WorldWideScience

Sample records for bringing developing countries

  1. Bringing developing countries into the energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation of articles on energy and climate change is a selection of contributions to the first edition of Regards sur la Terre, an annual reference in French on the international dimension of sustainable development, launched on the initiative of the French development agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the institute for sustainable development and international relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales), and published by Presses de Sciences Po (Paris) in November 2006. Regards sur la terre includes an analysis of the most important international meetings and events of the last 12 months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic report, which focuses this year on energy and climate change. For almost two hundred years, the economic development of industrialized countries has gone hand in hand with growing consumption of fossil fuels, first coal, then oil and gas. The oil shocks of the 1970's had already revealed the fragility of this model, without however generating any major changes. The disconnection observed in the 1980's between a rapid return to economic growth and stagnating energy consumption was only provisional, and energy demand in the richest countries has again been rising since the 1990's; the development of alternative energy sources (nuclear power and renewables) has remained marginal and has failed to dethrone fossil fuels on which, paradoxically, the economies of industrialized countries are even more dependent today than they were 20 years ago. But with the turn of the century came major developments in the global energy landscape following the emergence of new and hitherto marginal actors: the rapid economic development of emerging countries is also dependent on an increasing supply of energy. Today this growing demand adds to tension on the oil and gas market, where the poorest countries are also the first victims. It could give new impetus to the

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries: An analysis of policies to bring developing countries to the bargaining table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the aggregate net costs and individual country cost savings of greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries. We propose emission permit allocation rules designed to entice developing countries to participate. Absence of developing country involvement has served as an excuse for the lack by participation by the United States in the first compliance period of the Kyoto Protocol and may serve as a disincentive to even more countries in subsequent periods. Our analysis specifies permit allocation rules that could result in no net costs, and even cost-savings, to developing countries for their involvement in the emissions trading market, while at the same time providing extensive benefits to industrialized countries through access to lower-cost mitigation alternatives

  3. Bringing People Back into Protected Forests in Developing Countries: Insights from Co-Management in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Zulu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines struggles to bring people back into protected forests to enhance sustainable forest management and livelihoods using insights emerging from a co-management project in Malawi. It uses mixed social science methods and a process-based conceptualization of co-management to analyze experiences, and theory of reciprocal altruism to explain major findings of continuing local forest-user commitment to co-management despite six years of conservation burdens largely for minimal financial benefits. It argues that overemphasis on cash incentives as the motivation for “self-interested” users to participate in co-management overlooks locally significant non-cash motivations, inflates local expectations, and creates perverse incentives that undermine socio-ecological goals. Some non-cash incentives outweighed cash-driven ones. Findings support broadening of incentives mechanisms, including via nested cross-scale institutional arrangements for holistic management that integrates adjacent forests into forest-reserve co-management. Strengthened institutions, improving community/government and intra-community trust, improved village forests easing pressure on the reserve, measures minimizing elite capture, and impetus from an external threat, enhanced forest condition. Generous forest rights and appropriate community licensing and benefit-sharing systems also helped. Bureaucratic/donor inefficiencies, wood-extraction challenges, poor forest-based enterprise development, and low resource value undermined performance. Insights on forest-management planning, fair cost-sharing, targeting the poor, and need for social learning are highlighted.

  4. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  5. Does FDI Bring Good Jobs to Host Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Javorcik, Beata

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether jobs created as a result of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows can be considered to be good jobs both from the worker’s and the country’s perspective. For the worker, such jobs are likely to pay higher wages than jobs in indigenous firms in developing countries, and foreign employers tend to offer more training than local firms. From the country’s perspective, jobs in foreign affiliates are good, because FDI inflows tend to increase the aggregate productivity ...

  6. Pakistan : Country Development Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This Country Development Landscape (CDL) is an analytical input for the preparation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). It assesses the countryapos;s most recent performance, and benchmarks it to regional peers and global comparators; identifies the most critical development constraints and challenges; summarizes the Governmentapos;s vision for the future and ...

  7. Managing FDI country risks in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Komlan Akoli; Elie Chrysostome; Hamadoun Sidibé

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has always been an important concern for international organizations and for governments as well. Despite the failure of various structural adjustment and development aid programs, foreign capital is still a key element in the success of several development programs. Unfortunately, during the last decade, the level of foreign direct investments has not increased that much in several developing countries due to, among others, country risks. The concept of country risk...

  8. The developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambiguous definitions and groupings e.g. which countries are taken to be ''developing countries'' are first considered. Although the different definitions may suit a particular purpose it makes comparing statistical data almost impossible. Grouping by commercial energy typology is shown. Statistics on estimated world population growth by country and total world energy consumption (with percentage of electricity supplied by nuclear energy) are listed. Although diverse, the developing countries have broad common energy characteristics and consumption patterns which are discussed. Past, present and future prospects of nuclear power development are reviewed. A nuclear power capacity projection for 2000 is presented. The interest in small and medium sized power reactors (SMPR) from developing countries is considered. Available SMPRs are listed. The launching conditions of a nuclear power programme in developing countries is examined, with emphasis on the importance of having a nuclear energy programme integrated into an energy master plan. The introduction of nuclear power into Argentina and Brazil is reported. It is concluded that nuclear energy will gradually increase its share in the provision of energy. (U.K.)

  9. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid test...

  10. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-01-01

    According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropri...

  11. Paraquat in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, C; van Wendel de Joode, B; Ruepert, C; León, C; Monge, P; Hermosillo, H; Partanen, T J

    2001-01-01

    The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and the bulk of regulators worldwide. However, determinants of exposure from 30 years ago persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure determinants, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Regulatory agencies have not fully recognized either the inherent toxicity of paraquat or the particular risks derived from exposures in developing countries. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations. PMID:11783857

  12. Developing countries' energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of electric power and bacteriologically clean water produced in developing countries today is insufficient for the people's needs. In order to develop successfully, these countries must necessarily achieve a threshold which, for the whole planet, will come to 1 000 000 MW of electricity. One way this can be done is by building several hundred power plants, with all the concomitant pollution problems. Another solution is Stirling motors, which use the power of sunlight to pump and pasteurize water and to generate electricity for one or more families, or for developmental home industries. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs

  13. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  14. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  15. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  16. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  17. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  18. Catalysts for better health care. Medical tissue banks bring multiple benefits to countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For millions of injured and disabled people around the world, the treatment brings a new quality of life. Called tissue grafting or transplantation, it relies on the use of sterilized bone, skin, and other tissues to heal serious injuries, wounds, and sickness. Prime beneficiaries include severe burn victims, and men, women, and children suffering from crippling diseases, birth defects, and blindness. Long applied in plastic and orthopaedic surgery, tissue grafting once relied only on using a patient's own tissues, known as an autograft. But now tissues from human or animal donors (allograft) are used for transplantation. This new form of tissue grafting has made big strides over the past decade. An expanding number of facilities today prepare the valuable tissues to the high-quality standards demanded in medical care. Dozens of such new tissue banks have opened in Asia, Latin America, Europe, and North America. A productive channel of progress has been an IAEA-supported technical cooperation programme. Through it, experts have worked together behind the scenes to help national health authorities establish tissue banks, train associated staff, and develop standards and regulatory guides. The IAEA accordingly has gained more experience and success than any other international organization in supporting the establishment of tissue banks for medical use in developing countries. Increasingly for quality and cost reasons, the technology of irradiation is used to sterilize tissues for medical care. The IAEA, through its technical cooperation channels, assists national atomic energy authorities to safely and productively employ radiation technology. An interregional programme on radiation and tissue banking, initiated over a decade ago, today extends to 30 countries

  19. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  20. Research principles for developing country food value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, M.I.; Barrett, C.B.; Buck, L.E.; Groote, H. de; Ferris, S.; Gao, H.O.; McCullough, E.; Miller, D.D.; Outhred, H.; Pell, A.N.; Reardon, T.; Retnanestri, M.; Ruben, R.; Struebi, P.; Swinnen, J.; Touesnard, M.A.; Weinberger, K.; Keatinge, J.D.H.; Milstein, M.B.; Yang, R.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Food value chains (FVCs) comprise all activities required to bring farm products to consumers, including agricultural production, processing, storage, marketing, distribution, and consumption. FVCs are changing rapidly in developing countries (DCs), because of population and income growth; urbanizat

  1. Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Iakovleva, T.; Kolvereid, L.; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of countries. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 2,225 students in 13 countries participated in this study by responding to a structured questio...

  2. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  3. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  4. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)

  5. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  6. Business ethics in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-01-01

    Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in bec...

  7. Electricity planning for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues of electricity planning for developing countries are discussed: evolution of planning methodologies; the Latin American Energy Organization's view on energy planning; power sector history and trends; risk and uncertainty in policy formulation

  8. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  9. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities as...

  10. Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Sameeksha

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. Three important dichotomies in the research on entrepreneurship are discussed: formal-informal, legal-illegal, and necessity-opportunity. Several common measures of entrepreneurship are outlined along with their relevance to developing countries, including self-employment, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey data and OECD data. The implications o...

  11. Ethical employment in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karlstrøm, Caroline Bay

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this paper is ethical employment in developing countries, and how multinational companies should conduct business in less developed countries. First three theories within ethics will be covered; utilitarianism, justice and human rights. Those are used to judge whether a case is unethical or not. Thereafter are the employees rights covered, and two international conventions that protects these rights are described; the International Labour Organizations and the UN G...

  12. Hotel management in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dongol Maharjan, Lina

    2012-01-01

    Summary This Bachelor thesis focuses on the hotel management system in developing countries that was chosen according to the author’s interest and her experience in the chosen topic. The main goal of the work is to find out the standards of the hotel in developing countries like Nepal and to point out the main problems and difficulties hotel industry is facing and finally to suggest some methods for improvement. This work is based on theoretical and practical research using various lite...

  13. Physics teaching in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  14. Developing countries curtail nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power programmes in developing countries, following the accident at the Chernobyl power plant are summarized. Many of these have abandoned plans for nuclear power (eg Gabon), mothballed existing reactors (eg Philippines) or deferred decisions on a reactor programme (eg Egypt, Taiwan, Libya). Economic and political pressures are usually the underlying reasons, but the Chernobyl incident has proved a useful excuse. Other countries (Nigeria, Korea, India, Pakistan) have not let the accident change their nuclear policy. In China, Israel and Turkey the debate about nuclear power has been sharpened by the accident. Although Chernobyl has hastened decisions on nuclear power in some countries it has not affected the long-term policies of developing countries. (UK)

  15. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  16. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  17. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  18. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  19. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  20. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  1. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  2. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1989-01-01

    This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The p...

  3. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  4. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  5. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  6. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  7. Space science in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, P. N.; Rao, U. R.; Anyaegbunam, F. C. C.

    1994-01-01

    The space era marked by the effort in organizing the International Geophysical Year (IGY) more than three decades ago ushered in a new awakening of international cooperation in space sciences. Since then, there has been a growing awareness among developed and developing countries on what space technology has in store for explorations in astronomy and cosmology and for studying the changing global environment. Results from numerous space platforms, rockets, balloon borne instrumentation and ground based experiments have revealed the growing potential of the field. The role of developing countries in a concerted mode is vital, as the planning of scientific experiments, data analysis and interpretation would need mobilization of regional talent and intellectual resources to understand the complex ensemble of problems of geosphere-biosphere interactions facing the planet earth and its residents.

  8. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  9. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  10. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1988, 417 nuclear power plants were in opration worldwide, which is twenty more than in early 1987. The total installed power of 300 GWe corresponds to 11% of the total generating capacity and contributes more than 16% of the worldwide electricity production. Fifty of these nuclear power plants, with an aggregate 28 GWe, have been built in developing countries, where they contribute 7% to the electricity requirement. With respect to installed power, the growth of nuclear power lags behind the plans made ten years ago, because some developing countries have stretched out their nuclear power programs for the next decade. This is due to various reasons. In some cases, the availability of alternative energies has reduced the use of nuclear power. In other cases, the delay has been due to funding and to the long planning and construction periods. The main problem facing the developing countries, however, is financing nuclear power plant projects in the light of the high capital costs of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  11. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  13. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  14. Household saving in developing countries : first cross-country evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Webb, Steven B.; Corsetti, Giancarlo

    1991-01-01

    This study uses time-series of household data from eleven developing countries to test several hypotheses about saving behavior. Besides just widening the scope of information being used to test the hypotheses, the data set in this study has the advantage of a consistent definition across countries. With these data the authors test how household saving in developing countries responds to the level of per capita disposable income, the rate of growth of disposable income and its deviation from ...

  15. Nuclear cardiology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nuclear medicine in developing countries must be oriented to the local needs for clinical practice, the health care of large populations and the demands for research with sometimes extremely limited resources. To help define the locally differing needs, it is stressed that nuclear medicine provides the unique opportunity to observe the body at the molecular level of organization and thus makes the body biochemically transparent. Depending on the particular diagnostic demands, complex imaging with gamma scintigraphy or emission tomography may be the only method to choose in some instances, but for others it may be an unnecessary luxury. Nuclear cardiology, with the purpose of non-invasively assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial metabolism, is a particular challenge in both respects for developing countries. Given such requirements, single-probe devices with multipurpose application are less expensive than gamma cameras and promise advanced diagnostic uses. In one examination, left ventricular function, global cardio-pulmonary circulation and the general circulatory adaptation to exercise can be investigated by non-gated simultaneous blood pool measurements over four lung regions, the heart and the liver. In addition, such devices have the advantages of compactness, robustness and electronic stability. Despite enormous difficulties regarding funding, infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, developing countries should be encouraged to participate in the evolution of nuclear medicine by responding and adapting to defined needs and perhaps by maintaining at least one national centre of excellence with capacities for research and training. Funds are best secured by providing an indispensable service in co-operation with the various clinical disciplines. (author)

  16. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  17. Capital structures in developing countries : evidence from ten countries

    OpenAIRE

    Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav; DEC

    1994-01-01

    The authors investigate capital structures in a sample of the largest publicly traded firms in ten developing countries - Brazil, India, Jordan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, and Zimbabwe - for 1980 - 91. The firms in the sample are smaller than comparable U.S. firms, and the financial systems and regulations in these countries differ significantly from those in the United States. Not every country has well-functioning liquid financial markets in which i...

  18. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly esta...... of switching merits attention in the future design of firm surveys across developing countries and in associated analytical studies....... established entrants and exiting firms that are closing down operations. In this study, we develop an empirical model that examines switching behavior using data from Vietnamese manufacturing firms during the 2001–2008 period. The diagnostic shows that switching firms exhibit different characteristics and...

  19. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  20. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  1. Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Murad; Ullah, Sana; Khan, Pervez

    2009-01-01

    Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problemati...

  2. Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Managing Agricultural Price Risk in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Dana; Gilbert, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We survey the experience of risk management in developing country agricultural supply chains. We focus on exposure, instruments, impediments to access and developing country futures markets. We draw on lessons from experience over the past two decades.

  4. eGovernment for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tuka, Stela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses in development of e-government in developing countries - case of Albania. It firstly includes an overview of concept of e-Government and its implementation in Europe, as well as, efficient examples in European countries. In the practical part, firstly, a research of recent e-government development in Albania has been conducted. It continues with first level comparison of e – government in a Southern Europe country – Albania and Central Europe Country – Czech Republic. Afte...

  5. Health Behavior in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Dupas

    2011-01-01

    The disease burden in low-income countries is extremely high. Malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, AIDS, and other diseases are estimated to kill more than 15 million people each year, most of them children. Yet the great majority of these diseases can be prevented or treated. This article reviews microeconomic studies of health-seeking behavior in low-income countries. Factors examined include information, peers, liquidity constraints, and nonrational preferences, such as present bias....

  6. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  7. Sickle Cell Disease: Management options and challenges in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ansong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Disease (SCD is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In developing countries like Ghana, newborn screening is now being implemented on a national scale.  Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS, Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on newborn screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  8. The internal stress measurement the neutron diffraction will bring happiness to your country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The first reactor was constructed by the USA in 1942. After that, the research and development of reactors advanced. Numbers of reactors were constructed in Europe and in the US. The researches, which use the neutron, were performed actively and excellent results were obtained in wide fields. The penetrating power of the neutron and the neutron diffraction method began to attract attention for the application to the internal stress measurement, too. In Japan, the neutron diffractometer for the residual stress measurement exclusive was installed in the JRR-3M research reactor of JAERI in 1992, and the research was started. At present, we are using it for the stress measurements of the parts of air crafts, railways, automobiles, buildings, machines, home electronics products and so on including nuclear reactors. Reliable science must be introduced in order to support safety and long life operation and to supply them at reasonable cost. Among the various scientific probes to find faults in materials, diffraction technique is used to measure the strain distribution in materials by observing the local changes of the distance between crystallographic planes and the stress distribution is computed to improve manufacturing processes. It is only neutron diffraction that can be used to measure the strain inside the materials. Here, I present an overview of the utilization of neutron scattering research for the industrial uses and the history of the neutron scattering research in JAERI briefly. (J.P.N.)

  9. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have v...

  10. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  11. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a p

  12. Mongolia, the forgotten developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2003 I had an opportunity to visit Mongolia together with 20 other colleagues from different medical specialties (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, pathology, hygiene and infection). This small activity was sponsored by a Non-Governmental Organization, 'FABULA'. Our task was to carry out a two-week education programme for Mongolian colleagues at the University Hospital in Ulaanbaatar. I would like to briefly share my experiences and impressions with the readers of World Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Mongolia is a young democracy. Free parliamentary elections were held for the first time on 29 June, 1990. The new constitution was established on 14 February 1992. It is one of the sparsely populated countries of the world with 2.5 million inhabitants living in an area 18.7 times larger than Austria. With 64.6 years, the life expectancy is considerably lower than that in the industrialised countries, like Austria which has a life expectancy of 79 years. The child (< 5 years) mortality rate of 71/1000 is significantly high in comparison with Austria (5/1000). The expenditure on public health service as compared to the GDP is very low [source: WHO internet homepage: http://www3.who.int]. In spite of these alarming numbers the University hospital of Ulaanbaatar has established a department of nuclear medicine. This is part of the 'imaging diagnostic facility' which consists of four sub-units - x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and endoscopy. Mongolia started its first nuclear medicine facility in the year 1975 through the support received from the International Atomic Energy Agency under a Technical Cooperation Project. Prof. Dr. P. Onkhuudai, who currently is the head of the nuclear medicine department at First State Central Clinic of the National Medical University of Mongolia was the first trained and qualified nuclear medicine physician of Mongolia. Keeping in view the limitations of finance and other logistics, the standard of nuclear medicine

  13. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  14. Open Access for Librarians in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The basics of open access are presented, as a starting point for discussion by librarians in developing countries. Open access is defined; resources for searching are presented, and resources for creating open access archives and publications. Policy development needed for open access is explained, along with what librarians in developing countries can do to promote open access.

  15. Bringing Action Research to the Curriculum Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Pamela Nuttall; Whitty, Pam

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe our efforts as project coordinators to negotiate directions and meanings at the initial stages of a childcare curriculum development project for children from birth to age five in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. Understanding curriculum as a complex relational dynamic that is shaped by the multiple social and…

  16. Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

  17. Rock On! : Bringing strategic sustainable development to music festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Sarah; O'Halloran, Dan; Magnin, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Recreational events gather large numbers of people in concentrated areas for brief periods of time. Effects of these events extend far beyond their spatial and temporal boundaries; a music festival is one such event. This paper asks, “What are some measures that can move music festivals strategically toward sustainability?” A framework for strategic sustainable development based on backcasting from sustainability principles is applied. Research draws on pertinent literature, interviews with f...

  18. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  19. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

  20. Developing reading fluency and the many benefits it can bring.

    OpenAIRE

    Hampshire,Steve

    2013-01-01

    In this modern hi-tech world of blog, tweet and Wii, reading a (story) book may have lost its appeal for some. However for the language student it remains an invaluable learning resource. The aims of this short paper are three fold. Firstly to highlight the importance of reading in general and extensive reading (ER) and graded readers in particular in the development of reading fluency and their role in the learning of a foreign language. Secondly to outline the setting up of an ER program he...

  1. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Armas Rodríguez Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010.

  2. Bringing Automated Formal Verification to PLC Program Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Automation is the field of engineering that deals with the development of control systems for operating systems such as industrial processes, railways, machinery or aircraft without human intervention. In most of the cases, a failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic losses, environmental damages or human losses. For that reason, providing safe, reliable and robust control systems is a first priority goal for control engineers. Ideally, control engineers should be able to guarantee that both software and hardware fulfill the design requirements. This is an enormous challenge in which industry and academia have been working and making progresses in the last decades. This thesis focuses on one particular type of control systems that operates industrial processes, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - based control systems. Moreover it targets one of the main challenges for these systems, guaranteeing that PLC programs are compliant with their specifications. Traditionally ...

  3. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    is to carefully scrutinize internal capabilities and organization. Originality/value – The paper presents a model for explaining variation in subsidiary performance in developing countries specifically. The paper offers unique empirical insights into the state and drivers of subsidiary performance in developing......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution in subsidiary performance and the factors influencing this performance based on a unique database of approximately 800 multi-national company (MNC) subsidiaries in developing countries. Developed-country multi-national companies (MNCs......) are increasingly establishing subsidiaries in developing countries. The potential gains are high; however, so are the risks. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any international business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has...

  4. Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Murad; Khan, Pervez

    2009-01-01

    Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problematic, characterized by poor business models, political instability and governance conditions, low education level and lack of world-class research universities, an underdeveloped and mediocre physical infrastructure, and lack of solid technology based on trained human resources. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual framework analysis for managing innovation and technology in developing countries like India and China. We present the issues and challenges in innovation and technology management and come up with pro...

  5. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  6. Skilled migration: the perspective of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the consequences of skilled migration for developing countries. They first present new evidence on the magnitude of migration of skilled workers at the international level and then discuss its direct and indirect effects on human capital formation in developing countries in a unified stylized model. Finally they turn to policy implications, with emphasis on migration a...

  7. Regulation and Internet Use in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Policymakers are simultaneously concerned about the consequences of a worsening "digital divide" between rich and poor countries and hopeful that information and computing technologies could increase economic growth in developing countries. But very little research has explored the reasons for the digital divide beyond noting that it is strongly correlated with standard development indicat...

  8. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  9. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have very few or no neurologist. There is a greater need of taking neurological care at primary care level where majority of the patients struggle with epilepsy, stroke and neuroinfections.

  10. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  11. Country Development Diagnostics Post-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Gable, Susanna; Lofgren, Hans; Osorio-Rodarte, Israel

    2014-01-01

    With the 2015 deadline for the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) drawing near, the global community is shaping a new set of international development goals for the longer term. The process has involved consultations led by the UN Open Working Group guided by the 2013 report, a new global partnership of the UN High-level Panel. The work so far indicates that the post-2015 develo...

  12. Sourcing Solutions to Oil Shortage Challenge in Asian Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ 21st century is an era with many development opportunities for Asia. It's time for Asia, particularly for developing countries in this region to be away from poverty, backwardness for rapid economic taking-off. According to the predictions of authoritative agencies,Asia will remain as one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Both China and India's economic growth rate will be over 6%. The rapid economic growth of the two largest population nations will not only drive the prosperity of Asian economy, but also bring tremendous impact on the world market.

  13. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.;

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of...... climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate...

  14. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics are dealt with, such as: • Approaches to user involvement and participation in development• Knowledge and its role in development, particularly in higher education• Digital literacy and ways of dev...

  15. Capital flight from resource rich developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kazue Demachi

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the magnitude and determinants of capital flight from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) using macro-panel data from 21 countries from 1990 to 2011. Calculations reveal that capital flight from RRDCs was less serious than that experienced by some Latin American countries during the 1980s. In addition, capital flight was more episodic than chronic during the period studied. Econometric analysis indicates a linkage between natural resource revenues and capital flight...

  16. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  17. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  18. Conflicts and refugees in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Fatmata Lovetta

    2004-01-01

    Many reasons have been put forward explaining the rate of economic growth in developing countries. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether refugees and conflict help to explain Africa and other developing regions’ rate of economic growth. Economists, especially development economists, have been long engaged with the question of what makes different countries more or less successful economically and what explains their rate of economic growth. Different authors select their...

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  20. Prospects of Nuclear Power for Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for electricity in developing countries of the world is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries undergo the process of industrialization, accompanied by increased urbanization, and seek to improve the living standards of their growing population. The continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels will result in an increased dependence of a number of the developing countries on energy imports, with consequentbalance of payment difficulties and implications in terms of reduced energy security, cause severe degradation of the local and regional environment, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Increasing the share of hydropower in most of the developing countries is constrained by the limited potential of hydro resources as well as environmental considerations. Other renewable energy technologies such as solar PV and wind power are not expected to play a significant role in the commercial supply of electricity in the foreseeable future in the most part of the developing world. Thus nuclear power as a non-fossil alternative with a proven and mature technology may be called upon to play an increasing role in the future supply of electricity to developing countries. The paper discusses the main factors that are likely to affect, both positively and negatively, the deployment of nuclear power in developing countries and presents the results of the recent IAEA projections on nuclear power capacity growth up to the 2020. The paper also briefly reviews the prospects of nuclear power in Central and Eastern European countries. (author)

  1. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  2. Developing Countries in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Preface & Acknowledgements, Introduction and Table of contents to Developing Countries in the World Economy by Jaime de MeloWorld Scientific Press : http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/8790

  3. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    MNCs are increasingly investing in developing countries to be part of rapid market growth, to enhance the efficiency of their value chains, and to access abundant resources and talent. The potential gains are high, however so are the risks. Some developing country subsidiaries become top performers...... International Business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has examined this issue. Based on a unique data base of approx. 800 MNC subsidiaries established between 1969 and 2008, this paper examines the evolution in subsidiary performance and the factors...... influencing this performance. The analysis reveals that MNC subsidiaries in developing countries have improved enormously on their performance since the early investments in the 1960s and 70s, but also that the risks of failure remain high. The paper moves on to analyze factors shaping subsidiary performance...

  4. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  5. Financing electric power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the outlook for electricity demand, the investment patterns, the efficiency improvements, the financing power expansion in developing countries, the foreign exchange requirements, the local currency requirements and the World Bank's electric power lending

  6. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  7. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...... on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries....

  8. Skilled migration : the perspectives of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2007-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the e¤ects of skilled migration on developing countries. We first present new evidence on the magnitude of the ?brain drain? at the international level. Using a stylized model of education investment in a context of migration, we then survey the theoretical and empirical brain drain literature in a unified framework. Finally we use a particular specification of the model to discuss a number of policy issues from the perspective of developing countries.

  9. Distributional Effects of Globalization in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg; Nina Pavcnik

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss recent empirical research on how globalization has affected income inequality in developing countries. They begin with a discussion of conceptual issues regarding the measurement of globalization and inequality. Next, they present empirical evidence on the evolution of globalization and inequality in several developing countries during the 1980s and 1990s. The authors then examine the channels through which globalization may have affected inequality, discussing theory and ...

  10. Essays on investment climate in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hacihasanoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters on investment climate in developing countries. The first chapter examines the investment climate (IC) effects on the growth of developing countries. In contrast to past studies in the IC literature, which narrow their investigation to a subgroup of IC variables, I measure multiple dimensions of the investment climate in a single index. To construct an IC index, I use the methodology proposed by Escribano and Hacihasanoglu (2012 and 2013) to com...

  11. Regulation and Internet Use in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about a worsening "digital divide" between rich and poor countries parallel the hope that information technology (IT) could increase economic growth in developing countries. Little research, however, has explored the role of public policies, and of regulation in particular, in IT growth. I use data from a unique new survey of telecommunications regulators and other sources to measure the effects of regulation on Internet development. Controlling for income and other factors that affe...

  12. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...... in the context of education. The book is essential reading for researchers, educational planners, policy advisers, students and educators....

  13. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  14. Developing countries and the global science Web

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeira, Hilda; Fonda, Carlo; Cottrell, R L A

    2003-01-01

    Enabling scientists from developing countries to bridge the gap between rich and poor depends on closing another gap - the "digital divide". Now the technology exists to monitor this divide, and it reveals some alarming results. Most developing countries experience great difficulties because of adverse economic conditions and political instability, which means they lag behind in scientific and technological development. With the advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid exchange of information via the Internet, one might naively have thought that much of the gap between developed and developing nations would disappear, even if problems still persisted for those areas of science that need expensive facilities. However, access to information, peer reviewed or not, depends on having the appropriate hardware, i.e. a computer, and Internet connectivity, and there is a serious problem with access to the Internet in developing countries. Gaining access to a computer is more of a question of economics, and one that ...

  15. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    norm expected. The supply chain integration will bring positive impacts and benefits for manufacturers in developing countries if it adopted properly.

  16. Developing Countries' Stake in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Drusilla K. Brown; Deardorff, Alan V.; Stern, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the various aspects of the Doha Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in the WTO that offer potential benefits for developing countries. We then use the Michigan Model of World Production and Trade to simulate the economic effects on the major trading countries/regions of the reductions in tariffs, subsidies in agriculture, and barriers in services that may be negotiated in the Doha Round, as well as a variety of regional free trade agreements (FTAs). We estimate t...

  17. EXPORT CARTELS : A Developing Country Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Bhattacharjea

    2004-01-01

    Export cartels are exempted from the competition laws of most countries. While some scholars and several WTO members have recently condemned such cartels, others have argued that they allow efficiency gains that actually promote competition and trade. This paper examines the various issues involved, with special reference to developing countries and to recent discussions on trade and competition policy. After summarising the contending views on export cartels, and also the scanty theoretical ...

  18. Revisiting recent productivity developments across OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Tissot; Les Skoczylas

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares productivity developments across industrial countries based on official OECD data in the business sector. It discusses the uncertainties surrounding the measurement of both productivity levels and productivity growth, and then focuses on changes in productivity growth. The paper analyses labour productivity patterns and trends of total factor productivity (TFP) across countries. The recent performance of the United States clearly stands out. In particular, the level of US ...

  19. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in devel...

  20. Elections and economic policy in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Lisa; Collier, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether elections in developing countries have improved economic policies and economic governance. Both casual empiricism and casual theorizing suggest that they have done so. As contested elections have become more common since the 1990s, the policy ratings from the World Bank and the International Country Risk Guide have both improved markedly. These improvements accord with the fundamental notion that elections discipline governments into good performance. Yet this ...

  1. Foreign Aid and Urbanization in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Sylwester

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether developing countries receiving more foreign aid also have higher rates of urbanization. After presenting a simple theoretical model, empirical work is conducted on a cross-section of countries during the 1990s. The paper finds that foreign aid is positively associated with subsequent urbanization even after controlling for income levels, population, and regional characteristics. If this association is given a causal interpretation, the results indicate that foreign...

  2. Annex I. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout its 52 year history nuclear power has been mainly used in industrialized countries. Of the world's 441 currently operating nuclear power reactors, 403 (or 91%) are in either OECD countries or countries with economies in transition. In terms of electrical generating capacity, 349 GW(e) out of 368 GW(e), or 95% of nuclear generating capacity is installed in these countries. In terms of new construction, however, the pattern is largely reversed. Sixteen of the 27 new reactors under construction (59%), and 11.1 GW(e) out of 21.8 GW(e) (51%), are in developing countries. The most ambitious plans for nuclear expansion are in China and India. China, with three nuclear power plants under construction at the end of 2005, plans to expand nuclear capacity from 6.6 GW(e) today to 40 GW(e) by 2020. India, with eight plants under construction, plans to expand from 3 GW(e) to 29 GW(e) by 2022. Pakistan, with 425 MW(e) and one plant under construction at the end of 2005, plans to add approximately 8 GW(e) by 2030. For nuclear power in general, 2005 was a year of rising expectations, partly because of the potential expansion in developing countries due to their continuing need for substantially increased energy supplies, and partly because of concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fired electricity generation, particularly coal. In March, high level representatives of 74 governments, including representatives from 31 developing countries, gathered in Paris at a conference organized by the Agency to consider the future role of nuclear power. The vast majority of participants, among them several countries currently without nuclear power programmes, affirmed that nuclear power can make a major contribution to meeting energy needs and sustaining the world's development in the 21st century. This annex reviews the prospects and challenges for the expansion of nuclear power in developing countries. Each country is unique, and its national plans and approach

  3. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  4. Status of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the world-wide energy situation and the key position energy plays and will play for the economic and social development of any country, the energy demand situation up to the year 2000 is analysed. As a result, the world-wide energy demand will continue to increase, however, mainly in the developing world. Nuclear power is one of the important component in the energy mix of today and in the future. Status of nuclear power application in developing countries up to the end of the century. Any further growth of the peaceful use of nuclear power in developing countries is closely linked with the following requirements: - qualified manpower, - industrial infrastructure, - energy demand and supply assessments, - high investments, - assurance of supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, - availability of small and medium power reactors. The possible role of the IAEA in developing countries and international measures to remove some of the limitations for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in developing countries are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  6. Business symbiosis between developing and industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses problems of soil conservation and use. Research into the possibilities of improving soil quality by carbon storage is surveyed. An integration of soil carbon storage into the green development mechanisms in the Kyoto protocol may prove to be environmentally beneficial and economically profitable to both the developing and the industrialised countries

  7. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  8. The Impact of FDI on Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NanfeiPei; KarinvanderEsch

    2004-01-01

    Today most developing countries take FD1 as an important resource for development. There are many factors that might attract FD1 to a certain region. However, the real economic effects of FD1 on the economic growth are almost impossible to measure precisely. In this article, our analysis starts with the micro-level including the banking sector and corporate sector, then it moves to the macro-level in which trade, employment and balance of payments are discussed. Both theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that FD1 has a beneficial impact on the economic growth in host countries. Therefore FD1 will continue to remain an important engine of growth in a majority of the developing countries.

  9. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  10. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  11. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles;

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows for...... developing countries in effective global mitigation policies, even in the relatively near term, with the likelihood of much larger benefits post 2050....... rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...

  12. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and...... medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  13. Distribution and Development in Developing Countries: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Minh Quang

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of income distribution on growth in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme, we use a sample of twenty-eight developing economies and find that income distribution does not affect growth in these countries, unlike the results of previous studies by Alesina and Rodrik (1994). Neither do we find that the level of democracy in a country has a statistically significant impact on growth. We observe that the...

  14. The Business Model Handbook for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Osterwalder; Mathias Rossi; Minyue Dong

    2002-01-01

    The Business Model Handbook (BMH) for developing countries is a proposition for a tool that has the goal to help Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) and local entrepreneurs to design business models that use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and particularly the Internet in the context of developing economies. It shall help to develop the urgently needed critical mass of knowledge workers, technology users, and motivated entrepreneurs in order to deploy ICT in businesses o...

  15. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  16. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  17. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  18. Malaysian Development Experience : Lessons for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ragayah Haji Mat Zain

    2014-01-01

    Abstract:  This  paper  describes  the  policies  pursued  by  Malaysia  in  her attempt to attain growth with equity, which she has achieved relatively well. These include education provision and employment creation, export-oriented industrialisation, rural development, and restructuring equity ownership and asset accumulation. Her success is indicated by her structural transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy as well as i...

  19. Solar passive buildings for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is meant to be an indicative survey of developments in solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. The evolution of this area during the last fifty years is reported along with the scientific principles and design concepts underlying these developments. Factors to be considered for design strategies such as direct gain, isolated gain, indirect gain and roof evaporative systems are then described. Rating parameters for assessing the performance and benefit and cost parameters are then outlined. Successful examples illustrating each of the design concepts, mainly from Indian buildings constructed during the last fifteen years, are then detailed along with their performance based on actual monitoring, if available. Concluding remarks indicate the current and future trends. A survey is made of papers marking significant milestones in the development of solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. (author). 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  1. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide groundwater is a common-pool resource that is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. In developing countries the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual groundwater extraction...

  2. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well as by...

  3. Redesigning Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Kimaro, Honest; Aanestad, Margunn

    2008-01-01

    Despite widespread aims to strengthen the Health Information System (HIS) as a tool for decentralised health care, there is a strong tendency in most developing countries that the HIS continues to reflect the central level's needs and requirements. The traditional design approach with little or no...

  4. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  5. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the...

  6. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat;

    Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate...

  7. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  8. Priorities in neonatal care in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N K

    1996-08-01

    Lower perinatal and neonatal mortality have been achieved in the developed countries following advancement of neonatal care, introduction of high technologies, and better knowledge of pathophysiology of the newborn infants. Other contributing factors are organised delivery room care with skillful resuscitative techniques as well as risk identification and efficient transport of the sick infants including in utero transfer of the fetus, etc. It cannot be assumed that similar results can be attained in developing countries where financial and human resources are the problems. With limited resources, it is necessary to prioritize neonatal care in the developing countries. It is essential to collect minimum meaningful perinatal data to define the problems of each individual country. This is crucial for monitoring, auditing, evaluation, and planning of perinatal health care of the country. The definition and terminology in perinatology should also be uniform and standardised for comparative studies. Paediatricians should be well trained in resuscitation and stabilisation of the newborn infants. Resuscitation should begin in the delivery room and a resuscitation team should be formed. This is the best way to curtail complication and morbidity of asphyxiated births. Nosocomial infections have been the leading cause of neonatal deaths. It is of paramount importance to prevent infections in the nursery. Staff working in the nursery should pay attention to usage of sterilised equipment, isolation of infected babies and aseptic procedures. Paediatricians should avoid indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Most important of all, hand-washing before examination of the baby is mandatory and should be strictly adhered to. Other simpler measures include warming devices for maintenance of body temperature of the newborn babies, blood glucose monitoring, and antenatal steroid for mothers in premature labour. In countries where neonatal jaundice is prevalent, effective management to

  9. Assessment of international mitigation costing studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs

  10. Internationalization of science in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of science has gone through cycles among nations. In the period of antiquity the centres of science were in the East; in the middle ages scholars from the underdeveloped West travelled to the centres of study and research of the rich countries in the East to learn from the teachers there. In our century the cycle has turned and it is the East that turns to the West for science. Opportunities for scientists from developing countries are diminishing, however, and it is important that centres like the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, supported by the IAEA, UNESCO and the Government of Italy, be provided with continuing and strong support

  11. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    In many developing countries, groundwater is a common pool resource which is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. However, in these countries, the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual...... groundwater extraction. For this reason, classical public intervention instruments, such as consumption fees or tradable quotas, are infeasible. Here we present a theoretical foundation for a new public regulatory instrument that can potentially generate the same efficiency inducing incentives as fees...

  12. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  13. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed with...

  14. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  15. Environmental Risk Management for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul K Freeman; Howard Kunreuther

    2002-01-01

    Disaster losses in the developing world have increased substantially over the past decade and are likely to accelerate in future years. This paper proposes an environmental risk management program for developing countries that consists of six modules. The pre-disaster phase includes risk identification, risk mitigation, risk transfer, and preparedness; the post-disaster phase is devoted to emergency response and rehabilitation and reconstruction. We illustrate the elements of each of these ph...

  16. Mycotoxin food safety risk in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat Ramesh V.; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2003-01-01

    "Mycotoxins are produced by fungi, commonly known as mold. These toxins can develop during production, harvesting, or storage of grains, nuts, and other crops. Mycotoxins are among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances known. They pose chronic health risks: prolonged exposure through diet has been linked to cancer and kidney, liver, and immune-system disease. Because mycotoxins occur more frequently under tropical conditions and diets in many developing countries are more heav...

  17. Development priorities and private investment in developing countries: clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the relative weight of future greenhouse gases emissions of the Developing Countries (DCs) in the next decades, offering them the opportunity to participate to climate policies is a condition for achieving the goal of the Climate Convention. Thus, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) defined in art. 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, aims at reducing the cost of Annex 1 countries commitment in term of reduction of emissions, but also at limiting the risk that the DCs' unquestionable right to develop will offset the Annex 1 countries efforts: in order to be a win-win mechanism, the CDM should help to progress faster on a less polluting development path. Beyond political principles, there is the necessity to incorporate the decision making process of future CDM real actors. Regarding host country authorities, what is at stake is to bring in missing investment capacity to satisfy internal needs of goods and services, taking advantage of the additional inventive created by CDM certificates. For private investors, the objective is to maximize the global sum of commercial revenues plus CDM carbon income. The present paper examines potential CDM projects opportunities in the electric sector Quantified pre-simulations for the Tahumanu project, which consists in building a 3 x 2 200 kVA hydropower plant instead of subsidized diesel plants in the Bolivian Pando Province, and which is co financed by E7 as a CDM learning opportunity for seven large Annex 1 countries electricity companies, offer a realistic illustration possible CDM projects set up and arrangements with the host country. (authors)

  18. Pediatric cardiac surgery in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suresh G

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac surgery in developing countries is a major challenge. It is a challenge to employ evolving methods to cater to the surgical needs of a very large number of children with congenital heart defects while dealing with severe budgetary constraints, finding funding to maintain the program, and maintaining quality in the backdrop of constant turnover of trained medical, nursing, and other paramedical personnel. Choosing the best procedure to achieve maximum palliation at lower cost and, when possible, giving priority for one-stage corrective procedures, albeit at a higher risk, calls for practice modifications. Despite improved infrastructure and surgical skills in recent years, in some developing countries, logistics, affordability, late presentation, nutritional issues, staffing, and unfavorable economics continue to negatively influence the overall results compared to those of developed nations. PMID:17486389

  19. Developing countries: small technology with big effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As far the poor countries of the world are concerned, during the past twenty years they have had access only to the technologies developed by the rich to suit the rich. It is now beyond question that some of the most daunting problems confronting the majority of the worlds populations stem directly from the kind of technology transferred to them under current aid and development programs. That the technology of the rich is generally inappropriate to meet the needs and resources of the poor countries is becoming more widley recognized both by aid-givers and aid-receivers. Yet it is this technology that continues to be almost exclusively and most powerfully promoted in the developing countries. To meet their needs a new technology must be discovered or devised: one that lies between the sickle and the combine harvester and is small, simple and cheap enough to harmonise withlocal human and material resources and lends itself to widespread reproduction with the minimum of outside help. What we now need most urgently is a new set of technologies, designed, by people who are informed by the need to develop capital-saving technologies capable of being decentralized to the maximum extend. The technology gap is not only wide, but the knowledge an resources required to fill is, although they exist in the industrialized countries, have not been mobilized to provide the right kind of knowledge and to make it available to those who need it. It was to do this that the Intermediate Technology Development Group was set up ten years ago. (orig.) 891 HP 892 EKI

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy For Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects

  1. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  2. Inequality and Education Decisions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    GUTIERREZ, Catalina; Tanaka, Ryuichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of inequality on school enrollment, preferred tax rate and expenditure per student in developing countries; when parents can choose between child labor, public schooling, or private schooling. We present a model in which parents make schooling decisions for their children, weighing the utility benefit of having a child with formal public or private education versus the forgone income from child labor or household work. Parents vote over the preferred tax r...

  3. Personal Health Book Application for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seddiq Alabbasi; Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave; Kunihiko Kaneko; Ashir Ahmed; Akira Fukuda

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Personal Health Book application that is used as a portable repository for Personal Health Records (PHR) in order to alleviate healthcare organizational problems in developing countries. The Personal Health Book application allows low literate people to access and carry their own medical history from a rural healthcare provider to an urban healthcare provider. This will improve the efficiency of medical care and lower costs for health clinics in underserved areas. This paper in...

  4. Entrepreneurship and reforms in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We examine how institutional and policy reforms affect the relationship between entrepreneurship and growth. We perform Arellano-Bond GMM estimations on annual data (over the period 1990-2002) from a large group of developing countries and focus in particular on the interplay between policy and institutional reforms and entrepreneurship. We find that the joint effect of trade reform and entrepreneurship on growth is negative, suggesting that trade reform diminishes the positive effects of ent...

  5. IP Commercialization Tactics in Developing Country Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite the closing gap in patent ownership in technologically sophisticated developing countries, a significant gap in patent commercialization remains. The same economies that are becoming global leaders in terms of the size of their patent portfolios suffer from a lack of corresponding increase in their monetary returns from innovation. While traditional bilateral licensing remains an important mechanism to monetize patents, there are a number of other mechanisms available to extract value...

  6. Globalisation and workers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rama, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Read before the Society, 18 April 2002 Stories of the positive and negative effects of globalisation on workers in developing countries abound. However, a comprehensive picture is missing and many of the stories are ideologically charged. This paper reviews the academic literature on the subject, including several studies currently underway, and derives the implications for public policy. Firstly, it deals with the effects of openness to trade, foreign direct investment and ...

  7. Malnutrition and health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Olaf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-01-01

    MALNUTRITION, WITH ITS 2 CONSTITUENTS of protein–energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, continues to be a major health burden in developing countries. It is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, with hundreds of millions of pregnant women and young children particularly affected. Apart from marasmus and kwashiorkor (the 2 forms of protein– energy malnutrition), deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are the main manifestations of malnutrition in...

  8. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  9. Online development in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mickos, Elisabet; Lamvik, Aud (ed.); Retlev, Ulla (ed.); Wallin, Marie; Oker-Blom, Teodora (ed.)

    2007-01-01

    This is a collection of some of the articles that will form the e-book “Online development in the Nordic countries”. The e-book will contain the chapters: Introduction - Information policy - The infrastructure - Information systems and databases - Users - The online market in perspective. The final version of the e-book will include more articles, more pictures and information about the authors.

  10. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World's Energy political and Geopolitical Order?

    OpenAIRE

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-01-01

    The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assum...

  11. Renewable energy education in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global call for more and more penetration of renewable energy sources in the energy mix for several countries driven by various different motives including the desire for attaining sustainable development through the use of these renewable sources, for decreasing pollution, trying to decrease dependency on imported fuels or to exploit the locally available renewable resources, this call has not been satisfactorily responded to, partially, it is believed here, due to the lack of awareness and adequate manpower qualifications in these sources at the different levels of decision making. Energy education in many countries is still not so dynamic to coup with the ever changing circumstances and developments related to the demand, supply, technologies, economics policies as well as environmental aspects this is more noticed in the world developing countries, with other related obstacles facing the desired and needed wider application of renewable energy sources. The paper will try to handle this situation, analyzing its components, citing some examples of good fruitful practice in this connection, and drawing some recommendations that may help in improving the same

  12. Library and Information Science Education in India: International Perspectives with Special Reference to Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Asundi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a succinct profile and contributions of Indian LIS education since its inception. It also attempts to bring to the fore how this profile presents its international potentiality and perspective scenario in context to developing countries.

  13. Capital goods for energy development: power equipment for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions of energy policy in developing countries are considered, with the goal of 'evolution from exports to indigenization' i.e. independence. Levels of technologies are considered in relation to the resources of each country. Nuclear power is considered among other energy sources. (G.Q.)

  14. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  15. Finance and economic development : policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı

    2006-01-01

    The empirical literature on finance and development suggests that countries with better developed financial systems experience faster economic growth. Financial development-as captured by size, depth, efficiency, and reach of financial systems-varies sharply around the world, with large differences among countries at similar levels of income. This paper argues that governments play an important role in building effective financial systems and discusses different policy options to make finance...

  16. Low-Carbon Development for the Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bowen; Sam Fankhauser

    2011-01-01

    The global community has to act collectively to halt climate change. But such collective action must take into account the development needs of the least developed countries (LDCs), which are likely to be hit earliest and hardest by climate change. The priority of such countries remains poverty alleviation and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, but the three challenges of limiting climate change, adapting to its consequences and reducing poverty have to be faced together. Th...

  17. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  18. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the...... production process on the strategic objectives for the plant is developed. This is followed by the selection of the type of production system and the operational methods which will support it. The final stage of the model concerns the human resource policies neede to implement the operational decisions. The...

  19. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...... relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the "streamlining initiative...

  20. Development of Research Reactor Information System for Neighboring Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown in the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, nuclear accidents bring a direct impact on neighboring countries as well as the country concerned. Because many neighboring countries in northeast Asia have numerous nuclear plants and research reactor, each country needs more detailed information about them for analyzing the effect from nuclear accidents. Therefore this study investigated research reactors information of Japan, China, Taiwan, and North Korea such as reactor details, weather and geography information, related company and institute's information. And then the web based database is established based on such information. So by connecting web pages, details of research reactors in northeast Asia can be easily obtained

  1. New technologies adoption and diffusion patterns in developing countries. An empirical study for the period 2000-2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Lechman, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, enormous changes are noted worldwide during broad adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). These unique technologies – often perceived as economic development incentives – have a great ability to spread at high pace and low cost in countries all over the world, bringing people opportunities to contribute to economic development and growth. New Technologies play a special role in developing countries, where their in-country adoption lies in the centre of d...

  2. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches

  3. Perspectives of a concerned developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We convene today against a backdrop of disturbing developments that have taken place in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation over the past 15 years. Every nation on Earth holds high stakes in the promotion of these twin goals; however, whichever way we choose to set our sights, we find today that confidence is eroding in the process agreed upon and generally entrusted with fostering those objectives for four decades. The views I would like to convey to you are therefore not exclusively those of a developing country. For all our countries are at various stages in the development process of peaceful nuclear applications, especially as concerns the production of energy for a post-Kyoto world. On the issue relating to nuclear material reaching unauthorized actors, we should do our utmost in order to prevent theft or the unaccountability of radioactive material. Having said that, I am not convinced that non-State actors can on their own develop nuclear weapons or any other explosive nuclear device without the help of a State. The question therefore is one of ensuring that security measures are effective and implementable. I leave it to others more knowledgeable than myself to dwell on this issue during the forthcoming days of this conference

  4. Developing country's perspective on COP3 development (Kyoto Protocol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to search for possible solutions on the issue of burden sharing and, in particular, the involvement of developing countries. For this, we review the Kyoto Protocol and consider major driving forces and indicators of climate change negotiation. Then we propose three candidate solutions for burden sharing and, in light of the observation of major driving forces and indicators, present a form of the involvement of developing countries. (author)

  5. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...... specifically, we question the fruitfulness of focusing on not being installed base hostile and suggest focusing on how to be installed base “friendly” by underscoring how the installed base can also be draw upon and shaped by human agents. The paper conceptualizes health information infrastructure (HII...

  7. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  8. Energy demand analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand analysis (EDA) is an important component of integrated energy planning and policy in developing countries. Planners and policy makers need to have a good understanding of the factors affecting the growth and pattern of energy demand before they can make demand projections. Given the capital intensity and long gestation periods of energy investments, supply bottlenecks and the adverse effects of energy shortages, there is a need to undertake detailed demand studies at the aggregate and sectoral levels. An analysis of the influence of price and non-price variable on energy demand is also necessary for designing energy conservation policy. (author). 83 refs

  9. Reactor physics needs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper the identification of needs on Reactor Physics in developing countries embarked in the installation and later on in the operation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. In this context the main task of Reactor Physics should be focused in the application of Physical models with inclusion of thermohydraulic process to solve the various realistic problems which appear to ensure a safe, economical and reliable core design and reactor operation. The first part of the paper deals with the scope of Reactor Physics and its interrelation with other disciplines as seen from the view point of developing countries possibilities. Needs requiring a quick response, i.e., those demands coming during the development of a specific Nuclear Power Plant Project, are summarized in the second part of the lecture. Plant startup has been chosen as reference to separate two categories of requirements: Requirements prior to startup phase include reactor core verification, licensing aspects review and study of fuel utilization alternatives; whereas the period during and after startup mainly embraces codes checkup and normalization, core follow-up and long term prediction

  10. Health and development in BRICS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the century, the acronym BRIC first appeared in a study produced by an economist at Goldman Sachs. Economic and financial interest in BRICS resulted from the fact of them being seen as drivers of development. The purpose of this review is to analyze the extent to which what is being proposed at the Declarations of Heads of State and in the Declaration and Communiqué of Ministers of Health of BRICS can provide guidance to the potential of achieving a healthier world. With that in mind, the methodology of analysis of Statements and Communiqué rose from the discussions at the Summit of Heads of State and Ministers of Health was adopted. In the first instance, the study focused on the potential for economic, social and environmental development, and in the second, on the future of health within the group addressed. The conclusion reached was that despite the prospect of continued economic growth of BRICS countries, coupled with plausible proposals for the health sector, strong investment by the countries in S&T and technology transfer within the group, research on the social and economic determinants that drive the occurrence of NCDs – there is the need and the opportunity for joint action of the BRICS in terms of the “diplomacy of health” reinforcing the whole process of sustainable development.

  11. The debt problem of developing countries: developments and alternative solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. TORNETTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The debt crisis was triggered in 1982 by a combination of adverse external factors and poor economic and financial policies on the part of debtor countries. Furthermore, after the second oil "shock", stagnation in the industrial area caused a sharp slowdown in world trade, thus further deteriorating exports for developing countries. The present work analyses the debt problem for developing countries, its causes, the policies enacted thus far and possible solutions. The strategy to combat the problem between 1982 and 1985 is detailed and the Baker Plan is considered. The author then looks at more recent developments and innovative schemes to facilitate the solution of the debt problem. Finally, estimates are provided of the impact of some debt relief efforts on the banking system and on debtor countries.

  12. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  13. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-07-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries. PMID:27430039

  14. Technical Co-operation between developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the plan of activities of the project Int/0/060 Technical Cooperation Between Developing Countries a Workshop on Public Awareness Promotional Literature was included with the purpose of preparing public and professional awareness literature and to develop a strategy which would enable Tissue Banks to present their mission to their public,professional health workers and clinical users.To identify the information to be provided to potential donors about the value of the donation.To prepare instructions to be given to potential users about the various types of grafts available.To develop a strategy wi ch would enable Tissue Banks to present themselves to their public and tissue users

  15. Minding the Stock : Bringing Public Policy to Bear on Livestock Sector Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    Driven by population growth, urbanization, and increased income, the demand for animal-source food products in developing countries is rapidly increasing. Livestock, which already constitutes 30 percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the developing world, and about 40 percent of the global agricultural GDP, is one of the fastest-growing subsectors in agriculture. Growi...

  16. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  17. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  18. A renal transplantation model for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N; Hussain, Z; Hashmi, A; Hussain, M; Akhtar, S F; Ahmed, E; Aziz, T; Sultan, G; Sultan, S; Mehdi, S H; Lal, M; Ali, B; Mubarak, M; Faiq, S M

    2011-11-01

    The estimated incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Pakistan is 100 per million population. Paucity and high costs of renal replacement therapy allows only 10% to get dialysis and 4-5% transplants. Our center, a government organization, started a dialysis and transplant program in 1980s where all services were provided free of charge to all patients. It was based on the concept of community government partnership funded by both partners. The guiding principles were equity, transparency, accountability and development of all facilities under one roof. This partnership has sustained itself for 30 years with an annual budget of $25 million in 2009. Daily 600 patients are dialyzed and weekly 10-12 receive transplants. One- and 5-year graft survival of 3000 transplants is 92% and 85%, respectively. The institute became a focus of transplantation in Pakistan and played a vital role in the campaign against transplant tourism and in promulgation of transplant law of 2007, and also helped to increase altruistic transplants in the country. This model emphasizes that in developing countries specialized centers in government sector are necessary for transplantation to progress and community support can make it available to the common man. PMID:21883911

  19. Work security impacts in developing countries: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, T K

    2003-01-01

    Given the rapid pace of globalization, newly industrialized countries cannot adequately protect workers from emerging hazards. Only 5-10% of workers in developing countries have access to occupational health services. Work-related health problems are exacerbated by a scarcity of resources, socioeconomic dislocation, and poor general health status. The author considers the case of India and looks at its background in occupational safety and health (OSH) regulation, national health policy, and recent experience. He notes the decline in trade unions and rise of hazardous industries, and presents a case study of the situation in the state of Delhi. He concludes that the progress of OSH has stalled since economic reform. The high rate of injury and illness is a bad omen for productivity. Lowering the guard on safety and health will ultimately harm the businesses that currently seek to profit from it. The well-being of workers may deteriorate further if poor enforcement and widespread ignorance of OSH persist. Labor standards must be reevaluated and responsible legislation must be developed. Training and nutrition subsidies should be offered to increase productivity and improve worker health. PMID:17208723

  20. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  1. On the commons of developed industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Berge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The editorial discusses the status and prospects of the commons of developed industrialized countries, based on the literature. For the traditional commons, one key variable for long-term development prospects of the commons is found in the way ownership to the commons is structured. A second key variable is the way increasing knowledge, including scientific environmental knowledge, has affected our perception of what a resource is within a commons and its value. The way these two variables characterizing commons: “structure of ownership” and “knowledge of valuable resources” are related is illustrated in a process referred to as “the withering away” with potential for widely diverging outcomes. Also new emerging urban commons are commented on and a more indepth study of both traditional and new urban commons is called for.

  2. Development of operation individual dosimetry programs in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Operational Individual Dosimetry (OID) Programs is the principle rationale for any national radiation protection regulatory program in both developed and developing countries. Individual dosimetry for external radiation means making exposure measurements by equipment carried out on the persons or workers. An operational individual dosimetry (OID) program is defined as development of a program in an operational state to provide national or institutional dosimetry services; i.e. to cover routine, operational and special monitoring as defined by ICRP 35. The development of an OID program depends on many legal, administrative, psychological and technical factors such as number of institutions and radiation workers or persons to be monitored, radiation types and conditions of the workplaces, the state of related sciences and technologies, radiation protection infrastructure as regard to laws and regulations, the existence of qualified leader and manpower, desire to develop such a program, degree of self-dependency required, etc. Although development of such a program is fairly easy with a proper arrangement, some problems still exist in particular in a developing country. In this paper, the stated points and recommendations for development of OID programs in developing countries based on the experiences of the Islamic Republic of Iran and some other countries are presented and discussed. (author). 32 refs

  3. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  4. Exporter Behavior, Country Size and Stage of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Fernandes; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the micro structure of the export sector for 45 countries and studies how exporter behavior varies with country size and stage of development. Larger countries and more developed countries have more exporters, larger exporters, and a greater share of exports controlled by the top 5 percent. The extensive margin (more firms) plays a greater role than the inte...

  5. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  6. Hydro-power development in remote locations of developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Granville J.

    1985-11-01

    In many developing countries hydropower can be used to replace the consumption of imported oil. The economic advantage of using hydropower increases if a low cost, locally manufactured turbine, called the cross flow turbine, can be used. This paper discusses the technical design and use of the cross flow turbine in the context of a hydroelectric development project in Africa.

  7. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

  9. Towards Building Energy Efficiency for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Aminu Umar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for 42 percent of world energy consumption, therefore the rising trend of making buildings more energy efficient is smart business with assists to make local market jobs and added benefits to the environment, even though the main inspiration for energy efficiency initiatives always been energy cost savings, government incentives and improved public image were important. Increasing energy efficiency through measures such as building efficiency has the possibilities to gradual the development of energy demand in developing nations around the world by more than fifty percent by 2020. Building efficiency codes and standards are regulatory instruments that need a minimum amount of energy efficiency in buildings, appliances, equipment or lighting when they are properly designed, they might cost-effectively lower energy costs over each and every item?s lifetime. Energy efficiency improvement targets are aims which can be established for a country or town. Setting a targeted for the whole geography can stimulate greater measures particularly if there is an organization accountable for achieving that target. Furthermore, governments can set efficiency enhancement goals for publicly owned properties to develop capacity and promote the building efficiency industry. This study reveals an overview of the development and present scenario of BEE summarizes its key issues, and proposed measures of improvement and options to enhance the building energy efficiencies systems for sustainable natural environment.

  10. Rural energy and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study from which this article is drawn was carried out under the auspices of the World Energy Council, in collaboration with the FAO, and under the supervision of a steering committee made up of experts in which the author played an active role. The article begins with an in-depth analysis of the energy crisis in rural areas of developing countries and their economic implications, which contribute to increasing poverty among rural populations. It then assesses the limits and problems related to intervention and the solutions attempted in the past, with the aim of drawing lessons from the various experiments undertaken. From these, we see an edifying and worrying factor emerging as despite a great deal of well-intentioned effort, rural energy poverty still remains at an unacceptable level today in the so-called modern world of the third millennium. Indeed 2 billion people (accounting for a third of the world population and almost all living in developing countries) do not have access to modern forms of energy and still depend on firewood, leftovers from the harvest and animal waste in order to meet their energy needs. It therefore appears necessary and urgent if we intend to take up the challenge of meeting energy requirements in rural areas, to fundamentally change the attitudes and mentalities of decision-makers at a political and other levels (planners, consultants, donors etc). It also means changing direction in research to find solutions. The author then presents a range of 'solutions' advices and recommendations aimed at ensuring that future energy provision in rural areas is more stable and sustainable, enabling rural populations to live the decent life that they should be entitled to expect today. (author)

  11. Nursing ethics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, A

    1999-03-01

    Nursing is a true profession, distinguished by its philosophy of care, its full-time commitment to human wellbeing, its particular blend of knowledge and skills and its valuable service to the community (Curtin & Flaherty, 1982:92). Ethics is vital to nursing. Being a professional implies ethical behaviour and knowledge of what it means to be ethical (Pera & Van Tonder, 1996:v). Ethics is the foundation of committed service to humankind. When nurses practice is an ethical manner they should adhere to ethical principles like autonomy, beneficence, justice, veracity, fidelity, confidentiality and privacy. From this conceptual framework two questions can be asked, namely: Does the behaviour of nurses in health services in South Africa comply with the principles of ethics? How can ethical behaviour be facilitated in nurses in South Africa? The first question was answered by doing a critical analysis of thirty-two case studies of recent ethical phenomena in health services. The ethical principles will be used as criteria for this analysis. Some of the ethical case studies will be presented in this paper to indicate the problems in relation to autonomy, beneficence, justice, veracity and fidelity. It will be demonstrated that from deontological ethical theories nurses are not doing their duty as advocates for the vulnerable patient and from utilitarianism the poor and uneducated patients are being exploited. To empower patients in developing countries it is of vital importance for nurses to behave in an ethical manner. From a literature study a program for rational interaction for moral sensitivity (Rossouw, 1995) and virtue-based ethics in Nursing Education is identified to facilitate moral behaviour amongst nurses in developing countries. PMID:11040612

  12. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  13. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  14. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-09-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  15. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  16. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  17. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  18. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  19. Regulations and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an institutional approach to examine the effect of regulations on entrepreneurial activity, comparing developed and developing countries. Through an unbalanced panel data set of 49 countries over the period 2001-2010 and using a combination of international databases we find a positive influence of government spending and entrepreneurship legislation on entrepreneurial activity. It was also found that regulations may have different impacts on entrepreneurship according to the country’s economic development. Thus, in developed economies unemployment legislation is positively related to entrepreneurship, while this relationship is negative in other cases. This paper offers new insights both from a conceptual perspective (advancing theory concerning the factors that influence entrepreneurial activity and a practical viewpoint (for the design of government policies to foster entrepreneurship.

  20. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  1. Strengthening safeguards: A developing country perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.S. Minty maintained that for developing countries the only guarantee against the use of nuclear weapons is the abolition of such weapons - nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament are two sides of the same coin. That some States have failed to recognize and act upon this has undermined the NPT. So has the growing resort to unilateralism and unilaterally imposed prescriptions. The only sustainable way of addressing international security issues is through multilateral means, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. In this regard, the IAEA is the appropriate multilateral mechanism for addressing verification issues and challenges. It should be left to do its work unfettered by pressure, hindrance or interference. All States should support the IAEA in its verification tasks, including further improvements to the effectiveness and efficiency of the strengthened safeguards system. The Board of Governors' Advisory Committee on Safeguards and Verification provides a valuable forum at which these issues can be usefully addressed. However, the Committee should not become a focus for arguments in favour of punitive actions

  2. Personal Health Book Application for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiq Alabbasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Personal Health Book application that is used as a portable repository for Personal Health Records (PHR in order to alleviate healthcare organizational problems in developing countries. The Personal Health Book application allows low literate people to access and carry their own medical history from a rural healthcare provider to an urban healthcare provider. This will improve the efficiency of medical care and lower costs for health clinics in underserved areas. This paper introduces a software application that can be ported onto a USB Smart Card or/and managed by smartphone or personal computer connected to cloud computing environment. The Portable Health Book application aims to ease the problem of interoperability between health clinics by accepting any file format and contents and applies a decomposed database to categorize, group and reorganize the data. Querying the application’s database, the consumer can create a unified report presentation that is understandable by the consumer, family, and healthcare provider. We tested the Personal Health Book framework by importing PHRs in an extensible markup language (XML format with a basic structure, without checking the PHR content from the Grameen Portable Health Clinic database in Bangladesh and from different departments from a hospital in Japan. The Personal Health Book was able to generate a human readable output as its database reorganize and store any type of PHR including sensor device data.

  3. Incubators Best Practices in Developed and Developing Countries: Qualitative Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Hanadi Mubarak AL-MUBARAKI; Michael BUSLER; Rashed AL-AJMEI; M. Aruna

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate and identify the best practices of incubators in developed and developing countries based on the incubators outcomes such as economic growth, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. The study nature of this research is mainly qualitative approaches (multi-case studies, literature review). This investigation uses ten case studies, and the data was mainly collected by direct interview with four international incubator managers and organizational documents from ...

  4. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and vi...

  5. Human Development and Quality of Institutions in Highly Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adam P. Balcerzak; Michal Bernard Pietrzak

    2015-01-01

    The article concentrates on the problem of influence of quality of institutional system in the context of utilizing the potential of knowledge-based economy on the human development in highly developed countries. In order to measure the quality of institutional system a synthetic measure based on multivariate analysis techniques was proposed. To obtain the institutional measure TOPSIS method was applied. To quantify the institutional factors the data from Fraser Institute was used. As diagnos...

  6. Exploring E-Commerce Benefits For Businesses In A Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Heeks, R.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries are home to more than 80% of the world's population, and are the site for growing use of e-commerce. There are theoretical claims that e-commerce could bring significant benefits to firms in developing countries, but we know very little empirically about the actual outcomes of e-commerce implementation. Our article addresses this gap in knowledge through a survey of 92 businesses in South Africa, all of which have moved beyond the basic stage of e-commerce. The findings i...

  7. International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli, Anna; Mendola, Mariapia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find a strong empirical regularity about the role of international mobility ...

  8. Governing the GM crop revolution: policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  9. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  10. Professional development for nuclear power programs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries entering nuclear power programs for the first time find that inadequate planning for the development of trained manpower is a critical factor in the success of their programs. This requires the early training of a team for the planning and acquisition effort to be followed by training for the supervision of construction. In addition, there is the more readily recognized training for operation. Typical manpower needs for such projects have been documented by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The basic academic training of engineers and scientists, which should be available within the country; advanced academic training, which is often secured in institutions abroad; specialized training abroad by international agencies; specialized training by the vendors of nuclear equipment; and the development of indigenous training. This paper outlines all of these avenues but will concentrate on the training available through international agencies and on the development of indigenous training capability

  11. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms’ competitiveness.  This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries.   In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms.  In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage Model—a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries.  Their ...

  12. Combining microsimulation with CGE and macro modelling for distributional analysis in developing and transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Davies

    2009-01-01

    This paper overviews recent work that has attempted to bring together microsimulation, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and macro models to perform distributional analysis in developing and transition countries. Particular attention is paid to applications relating to aspects of economic growth and political economy. Applications in which macro, CGE and microsimulation models are either layered or integrated are considered. It is demonstrated that different combinations of such models, in...

  13. Food Subsidies and Inflation in Developing Countries: A Bridge Between Structuralism and Monetarism

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, Vincent; Srinivasan, T G; Vines, David

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of food consumption subsidies as anti-inflation policy in developing countries characterized by rigidities of food supply. First a standard structuralist model is utilized to show that though a policy of food consumption subsidies brings down inflation in the very short run, eventually it is self-defeating: a lower relative price of food encourages demand for scarce food and exacerbates inflationary pressures. Next, a monetarist feature, the asset creation eff...

  14. Fusion is urgent needed for the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a global problem, as it is central to economic development, climate and environment, and international stability and sustainability. Energy need is expected to double in 40 years and an even larger increase is needed to lift the world out of poverty. 80% of world's energy is generated by burning fossil fuels, which is driving climate change and generating pollution. China will grow up to be a moderate developed country in 2050. The coal-centred energy structure will remain until 2050. Annual Energy Consumption per person will increase from near 1 TCE to no less than 3 TCE ( at present time, US: 11.5 TCE; West Europe: 5.6 TCE; Japan: 5.1 TCE) Estimated Energy Demand: increasing from near 1B TCE to over 4B TCE within next 3-4 decades. To realize the long-term sustainable development, it is necessary for China to explore reliable ways and develop thousands of GW non- fossil fuel power. The fission energy is a transit solution. To build hundreds of GW Fission Nuclear Power Plants in China - social problems, safety and environmental concerns, technical difficulties should be solved in near future. It is crucial and urgent for China to realize the controlled Nuclear Fusion Energy for our long-term development in the future as early as possible. Fusion shows environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe, the supplies of fuel are essentially limitless. JET has produced 16MW of fusion power and shown that fusion can be mastered on earth. Fusion has a long and successful history of international collaboration with obvious benefits to all partners for peaceful purpose. ITER is a device for us to bring the Sun to earth for the first time in the history. A properly organised and funded fusion development programme could lead to a proto-type fusion power plant to generate electricity to the grid within about 30 years (ITER+IFMIF). For developing countries, such as China and India, fusion is one of the very few options for large-scale sustainable energy generation

  15. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J;

    2012-01-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease...... and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient......; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently...

  16. Comparing ecological awareness in developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the questions ''Do people think about the environment in similar ways.'', ''What are the similarities and differences across different groups within a country, and what are the similarities and differences across countries.'' Using a new factor-analytical approach (which is described in detail in the appendix) four independent cognitive dimensions of the ecological awareness could be found from a set of 12 Items of the International Environmental Survey of 1980: 1. Attitude toward science and technology; 2. Concern about resources and energy supply; 3. Attitude toward nuclear power; 4. Concern about the limits to growth. The major similarities overall and the minor differences between the countries will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. The consulting profession in developing countries : a strategy for development

    OpenAIRE

    Kirmani, Syed S.; Baum, Warren C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors concluded that during the past two decades, the number of domestic consulting firms in developing countries has increased phenomenally. However, the quality of their performance has not kept pace with the growth in numbers. The policies and practices of government, internal weaknesses in staffing and management, and the lack of a supportive environment have prevented domestic consulting firms from effectively exercising the key role that they should in planning, designing, and imp...

  18. The agri - environment - economic relationships in the developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    KARAER, Feza; Serkan GÜRLÜK

    2003-01-01

    Environmental issues has been rather important topics and given priority in the public agenda of both developed and developing countries. It is a fact that in developed countries highly industrialized agriculture based on intensive input use creates a lot of problems on environment such as soil degradation, pesticide pollution etc. The economies of the most developing countries depend proportionately more on primary industries than do developed ones. They usually have a greater proportion of ...

  19. Malaysia Workforce Development : SABER Country Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia s technical and vocational training (TVET) program is born out of a combination of ambition and necessity. The country has recorded impressive economic growth over several decades, bolstering ambitions that it should make the transition from middle- to high-income by transforming to a knowledge (K) economy. Vision 2020, announced by then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, was to giv...

  20. Vietnam Workforce Development : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Since Vietnam launched its economic reforms in 1986, the country has enjoyed more than two decades of rapid economic growth with concomitant reductions in poverty. In the coming years, as Vietnam looks to strengthening its global competitiveness and sustaining its record of rapid growth, it faces critical challenges. Poor labor market outcomes and low productivity remain important concerns...

  1. Handbook of nuclear medicine practice in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Handbook of Nuclear Medicine Practices in the Developing Countries'' is meant primarily for those, who intend to install and practice nuclear medicine in a developing country. By and large, the conventional Textbooks of nuclear medicine do note cater to the special problems and needs of these countries. The Handbook is not trying to replace these textbooks, but supplement them with special information and guidance, necessary for making nuclear medicine cost-effective and useful in a hospital of a developing country. It is written mostly by those, who have made success in their careers in nuclear medicine, in one of these countries. One way to describe this Handbook will be that it represents the ways, in which, nuclear medicine is practised in the developing countries, described by those, who have a long and authentic experience of practising nuclear medicine in a developing country

  2. Changing Developing Country Trade Policies and WTO Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the engagement of developing countries in the multilateral trading system in light of the recent re-issue of Robert Hudec’s seminal book, Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System. Starting in the late 1980s, just after Hudec published his book, a major shift occurred in the trade policies of many developing countries. The major drivers of the associated reforms and their consequences for the approaches taken towards participation in the global trade ...

  3. Innovation Theories: Relevance and Implications for Developing Country Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Léger, Andréanne; Swaminathan, Sushmita

    2007-01-01

    Innovation is at the basis of economic development and as such, it is instrumental for developing countries. We review the literature on innovation from the perspectives of four select branches of economics to build a conceptual framework of innovation applicable to developing countries. The conceptual framework includes insights from the surveyed literature and identifies areas of further research. Finally, we conclude with policy recommendations for innovation policies in developing countri...

  4. First birth trends in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Frejka; Jean-Paul Sardon

    2006-01-01

    Levels and trends of various facets concerning first births are continuously changing. The evidence confirms that the postponement of first births is an ongoing and persisting process which started in western countries among cohorts of the 1940s, but only in the 1960s cohorts in Central and Eastern Europe. The mean age of women having first births is universally rising. Fertility of older women was increasing. The decline in childbearing of young women is robust among the cohorts of the late ...

  5. Globalization and Gender Equality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Potrafke; Heinrich Ursprung

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically assesses the influence of globalization on the institutional root causes of gender equality as measured by the new OECD Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI). We capture the multifaceted concept of globalization with the KOF index and its three sub-indices which measure the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization. Observing the progress of globalization for a sample of almost one hundred countries at ten year intervals starting in 1970, we find ...

  6. Food irradiation for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of post-harvest losses of food is considered to be highest on the African continent. As a result, increasing numbers of countries in Africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition, which range from chronic to acute. Food irradiation could play an important role in reducing the high rate of food losses especially in the case of food grain, root crops and dried food in this continent provided that proper infrastructure to employ this technique could be identified. Irradiation could contribute positively to the safety of food from microbiological and parasitic infection. A panel of experts participated at the round table discussion to assess the potential application of the technology in Africa. Some of the items for which technical feasibility has been established for food irradiation preservation include yams, onions, potatoes, maize, millet, sorghum, cowpeas and other pulses, cocoa beans, spices (pepper) and condiments, meat and poultry, fish and fishery products, animal feed, etc. In considered the local demand, a suitable choice of the type and size of the facility should be made. The design should allow up-grading in both size and automated operation to meet future expansion of the existing facility, but small commercial scale facilities, of low cost, should be considered to start with. Whatever type of equipment chosen, (whether Gamma or Electron Beam) safety, reliability, maintainability, and simplicity of operation should be of major consideration. It is recognized that for a project to be concluded on a reasonable schedule, technology transfer and training should be incorporated into the complete package. In addition back-up technical infrastructure in the country should be strengthened. The effective procedures demonstrated in a number of countries for performing consumer acceptance studies on irradiated foods, should be adopted in a slightly modified form adapted to the different target populations. Such studies should be

  7. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  8. The global labour standards controversy: critical issues for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Overview For some time now, the governments of a few advanced countries,as well as their unions and some parts of the business sector, have been pressing proposals to establish multilateral rules permitting punitive trade measures to be taken against countries deemed to be failing to uphold core labour standards. The countries most likely to be arraigned would be developing countries. The latter have,however, firmly rebutted these initiatives, which they argue are protectionist both in...

  9. Space product development: Bringing the benefits of space down to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tygielski, A. P.; Allen, R. W.; Gabris, E. A.; Nall, M. E.

    In fulfilling the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) responsibility to encourage the fullest commercial use of space the Space Product Development (SPD) Program, within the Microgravity Research Program Office (MRPO) located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is managing an organization of Commercial Space Centers (CSC's) that have successfully employed methods for encouraging private industries to exploit the benefits of space-based research. Unique research opportunities of the space environment are being made available to private industry in an effort to develop new, competitive products: create jobs; and enhance the country's quality of life. Over 200 commercial research activities have been conducted in space by the CSC's and their industrial partners during the last several years. The success of this research is evidenced by the increasing amount of industrial participation in commercial microgravity research and the potential products nearing marketability.

  10. The Case for Research in Pure Physics in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweene, H. V.

    Science and technology are the keys to modern economic development. But, it has often been argued that poor countries cannot really afford to support research, or that they should at most devote their efforts to applied science only. The scientific knowledge necessary for development would then be partly or wholly obtained from other countries. In this paper, the case will be argued that developing countries cannot afford to leave research, both pure and applied, to the developed countries and that the only way the developing world is going to solve its problems is through development driven by their own research activities. With reference to physics, the importance of research by researchers in poor countries is explained. Lastly, it is outlined how the logistics of doing research under the difficult conditions prevailing in poor countries can be managed.

  11. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking

  12. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  13. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  14. Developing an effective instructional environment by understanding what the urban student brings to the physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Mel

    2011-04-01

    Physics Education Research (PER) has provided the physics community with (1) tools to assess student learning, (2) details on the state of student knowledge, and (3) instructional materials and learning environments that have proven to be effective in promoting understanding. Often, implicit in the dissemination of this work is a claim that these assessment tools, education research results and instructional materials are valid and appropriate regardless of the student population. As instructors begin to implement and assess different types of innovative instructional materials with diverse populations we begin to find complex differences in how different students come to understand physics and develop knowledge. Instructional materials that address the needs of one group of students may not address the needs of other groups. In addition, assessment and evaluation techniques that provide valid results for one group of students may not yield valid or complete results when used with other groups. If one is not careful, the use of traditional PER tools with students in non-traditional learning environments can lead to a very limited or even inaccurate picture of student development. Often, this limited view highlights student deficiencies and fails to reveal the strengths and resources of this population. In this talk we discuss our work at Chicago State University, which has focused on the specific issues of the urban student at the comprehensive university and the two year college. The refinement of our research tools and research agenda have helped us identify a rich set of resources that our students bring to the classroom and continue to cultivate as the semester progresses. These resources have played a major role in how our instructional environment has evolved. Supported by the NSF Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement Program (DUE# 0632563).

  15. Nuclear project finance in developing countries: The multi-country financing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the basic contention of this paper that, because of certain factors in the financial markets, multi-country financing (MCF) is the new alternative if not the imperative for large scale and turnkey nuclear plant programs in developing countries. The point is made that its successful use depends on the ability of the host country, the credit granting countries and suppliers to both recognize the MCF reality and manage its implicit variables. Those who collectively do so will be successful, and those who cannot will not be states the author. The aspects of MCF are described

  16. Worker Remittances and Capital Flows to Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuckulenz, Anja; Buch, Claudia M

    2004-01-01

    Worker remittances constitute an increasingly important mechanism for the transfer of resources from developed to developing countries, and remittances are the second-largest source, behind foreign direct investment, of external funding for developing countries. Yet, literature on worker remittances has so far focused mainly on the impact of remittances on income distribution within countries, on the determinants of remittances at a micro-level, or on the effects of migration and remittances ...

  17. The Theory and Practice of Capital Structure in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sau Chan

    2014-01-01

    This study conducts an analysis of the current capital structure practice amongst the sample companies in developing countries as well as looks into if; and if so how the capital structure practice in developing countries different from that of the developed countries. Since the 1950s there have been many studies pertaining to capital structure theories. The examples are Modigliani and Miller, (1958, 1963); Jenson and Meckling, (1976); Myers, (1984). Most, if not all, the theories on capital ...

  18. Multinational corporations and their influence in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Veščičíková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of multinational corporations and their impacts on developing countries. The primary objective is to assess, how activities of multinational corporations influence developing countries in the economic, environmental, political and social areas. One of the major findings of this that is a fact, that negative influences of MNCs in developing countries are gradually reducing. First part of this thesis is focused on the general characteristics of MNCs inc...

  19. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Cerovic; Marina Pepic

    2011-01-01

    Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps) are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still t...

  20. Radioactive waste management challenges in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing Member States as they plan and implement a national waste management programme. The challenges are divided into three areas, namely, political technical and ethical. These challenges have been identified by various Agency activities and contacts with senior government officials, scientists and managers in many countries. Agency programmes to assist Member States overcome the challenges are described but the paper clearly states that it is the responsibility of the Member States to plan and implement activities which will overcome the challenges and permit the establishment of a successful national waste management programme. (author). 4 figs

  1. Nonconventional Technology for Agricultural Development in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the economic assessment of a nonconventional technology to provide a cheap food and/or feed for many developing countries, using wasted resources, i.e. coastal arid areas irrigated directly with seawater to grow a halophyte crop(Salicornia-sos-7). It was cultivated for two successive years in Kuwait. The analysis showed that the harvested yield was 20 tons per hectare, which provided 12.42 MT of straw for sale and 1.7 MT of oil seeds for processing. Processed seeds of 1-he...

  2. MNC Strategies and Linkage Effects in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    is hypothesized that compared to investments undertaken by MNCs following strategies of global integration, investments of MNCs pursuing local responsiveness create more jobs but imply less job upgrading in developing countries. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of Danish MNCs with extensive......The paper addresses the question of which implications MNC strategies have to FDI linkage effects in developing countries. Two contrasting MNC strategies reflecting an integration-responsiveness dichotomy are scrutinized as to their job effects on local linkage partners in developing countries. It...... investments in developing countries....

  3. Nuclear power for developing countries. Key issue paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is there a rationale for developing countries to adopt nuclear power? This paper explores this rationale and the suitability of nuclear power for developing countries by surveying the prerequisites for and implications of developing a nuclear power program: infrastructure availability, economics and finance, environment, the needs for technology transfer, the regulatory and institutional frameworks required and the awareness of public concerns. (author)

  4. Nuclear Medicine in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namibia is a country with 1,8 million inhabitants, of whom the majority has limited access to first world facilities. Nevertheless, medical services of high standard are offered. A Nuclear Medicine Department was established at Windhoek Central Hospital in 1982. A nuclear physician, two nuclear medicine radiographers and a nursing sister staff the department. Equipment includes a Siemens Orbiter and an Elscint Apex SPX Helix gamma camera. Radiopharmaceuticals are obtained from suppliers in South Africa. Investigations performed include musculoskeletal, liver, hepatobiliary, thyroid, renal studies, ventilation perfusion lung scans as well as the following Nuclear Cardiology studies: Gated blood pool scans, Tc-99m pyrophosphate hot spot scans, Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies, Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion studies and Tl-201 rest-redistribution studies. Problems experienced at the Windhoek Nuclear Medicine department include: Lack of funding and high cost of equipment and radiopharmaceuticals, lack of understanding of Nuclear Medicine by the hospital management and health administrators, and difficulties in procuring short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the absence of company representatives and spare parts in Namibia leads to loss of time whenever equipment needs to be repaired. Working as the only nuclear medicine physician in a country also poses major problems. Careful management of resources and information drives have helped to sustain the Nuclear Medicine service despite economic problems in the country. Installation of a tele-link between the department in Windhoek Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital in South Africa has greatly assisted to overcome the problem of isolation and lack of back up from fellow specialists. The IAEA has equipped both departments with Hermes workstations (Nuclear Diagnostics) and a tele-link is maintained via modem. The current software provided with the Hermes system is ideally suited to processing of data such as gated

  5. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  6. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products. PMID:17286015

  7. Nuclear oncology in a developing country: Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Namibia is a country with 1.8 million inhabitants of whom the majority have limited access to world-class medical facilities. On an average, 25% people in Namibia get cancer in their lifetime. Most cancers can be cured if detected early and treated more effectively when metastatic disease is localized or even excluded. Nuclear medicine techniques play an important role in the detection, staging and management of malignant disease. In Namibia, due to sun exposure, skin cancer (31%) tops the list of prevailing cancers. The next most common cancer is breast cancer (9%), followed by head and neck cancers (8%), prostate (7%), Kaposi sarcoma (7%) and cervical cancer (6%). AIDS is an ever growing problem in Namibia, and related cancers e.g. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma are on the rise. A Nuclear Medicine Department was established at Windhoek Central Hospital in 1982. A nuclear physician, two nuclear medicine radiographers and a nursing sister staff the department. Equipment includes a Siemens Orbiter and an Elscint Apex SPX Helix gamma camera. Radiopharmaceuticals are obtained from suppliers in South Africa. There is a good working relationship between the Nuclear Medicine department and the clinicians, including the oncologists and surgeons. Therefore oncology patients are regularly referred for Nuclear Medicine procedures. Approximately 50% of all studies performed in the department are referred from oncologists. Investigations performed for breast cancer patients include scintimammography, sentinel node mapping with gamma probe. Bone scans and liver scans are used for the detection of metastases in patients with breast carcinoma and other cancers. In thyroid cancer patients, whole body radioiodine scans are done post-thyroidectomy to confirm the presence of a thyroid remnant and to detect local or distant metastases. Thallium and Sestamibi scans are performed to localize metastatic disease in thyroid cancer patients with a rising thyroglobulin level but a

  8. Managing nuclear knowledge in a developing country: Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear technology base in a developing country is relatively much smaller compared to those in the industrialised countries. Thus, nuclear knowledge and its management are of great importance for those countries which are interested in nuclear technology but are still in the development phase. It is neither desirable nor possible to use imported nuclear technology as a black box. It is important for a developing country to acquire the ability for the safe and efficient operation of a nuclear facility such as a nuclear power plant. This should be done with maximum local participation and a sound institutional memory. (author)

  9. Jamaica 2030: A Strategy For Developed Country Status

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jones

    2006-01-01

    In order for Jamaica to transition from a Developing Country to a Developed Country it will be highly necessary to create a Knowledge based society, the inability to seriously overcome this challenge will mean Jamaica will be in transition to a developed country for an infinite number of years. The thinking here is nothing new as the Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC s) of S. E. Asia discovered this 15-20 years ago and much of their successes can be accredited to the building of strong Know...

  10. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  11. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  12. Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalizati...

  13. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Acaroglu; Ozcan Dagdemir

    2010-01-01

    This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via cross-country analysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply and gross domestic product per capita (PCGDP) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicates that the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above $7500 since the net effect of glo...

  14. Indicators of the Relative Importance of IPRs in Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Albaladejo, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the economic case for uniform and strong intellectual property rights (IPRs) in developing countries and to throw some empirical light on the potential impact of strengthening IPRs and applying them uniformly to all countries (as envisaged by the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement). It argues that countries at different levels of industrial and technological development face very different economic costs and benefits from stronge...

  15. European integration : a threat to foreign investment in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Jamuna Prasad; Hiemenz, Ulrich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    European integration is expected to enhance the attractiveness of EL) countries for domestic and foreign investors. This has caused concerns in developing countries that foreign direct investment there may be diverted to Europe. In preparing for the Single Market, European companies have indeed become more Eurocentric, but this mainly affected their investment activities in the United States. They neglected developing countries only temporarily and largely because of macroeconomic disturbance...

  16. The Dynamics of Women's Labour Supply in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, Sonia; Umaña-Aponte, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates cyclicality in women's labour supply motivated by the hypothesis that it contributes to smoothing household consumption in environments characterized by income volatility. We use comparable individual data on about 1.1 million women in 63 developing and transition countries merged with country-level panel data on GDP during 1986-2006. The scope of these data is unprecedented in the small but growing literature on labour markets in developing countries. We find that the...

  17. Decentralisation in developing countries: preconditions for successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Olum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation has been implemented and is being implemented in many developing countries without much success. Although several unique factors inhibit the implementation of decentralisation in individual countries, the paper argues that there are six pre-conditions that these countries should fulfill before decentralisation can be successfully implemented. These preconditions are: institutional mechanisms; creation of spaces for participation; political will and civil will; capacity development at the local level; careful implementation; and democratic governance.

  18. Fiscal Policy as a Tool for Stabilization in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; Serven, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007/2008, the subsequent great recession in rich countries and its propagation to developing countries has sparked a renewed interest in the role of fiscal policy as a potential countercyclical tool among policymakers and researchers. This paper reviews the state of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of discretionary countercyclical fiscal policy by placing a particular emphasis on developing countries. On the whole, successful fiscal interventions of this type h...

  19. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  20. Spectrum Requirement Estimation for IMT Systems in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sohel Rana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the methodology developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU for estimating the spectrum requirement for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT systems. The International Telecommunication Union estimates spectrum requirements by following ITU-R-Rec.M1768. Although this methodology is adopted by ITU-R, there are discrepancies for Estimating the spectrum requirement for developing countries. ITU estimates the spectrum requirement by considering technical and market parameters that were provided by the most de veloped countries with high income and high development index. Developed countries have a very rapid expansible telecom market due to the high level of penetration, dominant user density and usage of high-volume multimedia services.In contrast, developing countries use less bandwidth -intensive services such as voice communication, low rate data, low and medium multimedia. However, while the input parameters are adequate for developed countries, they do not reflect the status of developing countries. For this reason the ITU spectrum estimation overestimates the exact requirements of spectrum for IMT systems for developing countries. This paper presents an approach based on the technical and market related parameters, which is thought to be applicable For overcoming the hortcomings of the current ITU methodology in estimating the spectrum requirement for developing countries like Bangladesh

  1. Climate change and migration in developing countries: evidence and implications for PRISE countries

    OpenAIRE

    Waldinger, Maria; Fankhauser, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Headline issue: This paper informs the development community about the effects of climate change on migration patterns within and out of developing countries. It concentrates on the economic aspects of migration and on information that is relevant for the six semi-arid countries that are the focus of the PRISE (Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies) project: Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Tanzania, Pakistan and Tajikistan. Policy intervention is required to reduce potential negative...

  2. A survey of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognized that within the coming decades nuclear power is likely to play an important role in many developing countries because, usually, such countries have limited indigenous energy resources and, in recent years, have been adversely affected by increases in world oil prices. Consequently, many of the smaller, less-developed countries have expressed concern about the unavailability of nuclear power reactors of a suitable size for application in their system. At present only eight developing countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction ? Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, India, the Republic of Korea, Mexico and Pakistan. The total of their nuclear power commitments to date is only about 5200 MW, as compared to an estimated 1972 installed electric generation capacity for these eight countries of about 56000 MW. It is estimated that by 1980 only 8% of the installed electrical capacity of all developing countries of the world will be nuclear. In contrast, in the industrialized countries more than 16% of total electrical capacity will be nuclear by 1980. The Agency has been fully aware of this potential need for nuclear power and has actively pursued a programme of assisting such countries with the development of their nuclear programmes. Consequently, in view of the indicated need for nuclear power in developing countries, it was recommended at the Fourth International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva in 1971, and at the fifteenth regular session of the IAEA's General Conference, that efforts should be intensified to assist these countries in planning for nuclear power. In response to those recommendations the Agency convened a Working Group on Nuclear Power Plants of Interest to Developing Countries in October 1971 to review the then current status of the potential for nuclear power plants in these countries, and to advise on the desirability of carrying out a

  3. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  4. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  5. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  6. COMPARISON OF THE MINIMUM WAGE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Вакулина Вера Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    The salary is the basis for the well-being of the population. The most effective means of regulation of wages is the establishment of a minimum wage. In developed countries, wages are always larger than the less developed countries of the world. Establishing an effective minimum wage could lead to an increase in productivity.

  7. Comparing developing countries under potential carbon allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stabilise atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, all countries will eventually need to be included in the effort to limit climate change. This article explores what potential future greenhouse gas allocation schemes might mean for key developing countries. The need for development is widely acknowledged, but growth in non-Annex I country emissions means that such development may need to take a different path to business as usual. The national interests of developing countries in negotiating potential future commitments are shaped by basic characteristics, notably emissions (both annual and historical cumulative), economic growth and population. These factors in turn shape the acceptability of allocations based on ability to pay, emissions intensity, or emissions per capita. Results for six major developing countries (China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Argentina and Nigeria) show that the implications for developing countries differ widely. For example, ability to pay does not favour Argentina; a reduction based on emissions intensity is not appropriate for Brazil; and per capita allocations would be problematic for South Africa. It is difficult to conceive of a single allocation scheme that would be appropriate for all developing countries. This points to the need for differentiation between developing countries in terms of any potential future commitments

  8. Private power in developing countries: Exporting the American experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses using American marketing and financing expertise and technology to meet the need for increased power production and efficiency in developing countries. The topics of the paper include the opportunity for independent power production, dangers in international development, foreign country market evaluation, the criteria for selection, and taking advantage of the opportunities

  9. Derivatives Approach of Risk Management by Firms of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Kapil Sharma; Vibhav Trivedi; Gaurav Chandak

    2005-01-01

    Risk management has increased in importance and sophistication in recent years. Increased volatility in financial markets across the globe has led to the development of a number of new financial instruments for managing the risks associated with specific transactions. Risk managers in developed countries are busy developing new techniques for managing risks; many of the existing techniques are unavailable or not well known in developing countries. Despite the fact that managers of developing ...

  10. Development prospects of the banking industry in the new EU member countries and forthcoming member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Košak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bank consolidation has substantially decreased the number of banks in European banking, which has had important implications for the banking sectors structure in all EU member countries. The consolidation processes have had a tremendous impact on the developments in banking sectors of new EU member countries, wheremajor structural changes have been initiated mostly by new entrant banks from the old EU member countries. The future banking development in new EU member countries will very likely follow some main patterns known from the old EU members. Rather speculative conjectures, which are based on a comparison with banking sectors in other EU member countries indicate, that the total-asset-to-GDPratio in new member countries should further improve in the future. The banking sector growth will be based mostly on the growth of the credit to non-banking sector, while banks are not expected anymore to use non-bank deposits as a predominant way of funding. Instead potentials for alternative funding possibilities should be activated. Although the non-bank financial intermediaries in new EU membersrepresent a serious competition to banks, their relative underdevelopment prevents them from impacting the developments in banking sectors as known from old EU member countries.

  11. Millennium Development Goals as an instrument of sustainable development in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Deszczyński

    2011-01-01

    During Millennium Summit in 2000 in New York, 189 member countries of the United Nations accepted Millennium Declaration. It contains Millennium Development Goals which are a form of road map for realization of development aid based on sustainable development in developing countries. The article discusses this problem.

  12. The position of developing countries in international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a substantial reduction in trade policy and other barriers inhibiting developing country participation in the world trade. Lower barriers have contributed to a dramatic shift in the pattern of developing country trade -away from dependence on commodity exports to much greater reliance on manufactures and services. In addition, exports to other developing countries have become much more important. These changes have profound implications for the role played by developing countries in the world economy and the trade system. Developing countries have become major players in the global economy. The outward-oriented strategies of many economies in emerging Asia have been reflected in high trade growth and a steady increase in their share in the world trade.

  13. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

  14. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  15. Financial Development in Arab Countries (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Khaled; Omran, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    This book of readings provides fruitful policy recommendations on various financial development issues in the Arab World such as operational efficiency and service quality in banking. It also examines different aspects related to stock markets development such as efficiency, volatility, hedging, and returns.

  16. Small modular reactor for developing countries as Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology with SMRs less than 300 MWt is an advanced development of nuclear power. What the role do SMRs play among developing countries such as Vietnam? Some comments and assessment are subjects for discussion in this paper. (author)

  17. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN SELECTED EU COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Luštický, Martin; Kincl, Tomáš; Martin MUSIL

    2011-01-01

    Tourism development planning is now part of the regional policies of all Member States of the European Union. Strategic plans at national or regional level are specific instruments of regional management, which contain results of the planning process and ensure the development of tourism in the selected region. The paper analyzes the representatives of these plans from Great Britain, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria. It evaluates their contents and form of processin...

  18. ASSESING COUNTRIES' READINESS FOR DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Vojislav Iliæ, Vladimir Nediæ

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge and innovation have had the biggest significance in development since the very beginnings of human civilization. However, globalisation and technological revolution in the last few decades have made knowledge a key factor of macro competitiveness and economic growth in certain countries. Both developed and developing countries tend to raise the level of their own readiness for development of knowledge economy to the greatest possible extent. Putting knowledge in the center of econom...

  19. Essays on FDI, growth, and political instability in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in development strategies in developing countries. In particular, policy makers in developing countries and development agencies alike believe that FDI is growth enhancing, as suggested by their policy stand (in particular, promoting measures to facilitate and attract FDI). FDI is different from other types of capital flows as it involves not only the capital itself, but also transfers in the form of technology diffusion and skills, mana...

  20. Technology foresight and industrial strategy in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrobelli C.; Puppato F.

    2015-01-01

    When Technology Foresight TF began to be adopted in industrial countries, it tended to be still somewhat a marginal activity in developing countries. It was then believed that TF and its prediction of the future was a matter that only highly industrialised countries could endeavour to achieve, being more engaged and interested in frontier and new to the world innovation. Today globalisation, increased complexity, competition and fast technical change, have radically transformed the range of e...

  1. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  2. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  3. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  4. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.; Moreira, J.; Wamukonya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas, and...

  5. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Van Minh; Nguyen Viet Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering ...

  6. Regulation and electronic commerce in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mansell, Robin

    2005-01-01

    This report is the result of dialogue and research focusing on the World Dialogue on Regulation (WDR) theme Stimulating Investment in Network Development: Roles for Regulators. The World Dialogue on Regulation for Network Economies (WDR) is an infoDev-funded project that is helping to facilitate infoDev’s objectives to broaden the reach and affordability of ICTs for all through its program of applied research, web-based dialogue, expert forum meetings with policymakers and regulators, and pub...

  7. Renewable Energy: Ideas for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Baris Kepenek

    2006-01-01

    The concept "energy" has always been one of the strategic concepts. Its increasing dominance in economics has resulted in important outcomes in both national and international politics. The security of energy supply and the sustainable use of energy sources have become two main problems that have to be solved along with environmental concerns like climate change and socio- economic concerns like sustainable development. The idea of Renewable Energy (RE) has become a crucial factor in the curr...

  8. Globalization and the Least Developed Countries: Potentials and Pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most notable changes in the world economy during the past three decades has been the diverging trends in the growth of the developing countries. Compared to East Asian countries that have integrated well into the global economy, those of Sub-Saharan Africa have remained stagnant and have

  9. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  10. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, S.; Mores, S.; Bonifacio, A.; Chancellor, T.; Condori, B.; Crespo-Perez, V.; Hobbs, S.; Kroshel, J.; Ba, M.; Rebaudo, F.; Sherwood, S.G.; Vanek, S.J.; Faye, E.; Herrera, M.; Dangles, O.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countrie

  11. Financing of power expansion for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a paper of this kind, which was first identified in the Operations Evaluation Report on Power of 1972, became more pressing when the increases in oil prices precipitated the development by the LDCs of more capital intensive sources of power as alternative to oil-fired thermal plants. The occasion for its preparation was the participation of Mr. Friedmann in (i) a Seminar on nuclear power development in LDCs for utility managers organized by IAEA and the Jamaican Government last June and (ii) a Scientific Afternoon on the same subject at the Nineteenth Regular Session of the General Conference of IAEA. The paper reviews the likely growth of Power/Nuclear installation in LDCs, the associated capital requirements in foreign and domestic currencies, the past and projected sources of these funds - official and private -, and points out the growing proportion of foreign borrowing and investments that would be required by the sector. The urgency of mobilizing sufficient resources is brought up. Intentionally, no implications have been drawn in this article regarding Bank policy - either for lending in the sectors or for assistance in mobilizing resources. These will be dealt with separately in cooperation with those concerned. (author)

  12. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-01-01

    Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs) are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowled...

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FDI INFLOW IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaz Hussain SHAH

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of infrastructure availability in the host developing country in increasing its attractiveness for overseas investors. I also take into account market size, economic development, macroeconomic stability, regional and income groupings, ability of the people to speak an international language and access to sea. Using annual data for a panel of 90 developing countries over the years 1980-2007, I found that consistent with the prediction of the market size hypot...

  14. A framework for telemedicine system performance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ahmad, WMNI; van Coster, R; Noura, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework for telemedicine system performance in developing countries. The developing countries still having a big challenge in implementing telemedicine system and this research is assessing healthcare practitioner viewpoint in Malaysia. Malaysia has started implementation of telemedicine localise project since 1997. A framework model is developed to predict user interaction of the telemedicine system performance by three outputs: net bene...

  15. Institutional determinants of financial development in MENA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Mondher; Dreger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Developed and well regulated financial markets are usually seen as a precondition for an efficient allocation of resources and can foster long term economic growth. This paper explores the institutional determinants for financial development in the countries of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Institutional conditions are from the International Country Risk Guide. Paneleconometric techniques are applied to assess the development in the banking sector and the stock market. As a...

  16. Environmental regulation and development : a cross-country empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Ashoka; Roy, Subhendu; Wheeler, David; Dasgupta, Susmita

    1995-01-01

    The authors develop comparative indices of environmental policy and performance for 31 countries using a quantified analysis of reports prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development. In cross-country regressions, they find a very strong, continuous association between their indicators and national income per capita, particularly when adjusted for purchasing power parity. Their results suggest a characteristic progression in development. Poor agrarian economies fo...

  17. Political mechanisms of sustainable energy development in western countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the development of politic mechanisms in sustainable energy in western countries (primarily EC, USA). The development of sustainable energy in western countries should be greatly based on government and business support and common ways of such help are described below. Also shown the significance of development of sustainable energy, its importance for environmental protection and perspectives Key words: sustainable energy, government regulation, wind energy, EC, USA, biofuel

  18. Decentralized energy services delivery in developing countries, Case study; India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Venkata

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, access to modern energy services is limited in spite of ambitious efforts of the governments and international development agencies like the World Bank. In this work, the importance of decentralized energy service delivery in developing countries has been investigated using the concepts of Service Engineering and institutional analysis of different delivery models is performed using the process mapping technique from the energy service provider's perspective. Decentra...

  19. Optics education in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  20. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  1. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility of...... existing techniques. Our results consistently show that the sensitivity of reported profits to profit-shifting incentives is negatively related to the level of economic and institutional development. This may explain why many developing countries opt for low corporate tax rates in spite of urgent revenue...

  2. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  3. Tariff valuation bases and trade among developing countries : do developing countries discriminate against their own trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Erzan, Refik; Yeats, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    In establishing the value of imports for tariff assessment, most countries apply duties either to the cost-insurance-freight (c.i.f.) or the free-on-board (f.o.b.) value of the traded good. One effect of using the far more common c.i.f. base is to place a disproportinate burden on countries that have higher freight and insurance costs. Distant countries often not only pay higher transport costs, but are further penalized by disproportionate tariff costs that worsen their competitive disadvant...

  4. Exchange Rate Stability and its Implications for Economic Development of the Less Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gowon, Chileshe Hilda Wabo

    1985-01-01

    The question that Less Developed Countries have faced since the advent of floating exchange rates among the Industrial Countries is whether they should also adopt a floating exchange rate system. The Less Developed Countries have opted for a pegged exchange rate system, since their economic characteristics and institutional structure indicate that floating for the Less Developed Countries would result in volatile or unstable exchange rates. Since Less Developed Countries peg t heir exchange r...

  5. Implementation of sustainable energy programs in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J. [FEBRAE, Rio Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Energy, a major contributor to development, is an essential element for increasing quality of life. During the next decades, the developing world will experience an explosive increase of energy demand, requiring enormous efforts and ingenuity to be fully satisfied. Delays may create public frustration for not achieving paradigm levels of quality of life, giving eventually rise to serious pressures on governments. The concept of sustainable energy options for development cannot be analyzed under the same prism in developed and developing countries. The relative degree of a country development should be introduced when setting up the path to sustainable development. (author)

  6. Implementation of sustainable energy programs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy, a major contributor to development, is an essential element for increasing quality of life. During the next decades, the developing world will experience an explosive increase of energy demand, requiring enormous efforts and ingenuity to be fully satisfied. Delays may create public frustration for not achieving paradigm levels of quality of life, giving eventually rise to serious pressures on governments. The concept of sustainable energy options for development cannot be analyzed under the same prism in developed and developing countries. The relative degree of a country development should be introduced when setting up the path to sustainable development. (author)

  7. Migration, remittance and development in origin countries: evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Afaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration (international or local migration of individuals/workers is viewed as a channel through whichworkers’ remittances have become a major source of income for developing countries; resources are repatriatedfrom the source country to service foreign nationals or home economy while it creates an internal braindrain between local migrants and likely an increased outmigration of workers/individuals. However, little isstill known about their impact on the economic development in the origin countries. This paper analyseswhether, and to what extent, these downsides of international migration of workers affects origin countries.Consequently, using a household survey-based and secondary sources dataset our results show that remittancesin Nigeria are positively and significantly viable in their contribution to economic growth (proxy bygross domestic product in some Sub-Saharan African countries and have reduced poverty to some extent.

  8. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.

  9. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  10. Problems facing developing countries. [Financing nuclear power programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential.

  11. Photovoltaics for rural electrification in developing countries a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Urmee, Tania; Holtorf, Hans-Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This guide will greatly improve the success rate of solar energy projects in remote communities in developing countries, drawing on the authors' own case studies to generate comprehensive, step-by-step procedures that replicate proven real-life strategies.

  12. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in February 1986 a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes, which was asked: (a) To identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; (b) To study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes, and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This report summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study. It also presents a number of recommendations on mechanisms to assist developing countries in promoting and financing their nuclear power programmes. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Requirements for deploying SMRs in developing countries: The Korean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in deploying SMRs is growing in developing countries as they are more suitable for meeting the needs of relatively smaller distribution systems as well as being easier to finance and having a lower capital cost. Many developing countries are thus in an early stage of preparing for the introduction of SMRs. This paper describes the requirements for deploying SMRs in developing countries by dividing the requirements into four (4) categories, i.e. National Nuclear Energy Policy, Economics and Financing, Infrastructure, and Technology. As a specific example of the planning and implementation of nuclear power projects in a developing country, the Korean experience in nuclear power programs is described with respect to requirements for deploying nuclear power reactors. In addition, the top-level requirements imposed on SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), an integral PWR with the rated thermal power of 330 MW, are discussed. (author)

  14. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  15. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  16. Private investment and economic growth in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Khan, Mohsin

    1989-01-01

    Despite the growing support for market-oriented strategies, and for a greater role of private investment, empirical growth models for developing countries typically make no distinction between the private and public components af investment. This paper sheds some light on this important issue by formulating a simple growth model that separates the effects of public sector and private sector investment. This model is estimated for a cross-section sample of 24 developing countries, and the resu...

  17. Reconsidering Public-Private Partnerships in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jomo Kwame Sundaram; Anis Chowdhury

    2009-01-01

    Where large-scale investments are needed, especially for infrastructure projects, public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been touted as an option. With encouragement by the international financial institutions, PPPs have been promoted in developing countries, especially those facing large public sector debt burdens. PPPs can be very diverse and complex. Many developing country governments lack the institutional and human resource capacity to handle the complexities of PPPs, and hence, PPPs m...

  18. The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries--in education, personal autonomy, and more--explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold certain cultural views that lead to gender inequality? This article discusses several mechanisms through which, as countries grow, gender gaps narrow. I argue that while much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the process of development, society-specific factors are also at play...

  19. WTO Agricultural Negotiations and Developing Countries: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Costantini

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a broad overview of the main issues faced by developing countries in a context of trade liberalization as part of the multilateral agricultural trade negotiations in the WTO Doha Round. The bargaining positions of developing countries in the Doha Round are described. A comparison of empirical results on possible outcomes of a Doha Round agreement follows with a focus on impacts in terms of poverty reduction. Results are then analyzed using the main theoretical...

  20. Organization and training in radiotherapy for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Seminar was arranged to help identify and solve problems likely to be encountered by developing countries, especially in Africa, interested in developing radiotherapy facilities. The Proceedings contain status reports of medical facilities in a number of African countries as well as several more general papers dealing with the epidemiology of cancer in Africa, the attitudes of patients and the importance of different radiotherapeutical techniques in cancer treatment. The individual papers are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    , this study highlights key lessons learned from empirical studies of CSR initiatives that aimed to improve environmental management and work conditions and reduce poverty in local industrial districts. Academic work in this area remains embryonic, lacking in empirical evidence about the effects of CSR...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....

  2. Advertising Media Development Trends in Fifty-One African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lalita A. Manrai; Manrai, Ajay K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive research study investigating the advertising media development trends for 15 print and broadcast media variables in 51 African countries for the 25-year period 1964-1988. Trend analysis was carried out for 5 geographical regions, 3 population size groups and 3 GNP/capita groups. The results support the propositions that both types of advertising media (i.e., print and broadcast) are developing fastest in Northern Region, and in countries with lar...

  3. The Dual Role of Mobile Payment in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia Chaix; Dominique Torre

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capacity of mobile-payment solutions to improve financial inclusion in developing countries. It elaborates from rural East African countries experiences where mobile payment services have developed rapidly. With a simple dynamic model which rationalizes traders' adoption process of distant mobile payment services, we analyze the role of telephonic operators in financial inclusion. We point out the interest of a diversified supply of m-payment services, including simpli...

  4. The link between immigration and trade in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Blanes

    2010-01-01

    International trade can foster economic development. This paper examines the link between immigration from developing countries to OECD countries and their bilateral trade; it also explores some possible mechanism behind this link. It uses a gravity equation for trade augmented by an immigrant stock variable and a set of control variables. The immigrants’ variable enters the estimated equation in different ways depending on immigrants’ relevant characteristics both individual and non individu...

  5. Sickle Cell Disease: Management options and challenges in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ansong; Alex Osei-Akoto; Delaena Ocloo; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong Ohene-Frempong

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In developing countries like Ghana, newborn screening is now being implemented on a national scale.  Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), St...

  6. Sickle Cell Disease: Management Options and Challenges in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (...

  7. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was established and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced for developing countries to use exclusively, national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice between OPV and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Today, as progress is made towards the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis attributable to wild polioviruses, all developing countries where OPV is used face the risk of vaccine-associated paralyti...

  8. Capital Account Convertibility; A New Model for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Quirk

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes issues for developing countries considering a move to capital account convertibility. It reviews the relevant literature, including arguments for sequencing, and analyses in a series of charts various features of the foreign exchange market impact of removing controls, as against the alternative of foreign exchange intervention. Finally, it examines recent experiences of capital account liberalization by developing countries in the context of multi-pronged stabilization pr...

  9. Why Don't Developing Countries Import More Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Waugh; David Lagakos; Douglas Gollin

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are far less productive in agriculture than in the non-agriculture sector compared to the rest of the world. Standard Ricardian trade theory predicts that developing countries should be large importers of food and should have few workers in agriculture. The data is in stark contrast to this prediction. In this paper, we explore deviations from from standard trade theory --- with economic and empirical content --- to quantitatively explain this apparent deviation from...

  10. Financial Development and Economic Growth in Emerging Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz Bayar

    2014-01-01

    Many countries removed constraints on goods, services and capital gradually after fall of Bretton Woods system and globalization of financial markets accelerated especially as of 1980s. This process contributed to the development of financial sectors in many countries. Therefore many studies have been conducted about the possible effects of financial sector on major macroeconomic variables in recent years. This study investigates the possible effects of financial sector development on economi...

  11. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emer...

  12. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; BARKER, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through this analysis, we ident...

  13. Statistics and IQ in Developing Countries: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Asongu, Simplice; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the nexus between intelligence (or human capital) and statistical capacity in developing countries. The line of inquiry is motivated essentially by: (i) the scarce literature devoted to elucidating poor statistics in developing countries and (ii) an evolving stream of literature on knowledge economy. We have established a positive association between intelligence quotient (IQ) and statistical capacity. The relationship is: (i) consistent with the employm...

  14. Possibilities of tourism development in the Visegrad countries

    OpenAIRE

    Glozová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis analyzes the tourism of the Visegrad countries and the possibilities of its development. Member countries of the Visegrad Group are the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. In this paper are described and analyzed indicators of tourism, their structure, execution conditions and the importance of tourism. Further you can find information about the Visegrad group, history and current trends in development. The next section is focused on different Visegrad states, th...

  15. Products and policies to promote saving in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Poor people in developing countries can benefit from saving to take advantage of profitable investment opportunities, to smooth consumption when income is uneven and unpredictable, and to insure against emergencies. Despite the benefits of saving, only 41% of adults in developing countries have formal bank accounts, and many who do rarely use their accounts. Improving the design and marketing of financial products has the potential to increase savings among this population.

  16. VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    JOACHIM AHRENS; RAINER SCHWEICKERT; JULIANE ZENKER

    2015-01-01

    Empirical papers on the size of government suffer from neglecting preferences for government activity as discussed in the literature on varieties of capitalism. Cross-country evidence for a sample of 126 developed and developing countries reveals a global divide. Among developing countries, Asian countries are closer to continental European economies, i.e., they reveal relatively higher levels of spending dependent on the quality of governance. Latin American countries rather tend towards low...

  17. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipinth Suwanrong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1 the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2 the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3 the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Provinces. The samples providing information included 170 persons. The instruments using for collecting data included: The Survey Form, Interview Form, Focus Group Discussion and Participatory Workshop. The data were classified into groups. Qualitative data were analyzed according to the specified objectives. The research findings were presented in descriptive analysis. Results: The research findings found that the historical background of Isan Country Song, reflected lifestyle, social situation, ideal, and Thai Culture with the rhyme developed from traditional Country Song blending with Big Brand Music Band mixing with the local singing words and rhythm. The current situation and problem after listening to the Country Song was more increasing popular since there were many song composers and chords. There were advertisements through the media as radio, television, mobile phone and internet network. Therefore, the buying and selling of song were easier and quicker. For the song composing, the text of a song didn’t focus on the rhyme and lacked of morality enhancement. The supplementary music sometimes lacked of beauty based on aesthetic principle. For the commercial problems, there were many violations of right. Consequently, the entrepreneur sometimes faced with the lost. For development, the god points of Isan Country Song were analyzed both of the text and rhyme. The composed song model was created by bringing Pentatonic scale mixing with message of Dorian Mode. The

  18. Practice of nuclear medicine in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than a half a century nuclear medicine is contributing in the field of medicine. Still nuclear medicine is not widely available in many countries. Especially in developing countries due to many a reasons nuclear medicine could not flourish in that way. Availability of radioisotope, high cost of instrument and sophistication of the branch are the three main reasons behind. Even the countries where nuclear medicine is functioning for quite a long time, the facilities for proper function are still not adequate. Training of manpower, maintenance of instruments, regular supply of isotopes and kit and cost effectiveness are some of the major problems. We have seen some fast developments in nuclear medicine in last few decades. Development of gamma detecting systems with SPECT, positron emission detector (PET), supported computer technology and introduction of some newer radiopharmaceuticals for functional studies are few of the examples. The developing countries also have a problem to go on parallel with these rapid development of nuclear medicine in other part of the world. In last few decades we have also witnessed development of CT, MRI, Ultrasound and other imaging modalities as our competitor. Specially for developing countries these have posed as a major challenge for nuclear medicine. A better understanding between developed and developing nations is the key point of todays ultimate success in any sector. For real development of nuclear medicine and to give the majority of the people the benefit of nuclear medicine a better and more active co-operation is needed between all the countries. The paper presents the difficulties and some practical problems of practicing nuclear medicine in a developing country. And also appeals for global co-operation to solve the problems for better interest of the subject

  19. Fuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The situation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of recent studies of air pollution in developing-country cities, each of necessity relying heavily on the one available source of comparative international ambient monitoring data, Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS). In this review, therefore, rather than simply reproduce the GEMS data. The author chose to examine developing-country air pollution from the standpoint of a useful analysis technique that has been under development in recent years: Basically the review is composed of four parts: (1) a brief description of the historical and current relationship between energy use and air pollution; (2) an explanation of the idea of exposure assessment and the power that it can bring to analyses of the health impacts of air pollution; (3) focusing on developing countries, a global exposure assessment, combining demographic data with GEMS outdoor data and less-developed country (LDC) indoor air-monitoring studies; (4) a review of the health effects literature relevant to the micro-environments found to harbor the largest human exposures. 104 refs

  20. On the effects of monetary policy shocks in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data for a sample of developing countries, the time-series evidence indicates the allocation of monetary policy shocks, both expansionary and contractionary, between price inflation and output growth. Subsequently, cross-country regressions evaluate factors that underlie the difference in these allocations and their implications. The real effects of monetary shocks increase as the elasticity of aggregate demand increases with respect to monetary shocks. Nonetheless, capacity constraints hamper the output adjustment to monetary shocks and increase price inflation. Across countries, trend output growth increases with the output response to monetary shocks. Consistent with the stabilizing function of monetary policy, the variability of output growth decreases in the face of monetary fluctuations across countries. In contrast, monetary fluctuations increase the trend and variability of price inflation across countries.

  1. Capacity building for higher education in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    "Higher education is the modern world's basic education, but many countries are falling further and further behind". This quote from a recent World Bank publication indicates that the role of the universities as a key driver for societal development is now widely recognized and included in the...... all parties, the funding problem was never solved due to a lack of cooperation and mutual understanding between the key stakeholders in both donor and recipient countries. The paper presents the lessons learnt in this regard. There is a need to develop a crosssectoral understanding at national level...... in the donor countries in order to merge the interests of the universities, the Ministry of Science/Education and the national/international donor agencies. It is argued that capacity building for higher education in developing countries should be a generally accepted part of the university strategy...

  2. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample-particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa-with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  3. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  4. Combating infection in developing countries. The IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of infection and infectious diseases is an international priority. Worldwide infectious diseases are responsible for an estimated 13 million deaths each year, exacting a large and disproportionately high toll in developing countries. Forty-three percent of all deaths in developing countries are due to infectious diseases, whereas the corresponding figure for developed countries is only 1%. A large proportion of these deaths could be prevented if timely diagnosis and effective treatment were available locally. Loss of life or productivity due to infectious disease is not just a health matter, it also has an important social and economic impact on individuals, families, regions, and countries. According to the World Health Organization, infectious diseases are now the world's largest killer of young adults and children. Hundreds of millions of people are disabled by infectious disease. The economic impact of repeated episodes of illness and long term disability is a major cause of underdevelopment in many countries today. For example, according to the WHO 1999 Infectious Disease Report, malaria alone has cost Africa billions of dollars in the past decade. More recently, a WHO study estimates that malaria slows economic growth in Africa by up to 1.3% each year and that malaria-free countries average three times higher gross domestic product per person than do malarious countries. This brochure highlights the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in disseminating nuclear techniques to combat infection and infectious disease. Some of the techniques are used to diagnose and manage infectious diseases of serious concern to developing countries - malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and Chagas disease. Other techniques are used to detect infection sites in the body, in bones, and organs. The challenges posed by infection and infectious disease and the nuclear techniques that the Agency offers for support illustrate how nuclear techniques can be used to

  5. Outsourcing Strategies of Emerging Country Firms : Are they Different from Developed Country Multinationals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleury, A.; Arkader, R.; Grössler, A.; Timenes Laugen, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze differences in the sourcing strategies of manufacturing firms from emerging and from developed markets. More specifically, we test whether manufacturers from emerging markets have other objectives when sourcing from within their countries or from international

  6. Integrations of ICT in Education Sector for the Advancement of the Developing Country: Some Challenges and Recommendations-Bangladesh Perspective[

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Shahnaj Parvin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country with the literacy rate of 62.5%. Challenges in education sector are huge. There is no doubt that IT is going to bring about a tremendous change in education. The use of ICT in education was more student-centred learning. Because of the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important. In developing countries like Bangladesh, The implementation of ICT in education sector is a greatest challenge. In this paper, challenges are discussed and some recommendations are provided. The development of Bangladeshthrough the implementation of ICT in education also discussed here

  7. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  8. HOW CAN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ATTRACT USERS FROM DEVELOPED COUNTRIES? A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THAILAND AND JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuro Kobayashi; Hitoshi Okada; Nagul Cooharojananone; Vanessa Bracamonte; Takahisa Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of Thailand and Japan investigated how electronic commerce (EC) in developing countries can be used to attract customers from developed countries. Thai and Japanese participants were shown language-appropriate versions of a hotel booking website in Thailand. Perceptions of and trust in the website were assessed, as was the willingness to book a room in the hotel using the website. The Thai participants tended to evaluate the quality of the website more highly and to trust ...

  9. The future of reforestation programs in the tropical developing countries: insights from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits

  10. The potential role of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to recommendations by the 1971 Geneva Conference and in compliance with a resolution by the IAEA General Conference to intensify efforts to assist developing countries in planning their nuclear power programmes, the Agency has performed a number of general as well as country-specific studies in co-operation with Member States. To be able to evaluate the order of magnitude of the economic potential of nuclear power in developing countries, the Agency carried out a Market Survey in fourteen selected countries. This survey was completed in 1973 and has been summarized in IAEA Bulletin, Volume 15, Number 5. After the quadrupling of oil prices in late 1973 it became obvious that nuclear power will have vital importance for covering an increasing portion of the electric energy demand of many developing countries in the coming decades, both for economic and diversification reasons and to secure an energy supply. In order to extend the scope of the Market Survey and to incorporate the effects of changes in fossil and nuclear energy economics, it was updated in 1974 and extended to all countries eligible to receive technical assistance under the United Nations Development Programme. Parallel to this necessarily theoretical approach, a number of in-depth studies were performed to assist the nuclear power planning activities of Member States. The methodology and results of these studies are summarized. (author)

  11. Business Education in Post Soviet Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Doghonadze, Natela

    2009-01-01

    The presented article discusses the history of business education development in post Soviet countries. It is shown that, though much has been done in these countries to bring business education to international standards, still much has to be done

  12. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  13. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  14. Regulatory Process and Implementing Justification: A View from Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper intends to present the current situation of regulation of the principle of justification in different Latin American countries. The survey does not intend to be exhaustive because, at least for the author, not all the required information is available. Of course the situation in the author's country is presented simply for comparison with other countries of similar economies and development. The author would like to thank the Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulators (FORO), as this presentation is in part based on current work performed under the auspices of this organization by a task force named Radiological Protection to Patient. (author)

  15. The power of uncertainty - Reflections from a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefler, Robson

    2010-09-15

    There are a myriad of paths to reach ideal sustainable energy global solution. Wind, water, solar and even nuclear technologies can provide solutions in long terms. But are these solutions really affordable for the developing countries? If we consider the economic block called BRIC, a new mind map will be needed. The green solutions are not the complete answer. For instance, these countries will have an increase of 75% in the electricity demand over the next decade. This paper presents the framework of the energy provision for these countries, arising some reflections about crucial questions, trying to answer them.

  16. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  17. New Modes of Constructive Technology Assessment for Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Remmen, Arne

    on ‘technology assessment’ in a search for inspiration. Technology assessment originally featured prominently as a discussion topic two decades ago, but is worth returning to because some principles embedded herein are especially relevant for sustainable co-creation process today targeting developing countries......An old piece of conventional wisdom warns against unsustainable ‘white elephants’ in any attempts at international transferal, adoption or development of technologies in developing countries. After more than half a century of failed attempts to introduce technologies in such settings mostly through...... by a product or process in a developing country. On the other hand are those who design, develop and promote the technological solution. If the latter group is to follow the call for proactively taking in socio-cultural and user knowledge, what methods may be employed? This paper revisits the literature...

  18. Housing finance in developing countries : a transaction cost approach

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    In most developing countries, relatively little mortgage credit is supplied voluntarily, mainly because of the high transaction costs associated with enforcing contracts. In most countries, the supply of mortgage credit is restrained more by the cost of post-contract governance than by the cost of producing contracts. This distinction is important because before-contract costs are dictated by technological conditions - that is, the nature of the production function - so little can be done to ...

  19. Costs and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This seminar organized by the IAEA dealt with three main topics: 1) Nuclear investment and fuel cycle costs. 2) Financial risk assessment at project and country levels. 3) Loan conditions. Its main objective was to promote a dialogue among the various parties involved. As it focuses on nuclear and electric power programmes in developing countries a status of this topic is given in the introduction

  20. Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, M.; Zilberman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Metadata only record Onfarm field trials carried out with Basillus thuringenesis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers especially suffer big pest-related yield losses because of techni...

  1. Is the J-Curve a Reality in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ershad Hussain; Haque, Mahfuzul

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between trade balance and net export with both, the official and real effective exchange rates on the J-Curve hypothesis and find evidence to support in favor of the hypothesis, coming from a panel data of 49 developing countries from Africa. Countries can improve their current account balance by depreciating their currency; however the J-curve hypothesis argues that such changes take time to occur, but should use exchange rate policies discreetly, as it belongs to...

  2. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN TRANSITIONAL COUNTRIES - FINANCIAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rovčanin, Adnan; Gržinić, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 80s of the last century, the world economic scenery went through significant changes, among which we mainly think of a shortage of revolutionary discoveries, which would increase demand and establish new big markets. Countries are faced to provide organized support for the establishment and development of SMEs which will be privately owned. It would obviously increase the country's opportunities to provide for its needs from the real sources (through tax collection). Mutual ...

  3. UV and EB radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet and electron beams (EB) are to be considered as complementary technologies in the radiation processing field. In many countries, UV processing is used as the pathfinder for EB. In the developing countries the decision to adopt radiation processing techniques to choose between UV and EB will largely be determined by economics, the availability of the chemists and also skilled personnel to service both lines and equipment. (orig./A.B.)

  4. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  5. Analyzing the sustainability of fiscal deficitsin developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddington, John T.

    1997-01-01

    The author surveys the recent literature on the sustainability of fiscal deficits, most of which focuses on the United States and other industrial countries, to see how useful it might be in developing countries. The accounting approach to analysis focuses on steady states and assumes that a fiscal deficit (or surplus) that leads to unchanging debt/GDP ratios over time is sustainable. The data required to apply this approach are relatively modest. The present-value constraint (PVC) approach a...

  6. GMOs: Prospects for Productivity Increases in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are two mechanisms by which modern genetically modified organism (GMO) products can affect productivity in developing countries. The first is the Genes for Rent mechanism where a recipient country agrees with a GMO company to incorporate a GMO product (e.g., a Bt gene in cotton varieties) and pay a technology fee. The second is the Transgenic Breeding mechanism in which National Agricultural Research System (NARS) breeders use modern biotech methods marker-aided breeding, genetic maps, ...

  7. Social Protection in Developing Countries : The Lesotho Old Age Pension

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Social protection in developing countries represents a new approach to reducing poverty. By targeting the poorest with a variety of measures, social protection can protect basic consumption, support productive investments and strengthen the agency of the poor. The many varieties of social protection means that each country has to prioritize between different groups in implementation, in addition to overcoming other constraints. This thesis concentrates on pensions for the elderly, a group...

  8. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-01-01

    From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will rec...

  9. Globalisation and Developing Countries - a Shrinking Tax Base?

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of globalisation on tax bases of countries at varying stages of development. We see globalisation as a process that induces countries to embrace greater trade and financial integration. This in turn should shift their tax revenue from 'easy to collect' taxes (tariffs and seigniorage) towards 'hard to collect' taxes (value added and income taxes). We find that trade and financial openness have a positive association with the 'hard to collect' taxes, and a negati...

  10. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Allain; Cees Th Smit Sibinga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family bloo...

  11. Structural change in developing countries: Has it decreased gender inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendall, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of female labor market outcomes from 1987 to 2008 by assessing the role of changing labor demand requirements in four developing countries: Brazil, Mexico, India and Thailand. The results highlight the importance of structural change in reducing gender disparities by decreasing the labor demand for physical attributes. The results show that India, the country with the greatest physical labor requirements, exhibits the largest labor market gender inequality. I...

  12. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lisa C.; Obeid, Amani E. El; Jensen, Helen H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 1996 World Food Summit, 186 countries made a commitment to reduce the number of chronically undernourished people by half by 2015. In order to formulate effective policies for reaching this goal, a thorough understanding of the location and causes of food insecurity is needed. This paper provides a broad overview of the current character of food insecurity in developing countries, focusing on two questions: (1) Why are they food insecure? and (2) Why are the food insecure? To answer th...

  13. Measuring and Explaining Government Inefficiency in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    van de Sijpe, Nicolas; Rayp, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    We show the relevance of government expenditure inefficiency using the Barro (1990) model. We estimate government inefficiency for 52 developing countries using a data envelopment analysis. The estimated inefficiencies are subsequently used in a general to specific approach in order to identify their determinants. We find the government expenditure inefficiency is primarily determined by governance and political variables, and structural country variables. Economic policy determinants apparen...

  14. Structural change in developing countries: has it decreased gender inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendall, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of female labor market outcomes from 1987 to 2008 by assessing the role of changing labor demand requirements in four developing countries: Brazil, Mexico, India and Thailand. The results highlight the importance of structural change in reducing gender disparities by decreasing the labor demand for physical attributes. The results show that India, the country with the greatest physical labor requirements, exhibits the largest labor market gender inequality. I...

  15. Tanzania. A developing mining country; Tansania. Bergbauland im Aufbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Wirtschaftsgeologie der mineralischen Rohstoffe

    2009-03-19

    Tanzania is the rising country in East Africa, to which not least of all the booming mining sector contributes. Many large gold mines, two precious stone mines, three cement works and smaller facilities for extraction of salt, phosphates, gypsum, pozzolana, coal and coloured gemstones currently characterise the mining sector. The high mineral potential of the country combined with the mining legislation favouring investment will also lead in future to the development of further deposits in particular, nickel, gold, coal and graphite. (orig.)

  16. Climate Volatility Deepens Poverty Vulnerability in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2009-01-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty...

  17. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  18. Issues in conducting GHG mitigation assessments in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. For instance, the U.S. government has committed US dollars 25 million to support climate change country studies. This program is supporting experts in 56 countries to complete their inventories, and assessments of vulnerability and adaptation opportunities and mitigation options. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. The material in this paper is largely based on a presentation made by the author at a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Conference in June 1994 at Copenhagen on mitigation methods and costs of reducing carbon emissions. (au)

  19. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  20. Experience in developing countries from the vendor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of nuclear power plants calls for a wide sphere of industrial activities, nuclear as well as conventional. For a specific country the ways and methods of developing an industrial nuclear power program and reaching the target of independence, will widely differ, depending on the size of the country, the economic situation, the already existing industrial manufacturing and engineering capacities, the time schedule of the program and the type of contracting. The supply of nuclear power stations from an industrial country to a developing country is normally combined with an obligation for an effective technology transfer for the strengthening and setting up of a national industry, and the engineering capacities, needed for the construction of nuclear power plants. The German nuclear power industry gained considerable experience in connection with the turn-key supply of the first units in various countries. The prerequisites and national nuclear power programs were different. Based on a successful technological development, including standardization, the German nuclear power industry could meet the demand and different approaches in these countries for nuclear power plants up to the largest size existing today. The specific situation and practices followed will be described for three different cases, namely Argentina, Brazil and Iran. (orig.)

  1. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  2. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  3. Bringing the beneficiary closer: Explanations for volunteering time in Dutch Private Development Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsbergen, S.; Tolsma, J.; Ruiter, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, charitable behavior for international development purposes is subject to important changes. Whereas established development organizations suffer from a declining support base, private development initiatives (PDIs) that execute concrete, small-scale projects within direct persona

  4. Driving and hindering factors for rural electrification in developing countries: Lessons from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification is essential for bringing about social and economic developments, but the progress is distressingly slow in most developing countries. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP) has been highlighted as a positive case among developing countries, but from 2006 onwards there have been doubts about the program's chances of success. In this paper, we examine the rural electrification practices in Bangladesh and evaluate the claim that, whereas they were successful up to 2005, they then began to decline in terms of their performance. This study determines the factors behind the initial success of the program as well as those that account for the recent downturn in BREP. We found that the BREP was a clear success in terms of its growth and progress; however, its performance has been declining since 2006. The key driving factors for the success of this program had to do with prioritizing system investment, community involvement, anti-corruption features, standardized practices and performance-based incentives while excluding political parties. The major issues accounting for the decline were the lack of organizational autonomy, a shortage of funding, unrealistic tariffs, and power supply shortages. Renewable-based, off-grid technologies have been successfully supplementing the on-grid program in remote areas. - Highlights: • Rural electrification is essential for bringing about socio-economic developments. • The pace of rural electrification in the developing countries has been very slow. • A multitude of issues plays behind in making the task a success or a failure. • Lack of policy reforms, unrealistic tariffs are the main hinderers. • Rural electrification cannot be successful by sticking to a rigid model

  5. Integrations of ICT in Education Sector for the Advancement of the Developing Country: Some Challenges and Recommendations-Bangladesh Perspective[

    OpenAIRE

    Mst. Shahnaj Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country with the literacy rate of 62.5%. Challenges in education sector are huge. There is no doubt that IT is going to bring about a tremendous change in education. The use of ICT in education was more student-centred learning. Because of the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important. In developing countries like Bangladesh, The implementation of ICT in education sector is a greatest ch...

  6. The Information Needs of the Developing Countries: Analytical Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Lamia

    1981-01-01

    Presents the generalized conclusions from analytical case studies undertaken by UNESCO and the United Nations Interim Fund for Science and Technology for Development (IFSTD) on the needs and options for access to scientific and technical information in eight developing countries. (Author/JL)

  7. Innovation in Disaster Risk Financing for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report aims to advance the dialogue on creative, forward-looking solutions for developing countries by presenting recent innovations on disaster risk financing and insurance developed by the private markets as well as the international donor community, from the macro (government) level down to the micro (household) level. It discusses how these innovations can be adapted and implement...

  8. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia...

  9. International Labour Mobility Opportunity or Risk for Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler

    2008-01-01

    Migration can strengthen the development process in sending countries. Potential gains from migration are currently insufficiently utilised. More coherence between various policy domains – in particular related to migration, human resource development and the labour market – is a critical component of an improved migration management.

  10. Managing Agricultural Production Risk : Innovations in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This document presents innovations in agricultural risk management for natural disaster risk, with the focus on defining practical roles for governments of developing countries and the World Bank in developing risk management strategies. The paper includes the following content: introduction; risk and risk management in agriculture, including informal and formal mechanisms; approaches to a...

  11. Potential for Biofuels for Transport in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Johnson, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This note is based on a longer report published by ESMAP in 2005. The report responds to the increasing number of requests from developing countries to help assess the commercial viability of biofuels for transport in the next 5 to 10 years. This brief draws from the successful Brazil experience and illustrates socioeconomic considerations for establishing biofuel programs in developing co...

  12. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the associ

  13. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  14. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  15. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  16. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  17. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye, E-mail: C.Ezeah2@wlv.ac.uk; Fazakerley, Jak A.; Roberts, Clive L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. • In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. • Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. • In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. • Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 30–70% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These ‘scavengers’ as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the

  18. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. • In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. • Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. • In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. • Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 30–70% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These ‘scavengers’ as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the

  19. Is the J-Curve a Reality in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ershad HUSSAIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between trade balance and net export with both, the official and real effective exchange rates on the J-Curve hypothesis and find evidence to support in favor of the hypothesis, coming from a panel data of 49 developing countries from Africa. Countries can improve their current account balance by depreciating their currency; however the J-curve hypothesis argues that such changes take time to occur, but should use exchange rate policies discreetly, as it belongs to the “beggar thy neighbor” policies. This may be good for home country but is not so good for the foreign country; as a result, such policies may trigger retaliatory policies. Restrictive trade policies are against the present day notion of free-economy and free-trade policy these are very common around the world.

  20. Hospital-acquired neonatal infections in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Anita K M; Huskins, W Charles; Thaver, Durrane; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abbas, Zohair; Goldmann, Donald A

    Hospital-born babies in developing countries are at increased risk of neonatal infections because of poor intrapartum and postnatal infection-control practices. We reviewed data from developing countries on rates of neonatal infections among hospital-born babies, range of pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and infection-control interventions. Reported rates of neonatal infections were 3-20 times higher than those reported for hospital-born babies in industrialised countries. Klebsiella pneumoniae, other gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Acinetobacter spp), and Staphylococcus aureus were the major pathogens among 11,471 bloodstream isolates reported. These infections can often present soon after birth. About 70% would not be covered by an empiric regimen of ampicillin and gentamicin, and many might be untreatable in resource-constrained environments. The associated morbidity, mortality, costs, and adverse effect on future health-seeking behaviour by communities pose barriers to improvement of neonatal outcomes in developing countries. Low-cost, "bundled" interventions using systems quality improvement approaches for improved infection control are possible, but should be supported by evidence in developing country settings. PMID:15794973

  1. Discouraged Workers in Developed Countries and Added Workers in Developing Countries? Unemployment Rate and Labour Force Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Grace H.Y. Leea; Jaai Parasnis

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the unemployment rate can have differing impacts on the labour force participation rate depending on the strength of the added worker effect and the discouraged worker effect. This paper documents the differences in the relationship between the unemployment rate and the labour force participation rate across a panel of developing countries and OECD countries. We employ a system GMM approach to control for and to establish the bi-directional causality between unemployment and labour...

  2. Use of Ecolabels in Promoting Exports from Developing Countries to Developed Countries: Lessons from the Indian LeatherFootwear Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Parashar

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to understand whether importers in the North are able to push exporters in the South towards sustainable production, with the help of a case study of the Indian leather industry. After providing a short description of the global leather footwear industry, the first section provides insights into the competitive advantages of different countries, characteristics of developing country exporters and the difference between large and small European buyers of Indian leather footwea...

  3. Information and Communication Technology Applied for Developing Countries in a Rural Context : Towards a Framework for Analysing Factors Influencing Sustainable Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sundén, Susanne; Wicander, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been considered a tool that can be used to achieve development goals in developing countries. In the same time, the majority of people living in developing countries, and especially those in rural areas lack access to ICT. Even if there have been many attempts to introduce ICT, they have in general not been long-lasting. A framework for studying factors that influence use of ICT is desirable. We see it necessary to bring a sustainability aspe...

  4. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  5. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Promotion and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 the Agency's Director General established a Senior Expert Group on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Planning of Nuclear Power Programmes. This group, which was comprised of 20 experts with extensive experience in the topics to be studied, coming from 15 Member States plus the World Bank, was asked to: identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This paper summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study

  6. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...

  7. Energy Security and Renewable Energy in Least Developed Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries (UN, 2001) states: The levels of production and consumption of energy in the majority of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are inadequate and unstable. This clearly indicates a situation of energy insecurity. Starting from an encompassing definition of energy security (a country's ability to expand and optimise its energy resource portfolio and achieve a level of services that will sustain economic growth and poverty reduction), it becomes quickly clear that energy security in LDCs is a complex topic with numerous interlinkages to other sustainable development objectives. This paper attempts to give an overview of issues related to energy security in LDCs by focusing on the role renewable energy can play in that context.(author)

  8. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Managing nuclear knowledge in developing countries. A view from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the developing countries, managing nuclear knowledge requires both acquiring know-how from the developed countries as well as building and conserving their own knowledge resource. The rapid growth of information technology culture has made vast amounts of information and database universally accessible although some bars do indeed apply. The challenge, therefore, lies in having a continuous supply of different tiers of trained and competent professionals who can benefit from what is available and can carry on developing the indigenous capability. This presentation focuses on the issues and problems faced in meeting the above challenge. Steps taken in a developing country like Pakistan to manage nuclear knowledge will be discussed. These measures include developing an interface between the universities and the industry as well as concentrating on meeting the specific infrastructure requirements. The task is, however, becoming increasingly difficult for the developing countries because of the fall out of the lack of proper growth in the nuclear industry at the global level, and the large and long-term financial commitments associated with nuclear energy which leave the entire burden of the nuclear power program development on the public sector. (author)

  10. The international natural gas market : the role for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 2000, natural gas accounted for 24 per cent of global energy consumption. This is expected to rise to 27 per cent in 2020 because natural gas has many advantages over other fossil fuels. It is abundant, there are 60 years of reserves, plus it is a clean fuel that is being used increasingly for electric power generation. The main focus of this paper is to assess the role that will be played by developing countries in the natural gas industry in terms of natural gas supply on a global scale in the coming 20 years. A review is presented of the current status of companies involved in gas production, gas marketing, and gas distribution via pipeline. Industrialized countries currently hold 47 per cent of the world reserves of natural gas, but they produce 73 per cent of commercialized gas and they consume 85 per cent. In contrast, developing countries hold the remaining 53 per cent of the world reserves of natural gas, produce 27 per cent, but only consume 15 per cent. Six of the 12 top world gas producers are developing countries. These include Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and Mexico. Of these 6, only Algeria, Indonesia and Malaysia export natural gas. A large proportion of recent gas discoveries have occurred in developing countries such as Nigeria, Congo, Algeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Trinity and Tobago. This paper also presented an analysis of risks facing international developers is presented. The risks include those associated with gas market volatility and pipelines in developing countries. 3 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Fiscal Transparency, Measurement and Determinants: Evidence from 27 Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tehou TEKENG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal transparency has been consistently identified as a key feature of efficient fiscal policy and a prerequisite for good public governance. However, measuring fiscal transparency remains an empirical challenge, and extant literature on developing countries is still sparse. To that end, this paper examines the determinants of fiscal transparency in developing countries. We add to the existing literature by proposing a new replicable index of fiscal transparency that is consistent with the definition provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank. Additional determinants of fiscal transparency, which are exclusively relevant in the study of developing countries, are also examined. In particular, we introduce such factors as natural resources, openness of the economy, the literacy rate of the population, and the quality of institutions. Because of possible endogeneity arising from interdependence among some variables, two-stage least squares (2SLS is used to ensure that the estimators are consistent. As a robustness check, the same estimation procedure was replicated by replacing our index of fiscal transparency with respectively the index of Andreula et al. (2009 and the Open Budget Index, both of which use a significant similar number of developing countries of our selected sample. The results provide additional credence to our suggested procedure. The paper found that the level of natural resources and the openness of the capital account negatively affect fiscal transparency. However, the quality of institutions and literacy were found to positively affect fiscal transparency. The findings of this paper provide an explanation of why, after a decade of fiscal transparency programs, many developing countries are still lagging behind, thereby losing the potential benefits mentioned in the literature. These findings could help guide policies directed at improving fiscal transparency in the case of developing countries.

  12. Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME, Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural

  13. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  14. Development of the nuclear industry in 4 Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives a summarizing view at the plans for nuclear energy utilization in the four countries Iran, Egypt, Kuwait, and Turkey. The special economic, social, and geographical conditions in each country which determine the development of its energy generation are explained. Iran and Kuweit have large nuclear energy programmes, to be realized in the 80ies. The enormous amounts of petrodollars coming from mineral oil export will be invested into the development of nuclear energy. Egypt became known by concrete plans only recently, Turkey is planning to realise a nuclear power plant performance of the same volume by the year 2000. (UA)

  15. Spanning boundaries: science-policy interaction in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Gamborg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates science–policy interaction in forestry in developing countries. It uses the case of REDD+ in Zambia, and links theoretical considerations with practical strategies. Science–policy interaction in the case of REDD+ is analyzed through two theoretical frameworks: the Knowledge...... Transfer Model and the Transaction Model. Based on interviews and document analysis, the paper advances on how it is possible to improve evidence-based policy-making for the benefit of the environment in developing countries. It is found that re-thinking of science–policy interaction gives rise to new...

  16. Financing of nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary of the ''Topical Seminar on Financing of Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries, held in Jakarta between 4-7 September, 1990. The seminar presentations were divided into the following sessions: Keynote session (3 papers), Perspective of Nuclear and Fossil-fired Generation Costs (9 papers), Assessment of Problems and Constraints for the Financing of Large Power Projects, with particular Attention to Nuclear Power Projects (9 papers), Mechanisms for Financing Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs, tabs and charts

  17. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via crosscountryanalysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment(FDI and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply andgross domestic product per capita (PCGDP can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is biggerthan the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.

  18. How To Improve Software Quality Assurance In Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important factor in software industry. Software quality depends upon the customer satisfaction which can be achieved through applying standards. In this era achieving quality software is very important because of the high customer demands. Developed countries are excelling in software industry and improving day by day. Meanwhile developing countries like Pakistan are struggling with software quality and cannot maintain reputation in International Market. Software Quality lacks due tomany reasons. This paper will address the problems for lacking interest in improving the software quality by higher authorities and software assurance team. We have provided solution to the addressed problems also.

  19. Prospects and constraints for nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the interest in nuclear power and the IAEA's active assistance programme, only five developing countries (Argentina, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, India, Pakistan) have nuclear plants in operation. The combined net output of these plants is about 2,000 MWe. Twelve other developing countries have nuclear power reactors under construction, ordered or planned for operation by 1985. The net output of those under construction amounts to 17,200 MWe while the ordered or planned reactors will generate an additional 10,300 MWe. (orig./RW)

  20. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  1. Bringing Theory Into Practice: Operational Criteria for Measuring Implementation of the International Right to Development

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Randolph; Maria Green

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds on the work of the Working Group and High Level Task Force on the Right to Development to devise a set of Right to Development criteria, sub-criteria and operational sub-criteria (indicators) that could be used by international organizations, governments, and civil society to define and measure implementation of the Right to Development in the current development and human rights environment. The criteria and indicators are offered in a framework that could eventually serve ...

  2. Developing a framework for evaluation of renewable energy in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kiarsi, Sepideh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this dissertation, I develop a framework for evaluation of renewable energy projects in developing countries. There is a global common sense that addressing the increasing energy demands of both developed and developing countries with the conventional exhaustible fossil fuels will be difficult in the long-term. In developing countries, in addition to providing energy for the industrial development, providing services to meet basic human needs such as heat and lig...

  3. Overcoming the barriers. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a huge threat to all aspects of human development and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for poverty reduction. Until recently, donor agencies, national and local layers of government, and non-governmental organisations have paid little attention to the risks and uncertainties associated with climate change. Now, however, players at all levels are increasingly engaging with the question of how to tackle the impacts of climate change on development in poorer nations. There are growing efforts to reduce negative impacts and seize opportunities by integrating climate change adaptation into development planning, programmes and budgeting, a process known as mainstreaming. Such a co-ordinated, integrated approach to adaptation is imperative in order to deal with the scale and urgency of dealing with climate change impacts. In developed countries progress on mainstreaming climate adaptation has been limited. Many countries have carried out climate change projections and impact assessments, but few have started consultation processes to look at adaptation options and identify policy responses. In developing countries, the mainstreaming process is also in its early stages. Small island developing states have made good progress, with Caribbean countries among the first to start work on adaptation. The Pacific islands have received considerable support and through the World Bank a number of initiatives have begun. Crucially, there has been little progress in mainstreaming adaptation within existing poverty alleviation policy frameworks. There is a lack of research on the extent to which climate change, and environmental issues more broadly, have been integrated within PRSPs. This is critical. Examples of efforts from Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan, Mexico and Kenya are presented, highlighting a number of key issues relating to current experiences of integrating climate change into poverty reduction efforts. Experiences so far

  4. The Least Developed Countries of Africa - the problems of the economic development and the resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Smékalová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    The region of Subsaharan Africa is the most underdeveloped area in the world. There is the highest number of the Least Developed Countries of the world. The backwardness of the African countries takes effect by the poverty and heavy political, economical and social problems. The local governments, foreign investors and international organizations can improve the situation in African The Least Developed Countries.

  5. Detecting Shocks in The Economic Development Dynamics of Selected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiga-Ćmiel Anna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of the Polish economy as well as the economies of selected countries in the period from 2001 to 2012. For that purpose, models based on the GDP growth in particular countries were built. A comparative analysis of the development of economies in the countries concerned (the United Kingdom, Belgium, Denmark, France, Poland, the Netherlands, based on a specially built full-factor multivariate GARCH model, is presented. The theory of the construction of a full-factor multivariate GARCH model and its estimation method are discussed. In the paper, a multivariate GARCH model where the covariance matrix is always positive, definite and the number of parameters is relatively small compared to other multivariate models is proposed. The causality of the impact that economies exert on one another is examined and the occurrence of the contagion effect is verified by means of the Forbes and Rigobon test.

  6. Growth and Project Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth F.; Müller, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using...... data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of financing in the selected set of countries. Additionally, the project sheds light on other factors of importance...... for economic growth in LDCs. We find that a higher regulatory quality, lower government consumption and a higher level of education helps increase growth. The significance of these variables are, however, not as consistently robust as the results for project finance....

  7. Summary of indicators of Nth country weapon development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of indicators that various phases of weapon development programs are being carried out is presented. An attempt is made to answer the question ''what observations can be made that would help in deciding whether country X is developing nuclear explosive devices.'' The indicators themselves are accompanied by some general discussions of what is likely to be going on in the areas of nuclear materials ''manufacture,'' nuclear materials chemistry, development and testing, scientific personnel, delivery systems, and evasion of safeguards

  8. Services Trade Liberalisation and Domestic Regulations: The Developing Country Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar Suparna

    2007-01-01

    Services have become the engine of growth in a large number of economies in the developing world. Additionally, the rapid development of ICT, and emergence of transnational corporations, has not only made cross-border provision of services easier, but has also increased the demand for and trade in services; developing countries today are increasingly emerging as cost efficient providers of key business and professional services, thereby becoming key players in the services supply chain.In the...

  9. HACCP SYSTEM AND ITS FEASIBILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rehber, Erkan; S. Ulusoy

    1998-01-01

    The constant request for product and service quality is the major challenge of the 1990s for the food industry. Both developed and developing countries have faced food quality, safety, and nutrition issues to some extent. Everyone in the world deserves the right to have enough and safe food. Food safety and nutrition concerns have gained importance, with an international project initiated in 1997 by FAO called " Food for All". In the developed world, progress can be achieved in the control of...

  10. Good Governance and Successful Development: Cross Countries Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabthip Kraipornsak

    2014-01-01

    Good Governance is one of the essential factors of success in business as well as in a country’s development. This study aimed at examining the role of good governance and the success of the development. The comparable per head GDP measured in PPP (purchasing power parity) was used as the proxy of the successful economic development of countries in the study. Four out of total six factors (indicators) being the good governance and the other two being social environmental factor...

  11. Towards an Effective Environmental Law for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Franziska

    2009-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts: a theoretical part followed by a practical part. On the basis of the economic literature concerning environmental law and economic development it is illustrated how criteria can be developed to examine whether specific environmental policy instruments can be used in the context of developing countries. Next these hypotheses are applied in a case study of Peru. The starting point for the analysis is the recently established Ministry of the Environment and its i...

  12. Could developing countries take the benefit of globalisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy Hartungi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To provide philosophical discussions of various works, thinking of globalisations and new thoughts on how the developing countries might take benefit of globalisation. Design/methodology/approach – A wide range of published works, which contain the recent thoughts and debates of the globalisation to developing nations are reviewed, analysed and then critiqued. The authors take some case study examples and evidence from developing worlds, most notably in Indonesia. Findings – At pres...

  13. Spatial disparities in developing countries: cities, regions and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Venables, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial inequality in developing countries is due to the natural advantages of some regions relative to others and to the presence of agglomeration forces, leading to clustering of activity. This paper reviews and develops some simple models that capture these first and second nature economic geographies. The presence of increasing returns to scale in cities leads to urban structures that are not optimally sized. This depresses the return to job creation, possibly retarding development. Looki...

  14. Elearning: Bringing Reflective Practice and Self-Development Learning Activities Online

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    An assignment written for the University of Bristol Reflective practice is in vogue as a tool in many parts of the educational economy, though the efforts to support its development often lag behind the promotion of the practice itself. Some of the issues relating to the development of this competency, and barriers to the same, are covered in my Teaching and Learning Optional Paper "Teaching and Supporting the Development of Reflective Practice". As momentum builds for the introduction of ...

  15. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  16. University role in nuclear power program in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The academic education in nuclear engineering should be considered as a subsystem within the general nuclear program of the country as well as within the educational structure of the university. The academic trained personnel are of major importance as future participants in decisional and planning steps of the program. Hence, the ''production'' of academic manpower in this field should be started at the earliest steps. The nuclear engineering curriculum should be planned in accordance with the objectives stated by the power program and the challenges foreseen. Obviously, the objectives in a developing country are considerably different from those of developed countries highly advanced in the nuclear power field. The paper analyzes possible objectives in a developing country which intends to implement nuclear power program. In view of these objectives curricula planning for the undergraduate and graduate levels are presented and explained. The courses for undergraduates intend to provide basic information to relatively large numbers of students from various faculties, as they are expected to join the program at various constructional stages. Major emphasise is given to graduates as they will act in the cadre of senior engineers and officials of the country. The research works for theses in developed countries may be highly technical, dealing with crumbs of huge development project carried out on national or international level. Such research works are hardly justified in countries not involved in the project. In developing countries the problems to be confronted with are mainly licensing and siting and to much less extent nuclear power technology. Hence the choice of subjects for theses should be coherent with these directions. Obviously, the subjects are bound to the department manpower and budgetary limitations. As a demonstration two fields were analysed under our local constraints and objectives. Subjects suitable for theses are pointed out. The fields dealt

  17. HOW CAN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ATTRACT USERS FROM DEVELOPED COUNTRIES? A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THAILAND AND JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kobayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of Thailand and Japan investigated how electronic commerce (EC in developing countries can be used to attract customers from developed countries. Thai and Japanese participants were shown language-appropriate versions of a hotel booking website in Thailand. Perceptions of and trust in the website were assessed, as was the willingness to book a room in the hotel using the website. The Thai participants tended to evaluate the quality of the website more highly and to trust it more than did the Japanese participants. Furthermore, the Thai participants tended to think that the hotel was more responsible for their hotel reservations than was the EC service, and that the content of the website was developed by the hotel rather than by the EC service. Thai participants were more likely to express willingness to reserve a room if they thought that the hotel had developed the website content, whereas the Japanese participants’ willingness to book a room were greater when they thought that the EC service had developed the content. Based on these results, customization strategies for EC in developing countries to attract customers from developed countries are discussed.

  18. Bringing Culture Back In: Overcoming the Economic-Cultural Split in Development Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, John A.

    1987-01-01

    States that economic geography, by itself, does not completely explain the geography of world economic development. Argues that development must also be viewed in terms of the cultural peculiarities which influence it. Cites as examples the early United States economy, consisting of a capitalist North and an agricultural South, and the Apartheid…

  19. NGN:奏响融合主旋律%NGN Bringing the Assimilation Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏竞辉

    2005-01-01

    Now the commercial process of NGN has become the hottest topic in telecom industry. All parts in the industry pay great attention to its development. In recent several years, NGN has stepped into commercial period from experimental period. Now many telecom giants in the world declare the network developing roadmap and services planning about NGN, and the related network construction also begins. At the same time, the research and discussing about NGN continues as before. From the public lecture of global NGN technology development, we can get the idea that assimilation and integration has become the main theme in the development and innovation of NGN. And so in this issue """"""""New Telecom Salon"""""""" focuses on NGN, and we are horned to invite all the experts in this field. They will show us the new image of NGN development by discussion here.

  20. Brain-drain and health care delivery in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abdu Misau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Migration of health workers ‘Brain drain’ is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals.

  1. A close look at developing country customer's essential requirements from China's nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear power development in China was briefly introduced. The major features of China's nuclear power program were summarized, which was a reflection of the nuclear power policies of the developing stage in the country. From China's nuclear power development, the customer's essential requirements of nuclear power in developing countries were drawn. Among them, safety, improved economy and broadening financing channels should be emphasized in order to promote nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  2. The problems of financing a nuclear programme in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the free market and deregulation framework financing of nuclear power in developing countries requires solutions different from those applied in the seventies and eighties. The paper presents the financial specificity of nuclear power, project finance concept and the market risk. (author)

  3. What founders in developing countries learn about organizing microenterprise growth

    OpenAIRE

    Poetz, Katharina; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship holds significant potential for advancing developing countries but there is increasing recognition that these effects will not only depend on easing capital constraints and institutional support but also on entrepreneurial talent and learning. Based on analyzing nine case studies of microenterprise growth in Tanzania, this study therefore investigates what microenterprise founders learn about effective resource orchestration (RO) from organizational process experience. Our fi...

  4. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  5. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  6. Research and teaching nuclear sciences at universities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formulation is given for a set of ground rules to be applied when introducing or improving nuclear science training at the university level in developing countries. Comments are made on the general requirements needed for the teaching of nuclear science at the university and particular suggestions made for the areas of nuclear physics radiochemistry and radiation chemistry and electronics

  7. Creative economy policy in developing countries: The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns w

  8. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  9. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  10. CD-ROM Technology Use in Developing Countries: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jane; Balson, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes an evaluative project in which a prototype bibliographic database on optical data disk was installed in six developing country libraries and a Canadian library. The results of the project are discussed in terms of user satisfaction and cost effectiveness, and recommendations are made to donor agencies, information providers, and…

  11. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  12. Private Health Insurance for the Poor in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler; Johannes P. Jütting

    2005-01-01

    The financing of health care is a major challenge for developing countries, especially since deficiencies in national health systems specifically harm the poor. Innovative financing mechanisms, such as private health insurance, offer benefits and risks. Their implementation requires caution on the part of policy makers who need to consider adequate regulation in order to optimise health outcomes.

  13. Can nuclear power be competitive in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some factors of particular relevance for the introduction of nuclear power in developing countries are discussed. These are: technical infrastructure; organizational infrastructure; grid size and generating unit size; cost of locally-supplied items; cost of imported items; safety and licensing issues; financing conditions; commercial and political issues. (UK)

  14. Durable and Sustainable Road Constructions for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities to build durable and sustainable pavement structures in developing countries. Attention will be paid to geometric design aspects which have a significant effect on pavement life. Following this attention will be paid to the importance of controlling wheel loads

  15. Transport Strategy to Improve Accessibility in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Peter; Babinard, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries disabled people and the elderly are more likely to be among the poor. Moreover, exclusion increases the costs associated with disability to constrain disabled people from breaking out of poverty. Improved access and mobility are important factors in reducing poverty and can facilitate the participation of people with disabilities in economic, social, and political p...

  16. Problems associated with nuclear energy utilization in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special problems of integrating nuclear power into the overall national power system of a developing country are reviewed. Topics such as optimal size selection, policy for nuclear fuel cycle, and choice of reactor type are examined. The results of these analyses as applied to Turkey are presented. The impact of safety and regulatory matters are discussed

  17. Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

  18. Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.T. Tu; H.J. Woerdenbag; S. Kane; A. Riewpaiboon; M. van Hulst; M.J. Postma

    2009-01-01

    Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appr

  19. Instructional Technologies in Developing Countries: A Contextual Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Sonia; Clark, Kevin A.

    2004-01-01

    Many developing countries are moving forward and implementing information communication technology (ICT) initiatives to improve their citizens' access to education, increase the quality of education, and implement educational reform. Because of the increasingly scarce supporting resources, it is imperative that effective and meaningful…

  20. Sierra Leone Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Sierra Leone. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the SABER-ECD framework. The country report includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and interventions in Sierra Leone, ...

  1. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  2. Financing Training in Developing Countries: The Role of Payroll Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, John; Ziderman, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Although in most developing countries, major vocational training programs are financed from general government revenues, earmarked payroll taxes are becoming increasingly popular. This paper summarizes international experience with these payroll taxes, distinguishing between the more traditional revenue-raising schemes of the Latin American model…

  3. Management of diagnostic x-ray radiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent the scattering of x-ray radiation by using a lead apron in the x-ray rooms of developing countries. In developed countries, the scattering of x-ray radiation among patients and radiographers in diagnostic x-ray rooms has been minimized by various methods. However, in some developing countries, scattered x-ray radiation has not yet been adequately contained. The policy of As Law As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) requires that patients who are waiting for their examinations must be protected from scattered x-ray radiation. However, from the author's experience, protection from scattered x-ray radiation in x-ray rooms is often insufficient in developing countries. In addition, major public hospitals in big cities are overwhelmed with patients because radiology resources in developing countries are concentrated in the big cities. Moreover, the situation is made worse by short working hours in public hospitals. Hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. are typical. Because of the circumstances, radiographers, who are in a rush to finish all of the examinations within their normal working hours, sometimes allow patients to enter the x-ray rooms while they are waiting for their examinations. Chest and abdominal x-rays are the most common kinds of diagnostic x-ray examination in developing countries. Thus, in this study, anthropomorphic chest and abdominal phantoms were x-rayed for measuring the scattered x-ray radiation with and without protection using a 0.25mmPb lead apron at specific points from the anthropomorphic phantoms in the x-ray room. The lead apron was hung on a mobile apron-hanger and placed next to the anthropomorphic phantom. The scattered radiation dosimetry for chest x-rays proves that this simple method reduces scattered x-ray radiation to 15% at one-meter point and to almost 0% at the two-meter point from the anthropomorphic phantom in the x-ray room. Lead aprons are

  4. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  5. IAEA paper on special needs of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to define the conditions and the key issues in those developing countries which have nuclear power programmes or should consider such a programme within the next couple of decades. Key problems are the supply of nuclear materials, fuel and technology. The introduction of a highly sophisticated technology such as nuclear power technology in countries with a rather low level of industrialisation, the need for specially trained personnel, and the provision of the necessary funds entail problems that can only be solved with some assistance from industrialized nations

  6. Effects of IMF programs on school enrollment in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vranken, M.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; de Jong, E.

    2011-01-01

    The IMF is one of the most heavily criticized international financial institutions in the world and has been accused of having a negative effect on education. By using multi-level analyses, this paper estimates the effects of IMF supported programs on the growth in school enrollment in developing countries at the district level for girls and boys aged 9-11 and 12-14. Using data on 44 countries, containing 431 districts between 1997-2007, effects of IMF programs are measured in three ways. Eff...

  7. On the Divergence in Unionism among Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman

    1989-01-01

    In this paper I explore the evolution of unionism in the 1970n and 1980s, when the post-oil shock world economy created a "crisis of unionism" throughout the western world. I try to explain why union representation of work forces fell in some countries but not in others and contrast union responses to the challenge of the period. I find that: -- Rates of unionization diverged greatly among developed countries -- The composition of union members shifted from private sector blue collar workers ...

  8. Corruption and Stock Market Development: New Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.

  9. Status [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy picture of Brazil today is that of a large, rapidly growing country in the midst of economic development with a reasonable supply of indigenous resources. Its current situation reflects its attempts to satisfy and accommodate competing needs and challenging sustainable development goals. This chapter reviews the current status of Brazil's energy system and how it developed. It is divided into four major sections: Section 2.1 presents the national energy balance; Section 2.2 assesses the country's energy status according to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development; Section 2.3 highlights the institutional dimension of Brazil's energy system; and Section 2.4 summarizes the major issues facing that system

  10. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Comparative evaluation of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in those developing countries where nuclear power is technically feasible and competitive against the alternatives, most other factors weigh heavily against the nuclear path for the next decades. This does not mean that nuclear power should be completely ruled out in the longer run. At the moment several problems of nuclear power, in particular its follow-up effects and costs, are not really solved. The results of present efforts toward their solution can probably only be judged in the 1990s. It is not now clear whether the total outcome of nuclear energy is positive, even in the industrialized countries. Any country with an evenly developed technical infrastructure and a sufficiently broad basis of intellectual and technical skills will be able to acquire the specialized nuclear knowhow within a few years. For the meantime,in the opinion of the author, national and international efforts should establish technical school and faculties, study groups should be set up that analyse the energy situation in the individual countries in depth and watch international developments in the nuclear sector. A thorough knowledge of the unresolved problems will prevent their being ignored in the intellectual fascination and political challenge of nuclear power. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  12. The domestic natural gas industry in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic natural gas industry has generally exhibited slow growth in most developing countries that are fortunate enough to have sufficient proved gas reserves to meet energy needs. But supportive government policies that promote the use of indigenous reserves are now beginning to have a positive impact in many parts of the world. Supply and distribution infrastructures are being built or modernized. And natural gas is now or will be available at prices that encourage the displacement of competitive fuels in the larger, energy-intensive industrial and power-generation markets of these countries. It is expected that the domestic gas industry in many developing countries will expand at higher rates than in the past. In the next few decades, the resulting benefits will include reductions in oil consumption per capita, improvements in the balance of payments for oil-importing and exporting developing countries, greater efficiency of energy usage and lower energy consumption per output unit, and improved environmental quality. The national economies and living standards will also undergo significant advancement

  13. Streamlining and Advancing Collection Development With GOBI: Bringing Your Collection Into the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Poparad, Christa E; Barnett, Lindsay H.; Hoke, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Based on a desire to transition from a paper‐based acquisitions system to a completely online system, College of Charleston Libraries have used the features in YBP Library Services' GOBI3 (Global Online Bibliographic Information) to streamline firm order selections, to expedite and make more transparent the firm order process, and to advance our collection development efforts.

  14. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Bane in developing country – Brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Kishan Kumar Yadalla; Syeda Juwariya

    2014-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity, cutaneous pigmentary changes, premature skin ageing, and the development of various cutaneous and internal malignancies at an early age. We present this case of a 10 year-old girl in a developing country like India, with significant corneal scarring and multiple cutaneous skin lesions in sun-exposed areas. Developmental delay had been present since 3 months of age, with these clinical features...

  15. The Historical Origins of Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sambit

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I explore the causal relationships between historical factors (for eg., geography, disease, colonial history, and technology) and poverty in developing countries. I start with a review of the existing theories. This is followed by a novel unified framework in order to causally relate these historical factors in explaining the process of development in Western Europe and the New World colonies. The final section applies this framework to explain why Africa, Latin America, and R...

  16. Payroll taxes for financing training in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ziderman, Adrian

    1989-01-01

    In most developing countries, the major programs of vocational training and manpower-skill development are financed from general revenues. Increasingly, however, earmarked payroll taxes are employed to finance training. This paper summarizes international experience with these payroll taxes, drawing the distinction between the more traditional revenue raising schemes on the lines of the Latin American model and the newer levy-grant schemes. Drawing upon experience of payroll taxes in advanced...

  17. Pico hydro power for rural electrification in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico hydro power is a renewable energy system which has the potential to provide millions of rural people world-wide with a cheap, sustainable source of electricity. The development of new, cost-reducing approaches, including local manufacture and implementation in developing countries, has increased the accessibility of this technology to large numbers of people. The new approaches are investigated and some of the present constraints to wider adoption of this technology are analysed. (Author)

  18. Linking urban transport and land use in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The mobility challenges of the developing world are considerably different than those in wealthier, advanced countries, and so are the challenges of coordinating transportation and land use. Rapid population growth, poverty and income disparities, overcrowded urban cores, poorly designed road networks, spatial mismatches between housing and jobs, deteriorating environmental conditions, and economic losses from extreme traffic by congestion are among the more vexing challenges faced by develop...

  19. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-01-01

    The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. ...

  20. Democracy and stock market performance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2011-01-01

    This is paper is a natural extension of Yang (2011) where-in democracy is not positively related to stock market development. We postulate that when moment conditions of stock market performance are accounted for, democracy improves financial markets in developing countries. Channels of democracy, polity and autocracy are instrumented with legal-origins, religious-legacies, income-levels and press-freedom qualities. As a policy implication democracies have important effects on both the degree...