomes, followed by multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to identify independent predictors. RESULTS Of the 410 patients treated with TORS in this study, 364 (88.8%) had oropharyngeal cancer. Of these 364 patients, information about post-operative adjuvant therapy was known about 338: 106 (31.3) received radiation therapy alone, and 72 (21.3%) received radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Neck dissection was performed in 323 patients (78.8%). Mean follow-up time was 20 months. Local, regional, and distant recurrence occurred in 18 (4.4%), 15 (3.7%), and 10 (2.4%) of 410 patients, respectively. Seventeen (4.1%) died of disease, and 13 (3.2%) died of other causes. The 2-year locoregional control rate was 91.8% (95% CI, 87.6%-94.7%), disease-specific survival 94.5% (95% CI, 90.6%-96.8%), and overall survival 91% (95% CI, 86.5%-94.0%). Multivariate analysis identified improved survival among women (P = .05) and for patients with tumors arising in tonsil (P = .01). Smoking was associated with worse overall

  16. Pharmacy Instruction in Medical Oncology: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey concerning oncology instruction in pharmacy schools found it taught primarily as part of a course in medicinal chemistry/pharmacology or therapeutics. Twenty-one schools offer an oncology course, with others planning them. Oncology clerkships are currently available in 42 schools. Increased emphasis on oncology instruction is encouraged.…

  17. Supportive care in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation therapist, concerned with the disease process and all the technical intricacies of treatment, has usually not been involved in managing the supportive aspects of caring for the patient. Yet, of the team of medical specialists and allied health personnel required in oncology, the radiation therapist is the one most responsible for overseeing the total care of the cancer patient. At times this might include emotional support, prevention and correction of tissue dysfunction, augmentation of nutrition, metabolic and electrolyte regulation, rehabilitation, and vocational support. This chapter is a brief overview of a considerable volume of literature that has occupied the interest of a rather small group of physicians, nutritionists, and psychologists. The discussion highlights the special management problems of the normal-tissue effects of radiation, the related nutritional aspects of cancer care, and certain emotional and pathologic considerations

  18. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  19. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  20. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  1. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  2. The Falklands War and the British Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.

  3. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  4. J.G. Crowther's War: Institutional strife at the BBC and British Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts.

  5. A survey of the educational environment for oncologists as perceived by surgical oncology professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Chandrakanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current educational environment may need enhancement to tackle the rising cancer burden in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of Surgical Oncologists to identify their perceptions of the current state of Oncology education in India. Methods An Institutional Review Board approved questionnaire was developed to target the audience of the 2009 annual meeting of the Indian Association of Surgical Oncology in India. The survey collected demographic information and asked respondents to provide their opinions about Oncology education in India. Results A total of 205 out of 408 attendee's participated in the survey with a 42.7% response rate. The majority of respondents felt that Oncology education was poor to fair during medical school (75%, residency (56% and for practicing physicians (71%. The majority of participants also felt that the quality of continuing medical education was poor and that minimal emphasis was placed on evidence based medicine. Conclusions The results of our survey demonstrate that the majority of respondents feel that the current educational environment for Oncology in India should be enhanced. The study identified perceptions of several gaps and needs, which can be the targets for implementing measures to enhance the training of Oncology professionals.

  6. Immigration Status and Victimization: Evidence from the British Crime Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...

  7. Estimation of coronary risk factors in British schoolchildren: a preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong , N .; Balding, J; Gentle, P; Kirby, B.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys from several countries have identified the presence of risk factors known to be associated with coronary heart disease in children. Data on the distribution of coronary risk factor variables in British children are scarce. This study was therefore designed to test the feasibility of collecting coronary risk factor data from British children and to conduct a preliminary examination of the problem. One hundred and seven children (mean age 12.8 yr) had their height, weight, triceps skinf...

  8. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper; William Browne

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...

  9. Elemente de terapie oncologică la animale / Elements of oncological therapy animals

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia B. Chirila; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Florin Muselin; Romeo T. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This bibliographic essay is an attempt to recall the main elements applicable in the oncologic therapy useful also in veterinary medicine. In the paper are presented: the pharmacological principles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, oncologic surgery, nanoterapia and some modern methodologies (photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, electrochimioterapia, vascular disruption agents). The last chapter is dedicated to phytotherapy, as alternative therapy in oncology with the presentation of the main plan...

  10. [Practical pain control in pediatric oncology. Recommendations of the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, the German Association for the Study of Pain, the German Society of Palliative Care, and the Vodafone Institute of Children's Pain Therapy and Palliative Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, B; Schiessl, C; Wamsler, C; Janssen, G; Griessinger, N; Fengler, R; Nauck, F

    2006-02-01

    In pediatric oncology, optimal pain control is still a challenge. A structured pain history and the regular scoring of pain intensity using age-adapted measuring tools are hallmarks of optimal pain control. Psychological measures are as important as drug therapy in the prophylaxis or control of pain, especially when performing invasive procedures. Pain control is oriented toward the WHO multistep therapeutic schedule. On no account should the pediatric patient have to climb up the "analgesic ladder" - strong pain requires the primary use of strong opioids. Give opioids preferably by the oral route and by the clock - short-acting opioids should be used to treat breakthrough pain. Alternatives are i.v. infusion, patient-controlled analgesia, and transdermal applications. Constipation is the adverse effect most often seen with (oral) opioid therapy. Adverse effects should be anticipated, and prophylactic treatment should be given consistently. The assistance of pediatric nurses is of the utmost importance in pediatric pain control. Nurses deliver the basis for rational and effective pain control by scoring pain intensity and documenting drug administration as well as adverse effects. The nurses' task is also to prepare the patient for and monitor the patient during painful procedures. It is the responsibility of both nurse and doctor to guarantee emergency intervention during sedation whenever needed. In our guideline we comment on drug selection and dosage, pain measurement tools, and documentation tools for the purpose of pain control. Those tools may be easily integrated into daily routine.

  11. Oncology nurses' knowledge, practice, and educational needs regarding cancer genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S K; Rieger, P T; Marani, S K; deMoor, C; Gritz, E R

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated oncology nurses' knowledge of cancer genetics and related topics, and identified current practice patterns and perceived educational needs in this area. A 54-item study questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) members and 75 members of the ONS-Cancer Genetics Special Interest Group; 656 (51%) of those eligible responded. After exclusions, we analyzed 573 responses. Most respondents were Caucasian, female, and worked in hospital or outpatient settings. Half were staff nurses and 8% specialized in cancer genetics. Respondents with higher levels of nursing education or with continuing education in cancer genetics, who worked in positions other than staff nurses, and whose primary practice area was cancer genetics had significantly higher mean scores overall on questions measuring knowledge of cancer genetics and related areas. Higher perceived educational needs to improve knowledge or practice related to cancer genetics at basic, intermediate or advanced levels were associated with all or some of the following variables: lower education; hospital/ outpatient or managed care/private practice settings; lack of continuing education in cancer genetics, and positions other than advanced practice nurses. Although nearly half of the respondents had received patient inquiries regarding cancer genetics, only 35% were aware of referral resources and 26% had made such referrals. These findings may be used to develop targeted educational approaches that prepare oncology nurses to incorporate cancer genetics into any level of practice. PMID:11426452

  12. Radiation oncology medical physics education and training in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The training education and accreditation program (TEAP) for radiation oncology commenced formally in Queensland in 2008 with an initial intake of nine registrars. In 2011 there are 17 registrars across four ACPSEM accredited Queensland Health departments (Mater Radiation Oncology Centre, Princess Alexandria Hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Townsville Hospital). The Queensland Statewide Cancer Services Plan 2008-2017 outlines significant expansion to oncology services including increases in total number of treatment machines from 14 (2007) to 29-31 (2017) across existing and new clinical departments. A direct implication of this will be the number of qualified ROMPs needed to maintain and develop medical physics services. This presentation will outline ongoing work in the ROMP education and Training portfolio to develop, facilitate and provide training activities for ROMPs undertaking TEAP in the Queensland public system. Initiatives such as Department of Health and Aging scholarships for medical physics students, and the educational challenges associated with competency attainment will also be discussed in greater detail.

  13. Radiation oncology: An Irish hospitals approach to supporting patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in medical technology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death globally, leaving many patients to deal with the emotional and psychological aspects associated with cancer and its treatment [Department of Health and Children. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland. National Cancer Forum. Dublin; 2006]. The recognition and management of psychological conditions are an integral part of comprehensive cancer care. As a result, the Health Services Executive as part of the continuing expansion of Cork Radiation Oncology Department created the role of Information and Support Radiation Therapist. This post was specially created during June 2005 to facilitate the smooth entry into the treatment for patients and family members experiencing radiotherapy for the first time. Working alongside the oncology nurses and other health professionals the Information and Support Radiation Therapist aims to provide vital education/information and support to patients and their families. The provision of this new service for patients enables departments to adopt a holistic approach to treatment. This research identifies the cancer services and psychological support services in Ireland. Up-to-date audits of the new patient services established in the Cork Radiation Oncology Department and their psychological contribution towards cancer development and treatment are also discussed

  14. Definition of standardized nutritional assessment and interventional pathways in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottery, F D

    1996-01-01

    Weight loss and nutritional deterioration are associated with adverse outcomes in terms of cancer prognosis (response rate and survival) as well as increased complications, prolonged hospitalizations, increased risk of unplanned hospitalization, increased disability, and increased overall cost of care. The nutritional oncology service at Fox Chase Cancer Center defined a proactive, standardized assessment and interventional approach from 1987-1994. In 186 consecutive patients referred to the nutrition clinic and managed solely by oral intervention and aggressive symptom management, the team demonstrated a 50%-80% success rate in getting patients to maintain or gain weight during therapy, with a similar success in maintaining or improving visceral protein status as determined by serum transferrin and/or albumin. Evaluation of the home parenteral nutrition program (n = 65, from 1987-1993) demonstrated similar success when appropriate triaging was carried out, with 58% of patients able to be tapered off parenteral nutrition (PN) entirely or with transition to enteral tube feeding. The assessment of success for a nutritional intervention (e.g., a disease-specific nutritional supplement) requires the standardization of definitions, assessment tools, criteria for nutritional intervention, and appropriate end points for the assessment of outcomes. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status is used in conjunction with the nutritional risk of planned cancer therapy to define a standardized interventional approach in oncology patients, which can be used in clinical practice, cooperative oncology group protocols, and clinical trials of nutritional intervention regimens. PMID:8850213

  15. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they get older in the baby boomer generation. The good thing about endometrial cancer is that ... that's what oncology is picking up on. For generations, they had to use open procedures to do ...

  16. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. ...

  17. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inches. That's a best -- it used to be traditional oncology incisions would be at least from the ... we can identify those who may need additional therapy. Fortunately, with uterine cancer, about three out of ...

  18. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Become a Member ASPHO: Dedicated to advancing knowledge and professional community Join Today! Update your demographics ... Career Center Mentoring Funding Compensation Survey © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 8735 W. Higgins Road, ...

  19. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal cases into laparoscopic cases, and that's the beauty of the platform. And that's what oncology is ... that's been liberalized, and people are seeing the beauty of minimally invasive surgery. So Dr. Molpus, on ...

  20. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ilinois (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  1. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs. PMID:27264203

  2. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs.

  3. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members

  4. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  5. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with

  6. Recommended guidelines for the conduct and evaluation of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webster, J.D.; Dennis, M.; Dervisis, N.; Heller, J.; Bacon, N.J.; Bergman, P.J.; Bienzle, D.; Cassali, G.; Castagnaro, M.; Cullen, J.; Esplin, D.G.; Peña, L.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Hahn, K.A.; Henry, C.; Hellmén, E.; Kamstock, D.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Kitschell, B.E.; Amorim, R.L.; Lenz, S.D.; Lipscomb, T.P.; McEntee, M.; McGill, L.D.; McKnight, C.A.; McManus, P.M.; Moore, A.S.; Moroff, S.D.; Nakayama, H.; Northrup, N.C.; Sarli, G.; Scase, T.; Sorenmo, K.; Schulman, F.Y.; Shoieb, A.M.; Smedley, R.C.; Spangler, W.L.; Teske, E.; Thamm, D.H.; Valli, V.E.; Vernau, W.; Euler, H. von; Withrow, S.J.; Weisbrode, S.E.; Yager, J.; Kiupel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an increasing need for more accurate prognostic and predictive markers in veterinary oncology because of an increasing number of treatment options, the increased financial costs associated with treatment, and the emotional stress experienced by owners in association with the diseas

  7. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (75 FR 23289). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now...

  8. Spirituality and religion in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities.

  9. Future directions in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cancer treatment has evolved progressively over the years as a joint result of improvements in technology and better understanding of the biological responses of neoplastic and normal cells to cytotoxic agents. Although major therapeutic 'breakthroughs' are unlikely absent the discovery of exploitable fundamental differences between cancer cells and their normal homologs, further incremental improvements in cancer treatment results can confidently be expected as we apply existing knowledge better and take advantage of new research insights. Areas in which I can foresee significant improvements (in approximate chronological order) are as follows: better physical radiation dose distributions; more effective radiation and chemoradiation protocols based on radiobiological principles; more rational use of radiation adjuvants based on biologic criteria; use of novel targets and vectors for systemic radionuclide therapy; use of genetic markers of radiosensitivity to determine radiation dose tolerances; and use of radiation as a modulator of therapeutic gene expression. Radiation research has contributed greatly to the efficacy of radiation oncology as it is now practised but has even greater potential for the future

  10. Radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolanthanides such as Holmium-166 (T1/2 26.8h), Samarium-153 (T1/2 46.3h) and Lutetium-177 (T1/2 6.7 days) all have beta emissions suitable for radiopharmaceutical therapy, bone marrow ablation and for pain palliation of skeletal metastases. They also emit gamma photons of energies which permit quantitative imaging on conventional gamma cameras which facilitates calculation of dosimetry in individual patients. The range of half-lives has the potential to match the irradiation of tumour cells to the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical thus minimising radiotoxicity to normal tissues. Relative ease and low cost of production of these radiolanthanides in rectors such as HIFAR at ANSTO render radiolanthanides a practical option for radiopharmaceutical treatment of cancer for patients in whom conventional therapy has failed. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer using various monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor-cell antigens has been performed with Samarium-153, Holmium-166 and Lutetium-177-labelled antibodies in human tumor xenographs in nude mice and in clinical trials. The development of a large animal model of human cancer will be described, in particular in relation to improving the accuracy of prediction of dosimetry and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

  11. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement on Clinical Pathways in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Robin T; Frame, James N; Neuss, Michael N; Page, Ray D; Wollins, Dana S; Stranne, Steven; Bosserman, Linda D

    2016-03-01

    The use of clinical pathways in oncology care is increasingly important to patients and oncology providers as a tool for enhancing both quality and value. However, with increasing adoption of pathways into oncology practice, concerns have been raised by ASCO members and other stakeholders. These include the process being used for pathway development, the administrative burdens on oncology practices of reporting on pathway adherence, and understanding the true impact of pathway use on patient health outcomes. To address these concerns, ASCO's Board of Directors established a Task Force on Clinical Pathways, charged with articulating a set of recommendations to improve the development of oncology pathways and processes, allowing the demonstration of pathway concordance in a manner that promotes evidence-based, high-value care respecting input from patients, payers, and providers. These recommendations have been approved and adopted by ASCO's Board of Directors on August 12, 2015, and are presented herein. PMID:26759491

  12. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  13. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen reconstructs...

  14. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  15. ASTRO's core physics curriculum for radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, the Radiation Physics Committee of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) appointed an Ad-hoc Committee on Physics Teaching to Medical Residents. The main initiative of the committee was to develop a core curriculum for physics education. Prior publications that have analyzed physics teaching have pointed to wide discrepancies among teaching programs. The committee was composed of physicists or physicians from various residency program based institutions. Simultaneously, members had associations with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), ASTRO, Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO), American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology (ACR). The latter two organizations' representatives were on the physics examination committees, as one of the main agendas was to provide a feedback loop between the examining organizations and ASTRO. The document resulted in a recommended 54-h course. Some of the subjects were based on American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements (particles, hyperthermia), whereas the majority of the subjects along with the appropriated hours per subject were devised and agreed upon by the committee. For each subject there are learning objectives and for each hour there is a detailed outline of material to be covered. Some of the required subjects/h are being taught in most institutions (i.e., Radiation Measurement and Calibration for 4 h), whereas some may be new subjects (4 h of Imaging for Radiation Oncology). The curriculum was completed and approved by the ASTRO Board in late 2003 and is slated for dissemination to the community in 2004. It is our hope that teaching physicists will adopt the recommended curriculum for their classes, and simultaneously that the ABR for its written physics examination and the ACR for its training examination will use the recommended curriculum as the basis for subject matter and depth of

  16. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  17. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  18. Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    1996-01-01

    There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...

  19. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology

  20. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eastwick, Gary [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  1. Nano-oncologicals new targeting and delivery approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Maria Jose

    2014-01-01

    This authoritative volume focuses on emerging technologies in cancer nano medicine, characterized by their multi-functionality and potential to address simultaneously diverse issues of clinical relevance in the treatment of cancer. The book consists of sixteen chapters divided into six sections: 1) Biological Barriers in Cancer; 2) Tumor Targeting; 3) Targeting the Immune System; 4) Gene Therapy; 5) Nano theranostics and 6) Translational Aspects of Nano-Oncologicals. The volume starts with an introduction describing the biological barriers associated with cancer therapy and highlighting ways

  2. Trust and British Gas partner in EPC scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    In late August last year the St George's Healthcare NHS Trust in south-west London signed what the Trust's Estates and Facilities team described as 'a historic partnership' with British Gas for a £12 m Energy Performance Contract energy reduction scheme--via which the energy company has guaranteed to deliver £1.1 m in annual savings over the next 15 years. The agreement will see British Gas replace four 35-year-old gas-powered steam boilers and an ageing CHP plant in the boiler house at the Trust's main acute facility, the StGeorge's Hospital in Tooting, and upgrade some of the associated infrastructure. British Gas will also maintain the new plant to ensure that the projected savings are achieved while the Trust owns the new assets. The Trust should gain financially--via lower energy costs and carbon emissions, while estates personnel will be better able to complete the many other estate maintenance issues that would otherwise be contracted out at one of London's biggest acute hospitals. PMID:26268017

  3. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  4. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field.

  5. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  6. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  7. ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership: An Oncology Social Work Response to the 2008 Institute of Medicine Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis-Green, Shirley; Jones, Barbara; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Altilio, Terry A; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-09-01

    ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership was a multi-year National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded grant for the development and implementation of an innovative educational program for oncology social workers. The program's curriculum focused upon six core competencies of psychosocial-spiritual support necessary to meet the standard of care recommended by the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report: Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. The curriculum was delivered through a collaborative partnership between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the two leading professional organizations devoted exclusively to representing oncology social workers--the Association of Oncology Social Work and the Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers. Initial findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this tailored leadership skills-building program for participating oncology social workers.

  8. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Ying, E-mail: ying.xiao@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Eifel, Patricia [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hughes, Lesley [Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); McDermott, Patrick [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Prisciandaro, Joann [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Price, Robert A. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  9. Oncology Nursing Is Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Brown, Carlton G

    2016-06-01

    This issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (CJON) will be the final time that you will see the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) feature column. Why? Because we have seen oncology nursing evolve in the past 20 years and EBP is everywhere! We use it in our clinics and hospital units, incorporate it into decisions about symptom management, and use evidence to develop survivorship guidelines. We discuss EBP in journal clubs and use applications on mobile devices to find the best interventions for our patients. We have oncology nurses sitting on committees to develop guidelines based on the best evidence and expert opinion. We have come a long way and it is our belief that EBP is included in almost every article in CJON and, therefore, a need no longer exists for an individual column about EBP. 
. PMID:27206287

  10. Medical Malpractice Claims in Radiation Oncology: A Population-Based Study 1985-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Deborah C. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fox, Dov [School of Law, University of San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine trends in radiation oncology malpractice claims and expenses during the last 28 years and to compare radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of other specialties. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of closed malpractice claims filed from 1985 to 2012, collected by a nationwide medical liability insurance trade association. We analyzed characteristics and trends among closed claims, indemnity payments (payments to plaintiff), and litigation expenses. We also compared radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of 21 other medical specialties. Time series dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation (2012 was the index year). Results: There were 1517 closed claims involving radiation oncology, of which 342 (22.5%) were paid. Average and median indemnity payments were $276,792 and $122,500, respectively, ranking fifth and eighth, respectively, among the 22 specialty groups. Linear regression modeling of time trends showed decreasing total numbers of claims (β = −1.96 annually, P=.003), increasing average litigation expenses paid (β = +$1472 annually, P≤.001), and no significant changes in average indemnity payments (β = −$681, P=.89). Conclusions: Medical professional liability claims filed against radiation oncologists are not common and have declined in recent years. However, indemnity payments in radiation oncology are large relative to those of many other specialties. In recent years, the average indemnity payment has been stable, whereas litigation expenses have increased.

  11. Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy: Oncologic Outcomes and Management of Distal Ureter; Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Berger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU is being increasingly performed at several centers across the world. We review oncologic outcomes after LNU procedure and the techniques for the management of distal ureter. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on the oncological outcomes and management of distal ureter associated with LNU for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC. Results and Discussion. LNU for upper tract TCC is performed pure laparoscopically (LNU or hand-assisted (HALNU. The management of the distal ureter is still debated. LNU appears to have superior perioperative outcomes when compared to open surgery. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes after LNU are comparable to open nephroureterectomy (ONU. Conclusions. Excision of the distal ureter and bladder cuff during nephroureterectomy remains controversial. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes for LNU compare well with ONU. Initial long-term oncologic outcomes are encouraging. Prospective randomized comparison between LNU and open surgery is needed to define the role of these modalities in the current context.

  12. Medical Malpractice Claims in Radiation Oncology: A Population-Based Study 1985-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine trends in radiation oncology malpractice claims and expenses during the last 28 years and to compare radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of other specialties. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of closed malpractice claims filed from 1985 to 2012, collected by a nationwide medical liability insurance trade association. We analyzed characteristics and trends among closed claims, indemnity payments (payments to plaintiff), and litigation expenses. We also compared radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of 21 other medical specialties. Time series dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation (2012 was the index year). Results: There were 1517 closed claims involving radiation oncology, of which 342 (22.5%) were paid. Average and median indemnity payments were $276,792 and $122,500, respectively, ranking fifth and eighth, respectively, among the 22 specialty groups. Linear regression modeling of time trends showed decreasing total numbers of claims (β = −1.96 annually, P=.003), increasing average litigation expenses paid (β = +$1472 annually, P≤.001), and no significant changes in average indemnity payments (β = −$681, P=.89). Conclusions: Medical professional liability claims filed against radiation oncologists are not common and have declined in recent years. However, indemnity payments in radiation oncology are large relative to those of many other specialties. In recent years, the average indemnity payment has been stable, whereas litigation expenses have increased

  13. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  14. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  15. Application progress of lymphography in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YU; Jibin LIU; Lixue YIN

    2009-01-01

    Lymphography is often used for the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis in oncology. Determination of lymphatic metastasis is extremely important for accurate cancer staging, which may directly guide the clinical therapeutic scheme. In recent years, the technology of lymphography has developed rapidly on the basis of traditional lymphography, with the appearance of com-puted tomography (CT) lymphography, nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography, contrast-enhanced lym-phosonography, and so on; the diagnostic accuracy has also been improved. The imaging principles and methods of these various technologies of lymphography are reviewed in this paper, and their applications and significance in oncology are also discussed in detail.

  16. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    endoscopic diagnosis is likely to be impacted by a combination of biomarkers and technology, and 'endoscopic molecular imaging' should be defined as "visualization of molecular characteristics with endoscopy". These innovations will allow us not only to locate a tumor or dysplastic lesion but also to visualize its molecular characteristics (e.g., DNA mutations and polymorphisms, gene and/or protein expression), and the activity of specific molecules and biological processes that affect tumor behavior and/or its response to therapy. In the near future, these methods should be promising technologies that will play a central role in gastrointestinal oncology.

  17. Proceedings on 10th National Congress on Oncology. 1st National Congress on Mastology. 5th International Meeting of Oncological Nursing. 3rd International Congress of Nuclear Oncology. 3rd International Conference of Medical Physics. (Oncology Havana 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of Oncology Havana 2009 is to propitiate the exchange with the delegates of all continents, focusing on issues such as advances and controversial aspects of oncology and current research and discussion of new diagnostic-therapeutic possibilities of cancer. About 240 scientific works are presented: 11 about medicine, 42 on mastology, 43 in medical physics, 143 on oncology.

  18. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  19. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  20. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia le Roux

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal

  1. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. PMID:27343743

  2. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate

  3. Nurses’ Burnout in Oncology Hospital Critical Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz İrem Tunçel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Scale. Results: From a total of 37 ICU nurses, 35 participated in the study (%94,5 response rate. High levels of emotional exhaustion in 82% and depersonalization in 51,4% of nurses was determined. Personal accomplishment was higher at 80%. Mild to moderate emotional state and mild anxiety was revealed. Years in profession,finding salary insufficient, finding the profession in its proper, choosing the profession of his own accord, work environment satisfaction and finding the social activity adequate were associated with burnout (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In our study, intensive care unit nurses’ burnout scores were found to be higher. Burnout was rare in nurses that choose the profession of his own accord, find the nursing profession in its proper, and social activity adequate and are satisfied with the work environment. Therefore, we believe that attention should be given to individual needs and preferences in the selection of ICU staff.

  4. Organization and implementation of a cardio-oncology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Manuela; Ribeiro, Leonor; Magalhães, Andreia; Sousa, Ana Rita; Nobre Menezes, Miguel; Jorge, Marília; Costa, Luís; Pinto, Fausto José

    2016-09-01

    Considerable advances in cancer therapies in recent decades have reshaped the prognosis of cancer patients. There are now estimated to be over 20 million cancer survivors in the USA and Europe, numbers unimaginable a few years ago. However, this increase in survival, along with the aging of the patient population, has been accompanied by a rise in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly when there is a previous history of heart disease. The incidence of cardiotoxicity continues to grow, which can compromise the effectiveness of cancer therapy. Cardiotoxicity associated with conventional therapies, especially anthracyclines and radiation, is well known, and usually leads to left ventricular dysfunction. However, heart failure represents only a fraction of the cardiotoxicity associated with newer therapies, which have diverse cardiovascular effects. There are few guidelines for early detection, prevention and treatment of cardiotoxicity of cancer treatments, and no well-established tools for screening these patients. Echocardiography is the method of choice for assessment of patients before, during and after cancer treatment. It therefore makes sense to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to these patients, involving cardiologists, oncologists and radiotherapists, collaborating in the development of new training modules, and performing clinical and translational research in a cardio-oncology program. Cardio-oncology is a new frontier in medicine and has emerged as a new medical subspecialty that concentrates knowledge, understanding, training and treatment of cardiovascular comorbidities, risks and complications in patients with cancer in a comprehensive approach to the patient rather than to the disease. PMID:27503589

  5. Reconstruction of British Nuclear Fuel's Drigg marine outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the House of Commons Environment Committee expressed reservations over some of the waste-management procedures followed by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd at their Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sellafield in Cumbria. These reservations prompted the company to implement a Pound 20 million programme of improvements aimed at maximizing site usage, reducing trench leachate arisings and redirecting to the Irish Sea. This paper provides information and test results associated with design considerations and initial dilution testing, respectively, of a computer-controlled long sea outfall system designed to discharge leachate to the Irish Sea. Information is also provided on difficulties experienced during construction of the outfall. (Author)

  6. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisc

  7. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oncology case brought to you live from Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the Request Information button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. 01:05:35 [end of webcast

  8. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  9. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: ANNOUNCER: Welcome to ... modified radical hysterectomy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. And for the lay people out there that ...

  10. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOTIC-ASSISTED GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY PROCEDURE HALIFAX HEALTH DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA April 24, 2008 00:00:11 KELLY ... You're just minutes away from seeing a robotic-assisted laparoscopic gynecological case live. This very progressive ...

  11. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  12. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  13. Evaluating stress, burnout and job satisfaction in New Zealand radiation oncology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M; Herst, P; Dungey, G

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the levels of occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction among radiation oncology workers across New Zealand. All oncology staff practising in all eight radiation oncology departments in New Zealand were invited to participate anonymously in a questionnaire, which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and measures of stress intensity associated with specific occupational stressors, stress reduction strategies and job satisfaction. A total of 171 (out of 349) complete responses were analysed using spss 19; there were 23 oncologists, 111 radiation therapists, 22 radiation nurses and 15 radiation physicists. All participants, regardless of profession, reported high stress levels associated with both patient-centred and organisational stressors. Participants scored high in all three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Interestingly, although organisational stressors predicted higher emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion predicted lower job satisfaction, patient stressors were associated with higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction initiatives such as ongoing education, mentoring and role extension were supported by many participants as was addressing organisational stressors, such as lack of recognition and support from management and unrealistic expectations and demands. New Zealand staff exhibit higher levels of burnout than Maslach Burnout Inventory medical norms and oncology workers in previous international studies.

  14. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  15. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of laterality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  16. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  17. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Алексеевич Есипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13

  18. J.G. Crowther's War: Institutional strife at the BBC and British Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts. PMID:27076038

  19. The Diasporic Dimensions of British Caribbean Federation in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Duke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [Second and third pragraph] While much has been written on the significance of British Caribbean activists in various movements associated with black diaspora politics in the twentieth century, particularly their important roles in Pan-African struggles, little has been written on how the various British Caribbean colonies themselves were envisioned among diaspora activists and within the scope of black diaspora politics. Did such Caribbean activists, especially those interested in and connected to diasporic movements beyond the British Caribbean, and their African American and African counterparts forsake the British West Indies as a focus of political engagement for other lands and causes? If not, what was the place of “West Indian liberation” and nation building in the British Caribbean in relation to black diasporic struggles in the early twentieth century? This article address these questions through an examination of how the idea of a united “West Indian nation” (via a federation or closer union among British Caribbean colonies was envisioned within black diaspora politics from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, and the ways in which racial consciousness and motivations informed conceptualizations of such a nation among black political activists of the British Caribbean and other parts of the diaspora. This study argues that efforts to create a federation in the Anglophone Caribbean were much more than simply imperial or regional nation-building projects. Instead, federation was also a diasporic, black nation-building endeavor intricately connected to notions of racial unity, racial uplift, and black self-determination.

  20. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  1. Guideline on the prevention of secondary central nervous system lymphoma: British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use.

  2. Acupuncture: could it become everyday practice in oncology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian-Kita, Aneta; Konopka, Kamil; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture is a complementary and alternative medical treatment (CAM) which is increasingly used in the care of cancer patients. Traditionally derived from Chinese medicine, nowadays it is becoming a part of evidence-based oncology. The use of acupuncture in these patients has been recommended by the American Cancer Society (ACS) for the treatment of side effects associated with conventional cancer therapy and cancer-related ailments. A growing body of evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-induced pain and chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. Also other indications, such as xerostomia, fatigue, hot flashes, anxiety and peripheral neuropathy, are being constantly evaluated. This article summarizes the most important discoveries related to the possible usefulness of this method in contemporary oncology. Emphasis is placed on the results of randomized controlled trials with an adequate level of evidence. However, explanation of the mechanisms responsible for these effects requires confirmation in further studies with an adequate level of evidence. In future, acupuncture may become an interesting and valuable addition to conventional medicine. PMID:27358589

  3. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  4. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  5. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  6. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  7. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  8. An American on a British Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大川

    2004-01-01

    A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-

  9. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  10. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  11. The British Experience of Reform in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, Geraint

    1996-01-01

    The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)

  12. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  13. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth century

  14. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  15. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  16. Future Supply and Demand for Oncologists : Challenges to Assuring Access to Oncology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Clese; Salsberg, Edward; Forte, Gaetano; Bruinooge, Suanna; Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a comprehensive analysis of supply of and demand for oncology services through 2020. This study was commissioned by the Board of Directors of ASCO. Methods New data on physician supply gathered from surveys of practicing oncologists, oncology fellows, and fellowship program directors were analyzed, along with 2005 American Medical Association Masterfile data on practicing medical oncologists, hematologists/oncologists, and gynecologic oncologists, to determine the baseline capacity and to forecast visit capacity through 2020. Demand for visits was calculated by applying age-, sex-, and time-from-diagnosis-visit rate data from the National Cancer Institute's analysis of the 1998 to 2002 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to the National Cancer Institute's cancer incidence and prevalence projections. The cancer incidence and prevalence projections were calculated by applying a 3-year average (2000–2002) of age- and sex-specific cancer rates from SEER to the US Census Bureau population projections released on March 2004. The baseline supply and demand forecasts assume no change in cancer care delivery and physician practice patterns. Alternate scenarios were constructed by changing assumptions in the baseline models. Results Demand for oncology services is expected to rise rapidly, driven by the aging and growth of the population and improvements in cancer survival rates, at the same time the oncology workforce is aging and retiring in increasing numbers. Demand is expected to rise 48% between 2005 and 2020. The supply of services provided by oncologists during this time is expected to grow more slowly, approximately 14%, based on the current age distribution and practice patterns of oncologists and the number of oncology fellowship positions. This translates into a shortage of 9.4 to 15.0 million visits, or 2,550 to 4,080 oncologists—roughly one-quarter to one-third of the 2005 supply. The baseline projections do not

  17. The oncology medical image database (OMI-DB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, P. T.; Patel, M. N.; Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Young, K. C.

    2014-03-01

    Many projects to evaluate or conduct research in medical imaging require the large-scale collection of images (both unprocessed and processed) and associated data. This demand has led us to design and implement a flexible oncology image repository, which prospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. This Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) has been created to support research involving medical imaging and contains unprocessed and processed medical images, associated annotations and data, and where applicable expert-determined ground truths describing features of interest. The process of collection, annotation and storage is almost fully automated and is extremely adaptable, allowing for quick and easy expansion to disparate imaging sites and situations. Initially the database was developed as part of a large research project in digital mammography (OPTIMAM). Hence the initial focus has been digital mammography; as a result, much of the work described will focus on this field. However, the OMI -DB has been designed to support multiple modalities and is extensible and expandable to store any associated data with full anonymisation. Currently, the majority of associated data is made up of radiological, clinical and pathological annotations extracted from the UK's National Breast Screening System (NBSS). In addition to the data, software and systems have been created to allow expert radiologists to annotate the images with interesting clinical features and provide descriptors of these features. The data from OMI-DB has been used in several observer studies and more are planned. To date we have collected 34,104 2D mammography images from 2,623 individuals.

  18. The Terms of Trade between the United Kingdom and British India, 1858-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Dennis R

    2006-01-01

    The commodity terms of trade of the United Kingdom with British India for 1858-1947 are calculated. Unit value indexes for a sample containing over three-quarters of UK/India trade indicate a slight improvement for the United Kingdom from 1858 to 1917. This improvement was likely attributable to falling transport costs for British imports and was therefore not associated with a decline in India's terms of trade with Britain. For 1917-47, there was substantial UK terms-of-trade improvement, a ...

  19. A very British spectacle? : critical reception of the fantasy genre within contemporary British cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...

  20. Benefits and costs of impeding free trade: Revisiting British Columbia's restrictions on log exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    The government of British Columbia (BC) imposes restrictions on the export of logs from public and private forestlands, primarily to promote local processing and associated employment benefits. Most economists wholeheartedly oppose BC's export restrictions, arguing that BC's citizens are worse off a

  1. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  2. Oncological mamoplasty in the Cancerology National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservative surgery is analyzed in the breast cancer. As premise, it settles down that in the quadrantectomy, the breast should always be left aesthetic. The oncological mamoplasty is then a technique that should be considered and for it should always be left it margin oncology in the borders of the tumors, the surgeon should have experience and it is important to have a good pursuit. The surgery is bilateral and it doesn't leave scars in the superior quadrants. In this revision 53 patients were analyzed, keeping in mind that there are few reports on this technique or to proceed therapeutic in the literature. The procedures were carried out in their majority in patient pre menopauses and they were made inclusive in advanced states. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used in the treatment

  3. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  4. Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Kolbenschlag, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The therapy of oncological patients has seen tremendous progress in the last decades. For most entities, it has been possible to improve the survival as well as the quality of life of the affected patients. To supply optimal cancer care, a multidisciplinary approach is vital. Together with oncologists, radiotherapists and other physicians, plastic surgeons can contribute to providing such care in all stages of treatment. From biopsies to the resection of advanced tumors, the coverage of the resulting defects and even palliative care, plastic surgery techniques can help to improve survival and quality of life as well as mitigate negative effects of radiation or the problems arising from exulcerating tumors in a palliative setting. This article aims to present the mentioned possibilities by illustrating selected cases and reviewing the literature. Especially in oncological patients, restoring their quality of life with the highest patient safety possible is of utmost importance. PMID:25593966

  5. Value: a framework for radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2014-09-10

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.

  6. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  7. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  8. Clinical oncology in resource-limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Buonaguro, Franco M.; Gueye, Serigne N; Wabinga, Henry R; Ngoma, Twalib A.; Vermorken, Jan B; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2013-01-01

    Infectious Agents and Cancer is introducing a new section of Clinical Oncology with the main objective of stimulating debate through articles published in the section. Infectious diseases have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations, and have dominated the medical approach to clinical and public health. Successful efforts to control mortality from acute infections have paved the way for chronic, mostly indolent, infections to become major causes of morbidity. Can...

  9. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  10. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness. PMID:20619056

  11. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, GCC

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in...

  12. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.

  13. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  14. Osteonecrosis - complication at oncological treatment in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteonecrosis is one of serious complications at oncological treatment of children. The etiopathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, mostly it has a multifactorial character. The incidence is in 1,5 - 9,3 % range. ON affects predominantly the weight bearing joints. It affects mostly the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those at adolescent age. The course of disease is unpredictable. The changes at early stages can be reversible, but at some patients the disease progresses and can lead to a disability. At Children oncology clinic of Children teaching hospital in Bratislava during the years 1992 - 2008 we identified 12 patients affected by ON out of 146 children with ALL (8,2 %), 1 out of 42 with NHL (2,4 %) and 1 out of 42 with HL (2,4 %). The age at diagnosis of malignity: 4y7m - 17y, the age at diagnosis ON: 10y5m - 19y. Further course: regression - 2 patients, stabilised state - 6 patients, progression - 3 patients. 3 patients were lost from our follow up. The treatment was conservative, with the exception of one patient, who had to undergo surgery due to the progression of disease. To avoid the risk of inducing ON during the treatment of oncological patient in childhood it is important to optimalize the therapeutical protocols and to diagnose this complication early. (author)

  15. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  16. Reducing produced water leaks and spills by improving industry compliance in British Columbia's natural gas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Notte, Chelsea Althea

    2014-01-01

    The International Energy Association asserts that natural gas is poised to enter a golden age. This is particularly true for British Columbia, which possesses world-class shale gas reserves. Produced water – the water emanating from fracturing shale - is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas activities. Wastewater associated with natural gas extraction is highly toxic and has serious implications for environmental and human health if spilled or leaked. Because of the corrosive ...

  17. ASTRO's 2007 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a curriculum for physics education. The document described a 54-hour course. In 2006, the committee reconvened to update the curriculum. The committee is composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions. Simultaneously, members have associations with American Association of Physicists in Medicine, ASTRO, Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, and American College of Radiology. Representatives from the latter two organizations are key to provide feedback between the examining organizations and ASTRO. Subjects are based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements (particles and hyperthermia), whereas the majority of subjects and appropriated hours/subject were developed by consensus. The new curriculum is 55 hours, containing new subjects, redistribution of subjects with updates, and reorganization of core topics. For each subject, learning objectives are provided, and for each lecture hour, a detailed outline of material to be covered is provided. Some changes include a decrease in basic radiologic physics, addition of informatics as a subject, increase in intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and migration of some brachytherapy hours to radiopharmaceuticals. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in late 2006. It is hoped that physicists will adopt the curriculum for structuring their didactic teaching program, and simultaneously, American Board of Radiology, for its written examination. American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee added suggested references, a glossary, and a condensed version of lectures for a Postgraduate Year 2 resident physics orientation. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, subject matter will be updated again in 2 years

  18. Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert DeBernardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery for the management of gynecologic cancers allows for minimally invasive surgical removal of cancer-bearing organs and tissues using sophisticated surgeon-manipulated, robotic surgical instrumentation. Early on, gynecologic oncologists recognized that minimally invasive surgery was associated with less surgical morbidity and that it shortened postoperative recovery. Now, robotic surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional laparotomy. Since its widespread adoption, minimally invasive surgery has become an option not only for the morbidly obese but for women with gynecologic malignancy where conventional laparotomy has been associated with significant morbidity. As such, this paper considers indications for robotic surgery, reflects on outcomes from initial robotic surgical outcomes data, reviews cost efficacy and implications in surgical training, and discusses new roles for robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer management.

  19. Barriers and facilitators for oncology nurses discussing sexual issues with men diagnosed with testicular cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2013-01-02

    PURPOSE: Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men\\'s concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses\\' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. METHODS: This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the \\'passive waiting stance\\' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning.

  20. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  1. The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Vikas, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project seeks to repurpose well-known and well-characterised non-cancer drugs for new uses in oncology. The rationale for this project is presented, examining current issues in oncological drug development, challenges for health systems, and existing and future patient needs. In addition to discussing the advantages of repurposing, the paper also outlines some of the characteristics used in the selection of drug candidates by this project. Challenges i...

  2. Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae: A new British allopolyploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vallejo-Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae, which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92 that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800’s. M. peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between M. guttatus and M. luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. M. peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of M. peregrinus between M. guttatus (2n = 2x = 28 and M. luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62, and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45 hybrid taxon M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus, suggests that M. peregrinus may constitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.

  3. Challenging issues in pediatric oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Gajjar, Amar J.; Kane, Javier R.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim A.; Pappo, Alberto S.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in protocol-driven clinical trials and supportive care for children and adolescents with cancer have reduced mortality rates by more than 50% over the past three decades. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for pediatric cancer patients has increased to approximately 80%. Recognition of the biological heterogeneity within specific subtypes of cancer, the discovery of genetic lesions that drive malignant transformation and cancer progression, and improved understanding of the basis of drug resistance will undoubtedly catalyze further advances in risk-directed treatments and the development of targeted therapies, boosting the cure rates further. Emerging new treatments include novel formulations of existing chemotherapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies against cancer-associated antigens, and molecular therapies that target genetic lesions and their associated signaling pathways. Recent findings that link pharmacogenomic variations with drug exposure, adverse effects, and efficacy should accelerate efforts to develop personalized therapy for individual patients. Finally, palliative care should be included as an essential part of cancer management to prevent and relieve the suffering and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. PMID:21709698

  4. Psychosocial oncology in China——Challenges and opportunities%心理社会肿瘤学在中国的发展现状——机会与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tang; Janet de Groot; Barry D. Bultz

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In China over the past decade, psychosocial oncology has emerged as a new program. Development of this program requires attention to current opportunities, obstacles and cultural concerns. Methods: A selected literature review of academic papers in Chinese and English language journals and web sites was analyzed for themes regarding the current status, challenges, and opportunities for psychosocial oncology in China. Results: China's national cancer strategy (2004-2010), based on WHO guidelines, is focused on cancer prevention and treatment, as well as quality of life among cancer patients and their families. The Chinese Anti-Cancer Association is now funding research, training and international collaboration in psychosocial oncology. The newly organized Chinese Psychosocial Oncology Society, founded in 2006, aims to provide a national forum for psychosocial oncology research. Cultural and systemic challenges to establishing psychosocial oncology as a core discipline in China include: (1) the family's desire to 'protect' cancer patients by with-holding cancer-related information; (2) stigma and privacy regarding mental health issues; (3) biomedical practitioners' claims that psychosocial on cology is not sufficiently evidence-based; and (4) limited funding for psychosocial oncology care and research. Conclusion:The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) is considered a valuable resource towards China's interest in partnering with the international psychosocial oncology community to enhance the discipline globally.

  5. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B;

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  6. The economic evaluation of personalised oncology medicines: ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jan R R; Lipworth, Wendy L; Kerridge, Ian H; Day, Richard O

    2013-10-01

    Insights into the molecular drivers of cancer are providing opportunities for the development of new targeted treatments and more personalised approaches to cancer management. Drugs targeting mutant epidermal growth factor receptors, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, may provide more effective, safer and better tolerated treatment options compared with chemotherapy among appropriately selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). First-line access to these newer treatments remains unfunded after several considerations by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee and their assessment that these are not cost-effective treatments. We suggest that there may be evidentiary and ethical challenges associated with the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of personalised oncology medicines in Australia, and that a new approach is needed to determine the value and cost-effectiveness of personalised medicine.

  7. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  8. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies

  9. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.N. [Harvard Medical School (United States). Joint Center for Radiation Therapy

    1999-07-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies.

  10. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  11. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  12. The parliamentary representation of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...

  13. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  14. The Differences between British and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进

    2012-01-01

    English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.

  15. Care credits in the British pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...

  16. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  17. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  18. Creating a unique, multi-stakeholder Paediatric Oncology Platform to improve drug development for children and adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be

  19. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  20. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  1. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  2. Cancer patient-centered home care: a new model for health care in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Tralongo P; Ferraù F; Borsellino N; Verderame F; Caruso M.; Giuffrida D; Butera A; Gebbia V

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Tralongo1, Francesco Ferraù2, Nicolò Borsellino3, Francesco Verderame4, Michele Caruso5, Dario Giuffrida6, Alfredo Butera7, Vittorio Gebbia81Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale, Siracusa; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale San Vincenzo, Taormina; 3Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Buccheri La Ferla, Palermo; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Giovanni Paolo II, Sciacca; 5Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Humanitas, Catania; 6Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto...

  3. [Haemostatic aspects in clinical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, F; Holstein, K; Eifrig, B; Bokemeyer, C

    2008-12-01

    The clinical link between cancer and thrombosis has been recognized by Armand Trousseau in 1865. It has now become clear that clotting activation in malignancy not only plays an important role in the evolution of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or systemic coagulation disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, but that multiple components of the haemostatic and fibrinolytic systems are directly involved in tumour progression. In particular, tissue factor (TF) appears to be involved in several pathways relevant to cancer growth and metastasis. Increasing evidence emerges that haemostatic perturbances in cancer patients are, at least in part, controlled by defined genetic events in molecular tumourigenesis including activating and inactivating mutations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, respectively. Long-term therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is considered as standard treatment for cancer-associated VTE. However, several experimental studies and clinical trials suggest that LMWH may also be beneficial as an adjunct in the treatment of patients with malignant disease. This article provides an overview on the significance, pathogenesis and treatment of cancer-related clotting disorders as well as on the cellular and molecular mechanisms, by which haemostatic components such as TF, platelets and fibrin(ogen) drive tumour progression. PMID:19132177

  4. [Treatment of pain in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conno, F; Polastri, D

    1997-01-01

    Basic guidelines for cancer pain treatment can be found in many different handbooks published in the last years. Particularly those of the World Health Organisation published in 1986 and revised in 1996, furnish useful indication for cancer pain treatment. The authors therefore focused on resuming the most recent development in this field. In the research regarding alternative routes of administration of opioids in alternative to the oral route, the rectal administration of morphine and methadone and the transdermal route for fentanyl have proved to be efficacious. The subcutaneous route (for morphine) as well as the intravenous, peridural and subaracnoid routes, being known for some time are not taken in consideration in this paper. Various studies suggest that alternative routes are necessary in 53-70% of patients in their last days or months of live. The most frequent causes for the need to stop oral administration are dysphagia, nausea, and uncontrollable vomiting, bowel obstruction, malabsorption, cognitive failure, coma, and pain syndromes requiring anaesthetics which need be administered via the spinal route. Among the drugs, tramadol seems to be effective in the control of moderate pain. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic drug; it has an agonist effect on mu 1 receptors of opioids and acts also by inhibiting the re-uptake of noradrenaline and serotonine which activates descending monoaminergic inhibitory pathways. Recent clinical studies revealed that pamidronate has an analgesic effect in pain due to bone metastasis. Pamidronate is part of the biphosphonates, which are active on bone metabolism and are usually being used for the treatment of hypercalcaemia in cancer. The authors also describe briefly the indication of ketamin in association with morphine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  5. Part of the British Mainstream? British Muslim Students and Islamic Student Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miri

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, fear of "the other" has focused particularly on "home grown" second-generation Muslims. In the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 bombings in London, there was particular horror and incredulity expressed about the fact that many of the bombers had been born and raised in Britain, and universities have been increasingly regarded by…

  6. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  7. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations. PMID:20335321

  8. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici). PMID:25282347

  9. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  10. [Multidrug resistance (MDR) in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvirón Rodríguez, A; Ruiz Gómez, M J; Morales Moreno, J A; Martínez Morillo, M

    1997-03-01

    Multidrug resistance or mdr is a frequent phenomenon for which tumor cells can develop, in only one step, cross-resistance to a different anticancer drugs such as antibiotics, vinca alkaloids and podophylotoxins. This is due to an extrusion of drugs out of the cells, since it is interrelated with the decrease of the intracellular concentration of the drug, compared to sensitive cells. This phenomeno of multidrug resistance (mdr) is considered one of the principal causes of failure in quimiotherapic treatment of cancer, and is associated in many cases to an hyperexpression of mdr-I gene, that codifies for a high molecular weight glycoprotein (p-170) (170-180 Kdaltons), also called p-glycoprotein (pgp). Locadet it in the cellular membrane extracts, like a pump, the quimiotherapic drugs with consumption of ATP. In humans, there are two principal genes that codify for pgp: mdr-I and mdr2/3; being the most important the mdr-I gene. The structure of p-glycoprotein consists in two symmetrical halves anchored in the cellular membrane that includes three extracellular dominances each one, and on intracellular portion with the ATP binding site. Also, has got an for extracellular carbohydrates chain. It is specially important to find drugs that reverse the multidrug resistance. Chemicals such as verapamil, nifedine, quinidine and calmodulin inhibitors are joined to pgp inhibiting it. A Cyclosporine and its non-immunosuppressors derivateds such as SDZ 280-125 and SDZ PSC 833 reverse mdr. At present it is being advancing in clinical trials, but the results are not satisfactory. Most useful chemicals are verapamil, better R-verapamil and A-cyclosporine or its non-immunosuppressors derivates. Futures possibilities are grateful. From diagnostic point of view the mains are: 1. Detection of mdr-I gene. 2. Recognition of the presence of mRNA for pgp. 3. Detection of pgp by flow cytometry or western blot. 4. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to pgp. 5. Rhodamine 123 to

  11. Employee Voice and Human Resource Management: An Empirical Analysis using British Data

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Paul Willman; Rafael Gomez; Tobias Kretschmer

    2007-01-01

    Using British workplace data we examine the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and different forms of employee voice. After controlling for observable establishment characteristics, we find voice and HRM are positively correlated, but this positive association is confined to certain voice regimes. Previous research has found no association between HRM and union voice. However, distinguishing between union-only voice regimes and dual channel (i.e. union and nonunion) voice re...

  12. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a british birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverwood, RJ; Richards, M; Pierce, M; Hardy, R; Sattar, N.; Ferro, C.; Savage, C.; Kuh, D; Nitsch, D.; NSHD scientific and data collection teams

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods: Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction tim...

  13. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety. PMID:11725612

  14. Clinical Oncology-A New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Dan Su; Herbert Yu

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth in biomedical research coupled with dramatic advancement in biotechnology has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular basis involving cancer development and progression.This improvement has led to the discovery of new molecular markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as new molecular targets for cancer treatment and intervention.Continuous emergence of some new developing area in molecular profiling,new therapeutic agents,tissue microenvironment and systems biology have made significant progress in clinical oncology.Clinical research and investigation that focus on these new developments have begun to show exciting results that indicate future promises in improving patient management and survival.

  15. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  16. INTEGRATIVE ONCOLOGY, A PRACTICE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Pamela; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2013-01-01

    O termo Oncologia Integrativa (OI) foi criado a partir da medicina integrativa, que se diferencia das medicinas alternativa e complementarpor buscar resultados baseados em evidências e considerar o paciente em sua totalidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no bancode dados PubMed-MEDLINE usando a expressão Integrative Oncology.Foram encontrados 74 estudos dos quais 26 foram incluídos e 48 excluídos pelos critérios de inclu...

  17. Internet utilization by radiation oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies describing the use of the Internet by radiation oncology patients are lacking. This multi-institutional study of cancer patients presenting to academic (AC), community (CO) and veterans (VA) radiation oncology centers was designed to analyze the use of the Internet, predictive factors for utilization, and barriers to access to the Internet. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire evaluating the use of the Internet was administered to 921 consecutive patients presenting to radiation oncology departments at AC, CO and VA Medical Centers. The study included 436 AC patients (47%), 284 CO patients (31%), and 201 VA patients (22%). A computer was available at home to 427 patients (46%) and 337 patients (37%) had Email access. The mean age of the patient population was 64 years (range=14-93). Males represented 70% of the patient population. The most common diagnoses included prostate cancer (33%), breast cancer (13%), and lung cancer (11%). Results: Overall, 265/921 patients (29%) were using the Internet to find cancer related information. The Internet was used by 42% of AC patients, 25% of CO patients and only 5% of VA patients (p<.0001). A computer was available at home in 62% AC vs. 45% CO vs. 12% VA patients (p<.0001). Patients < 60 years were much more likely to use the Internet than older patients (p<.0001). Most of the Internet users considered the information either very reliable (22%) or somewhat reliable (70%). Most patients were looking for information regarding treatment of their cancer (90%), management of side effects of treatment (74%), alternative/complementary treatments (65%) and clinical trials (51%). Unconventional medical therapies were purchased over the Internet by 12% of computer users. Products or services for the treatment or management of cancer were purchased online by 12% of Internet users. Conclusion: A significant number of cancer patients seen in radiation oncology departments at academic and community medical centers

  18. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  19. Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Orthopedic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Olga D; Bolia, Ioanna K; Chloros, George D; Goumenos, Stavros D; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Galanis, Evanthia C; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-09-01

    Nanomedicine is based on the fact that biological molecules behave similarly to nanomolecules, which have a size of less than 100 nm, and is now affecting most areas of orthopedics. In orthopedic oncology, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies have used osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma cell lineages. In this article, tumor imaging and treatment nanotechnology applications, including nanostructure delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, gene therapy, and the role of nano-selenium-coated implants, are outlined. Finally, the potential role of nanotechnology in addressing the challenges of drug and radiotherapy resistance is discussed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):280-286.]. PMID:27636683

  20. Immunologic and Oncologic Implications of Laparoscopic Surgery: What Is the Latest?

    OpenAIRE

    Sang W. Lee; Whelan, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has been associated with many short-term benefits such as a shorter time to recovery, return of bowel function, less pain, and a decrease in wound infection rate. Several animal and human experiments have demonstrated an immunologic and oncologic benefit of minimally invasive surgery. Whether these results will translate into similar results in human settings is unclear. Although the first published prospective randomized clinical trial suggests better long-term outcomes ...

  1. Oncology monoclonal antibodies expenditure trends and reimbursement projections in the emerging Balkan market

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies applied in clinical oncology present a therapeutic promise for many patients with cancer. Nevertheless these expensive protocols are associated with extremely high acquisition and administration costs. The issue of societal affordability of such treatment options is particularly at stake among middle income European economies. Medicines Agency of Serbia issues regular annual reports on public expenditure on pharmaceuticals since 2004. According to these official data tot...

  2. Coping style and performance status in a group of oncological inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Chau Pérez-Aranibar; Hugo Morales Córdova; Micaela Wetzell Espinoza

    2002-01-01

    The associations between coping styles, measured by COPE Test, dispositional version (Carver,Scheier and Weintraub, 1989), and Health Status inferred through a performance status, measured by Karnofsky's Index of Behavioral Performance are examined. The study focuses upon 28 oncological in patients. Positive moderate Pearson's correlations were found between these two variables in this correlational-descriptive study. These were interpreted in the following sense: the larger use of the style,...

  3. Tools for Improving the Characterization and Visualization of Changes in Neuro-Oncology Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, William; Taira, Ricky K.

    2010-01-01

    Capturing how a patient’s medical problems change over time is important for understanding the progression of a disease, its effects, and response to treatment. We describe two prototype tools that are being developed as part of a data processing pipeline for standardizing, structuring, and visualizing problems and findings documented in clinical reports associated with neuro-oncology patients. Given a list of problems and findings identified using a natural language processing (NLP) system, ...

  4. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  5. Final report from the Spanish Society of Radiotherapy and Oncology Infrastructures Commission about department standards recommendable in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of the Royal Decree 1566/1988 of July 17th, about Quality Assurance and Control in Radiation Therapy, mandates the elaboration of protocols in Radiation Therapy. Those protocols must contemplate the material and human resources necessary to implement a quality practical radiation therapy according to law. In order to establish norms regarding human and material resources, it is necessary to establish beforehand some patient care standards that serve as a frame of reference to determine the resources needed for each procedure. Furthermore, the necessary coordination of resources, material and humans that have to be present in a correct patient care planning, mandates the publication of rules that are easy to interpret and follow up. In this direction, both editions of the 'White Book of Oncology in Spain', the 'GAT Document for Radiotherapy', and the rules edited by the Committee of Experts in Radiation Therapy of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Catalunya and Balears, have represented an important advance in the establishment of these criteria in Spain. The Spanish Society of Radiation Therapy and Oncology (AERO), in an attempt to facilitate to all its associates and the health authorities some criteria for planning and implementing resources, requested its Commission of Infrastructures to elaborate a set of rules to determine the necessary resources in each radiation therapy procedure. The objective of this document is to establish some recommendations about the minimal necessities of treatment units and staff, determining their respective work capabilities, to be able to develop a quality radiation therapy in departments already existing. In summary, it is intended that the patient care is limited in a way that quality is not affected by patient overload. Also it tries to offer the Public Administration some planning criteria useful to create the necessary services of Radiation Oncology, with the adequate resources, which will bring a

  6. Approaching airways in oncology surgery of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 'Maria Curie' Oncology Teaching Provincial Hospital during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. The sample included 210 patients studied with the purpose of identifying morbimortality of the difficult airway in Oncology Surgery of the head and neck in our institution

  7. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  8. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th

  9. The Evidence Behind Integrating Palliative Care Into Oncology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Palliative care services provided alongside traditional oncology care have been shown to be beneficial to patients and families. This article provides a brief history of palliative care, a pathway to implementing these services into currently established oncology programs, and a brief discussion of common barriers.

  10. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined. PMID:25637457

  11. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.

  12. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  13. Oncologic safety of conservative mastectomy in the therapeutic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John R; Dumitru, Dorin; Malata, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Conservative mastectomy is a form of nipple-sparing mastectomy which is emerging as a surgical option for selected breast cancer patients. This technique differs from subcutaneous mastectomy which is well established as a technique for risk reduction but leaves behind a finite remnant of retro-areolar breast tissue. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of breast conservation therapy for smaller localised breast tumors whereby a variable amount of surrounding normal tissue is excised with administration of breast radiotherapy post-operatively. Conservative mastectomy aims to remove all breast tissue with dissection continued into the core of the nipple. However, the indication for conservative mastectomy remains to be defined but generally includes tumors of modest size located at least 2 cm away from the nipple. Patients undergoing conservative mastectomy do not necessarily receive adjuvant radiotherapy and this may only be intra-operative irradiation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Preservation of the NAC as part of a skin-sparing mastectomy in patients who might otherwise require standard mastectomy is of unproven safety from an oncologic perspective but is associated with enhanced cosmetic outcomes and quality-of-life. The advent of conservative mastectomy has coincided with a trend for "maximal surgery" with bilateral extirpation of all breast tissue in conjunction with immediate breast reconstruction. It is essential there is no compromise of local recurrence and survival in terms of ipsilateral breast cancer treatment. Further studies are required to clarify the indications for conservative mastectomy and confirm oncologic equivalence to either wide local excision and breast irradiation or conventional/skin-sparing mastectomy with sacrifice of the nipple areola complex. PMID:26855907

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  16. Hodgkin's disease in childhood: the British National Lymphoma Investigation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation in the treatment of 68 children with Hodgkin's disease is reported over a 14 year period from 1970. The presenting histology was reviewed by a single histopathologist; 87% of the cases were classified as nodular sclerosis (NS) and further subdivided into NSI (53%) and NSII (35%). Primary treatment consisted of local (involved field) or prophylactic (extended field) irradiation, combination chemotherapy alone or low dose irradiation and chemotherapy. An overall 5 year survival of 87% was achieved and a 5 year relapse-free survival of 64%. Eight deaths were reported during the study, all of which occurred in children who presented with NSII histology. Each child was in relapse and undergoing chemotherapy at the time of death. This histological subtype was also associated with both a lower complete remission rate and a reduced response to second line chemotherapy. (author)

  17. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  18. Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  19. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoghegan, L; Muirhead, C R; Almoosawi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in the national diet and nutrition survey (NDNS) rolling programme years 1-4. A total of 1531 survey members provided dietary data. Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma carotenoids were selected as response variables and markers of inflammation and antioxidant status, respectively. Overall, 52 survey members had diabetes. The derived anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was inversely related to CRP and positively to carotenoids. It was associated with lower odds of diabetes (multivariate adjusted OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.73; p for linear trend = 0.013). In conclusion, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern is inversely related to diabetes. Further research is required to understand the overall framework within which foods and nutrients interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk.

  20. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  1. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  2. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  3. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  4. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors. Methods: We made a retrospective and descriptive study in 20 patients operated on malign nasal tumors with immediate repair using frontal flap. Patients came from National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (NIOR), where they were seen from 2002 and 2007. Results: There were two relapses in 5 patients (25% of total), and the 80% of these were an epidermoid carcinoma. All patients with relapse lost the repaired tissues and received radiotherapy. Only it was possible to repair the defect in one of the patients; two of remained deceased, and were alive, without tumor relapse but without possibilities of repair. Conclusions: Considering the relapse frequency of nasal epidermoid carcinomas and of its repercussions when the Mhos histography technique is not available, it is advisable to delay the nasal repair until will be possible to confirm completely the histology of tumor exeresis. (author)

  5. Radiation Oncology and Medical Devices (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning J. Yue; Ting Chen; Wei Zou

    2014-01-01

    Radiation oncology is one of the three major treatment modalities to manage cancer patient cares, and is a discipline mainly driven by technology and medical devices. Modern radiation treatments have become fairly complex and involve in utilizing a variety of medical devices to achieve the goal of providing conformal radiation dose coverage to the tumor target(s) while maximizing the sparing of normal organ structures. Recently, different forms of linear accelerators/radioactive source based machines have been invented and developed with the aim of providing improved treatments and more treatment options. Besides linear accelerators (Linac) that have been undergoing constant improvement and advancement and can deliver fairly complicated dose distribution patterns, imaging systems, computer information and calculation systems have been more and more integrated into radiotherapy processes. To bring radiotherapy to a potentially higher level, many institutions have either acquired or started to consider particle therapy, especially proton therapy. The complexity of modern radiotherapy demands in-depth understanding of radiation physics and machine engineering as well as computer information systems. This paper is intended to provide an introductory description of radiation oncology and related procedures, and to provide an overview of the current status of medical devices in radiotherapy in the United States of America. This paper covers the radiation delivery systems, imaging systems, treatment planning systems, record and verify systems, and QA systems.

  6. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Lucy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were measured for COHb and information on social, household and individual factors assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were based on 3603 men measured in or close to ( Results The COHb distribution was positively skewed. Geometric mean COHb level was 0.46% and the median 0.50%; 9.2% of men had a COHb level of 2.5% or more and 0.1% of subjects had a level of 7.5% or more. Factors which were independently related to mean COHb level included season (highest in autumn and winter, region (highest in Northern England, gas cooking (slight increase and central heating (slight decrease and active smoking, the strongest determinant. Mean COHb levels were more than ten times greater in men smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day (3.29% compared with non-smokers (0.32%; almost all subjects with COHb levels of 2.5% and above were smokers (93%. Pipe and cigar smoking was associated with more modest increases in COHb level. Passive cigarette smoking exposure had no independent association with COHb after adjustment for other factors. Active smoking accounted for 41% of variance in COHb level and all factors together for 47%. Conclusion An appreciable proportion of men have COHb levels of 2.5% or more at which symptomatic effects may occur, though very high levels are uncommon. The results confirm that smoking (particularly cigarette smoking is the dominant influence on COHb levels.

  7. Review of orthognathic surgery and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Colbert, Serryth; Brennan, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    This review summarises all orthognathic and related papers published between January 2011 and December 2012 in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). A total of 36 articles were published, a high proportion of which (78%) were full-length papers. The remainder consisted of short communications and technical notes. The topics included operative planning and postoperative outcomes, and there was a strong focus on distraction osteogenesis. There were fewer orthognathic articles published in BJOMS than articles on other subspecialties such as trauma or head and neck oncology. Only 8 (29%) of the full-length articles were prospective studies or randomised trials, which highlights a need for well-designed clinical studies in orthognathic research.

  8. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute’s Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and the Risk for Febrile Neutropenia and Infection in Pediatric Oncology Patients With Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.J. Frakking; J. Israëls; L.C.M. Kremer; T.W. Kuijpers; H.N. Caron; M.D. van de Wetering

    2011-01-01

    Background. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) and/or infection in pediatric oncology patients. Procedure. We systematically searched and reviewed all the literature on MBL and infections in children with can

  10. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130

  11. Making sense of British newspaper campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...

  12. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  13. A history of British Assemblies of God

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, William K.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...

  14. The seroprevalence of Kaposi′s sarcoma associated herpes virus and human herpes virus-6 in pediatric patients with cancer and healthy children in a Turkish pediatric oncology center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Tacyildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have tried to be establish a pathogenic role for human herpesvirus-6 and -8 (HHV-6, HHV-8 in malignant diseases, but whether these viruses plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear. HHV-6 and HHV-8 seropositivity were shown in a healthy population. There is no published data in Turkey about seroprevalence of these viruses. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HHV-6 and HHV-8 in pediatric cancer patients and to compare with healthy Turkish children′s viral seroprevalence. Patients and Methods: Ninety-three pediatric cancer patients and 43 age-matched healthy children were included in the study. All sera were screened for antibodies to HHV-6 and HHV-8 by ELISA. Results: HHV-8 immunoglobulin G (IgG was positive in 3.3% of lymphoma patients, in 4.8% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients, in 4.8% of retinoblastoma patients and in 7% of healthy children. There was no significant difference in HHV-8 seroprevelance between these groups. HHV-6 seroprevalence was 81% in ALL patients, 70% in lymphoma group, 81% in retinoblastoma patients and 69.8% in healthy children. Although there was no significant difference in HHV-6 prevalence between healthy children and pediatric cancer patients, HHV-6 seropositivity tended to be higher in retinoblastoma patients under age of 4 years (odds ratio: 2.925. Conclusion: HHV-6 seroprevalence was higher than HHV-8 seropositivity in our study. Viral studies related HHV-6 seroprevelance in retinoblastoma patients would be useful to clarify if there is any etiological association between HHV-6 and retinoblastoma.

  15. Quality of life in oncology with emphasis upon neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Ali K

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life, as a science has been steadily gaining importance in both clinical practice as well as research. Despite major progress in the development of validated and clinically-relevant health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, we still face many challenges in bridging the gap between what we know and how to apply it in clinical practice: in making the transfer from the mere collection of QOL data to its utilization in improving patient outcome through interventional symptomatic therapy. This manuscript traces the development of QOL as a science to its potential utility in both clinical care and clinical research, as well as an outcomes measure. The emphasis has been placed upon quality of life in oncology with special attention to neuro-oncology. PMID:17127306

  16. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  18. Image storage in radiation oncology: What did we learn from diagnostic radiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Kurt; Luick, Marc; Colonias, Athanasios; Gayou, Olivier; Karlovits, Stephen; Werts, E. Day

    2009-02-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) for medical image archiving and retrieval. An extension to this implemented a standard named DICOM-RT for use in Radiation Oncology. There are currently seven radiotherapy-specific DICOM objects which include: RT Structure Set, RT Plan, RT Dose, RT Image, RT Beams Treatment Record, RT Brachy Treatment Record, and RT Treatment Summary Record. The type of data associated with DICOM-RT includes (1) Radiation treatment planning datasets (CT, MRI, PET) with radiation treatment plans showing beam arrangements, isodose distributions, and dose volume histograms of targets/normal tissues and (2) Image-guided radiation modalities such as Siemens MVision mega-voltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT). With the advent of such advancing technologies, there has been an exponential increase in image data collected for each patient, and the need for reliable and accessible image storage has become critical. A potential solution is a Radiation Oncology specific picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) that would allow data storage from multiple vendor devices and support the storage and retrieval needs not only of a single site but of a large, multi-facility network of radiation oncology clinics. This PACS system must be reliable, expandable, and cost-effective to operate while protecting sensitive patient image information in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant environment. This paper emphasizes the expanding DICOM-RT storage requirements across our network of 8 radiation oncology clinics and the initiatives we undertook to address the increased volume of data by using the ImageGrid (CANDELiS Inc, Irvine CA) server and the IGViewer license (CANDELiS Inc, Irvine CA) to create a DICOM-RT compatible PACS system.

  19. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  20. Future of clinical genomics in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeway, Katherine A; Place, Andrew E; Kieran, Mark W; Harris, Marian H

    2013-05-20

    The somatic genomic alterations in pediatric cancers to some extent overlap with those seen in adult cancers, but the exact distribution throughout the genome and the types and frequency of alterations differ. The ultimate goal of genomic research in children, as with adults, is translation to the clinic to achieve more accurate diagnosis, more precise risk stratification, and more effective, less toxic therapy. The genomic features of pediatric malignancies and pediatric-specific issues in clinical investigation may make translating genomic discoveries to the clinic more difficult. However, through large-scale molecular profiling of pediatric tumors, continued coordinated efforts to evaluate novel therapies in the pediatric population, thoughtful phase II and III trial design, and continued drug development, genomically based therapies will become more common in the pediatric oncology clinic in the future.

  1. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gcc

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country.

  2. Publish, not perish: Introducing Experimental Hematology & Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zihai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a scientific discipline, medicine can only be advanced by experimentation. Experimentation could either validate or refute a hypothesis. Unfortunately, today's publication climate strongly favors publication of positive research findings, especially with clinical trials. Experimental Hematology & Oncology (eHO is a new open access online journal that emphasizes preclinical, patient-oriented and translational aspects of research. The journal differentiates from others in the field by making a deliberate effort in publishing clinical trials with "negative" results and basic science studies with provocative findings. The focus of the peer-review mechanism for eHO will be on the technical merit of the study and not on demanding a long list of additional experiments that hinders rapid information dissemination.

  3. ESTRO educational activities in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Enormous progress has been made in the field of radiotherapy over the last years. Clinical science is changing rapidly from a 'school-centred' to an evidence based approach. Numerous scientific advances in medical physics and translational research made it possible to implement new technologies for treatment planning into clinical practice Unprecedented developments in the field of biology and biotechnology are dramatically changing our understanding of malignant disease. This will likely change major aspects of our approach to cancer treatment in the next years. Clinical research and evidence based approaches have increased significantly in radiation oncology. It is one of the most important challenges for the future to integrate these novel developments into optimized comprehensive radiotherapy strategies. State of the art basic education and training of professionals and continuous professional education are crucial for delivery of optimal quality care to cancer patients as well as for continuous scientific and technological progress in radiation oncology. Throughout its history during more than 20 years the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) has seen it as a most important task to provide high quality teaching activities to its members. In 1985 ESTRO organized its first course (Physics for Clinical Radiotherapy). Over the years, the society developed more courses and in 2005 the 'European School of Radiotherapy' was created, offering a variety of modular basic courses, advanced teaching courses and multidisciplinary courses, including other cancer treatments such as surgery and medical oncology. In 2007 ESTRO will organize 15 different courses, of which a number will be duplicated in Central Europe and outside Europe. This gradual expansion has been a step by step process driven by the developments in the field and the needs of the members of the society, mainly by activities of individuals and groups within the bodies of

  4. Progress of radiation oncology: known and unknown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Yu Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate known and unknown aspects of radiation oncology.Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline in English from 1999 to 2013,with keywords "individualized medicine","personalized medicine","radiation dose","radiation target","molecular targeted therapy","molecular imaging" and "~nctional imaging".Study selection Articles regarding radiation target delineation,radiation doses,new technology and equipment,combination of radiotherapy and molecular targeted therapy as well as other aspects were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results A larger radiation field and a higher radiation dose are not always better.New equipment and technology are also not always better than conventional equipment and technologies.Effectiveness of radiotherapy combined with molecular targeted therapy needs more data to verify.Conclusion Personalized radiotherapy is the direction for the future.

  5. The oncologic and the geriatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncologic and the geriatric patient have special needs in the nuclear medicine department. The nuclear medicine technologists must be knowledgeable and compassionate when dealing with these patients. The diagnosis of cancer will have a sociological and psychological impact on the patient, to which the technologist must relate in an empathetic way. Furthermore, the technologist should take cognisance of the patient's physical condition and be able to modify the examination accordingly. Dealing with the geriatric patient should be correctly placed on the continuum between a gerontological and geriatric approach taking into consideration normal changes due to aging. The patient experience when undergoing the high technology nuclear medicine diagnostic procedure is unique and all effort must be made to ensure the success of the examination and the satisfaction of the patient (Au)

  6. Complications of radiotherapy in oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons, mechanisms of development and features of clinical course of radiation response (injuries) in different organs and systems in patients with lung, uterus neck, mammary and thyroid gland cancer are described. Their clinical classification is presented. Dependences of frequency, severity and time of occurrence of radiation reactions (injuries) on the absorbed radiation dose value, time-dose-fractioning factor, localization and size of the neoplasm and on other parameters are demonstrated. Results of complex examination of oncologic patients with radiation reactions and injuries are presented. Principles of prophylactic medical examination of patients subjected to radiotherapy are described. Recommendation on the optimization of radiotherapy methods and prophylaxis of its complications are given. 56 refs.; 22 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Positron emission tomography and radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, PhD, Gary D.; Fox, MD, Peter; Phillips, MD, William T.

    2001-10-01

    Medical physics research is providing new avenues for addressing the fundamental problem of radiation therapy-how to provide a tumor-killing dose while reducing the dose to a non-lethal level for critical organs in adjacent portions of the patient anatomy. This talk reviews the revolutionary impact of Positron Emission Tomography on the practice of radiation oncology. The concepts of PET imaging and the development of "tumor" imaging methods using 18F-DG flouro-deoxyglucose are presented to provide the foundation for contemporary research and application to therapy. PET imaging influences radiation therapy decisions in multiple ways. Imaging of occult but viable tumor metastases eliminates misguided therapy attempts. The ability to distinguish viable tumor from scar tissue and necroses allows reduction of treatment portals and more selective treatments. Much research remains before the clinical benefits of these advances are fully realized.

  8. Not only PET for oncological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Our data with oncological patients evaluated through planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) gamma cameras over a period of more than 20 years, confirms the value of this technique, although PET is superior in sensitivity. The greater availability of radiotracers labeled with In-111 and Tc-99m has helped in identifying malignant tissue more accurately. In Latin America availability of PET is restricted to one or two Nuclear Medicine Departments in few countries of the Region. Our aim was to reaffirm the value of planar and SPECT imaging in early diagnosis, in the oncological follow-up and determining response to treatment. Bone scan, a well established imaging modality for search of metastatic pathologies (breast, prostate, lung and kidney) forms more than 56% of the studies requested monthly in our Nuclear Medicine Departments. When solitary peripheral lesions are detected in ribs and long bones the orthopedic surgeon sometimes requires external skin marking for biopsy procedure (1-2%). Twenty-six percent of consultations are thyroid cancer, where different therapeutic doses of I-131 are administered. Gallium-67 scanning constitutes 8-10% of our workload. About 10 mCi (370 MBq) of radioactivity is administered, mainly for stratification and monitoring response of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Sentinel node detection (5-6% of patients) with different colloid preparations and hand-held probes is used in breast, melanoma, neck and head cancers. In our center we have achieved an accuracy rate of 92-94% in detecting Sentinel Lymph Nodes after three years of practice. The demand for scintimammography (in dense breasts and breast implants) for palpable masses, through planar scans is increasing. In-111 labeled somatostatin an analogue imaging for detection of neuro-endocrine tumors was seldom requested in our country because of their high cost, until the labeling methods were developed locally and transferred to private commercial

  9. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  10. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  11. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  12. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J

    2001-03-01

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  13. Persecutory ideation and insomnia: Findings from the second British National Survey Of Psychiatric Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, D; Brugha, T.; Meltzer, H.; Jenkins, R; D. Stahl; Bebbington, P.

    2010-01-01

    It is clinically and theoretically plausible that insomnia contributes to the development and maintenance of paranoid fears The primary aim of the study was to establish in a large sample whether insomnia and paranoia are associated more strongly than by chance Cross-sectional data on paranoia insomnia anxiety worry depression irritability and cannabis use were obtained from the second British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity a general population survey of adults aged 16-74 years livi...

  14. Relationships between trout stocking and amphibians in British Columbia's Southern Interior lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirner, Joanna Lynne McGarvie

    2006-01-01

    Stocking lakes with non-native trout to encourage recreational fishing causes changes in lake ecosystems that can negatively affect biodiversity. I examined associations between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and amphibians in small lakes of British Columbia’s Southern Interior by comparing abundance, growth, and probability of presence of aquatic breeding amphibians between lakes with and without trout. My evidence suggests that abundance of long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum...

  15. Childhood cognitive ability and adult mental health in the British 1946 birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, Stephani L; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael E.J.; Richards, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether childhood cognitive ability was associated with two mental health outcomes at age 53 years: the 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a measure of internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the CAGE screen for potential alcohol abuse as an externalising disorder. A total of 1875 participants were included from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. The results indicated that...

  16. Treatment trends in allergic rhinitis and asthma: a British ENT survey

    OpenAIRE

    Theochari Eva G; Natt Davinia K; Karkos Petros D; Natt Ravinder S; Karkanevatos Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic Rhinitis is a common Ear, Nose and Throat disorder. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis are diseases with similar underlying mechanism and pathogenesis. The aim of this survey was to highlight current treatment trends for Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma. Method A questionnaire was emailed to all registered consultant members of the British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists - Head and Neck Surgeons regarding the management of patients with Allergic Rhinitis and related d...

  17. Cannabis in British Columbia: How Can We Take the High Road?

    OpenAIRE

    Bockner, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how to reduce the harms and enhance the benefits that are produced by cannabis legislation in British Columbia. Criminalization of recreational cannabis aims to decrease demand. However, prior research reveals that this approach has little effect on usage rates. Although there are hazards associated with cannabis use, studies suggest that alcohol and tobacco consumption are more dangerous, yet it is legal to possess those drugs. Furthermore, the status quo allows criminal ...

  18. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  19. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  20. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  1. Assessment of Ondansetron-Associated Hypokalemia in Pediatric Oncology Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Fiedrich; Vikram Sabhaney; Justin Lui; Maury Pinsk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Ondansetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3, serotonin) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic prophylaxis preceding chemotherapy administration. Hypokalemia is a rare complication of ondansetron, which may be underreported due to confounding emesis and chemotherapy-induced tubulopathy. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine if ondansetron caused significant hypokalemia independently as a result of renal potassium wasting. Methods. Twelve patients were recruited, wit...

  2. Assessment of Ondansetron-Associated Hypokalemia in Pediatric Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedrich, Elsa; Sabhaney, Vikram; Lui, Justin; Pinsk, Maury

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Ondansetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3, serotonin) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic prophylaxis preceding chemotherapy administration. Hypokalemia is a rare complication of ondansetron, which may be underreported due to confounding emesis and chemotherapy-induced tubulopathy. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine if ondansetron caused significant hypokalemia independently as a result of renal potassium wasting. Methods. Twelve patients were recruited, with ten completing the study. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after ondansetron administration in patients admitted for intravenous (IV) hydration and chemotherapy. Dietary histories and IV records were analyzed to calculate sodium and potassium balances. Results. We observed an expected drop in urine osmolality, an increase in urine sodium, but no statistically significant change in sodium or potassium balance before and after ondansetron. Conclusion. Ondansetron does not cause significant potassium wasting in appropriately hydrated and nutritionally replete patients. Careful monitoring of serum potassium is recommended in patients with chronic nutritional or volume status deficiencies receiving this medication. PMID:23050164

  3. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A

    2016-03-15

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007 to July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013 to May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (page had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. N. caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  4. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p dissatisfaction. Of 52.5% responding fellows, 22.2% were satisfied with WLB, but 83.3% would be physicians again and 80.3% would select gynecologic oncology again. Satisfaction with WLB was significantly associated with age (PR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91), working fewer than 80 h per week (PR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.34-14.10), and fatigue (PR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.75). Career and WLB satisfaction were not associated with gender, marital status, and whether or not the fellow is a parent. Those satisfied with WLB planned to work an average of 3.5 years longer than those who were not (p < 0.05). Gynecologic oncology fellows are not generally satisfied with their WLB, although this does not alter their overall career or specialty satisfaction. Satisfaction with WLB predicts a longer post-fellowship career. Further studies are needed to determine the workforce impact of this lack of perceived balance. PMID:27331129

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRITISH WAR CORRESPONDENTS IN THE FIELD AND BRITISH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DURING THE ANGLO-BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P McCrachen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists’ activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.

  6. Safety in Numbers: Progressive Implementation of a Robotics Program in an Academic Surgical Oncology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan C; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H; Celebrezze, James; Holtzman, Matthew P; Stang, Michael L; Tsung, Allan; Bartlett, David L; Hogg, Melissa E

    2016-08-01

    Background Robotic-assisted surgery has potential benefits over laparoscopy yet little has been published on the integration of this platform into complex surgical oncology. We describe the outcomes associated with integration of robotics into a large surgical oncology program, focusing on metrics of safety and efficiency. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of robotic procedures from July 2009 to October 2014 identifying trends in volume, operative time, complications, conversion to open, and 90-day mortality. Results Fourteen surgeons performed 1236 cases during the study period: thyroid (246), pancreas/duodenum (458), liver (157), stomach (56), colorectal (129), adrenal (38), cholecystectomy (102), and other (48). There were 38 conversions to open (3.1%), 230 complications (18.6%), and 13 mortalities (1.1%). From 2009 to 2014, operative volume increased (7 cases/month vs 24 cases/month; P robotic surgical oncology program utilizing multiple surgeons is safe and feasible. As operative volume increased, operative time, complications, and conversions to open decreased and plateaued at approximately 3 years. No unanticipated adverse events attributable to the introduction of this platform were observed. PMID:27130645

  7. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine.

  8. IV. South-Bohemian Oncology Days. Survey of lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncology Days dealt with carcinomas in the urology field, particularly carcinomas of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and prostate. From among the contributions presented, 5 lectures devoted to the radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma were input to INIS. (P.A.)

  9. Overview of Accountable Care Organizations for Oncology Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Anish J.; Macklis, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the economic factors leading to the growth of accountable care organizations and describe how oncology specialists may participate in the model to ensure success for physicians and patients.

  10. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  11. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2015-01-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents—molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs—provide opportunities both to improve healthcare access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns. PMID:25456378

  12. Radiation oncology physicists will need to better understand medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Allen; Hendee, William R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is affecting radiation oncology at a dramatically advancing pace and scale and is likely to create a transformation to individualized, biologically conformal radiation therapy. Deploying and improving imaging technologies and ensuring their correct uses in treatment planning and delivery are the responsibilities of radiation oncology physicists. The potential magnitude of errors arising from the incorrect use of imaging may be far greater than that resulting from typical errors in dose calibration. A major effort is required for radiation oncology physicists to raise the quality assurance of image guidance to a level comparable with that achieved in the maintenance of dosimetric performance. Most radiation oncology physicists lack adequate knowledge to assume this emerging responsibility. Their knowledge of imaging must be enhanced, in most cases through on-the-job training and self-learning. Effective learning strategies include routine interactions with diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine physicists and physicians and the use of educational opportunities provided by professional organizations and vendors. PMID:17412223

  13. Oncology Nursing and Shared Decision Making for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility.
. PMID:27668378

  14. NEURO-ONCOLOGIC PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR THE OLDER PERSON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Willie; Luhmann, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the course of diagnoses, patients with neuro-oncological malignancies present challenges to the physical therapist. At times, the presentation of impairments and disabilities of these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses do not necessarily coincide with the involved area of the brain or spinal cord. It is our intention to provide guidance to the physical therapist who will be working with these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses, in hopes that their encounters will be more productive and meaningful. This article describes a brief overview of common central nervous system malignancies, its medical treatment, as well as possible complications and side effects that would need to be considered in rehabilitating these patients. Special consideration is given to the elderly patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses. Pertinent physical therapy assessments and interventions are discussed.

  15. Nipple-sparing Mastectomy in Breast Cancer: From an Oncologic Safety Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Si Huang; Jiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the oncologic safety of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) for breast cancer patients based on current literature.Data Sources:A comprehensive literature search ofMedline,Embase databases was conducted for studies published through March 2014.Study Selection:Our search criteria included English-language studies that focused on NSM at nipple-areola complex (NAC) involvement,patient selection,and recurrence.Prophylaxis NSM,case series or reports that based on very small population were excluded.In the end,42 studies concerning NSM and oncological safety were included into the review.Results:NSM is a surgical procedure that allows the preservation of the skin and NAC in breast cancer patients or in patients with prophylactic mastectomy.However,the oncologic safety and patient selection criteria associated with NSM are still under debate.The incidence of NAC involvement of breast cancer in recent studies ranges from 9.5% to 24.6%,which can be decreased through careful patient selection.Tumour-nipple distance,tumour size,lymph node involvement and molecular characteristics can be evaluated preoperatively by clinical examinations,imaging studies and biopsies to predict the risk of NAC involvement.Currently,there is no available standard protocol for surgical approaches to NSM or pathological examination of NSM specimens.The local recurrence (ranges from 0% to 24%) of NSM is not significantly higher than that of traditional mastectomy in selected patients based on long-term follow-up.The role of radiotherapy in NSM is still controversial and is not universally accepted.Conclusions:NSM appears to be oncologically safe following careful patient selection and assessment of margins.

  16. Avaliação da S(+ cetamina por via oral associada à morfina no tratamento da dor oncológica Evaluación de la S(+ cetamina por vía oral asociada a la morfina en el tratamiento del dolor oncológico Assessment of oral S(+ ketamine associated with morphine for the treatment of oncologic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ishizuka

    2007-02-01

    ás potente y con menos efectos colaterales. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la acción de la S(+ cetamina asociada a la morfina en el tratamiento del dolor oncológico. MÉTODO: Fueron evaluados de forma doblemente encubierta, 30 pacientes divididos en de los grupos. Los del G1 recibieron 10 mg de morfina a cada 6 horas, asociada a 10 mg de S(+ cetamina a cada 8 horas, por vía oral. Los del G2 recibieron 10 mg de morfina a cada 6 horas, asociada al placebo a cada 8 horas, por vía oral. La dosis de morfina se aumentó en 5 mg, cuando necesario. La intensidad del dolor se midió a través de una escala verbal. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de dolor ausente y ligero fue semejante en los grupos (G1 = 0 y G2 = 0 en el M0; G1 = 22,2 y G2 = 53,8 en el M1; G1 = 22,2 y G2 = 61,5 en el M2; G1 = 44,6 y G2 = 61,5 en el M3; y G1 = 44,5 y G2 = 53,8 en el M4; teste del Qui-cuadrado. Se observó un porcentaje de alivio moderado y completo similar en los grupos (G1 = 33,4 y G2 = 53,9 después de una semana; G1 = 44,4 y G2 = 69,2 después de de los semanas; G1 = 66,6 y G2 = 69,2 después de tres semanas; G1 = 55,6 y G2 = 53,9 después de cuatro semanas; teste del Qui-cuadrado. La necesidad de aumento de la dosis de morfina fue similar en los de los grupos (G1 = 2,22 y G2 = 2,15, prueba de Mann-Whitney. CONCLUSIONES: No se observó un aumento en el efecto analgésico con 10 mg de S (+ cetamina, administrada a cada 8 horas por vía oral asociada a la morfina en el tratamiento del dolor oncológico.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Morphine is used frequently to treat oncologic pain. However, tolerance may develop with prolonged use. The association of a NMDA receptor antagonist may reduce or delay the onset of tolerance. S(+ ketamine seems to be more potent and with fewer side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of S(+ ketamine and morphine in the treatment of oncologic pain. METHODS: Thirty patients, randomly divided in two groups, participated in this double

  17. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  18. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  19. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  1. Paediatric oncology and intensive care treatments: changing trends

    OpenAIRE

    Keengwe, I.; Stansfield, F.; EDEN, O; Nelhans, N.; Dearlove, O.; Sharples, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the outcome of patients with childhood malignancy requiring intensive care treatment and to assess whether there is any secular trend for improved outcome.
DESIGN—Retrospective chart reviews of 74 consecutive admissions to a paediatric intensive care unit from a regional paediatric oncology centre between 1990 and 1997. During the same period there were 6419 admissions to the oncology unit, 814 of whom were new cases.
RESULTS—The overall survival a...

  2. Quality and safety in pediatric hematology/oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Brigitta U

    2014-06-01

    Many principles of quality of care and patient safety are at the foundation of pediatric hematology/oncology. However, we still see too many errors, continue to have problems with communication, and the culture in many of our areas is still one of worrying about retribution when mentioning a problem. This review explores why specialists in pediatric hematology/oncology should be leaders in the field of quality and safety in healthcare.

  3. The Road Not Taken and Choices in Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, C. Norman; Glatstein, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Accomplishments and contributions in a career in radiation oncology, and in medicine in general, involve individual choices that impact the direction of a specialty, decisions in patient care, consequences of treatment outcome, and personal satisfaction. Issues in radiation oncology include: the development and implementation of new radiation treatment technology; the use of multimodality and biologically based therapies; the role of nonradiation “energy” technologies, often by other medical ...

  4. An outline of the history of head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, Benedikt J; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Fagan, Johannes J; Pratt, Loring W; Weir, Neil; Seitz, Daniela; Ferlito, Alfio

    2008-01-01

    This review analyzes the development of head and neck oncology as outlined in medical history articles. A systematic literature survey was conducted with the search engines "Google Scholar" and "PubMed" and the retrieved publications were cross-referenced. In addition, books and, when possible, original sources were consulted. While most of the material was obtained from publications from the modern era reviewing historical data, some of the information was derived from original source material. The obtained articles on the history of cancer were then analyzed for details on head and neck oncology. The cradle of oncology was located in ancient Egypt and Greece. The search showed that the first tumors treated in the head and neck were either cutaneous malignancies or cancers on the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. The origin, diagnosis and treatment of more deeply situated tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx remained obscure for many centuries. The medieval age brought little progress to medicine in general, and in head and neck oncology in particular, due to religious concerns. Renaissance medicine was characterized by advances in medicine and oncology made by systematic dissection studies of normal and pathologic anatomy. The 19th and 20th century reflect the development of head and neck oncology in the era of science based medicine. Almost all of our current understanding of head and neck oncology, our diagnostic methods and treatment strategies have been developed in these two centuries. The analysis showed that many oncologic problems, which occupy our minds today, were also concerns of our medical ancestors. PMID:17659999

  5. Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the ...

  6. The Need for Communication Skills Training in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaire, Dany Michaella

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health-care professionals and their patients is an element that can make all the difference in how those patients navigate their cancer journey. In a 2011 issue of the Annals of Oncology, Barth and Lannen reported on their systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of communication skills training courses in oncology. In this issue of JADPRO, two authors share their perspectives on the findings of Barth and Lannen and what advanced practitioners (APs) can learn ...

  7. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F;

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary......-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis....

  8. The problems of surgical training in gynaecologic oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, CW; Oliveira, CF; Kehoe, ST

    2000-01-01

    During the late 60s and early 70s it was recognised that the surgical training for residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology was inadequate to comprehensively acquire the surgical skills necessary in managing women with gynaecologic cancers. Gynaecologic Oncology (Gynae-Oncology) has three important goals: 1) to maintain the highest standards for patients with gynaecologic cancer, 2) to provide the trainee with clinical skills and structural clinical research after his/her surgical completion, ...

  9. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients.

  10. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: non-surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, F; Arends, J; Lundholm, K; Micklewright, A; Zurcher, G; Muscaritoli, M

    2009-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increasing or ensuring nutrient intake in patients in whom normal food intake is inadequate and enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. These guidelines are intended to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of parenteral nutrition in cancer patients. They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with accepted standards, are based on the most relevant publications of the last 30 years and share many of the conclusions of the ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition in oncology. Under-nutrition and cachexia occur frequently in cancer patients and are indicators of poor prognosis and, per se, responsible for excess morbidity and mortality. Many indications for parenteral nutrition parallel those for enteral nutrition (weight loss or reduction in food intake for more than 7-10 days), but only those who, for whatever reason cannot be fed orally or enterally, are candidates to receive parenteral nutrition. A standard nutritional regimen may be recommended for short-term parenteral nutrition, while in cachectic patients receiving intravenous feeding for several weeks a high fat-to-glucose ratio may be advised because these patients maintain a high capacity to metabolize fats. The limited nutritional response to the parenteral nutrition reflects more the presence of metabolic derangements which are characteristic of the cachexia syndrome (or merely the short duration of the nutritional support) rather than the inadequacy of the nutritional regimen. Perioperative parenteral nutrition is only recommended in malnourished patients if enteral nutrition is not feasible. In non-surgical well-nourished oncologic patients routine parenteral nutrition is not recommended because it has proved to offer no advantage and is associated with increased morbidity. A benefit, however, is reported in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  11. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  12. A clinical intranet model for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new paradigm in computing is being formulated from advances in client-server technology. This new way of accessing data in a network is referred to variously as Web-based computing, Internet computing, or Intranet computing. The difference between an internet and intranet being that the former is for global access and the later is only for intra-departmental access. Our purpose with this work is to develop a clinically useful radiation oncology intranet for accessing physically disparate data sources. Materials and Methods: We have developed an intranet client-server system using Windows-NT Server 4.0 running Internet Information Server (IIS) on the back-end and client PCs using a typical World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The clients also take advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial database systems. The various data sources used include: a traditional Radiation Oncology Information (ROIS) System (VARiS 1.3tm); a 3-D treatment planning system (CAD Plantm); a beam scanning system (Wellhoffertm); as well as an electronic portal imaging device (PortalVisiontm) and a CT-Simulator providing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) (Picker AcQsimtm). We were able to leverage previously developed Microsoft Visual C++ applications without major re-writing of source code for this. Results: With the data sources and development materials used, we were able to develop a series of WWW-based clinical tool kits. The tool kits were designed to provide profession-specific clinical information. The physician's tool kit provides a treatment schedule for daily patients along with a dose summary from VARiS and the ability to review portal images and prescription images from the EPID and Picker. The physicists tool kit compares dose summaries from VARiS with an independent check against RTP beam data and serves as a quick 'chart-checker'. Finally, an administrator tool kit provides a summary of periodic charging

  13. CNAM: care and treatment aboard in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tunisian National Health Insurance Fund (TNHIF) has 186 practitioners and advisers (physicians, dentists and pharmacists) in the service of medical supervision. These advisers are distributed on three levels (regional, district and national). In the present paper we have discussed the CNAM support in the different types of oncology (FSD (Fully Supported Disorders), Hospitalization, the scans, the radiation therapy, specific drugs and treatment abroad). We begin by presenting expenditures by year and age group for FSD and hospitalization in the private and the public sectors. We then give the conventional packages for scans, radiotherapy: either for CLAM or CRAM. Daily benefits for the sickness leave and the disability will be presented briefly. Then we will give the administrative process for the approval of the commission for specific medication. The medical advice is based on certain criteria that will be explained in the paper. In certain cases definitive medical advice needs to call for the recommendation of a national commission and oncology or different experts. The spending trend of the TNHIF from 2001 to 2012 will be discussed. TNHIF generally considered Herceptin, Nexavar Erbitaux as the main drugs for targeted therapies. We present for the treatment cost and expenditure trends for the first drug from 2008 to 2012 as well as the estimation for 2013, which increases from one year to year. For the treatment with the second and the third drug we give the evolution of expenditure between 2010 and 2012. Cancer is a serious disease that requires a costly multidisciplinary support for the patients. This support has changed the prognosis survival (see cases of healing). The financial coverage of this support can never be supported by the family (whatever the wealth level) without any TNHIF support. The real gain in survival and expenditure control are closely related to awareness and early detection of the disease. TNHIF usually intervenes in the financing of

  14. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  15. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  16. PRICING ATTRIBUTES OF WINES FROM EMERGING SUPPLIERS ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica YOO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine British Columbia (BC wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, brand name, country of origin, and alcohol content are important factors influencing prices paid by consumers. In particular, Chilean white and red wines are associated with larger price premia as compared to Argentinean wines. Wines from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia, although sold in large quantities in the BC market, are substantially discounted in comparison to New World wines. Cabernet Sauvignon fetches a higher price when blended with other varietals and Chardonnay appears to be popular and highly valued by consumers among white wines.

  17. Attitudes Towards Spirituality and Other Worldly Experiences: An Online Survey of British Humanists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined attitudes towards and understandings of the term “spirituality” among members of the British Humanist Association (N = 318. Thirty-five percent agreed strongly and twenty-one percent moderately agreed that it was possible to be spiritual without being religious. Some respondents asserted that the term spiritual was so vague as to be almost useless. They preferred terms such as emotional connectedness, awe, or beauty, which are commonly included in definitions of spirituality. For a few individuals, spirituality referred to the existence of spirits. A minority in the study (12% had what might be defined as ‘other worldly experiences,’ although these were explained in purely naturalistic terms (e.g., lack of sleep, drugs/alcohol, and brain dysfunction. The primary conclusion from the survey is that many British Humanists see no contradiction between being a humanist and having experiences that are often defined as “spiritual.”

  18. "Hierarchies of Meaning and Value in the Classic British Bike Scene"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Ward

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in market value for classic British motorcycles of the 1950s and 1960s have been shaped on the one hand by historical importance (relative rarity, engineering advances, competition successes and on the other by marque identification, desirability, and “image.” Using selected examples, the article argues that beyond the obvious factors influencing the prices traders can ask (and usually get, such intangible considerations as aesthetic appeal and cultural resonance are also important determinants. The skyrocketing market for Triumph Bonnevilles is a case in point. Other British bikes match the Bonneville in specifications and performance, but without the advantage provided by name recognition and an association with celebrity enthusiasts, they remain relative “bargains.” In particular, the products of Associated Motor Cycles Ltd (AMC, the maker of AJS and Matchless road bikes and racers, allow an exploration of the factors, some of them difficult to quantify, that condition how the market receives one piece of British iron versus another. The article also describes the work of a few builders and owners, who have found ways to “up” the recognition, and hence the value, of the AMC marques. Objective considerations may be most of what matters in fixing values in the marketplace; but the “meaning” of a particular motorcycle, based on more subtle calculations, can have a lot to do with how many thousands of pounds or dollars end up being exchanged.

  19. Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Fletcher, Nancy B; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Healing Touch (HT) is a biofield therapy used to enhance well-being. We conducted a pilot study to assess its effects in pediatric oncology patients. We enrolled patients in the continuation or consolidation phase of therapy. Patients or their parent completed simple visual analogue scales (VASs; 0-10) for relaxation, vitality, overall well-being, stress, anxiety, and depression before and after a 20-minute period of rest and a standardized HT treatment. Patients' heart rates were monitored and later analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics. Of the nine patients, all completed VASs and six had usable HRV data. The average age was 9 years. VAS scores for stress decreased significantly more for HT treatment than for rest (HT: 4.4-1.7; rest: 2.3-2.3; p = .03). The HRV characteristic of total power was significantly lower during HT than for rest (HT 599 +/- 221; rest: 857 +/- 155; p = .048), and sympathetic activity was somewhat but not significantly lower (HT: 312 +/- 158; rest: 555 +/- 193; p = .06). HT is associated with lowered stress and changes in HRV. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these effects in larger samples and to explore the impact on additional clinically relevant measures.

  20. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  1. Use of Homeopathy in Pediatric Oncology in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Längler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is a frequently used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatment. We present results comparing responses of homeopathy users (HUs and users of other forms of CAM (NHUs in pediatric oncology (PO in Germany. Differences between these two groups (usage, associated demographic characteristics, previous experience with CAM are investigated. 186 (45.2% of the 367 CAM users were exposed to homeopathy. The treatment duration amounted to a median of 601 days for HUs and 282 days for NHUs. Parents with p (127; 76.5% also used homeopathy for their child's cancer. Nonmedical practitioners played a considerably greater role as source of information than did treating physician. In the majority HUs received their prescriptions from nonmedical practitioners (56%; 29.4% of NHUs. HUs communicate more frequently with their physicians about the CAM-use (77.7% versus 65.2% and recommend CAM more often than NHUs (94% versus 85.6%. Homeopathy is the most frequently used CAM treatment in PO in Germany. HUs sustain treatment and therapies considerably longer than NHUs. Most families who had used homeopathy before their child was diagnosed with cancer also used homeopathy for the treatment of their child's cancer. Compared to other CAM treatments, patient satisfaction with homeopathy appears to be very high.

  2. Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Fletcher, Nancy B; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Healing Touch (HT) is a biofield therapy used to enhance well-being. We conducted a pilot study to assess its effects in pediatric oncology patients. We enrolled patients in the continuation or consolidation phase of therapy. Patients or their parent completed simple visual analogue scales (VASs; 0-10) for relaxation, vitality, overall well-being, stress, anxiety, and depression before and after a 20-minute period of rest and a standardized HT treatment. Patients' heart rates were monitored and later analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics. Of the nine patients, all completed VASs and six had usable HRV data. The average age was 9 years. VAS scores for stress decreased significantly more for HT treatment than for rest (HT: 4.4-1.7; rest: 2.3-2.3; p = .03). The HRV characteristic of total power was significantly lower during HT than for rest (HT 599 +/- 221; rest: 857 +/- 155; p = .048), and sympathetic activity was somewhat but not significantly lower (HT: 312 +/- 158; rest: 555 +/- 193; p = .06). HT is associated with lowered stress and changes in HRV. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these effects in larger samples and to explore the impact on additional clinically relevant measures. PMID:19476730

  3. Guidelines on Vaccinations in Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cesaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis, and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella. By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity.

  4. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  5. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  7. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  8. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  9. A microchip platform for structural oncology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Carly E; Gilmore, Brian L; Demmert, Andrew C; Karageorge, Vasilea; Sheng, Zhi; Kelly, Deborah F

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of functional materials offer new tools to dissect human health and disease mechanisms. The use of tunable surfaces is especially appealing as substrates can be tailored to fit applications involving specific cell types or tissues. Here we use tunable materials to facilitate the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of BRCA1 gene regulatory complexes derived from human cancer cells. We employed a recently developed microchip platform to isolate BRCA1 protein assemblies natively formed in breast cancer cells with and without BRCA1 mutations. The captured assemblies proved amenable to cryo-electron microscopy (EM) imaging and downstream computational analysis. Resulting 3D structures reveal the manner in which wild-type BRCA1 engages the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) core complex that contained K63-linked ubiquitin moieties—a putative signal for DNA repair. Importantly, we also determined that molecular assemblies harboring the BRCA15382insC mutation exhibited altered protein interactions and ubiquitination patterns compared to wild-type complexes. Overall, our analyses proved optimal for developing new structural oncology applications involving patient-derived cancer cells, while expanding our knowledge of BRCA1’s role in gene regulatory events. PMID:27583302

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  11. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  12. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  13. Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-investigated locoregional cancer treatment in which a systemically administered photosensitizer is activated locally by illuminating the diseased tissue with light of a suitable wavelength. PDT offers various treatment strategies in oncology, especially palliative ones. This article focuses on the development and evaluation of interstitial PDT for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly liver tumors. The PDT is mostly used for superficial and endoluminal lesions like skin or bladder malignancies and also more frequently applied for the treatment of lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer. With the help of specially designed application systems, PDT is now becoming a practicable option for solid lesions, including those in parenchymal organs such as the liver. After intravenous treatment with the photosensitizer followed by interstitial light activation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography shows the development of therapy-induced necrosis around the light-guiding device. With the use of multiple devices, ablation of liver tumors seems to be possible, and no severe side effects or toxicities related to the treatment are reported. PDT can become a clinically relevant adjunct in the locoregional therapy strategies. (orig.)

  14. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesarchio Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS. The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gallamini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG. FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  16. Predictive In Vivo Models for Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Diana; Rolff, Jana; Hoffmann, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Experimental oncology research and preclinical drug development both substantially require specific, clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo tumor models. The increasing knowledge about the heterogeneity of cancer requested a substantial restructuring of the test systems for the different stages of development. To be able to cope with the complexity of the disease, larger panels of patient-derived tumor models have to be implemented and extensively characterized. Together with individual genetically engineered tumor models and supported by core functions for expression profiling and data analysis, an integrated discovery process has been generated for predictive and personalized drug development.Improved “humanized” mouse models should help to overcome current limitations given by xenogeneic barrier between humans and mice. Establishment of a functional human immune system and a corresponding human microenvironment in laboratory animals will strongly support further research.Drug discovery, systems biology, and translational research are moving closer together to address all the new hallmarks of cancer, increase the success rate of drug development, and increase the predictive value of preclinical models.

  17. Monitoring monoclonal antibody delivery in oncology: the example of bevacizumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Nugue

    Full Text Available Developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies paves the way for new strategies in oncology using targeted therapy which should improve specificity. However, due to a lack of biomarkers, a personalized therapy scheme cannot always be applied with monoclonal antibodies. As a consequence, the efficacy or side effects associated with this type of treatment often appear to be sporadic. Bevacizumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF. It is used to limit tumor vascularization. No prognosis or response biomarker is associated with this antibody, we therefore assessed whether the administration protocol could be a possible cause of heterogeneous responses (or variable efficacy. To do this, we developed a bevacizumab assay with a broad sensitivity range to measure blood bevacizumab concentrations. We then analyzed bevacizumab concentrations in 17 patients throughout the first quarter of treatment. In line with previously published data, average blood concentrations were 88+/-27 mg/L following the first dose administered, and 213+/-105 mg/L after the last (6(th dose administered. However, the individual values were scattered, with a mean 4-fold difference between the lowest and the highest concentration for each dose administered. We demonstrated that the bevacizumab administration schedule results in a high inter-individual variability in terms of blood concentrations. Comparison of assay data with clinical data indicates that blood concentrations above the median are associated with side effects, whereas values below the median favor inefficacy. In conclusion, bevacizumab-based therapy could benefit from a personalized administration schedule including follow-up and adjustment of circulating bevacizumab concentrations.

  18. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-ping; Huang, Bo-yan; Yi, Ting-wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-qing; Zhang, Zong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by “living wills” forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. Objective: The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. Methods: A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. Results: The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Conclusions: Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it. PMID:27022774

  19. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J L

    1999-03-01

    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  20. Corporate culture assessments in integrative oncology: a qualitative case study of two integrative oncology centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittring, Nadine; Pérard, Marion; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The offer of "integrative oncology" is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA) were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type ("best of both worlds" and "linking"). Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists.

  1. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands,...

  2. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  3. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  4. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  5. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  6. The American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  7. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  8. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  9. Making of British India fictions, 1772-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...

  10. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  11. British anarchism 1881-1914: reality and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Shpayer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...

  12. The Ambitious Young Woman and the Contemporary British Sports Film

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the figure of the ambitious young woman is mediated within contemporary female-centred British sports films. The article begins by briefly outlining the relationship between postfeminism and neoliberalism and highlights the relevance of these discourses to contemporary female-centred sports films. It then goes on to explore how postfeminist, neoliberal values are mediated in the construction of the ambitious young woman through an analysis of the British film Chalet ...

  13. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  14. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  15. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-08-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  16. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  17. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  18. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  19. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  20. Appendix XXIX: Succession management in British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts