WorldWideScience

Sample records for bringing developing countries

  1. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  2. POPs analysis reveals issues in bringing laboratories in developing countries to a higher quality level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Abad, E.; Leslie, H.A.; Fiedler, H.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of laboratories in 18 developing countries in analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental and human samples, as part of a capacity-building program with the goal of helping laboratories increase proficiency in the types of analyses required for the POP

  3. Bringing People Back into Protected Forests in Developing Countries: Insights from Co-Management in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Zulu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines struggles to bring people back into protected forests to enhance sustainable forest management and livelihoods using insights emerging from a co-management project in Malawi. It uses mixed social science methods and a process-based conceptualization of co-management to analyze experiences, and theory of reciprocal altruism to explain major findings of continuing local forest-user commitment to co-management despite six years of conservation burdens largely for minimal financial benefits. It argues that overemphasis on cash incentives as the motivation for “self-interested” users to participate in co-management overlooks locally significant non-cash motivations, inflates local expectations, and creates perverse incentives that undermine socio-ecological goals. Some non-cash incentives outweighed cash-driven ones. Findings support broadening of incentives mechanisms, including via nested cross-scale institutional arrangements for holistic management that integrates adjacent forests into forest-reserve co-management. Strengthened institutions, improving community/government and intra-community trust, improved village forests easing pressure on the reserve, measures minimizing elite capture, and impetus from an external threat, enhanced forest condition. Generous forest rights and appropriate community licensing and benefit-sharing systems also helped. Bureaucratic/donor inefficiencies, wood-extraction challenges, poor forest-based enterprise development, and low resource value undermined performance. Insights on forest-management planning, fair cost-sharing, targeting the poor, and need for social learning are highlighted.

  4. Developing a web page: bringing clinics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronnie; Berns, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Introducing clinical staff education, along with new policies and procedures, to over 50 different clinical sites can be a challenge. As any staff educator will confess, getting people to attend an educational inservice session can be difficult. Clinical staff request training, but no one has time to attend training sessions. Putting the training along with the policies and other information into "neat" concise packages via the computer and over the company's intranet was the way to go. However, how do you bring the clinics online when some of the clinical staff may still be reluctant to turn on their computers for anything other than to gather laboratory results? Developing an easy, fun, and accessible Web page was the answer. This article outlines the development of the first training Web page at the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, Madison, WI.

  5. Developing biobanks in developing countrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We call for the development of human biobanks in developing countries and describe several examples from low income countries which are already building their own biobanks. Developing human biobanks in developing countries requires strengthening of the research capacity to use the new technologies, as well as a shift in research investment priorities in order to reduce the inequity in international research that currently exists. A responsible approach from low-income countries to ethical issues will be another pre-requisite to the success of the ‘hypothesis-free’ research that will target the needs of the world’s poor.

  6. Hypertension in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  7. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  8. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  9. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  10. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  11. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  12. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  13. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...... as a stepping-stone in the process of designing appropriate stabilization policy and macroeconomic management in developing countries....

  14. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  15. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits.

  16. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  17. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  18. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  19. Breast health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  20. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  1. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  2. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  3. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  4. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  5. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  6. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  7. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  8. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  9. Technical assistance to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1985-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the industrialized countries of the world have a duty to assist the developing countries in their aspirations towards an acceptable standard of living for their inhabitants. Successive increases in the price of crude oil have ruined the economies of many countries, thus, during the past decade the emphasis of aid projects has swung towards the energy field. The purpose of this article is to describe the involvement of three chartered engineering bodies in aid work, to suggest how they should act in the author's opinion, and to illustrate this by discussing a recent relevant conference. It appears that as far as power production is concerned, the future lies with conventional internal combustion engines, though they may be fed with unconventional fuels. In terms of an approach to giving aid, the secret appears to lie in encouraging and helping people to solve their own problems.

  10. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  11. Intergovernmental grants in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A country's grant system is the product of its political environment. Such systems tend to develop over time in response to prevailing political needs and then become institutionalized. Since they have developed in a haphazard fashion over time, grant"systems"commonly are not systems at all. Hard pressed government ministries seldom undertake any thorough analysis of these arrangements; hence their overall impact is unknown in spite of the importance of this use of resources.

  12. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  13. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  14. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  15. Helping the developing countries effectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, H.

    1983-03-01

    A brief survey is given of a few projects - some completed, others still active - operated by the IAEA in coordination with developing countries, in the field of applications of isotopes and radiations for food and agricultural development. Information is given on the coordinated research programmes between the IAEA and India, aiming at breeding a disease-resistant pearl millet mutant, between the IAEA and Nigeria and between the IAEA and Mexico in the field of pest eradication using the sterile insect technique, on the regional cooperative agreement for Asia and the Pacific, etc.

  16. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  17. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  18. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  19. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  20. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  1. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  2. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  3. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; Ruud A. de Mooij; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  4. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  5. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of ind

  6. Bringing Environmentalism Home: Children's Influence on Family Consumption in the Nordic Countries and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Bengt; Andersson, Magnus; Osbeck, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses children as contributors to sustainable ecological development. The aim of the article is to develop a framework for researching two questions: What are the prerequisites for children to become responsible environmentalists? What actual and potential influence do children have on their family's consumption? Three theoretical…

  7. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  8. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  9. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a p

  10. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  11. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  12. Surgical safety checklists in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Ravindran, Rahul Prashanth; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSC) has demonstrated efficacy in developed and developing countries alike. Recent increases in awareness of surgical morbidity in developing countries has placed greater emphasis on strategies to improve surgical safety in resource-limited settings. The implementation of surgical safety checklists in low-income countries has specific barriers related to resources and culture. Adapting and amending existing surgical safety checklists, as well as considering factors unique to developing countries, may allow the potential of this simple intervention to be fully harnessed in a wider setting. This review will address the benefits and challenges of implementation of surgical safety checklists in developing countries. Moreover, inspiration for the original checklist is revisited to identify areas that will be of particular benefit in a resource-poor setting. Potential future strategies to encourage the implementation of checklists in these countries are also discussed.

  13. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12].

  14. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the...

  15. Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Murad; Khan, Pervez

    2009-01-01

    Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problematic, characterized by poor business models, political instability and governance conditions, low education level and lack of world-class research universities, an underdeveloped and mediocre physical infrastructure, and lack of solid technology based on trained human resources. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual framework analysis for managing innovation and technology in developing countries like India and China. We present the issues and challenges in innovation and technology management and come up with pro...

  16. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, H G; Silfvenius, H

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) is addressed in relation to economic classifications of national resources and welfare in developing countries. A decade ago, ten developing countries conducted ES; now 26 such countries have reported results of ES. A number of international authorities define indicators of national economic welfare. Adopting the economic classification of the International Monetary Fund. we find that ES is nonexistent in 98% of African countries, 76% of Asian countries, 58% of European countries, 82% of Middle East countries, and in 86% of countries of the Western Hemisphere. The 1980-1990 global ES survey conducted by the International League Against Epilepsy identified ten developing countries reporting ES (DCRES): Brazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Taiwan, the U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Viet Nam. The present survey based on the proceedings of the 19th-23rd International Epilepsy Congresses and Medline reports from 1991 to November 1999 revealed at least 26 (18.3%) DCRES of 142 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, P.R.China, the U.S.S.R., Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and former Yugoslavia. National vital statistics expose the hardships of developing countries. The population ratio of developed countries to developing countries is approximately 1:5. The reverse per capita Gross Domestic Product ratio is 20:1. Great disparities exist in vital statistics, all to the disadvantage of the DCRES. The World Health Organization defines health-related sectors geographically, then divides developing countries into several subgroups. Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared. The DCRES are short of technology, and their ES

  17. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  18. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  19. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  20. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  1. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have very few or no neurologist. There is a greater need of taking neurological care at primary care level where majority of the patients struggle with epilepsy, stroke and neuroinfections.

  2. Modeling Internet Diffusion in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McCoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of the Internet, there is little work that addresses the degree to which the models and theories of Internet diffusion in developed countries can be applied to Internet diffusion in developing countries. This paper presents the first attempt to address this issue through theory driven modeling of Internet diffusion. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that economic development and technology infrastructure are musts for Internet diffusion. Interestingly, users’ cognition and government policies can accelerate Internet diffusion only after a certain level of human rights has been reached in a developing country.

  3. Sourcing Solutions to Oil Shortage Challenge in Asian Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ 21st century is an era with many development opportunities for Asia. It's time for Asia, particularly for developing countries in this region to be away from poverty, backwardness for rapid economic taking-off. According to the predictions of authoritative agencies,Asia will remain as one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Both China and India's economic growth rate will be over 6%. The rapid economic growth of the two largest population nations will not only drive the prosperity of Asian economy, but also bring tremendous impact on the world market.

  4. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  5. Bringing Automated Formal Verification to PLC Program Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Automation is the field of engineering that deals with the development of control systems for operating systems such as industrial processes, railways, machinery or aircraft without human intervention. In most of the cases, a failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic losses, environmental damages or human losses. For that reason, providing safe, reliable and robust control systems is a first priority goal for control engineers. Ideally, control engineers should be able to guarantee that both software and hardware fulfill the design requirements. This is an enormous challenge in which industry and academia have been working and making progresses in the last decades. This thesis focuses on one particular type of control systems that operates industrial processes, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - based control systems. Moreover it targets one of the main challenges for these systems, guaranteeing that PLC programs are compliant with their specifications. Traditionally ...

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  7. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  8. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 9000-AM62 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries... Representative (USTR) to the list of least developed countries that are designated countries under the Trade... President to designate least developed countries as eligible countries under the Trade Agreements Act...

  9. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  10. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  11. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution in subsidiary performance and the factors influencing this performance based on a unique database of approximately 800 multi-national company (MNC) subsidiaries in developing countries. Developed-country multi-national companies (MNCs......) are increasingly establishing subsidiaries in developing countries. The potential gains are high; however, so are the risks. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any international business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has...... examined this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comprehensive literature review of the IB performance literature, it is hypothesized that subsidiary performance essentially is shaped by five clusters of factors: location, industry, MNC capabilities, subsidiary role and entry strategy...

  12. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  13. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...... on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries....

  14. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...

  15. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  16. Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-11-01

    Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

  17. Developing countries and the global science Web

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeira, Hilda; Fonda, Carlo; Cottrell, R L A

    2003-01-01

    Enabling scientists from developing countries to bridge the gap between rich and poor depends on closing another gap - the "digital divide". Now the technology exists to monitor this divide, and it reveals some alarming results. Most developing countries experience great difficulties because of adverse economic conditions and political instability, which means they lag behind in scientific and technological development. With the advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid exchange of information via the Internet, one might naively have thought that much of the gap between developed and developing nations would disappear, even if problems still persisted for those areas of science that need expensive facilities. However, access to information, peer reviewed or not, depends on having the appropriate hardware, i.e. a computer, and Internet connectivity, and there is a serious problem with access to the Internet in developing countries. Gaining access to a computer is more of a question of economics, and one that ...

  18. Structural Change and Employment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to structural changes in developing countries and concludes that unemployment and underemployment are best countered by generating new productive activities, developing economic linkages, and stimulating an increase in the number of workplaces. Advocates cooperation among developing nations. (JOW)

  19. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    norm expected. The supply chain integration will bring positive impacts and benefits for manufacturers in developing countries if it adopted properly.

  20. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  1. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  2. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  3. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  4. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  5. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  6. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed......Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... with human capital. Rather, governments of these poorly-endowed countries focus on consumptive public spending. As a result, while their better-endowed counterparts build up human capital thereby promoting technology adoption and growth, the growth process in poorly-endowed countries stagnates....

  7. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  8. Thailand - Country Development Partnership : Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The Thailand Country Development Partnership for Social Protection (CDP-SP) is a collaborative program of policy development and technical assistance between the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and the Bank and was launched in July 2001. CDP-SP operates in three key policy areas: labor markets; social insurance; and social assistance and safety nets. This report reviews the objecti...

  9. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  10. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  11. The Impact of FDI on Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NanfeiPei; KarinvanderEsch

    2004-01-01

    Today most developing countries take FD1 as an important resource for development. There are many factors that might attract FD1 to a certain region. However, the real economic effects of FD1 on the economic growth are almost impossible to measure precisely. In this article, our analysis starts with the micro-level including the banking sector and corporate sector, then it moves to the macro-level in which trade, employment and balance of payments are discussed. Both theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that FD1 has a beneficial impact on the economic growth in host countries. Therefore FD1 will continue to remain an important engine of growth in a majority of the developing countries.

  12. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  13. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles;

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows...... developing countries in effective global mitigation policies, even in the relatively near term, with the likelihood of much larger benefits post 2050....... for rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...

  14. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...... of treated wastewater, energy conservation, and proper financial and organizational set up.   Sustainable Wastewater Management in Developing Countries will urge practitioners, decision makers, and researchers to approach these systems in new ways that are practical, innovative, and-best of all-sustainable....

  15. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  16. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  17. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  18. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  19. Redesigning Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Kimaro, Honest; Aanestad, Margunn

    2008-01-01

    Despite widespread aims to strengthen the Health Information System (HIS) as a tool for decentralised health care, there is a strong tendency in most developing countries that the HIS continues to reflect the central level's needs and requirements. The traditional design approach with little...

  20. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...

  1. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  2. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...

  3. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide groundwater is a common-pool resource that is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. In developing countries the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual groundwater extraction. For...

  4. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  5. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    In many developing countries, groundwater is a common pool resource which is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. However, in these countries, the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual...... groundwater extraction. For this reason, classical public intervention instruments, such as consumption fees or tradable quotas, are infeasible. Here we present a theoretical foundation for a new public regulatory instrument that can potentially generate the same efficiency inducing incentives as fees...

  6. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V; Aguilera, M J; Gonzalez-yanci, M P

    1993-07-01

    "Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."

  7. Health care system reform in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms.

  8. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  9. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  10. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  11. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and......, tensions within SME networks, and negative perceptions of CSR by the cluster-based SMEs themselves. The findings and implications of this analysis can inform both research and policy making in this area......This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small...

  12. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  13. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  14. Digital processing system for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  15. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    in terms of growth and revenue and assume key roles in the MNCs’ global value chains, but other subsidiaries fail to meet expectations, struggling to produce positive returns and frequently experiencing stop of operations. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any...... regardless of location and industry. The findings of the study have important implications for the IB literature, for managers and for policy aimed at promoting FDI in developing countries....

  16. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  17. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and......, tensions within SME networks, and negative perceptions of CSR by the cluster-based SMEs themselves. The findings and implications of this analysis can inform both research and policy making in this area......This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small......- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  18. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Ali Samadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children’s development and overall family quality of life.

  19. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  20. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents.

  1. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  2. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  3. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Duncan

    2004-09-15

    Details methods of domestic wastewater treatment that are especially suitable in developing countries. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. (Author)

  4. Developing countries: health round-trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Cea, Lourdes; Fernández Espinilla, Virginia; Ruiz López del Prado, Gema; Hernán García, Cristina; Cepeda Casado, Javier; Polo Polo, Ma José; Delgado Márquez, Antonio; Andrés García, Irene

    2015-01-15

    International travel can pose various risks to health, depending both on the health needs of the traveller and on the type of travel to be undertaken. Travellers intending to visit a destination in a developing country should consult a travel medicine clinic or medical practitioner before the journey. General precautions can greatly reduce the risk of exposure to infectious agents. Vaccination is a highly effective method of preventing certain infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to know the risks involved and the best way to prevent them.

  5. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the produ......Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice...... of the production process on the strategic objectives for the plant is developed. This is followed by the selection of the type of production system and the operational methods which will support it. The final stage of the model concerns the human resource policies neede to implement the operational decisions....... The barriers and challenges of implementation are considered, and a socio-technical systems approach is proposed as a way to addapt to local conditions....

  6. Malnutrition and health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Olaf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition, with its 2 constituents of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, continues to be a major health burden in developing countries. It is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, with hundreds of millions of pregnant women and young children particularly affected. Apart from marasmus and kwashiorkor (the 2 forms of protein- energy malnutrition), deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are the main manifestations of malnutrition in developing countries. In these communities, a high prevalence of poor diet and infectious disease regularly unites into a vicious circle. Although treatment protocols for severe malnutrition have in recent years become more efficient, most patients (especially in rural areas) have little or no access to formal health services and are never seen in such settings. Interventions to prevent protein- energy malnutrition range from promoting breast-feeding to food supplementation schemes, whereas micronutrient deficiencies would best be addressed through food-based strategies such as dietary diversification through home gardens and small livestock. The fortification of salt with iodine has been a global success story, but other micronutrient supplementation schemes have yet to reach vulnerable populations sufficiently. To be effective, all such interventions require accompanying nutrition-education campaigns and health interventions. To achieve the hunger- and malnutrition-related Millennium Development Goals, we need to address poverty, which is clearly associated with the insecure supply of food and nutrition.

  7. Health and development in BRICS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the century, the acronym BRIC first appeared in a study produced by an economist at Goldman Sachs. Economic and financial interest in BRICS resulted from the fact of them being seen as drivers of development. The purpose of this review is to analyze the extent to which what is being proposed at the Declarations of Heads of State and in the Declaration and Communiqué of Ministers of Health of BRICS can provide guidance to the potential of achieving a healthier world. With that in mind, the methodology of analysis of Statements and Communiqué rose from the discussions at the Summit of Heads of State and Ministers of Health was adopted. In the first instance, the study focused on the potential for economic, social and environmental development, and in the second, on the future of health within the group addressed. The conclusion reached was that despite the prospect of continued economic growth of BRICS countries, coupled with plausible proposals for the health sector, strong investment by the countries in S&T and technology transfer within the group, research on the social and economic determinants that drive the occurrence of NCDs – there is the need and the opportunity for joint action of the BRICS in terms of the “diplomacy of health” reinforcing the whole process of sustainable development.

  8. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  9. Infectious diseases in paediatric pathology: experience from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Luiz Cesar; Saggioro, Fabiano Pinto; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Luiz, Veridiana Ester Dias de Barros; Neder, Luciano; Rosman, Fernando Colonna; Fleury, Raul Negrão; Ura, Somei; Orsi, Ana Tereza; Talhari, Carolina; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rey, Luís Carlos; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Sim, Franklin; Filho, Otilde Es de Satana; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Chimelli, Leila M Cardão; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes

    2008-02-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases have always challenged man. Although many of them are typically seen in some areas of the world and can be adequately managed by just improving socioeconomic status and sanitary conditions, they are still quite prevalent and may sometimes be seen outside their original geographical areas. Human migration due to different reasons, tourism, blood transfusion and solid organ transplantation has created new concerns for health professionals all over the world. If not for diagnostic purposes, at least these tropical and infectious diseases should be largely known because their epidemiology, pathogenesis, host/parasite interaction, inflammatory and reparative responses are quite interesting and teach us about human biology. Curiosity is inherent to pathology practice and so we are compelled to look for things other than tumours or degenerative diseases. This review focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases found in a developing country and brings up-to-date information on diseases caused by viruses (dengue, yellow fever), bacteria (typhoid fever, leprosy), parasites (Chagas' disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, Capillaria hepatica, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis) and caused by fungi (paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis) that may be useful for pathologists when facing somewhat strange cases from developing countries.

  10. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  11. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  12. Strategies for greater impact in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C

    1993-01-01

    Effective AIDS education programs are needed to prevent AIDS. They must integrate HIV/AIDS messages into basic health care services and adapted them to cultural norms and values. They should eliminate the mystery surrounding human sexuality. Effective AIDS education programs must examine control of communicable diseases and the relationship between gender issues and effective health care treatment. The infrastructure and resources to direct vertical HIV/AIDS programs generally do not exist in developing countries. All too often senior professionals accept positions in these vertical programs, which limits their ability to lobby for integrated HIV/AIDS programs. Donor organizations should make sure that all projects which they support have an AIDS component and work with other organizations to ensure that prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/HIV/AIDS is completely integrated into health care delivery services. All health workers should undergo AIDS prevention and control training. Supervisors should make sure that subordinates practice AIDS control. Benefit packages should not be offered to attract health workers. Just because nationals may make up an information, education, and communication (IEC) program does not mean that they will adapt the program to cultural values. Donors must provide appropriate educational strategies and programs to developing countries. Social change evolves from the culture. Health care workers must help find culturally appropriate education strategies. IEC has not reached its objectives in prevention and control of STDs. Communication mechanisms that allow human sexuality to be a subject of every day discussion without causing embarrassment, uneasiness, and outrage are needed.

  13. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  14. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  15. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  16. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  17. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives.

  18. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  19. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  20. Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

    2011-12-01

    This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations.

  1. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  2. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  3. Synchrotron Light Sources in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The more than 50 light sources now in operation around the world include facilities in Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan which started their programs in the 1980's when they were developing countries. They came on line in the 1990's and have since trained hundreds of graduate students locally, without sending them abroad and losing many of them. They have also attracted dozens of mid-career diaspora scientists to return. Their growing user communities have demanded more advanced facilities, leading to the funding of higher performance new light sources that are now coming into operation. Light sources in the developing world now include the following: SESAME in the Middle East which is scheduled to start research in 2017 (www.sesame.org); The African Light Source, in the planning stage (www.africanlightsource.org); and The Mexican Light Source, in the planning stage (http://www.aps.org/units/fip/newsletters/201509/mexico.cfm). See: http://wpj.sagepub.com/content/32/4/92.full.pdf +html; http://www.lightsources.org/press-release/2015/11/20/grenoble-resolutions-mark-historical-step-towards-african-light-source. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  4. Mediational pathways connecting secondary education and age at marriage to maternal mortality: A comparison between developing and developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel Joy; Bae, DaYoung; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown that maternal mortality rates have been improving worldwide, rates are still high across developing nations. In general, poor health of women is associated with higher maternal mortality rates in developing countries. Understanding country-level risk factors can inform intervention and prevention efforts that could bring high maternal mortality rates down. Specifically, the authors were interested in investigating whether: (1) secondary education participation (SEP) or age at marriage (AM) of women were related to maternal mortality rates, and (2) adolescent birth rate and contraceptive use (CU) acted as mediators of this association. The authors add to the literature with this current article by showing the relation of SEP and AM to maternal mortality rates globally (both directly and indirectly through mediators) and then by comparing differences between developed and developing/least developed countries. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model using country level longitudinal data from 2000 to 2010 obtained from United Nations publications, World Health Organization materials, and World Bank development reports. Findings include a significant correlation between SEP and AM for developing countries; for developed countries the relation was not significant. As well, SEP in developing countries was associated with increased CU. Women in developing countries who finish school before marriage may have important social capital gains.

  5. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect o

  6. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  7. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  8. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  9. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  10. Personal Health Book Application for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiq Alabbasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Personal Health Book application that is used as a portable repository for Personal Health Records (PHR in order to alleviate healthcare organizational problems in developing countries. The Personal Health Book application allows low literate people to access and carry their own medical history from a rural healthcare provider to an urban healthcare provider. This will improve the efficiency of medical care and lower costs for health clinics in underserved areas. This paper introduces a software application that can be ported onto a USB Smart Card or/and managed by smartphone or personal computer connected to cloud computing environment. The Portable Health Book application aims to ease the problem of interoperability between health clinics by accepting any file format and contents and applies a decomposed database to categorize, group and reorganize the data. Querying the application’s database, the consumer can create a unified report presentation that is understandable by the consumer, family, and healthcare provider. We tested the Personal Health Book framework by importing PHRs in an extensible markup language (XML format with a basic structure, without checking the PHR content from the Grameen Portable Health Clinic database in Bangladesh and from different departments from a hospital in Japan. The Personal Health Book was able to generate a human readable output as its database reorganize and store any type of PHR including sensor device data.

  11. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  12. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  13. Regulations and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an institutional approach to examine the effect of regulations on entrepreneurial activity, comparing developed and developing countries. Through an unbalanced panel data set of 49 countries over the period 2001-2010 and using a combination of international databases we find a positive influence of government spending and entrepreneurship legislation on entrepreneurial activity. It was also found that regulations may have different impacts on entrepreneurship according to the country’s economic development. Thus, in developed economies unemployment legislation is positively related to entrepreneurship, while this relationship is negative in other cases. This paper offers new insights both from a conceptual perspective (advancing theory concerning the factors that influence entrepreneurial activity and a practical viewpoint (for the design of government policies to foster entrepreneurship.

  14. Exploring e-commerce benefits for businesses in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Alemayehu; Heeks, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries are home to more than 80% of the world's population, and are the site for growing use of e-commerce. There are theoretical claims that e-commerce could bring significant benefits to firms in developing countries, but we know very little empirically about the actual outcomes of e-commerce implementation. Our article addresses this gap in knowledge through a survey of 92 businesses in South Africa, all of which have moved beyond the basic stage of e-commerce. The findings i...

  15. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  16. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  17. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms’ competitiveness.  This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries.   In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms.  In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage Model—a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries.  Their ...

  18. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J

    2012-01-01

    ; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently......Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease...... intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some...

  19. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  20. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  1. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  2. Challenges of mega construction projects in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Othman, Ayman Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mega Construction Projects (MCPs) represent a strategic option towards achieving sustainable development objectives in developing countries. On the one hand, these projects are charaterised with the need for high design knowledge and technical skills; competent human resources and managerial capabilities as well as excessive cost investment. Conversely, developing countries experience shortage of many of these requirements, which obstruct the development of (MCPs)....

  3. A Review of Strategies to Promote Road Safety in Rich Developing Countries: the Gcc Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Jadaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Road safety policies, strategies and action plans, along with trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries were examined to appraise their road safety work with an overall objective of identifying key measures and initiatives that would reduce RTA and their resulting consequences in these countries. Data on RTIs was obtained from police and from vital statistics and was analyzed. Research papers, policy documents, and strategies, obtained from relevant stakeholders in the six GCC countries, were reviewed and discussed. Traffic Safety Programs and action plans, which were the most fundamental documents in the development of the GCC countries’ road safety policies and strategies, were reviewed. Policy documents on road safety and traffic related issues were searched on the websites of related authorities. Published research on road safety in GCC countries was searched using available databases. Analysis of accident data shows that the fatality rates in all the GCC countries are much higher than developed countries with good safety records. The six administrations started the fundamental traffic safety programs to combat the increase in RTIs, with some succeeding in reducing RTI rates by implementing vast road safety improvements. However, RTIs increased again mainly because of increasing traffic volume and high-risk driving behavior. Developing and implementing national road safety strategies in some GCC countries was successful in reducing the RTI rates. The road safety situation in the six GCC countries was assessed showing high crash and fatality rates compared to developed countries. Most GCC countries still suffer from sustainable increase in traffic crashes despite the efforts to reduce their magnitude and severity. Some of these countries have developed and implemented national road safety strategies, while countries like Oman still need to develop such a long-term strategy. Following the

  4. Capacity building for higher education in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    in the donor countries in order to merge the interests of the universities, the Ministry of Science/Education and the national/international donor agencies. It is argued that capacity building for higher education in developing countries should be a generally accepted part of the university strategy portfolio...... of relevant international capacity and institutional innovation in the donor countries. It is a process of mutual benefit for both recipient and donor countries....

  5. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  6. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  7. Developing and understanding a hospital-based proton facility: bringing physics into medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, James M

    2007-08-01

    From October 18 to 20, 2006, a symposium, Developing and Understanding a Hospital-based Proton Facility: Bringing Physics Into Medicine, was held at the Renaissance Esmeralda Resort and Spa, Indian Wells, California. The event was offered by the Department of Radiation Medicine at Loma Linda University (LLU), supported by the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) and the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The meeting was intended to discuss factors involved in planning, developing, and operating a hospital-based proton treatment center. It brought together some of the most distinguished physicists, radiation biologists, and radiation oncologists in the world, and more than 100 individuals participated in the three-day educational offering. This overview reports on the event and introduces several papers written by many of the speakers from their presentations, for publication in this issue of Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment. Both the symposium and the papers are appropriate for this journal: exploitation of technology was one of the underlying themes of the symposium.

  8. MNC Strategies and Linkage Effects in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    . It is hypothesized that compared to investments undertaken by MNCs following strategies of global integration, investments of MNCs pursuing local responsiveness create more jobs but imply less job upgrading in developing countries. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of Danish MNCs with extensive investments......The paper addresses the question of which implications MNC strategies have to FDI linkage effects in developing countries. Two contrasting MNC strategies reflecting an integration-responsiveness dichotomy are scrutinized as to their job effects on local linkage partners in developing countries...... in developing countries....

  9. Decentralisation in developing countries: preconditions for successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Olum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation has been implemented and is being implemented in many developing countries without much success. Although several unique factors inhibit the implementation of decentralisation in individual countries, the paper argues that there are six pre-conditions that these countries should fulfill before decentralisation can be successfully implemented. These preconditions are: institutional mechanisms; creation of spaces for participation; political will and civil will; capacity development at the local level; careful implementation; and democratic governance.

  10. Restrictive Factors for Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucur Ion; Bucur Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Economic growth reflects the ability of an economy to produce more goods, in the structure and quality demanded by consumers. Growth influence decisive the existing living standard in a country. Developing countries are characterized in a greater extent than developed countries by insufficient financial resources designed both to increase the volume of investment resources and their efficient use. Increasing economic resources requires investments and lead to increased production.

  11. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghaiath MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries.

  12. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  13. The Global Trends of the Industrial Development in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova V. Ye.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the global trends in the industrial development both in developed and developing countries. The study is based on the data of interbranch balances for 38 countries over the period of 1996-2011. In the selected groups of countries there have been studied: the dynamics and structure of the world industrial output, share of industry, dynamics and structure of the volume of industrial exports, dynamics of export orientation of the industrial production, dynamics of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, structure of consumption of industrial products, dynamics and structure of the GDP of high-tech industries, dynamics of the share of the GDP of high-tech industries in the world industry GDP. There have been formed the rankings of top 20 producers, exporters and importers of industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, leading countries in terms of import dependence of the domestic market for industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of the GDP volume of high-tech industries. Based on the conducted analysis it has been proved that the development of industry in developing countries is taking place in higher, as compared with developed ones, pace. High rates of industrial development in developing countries are ensured, first of all, by increasing their domestic market capacity. At the same time maintaining a high level of activity in the international market for industrial products still allows developed countries to keep the leading positions in rankings. The most industrially developed countries among the developing ones are Korea, China and India, and those among the developed countries are Germany, Japan and the United States. A significant advantage of the developed countries is observed in the production of high-tech products. Even considering the advantage in the GDP growth of high-tech industries in the

  14. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  15. Development prospects of the banking industry in the new EU member countries and forthcoming member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Košak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bank consolidation has substantially decreased the number of banks in European banking, which has had important implications for the banking sectors structure in all EU member countries. The consolidation processes have had a tremendous impact on the developments in banking sectors of new EU member countries, wheremajor structural changes have been initiated mostly by new entrant banks from the old EU member countries. The future banking development in new EU member countries will very likely follow some main patterns known from the old EU members. Rather speculative conjectures, which are based on a comparison with banking sectors in other EU member countries indicate, that the total-asset-to-GDPratio in new member countries should further improve in the future. The banking sector growth will be based mostly on the growth of the credit to non-banking sector, while banks are not expected anymore to use non-bank deposits as a predominant way of funding. Instead potentials for alternative funding possibilities should be activated. Although the non-bank financial intermediaries in new EU membersrepresent a serious competition to banks, their relative underdevelopment prevents them from impacting the developments in banking sectors as known from old EU member countries.

  16. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  17. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  18. FOREIGN-EXCHANGE CONSTRAINTS AND DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a model of developing countries in which a foreign exchange constraint and imported intermediates are central features, The model is used to carry out different scenarios with respect to developing countries' economic performance in the 1990s, A baseline simulation shows that the

  19. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  20. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...

  1. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  2. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  3. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES IN THE DEVELOP EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nesterova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined. The shares of premiums of insurance intermediaries in the volume of insurance premiums and in the GDP of the insurance markets of European countries are defined. The number of employees who are involved in insurance intermediary in the European countries is investigated. The European experience of insurance agents and insurance brokers in non-life insurance and life insurance is considered. It's analyzed the activity of insurance brokers in the Ukraine. The main trends and problems of the development of insurance intermediaries in the insurance market of Ukraine are defined.

  5. PROCEEDINGS: Conference on Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Sperling, Daniel; Mason, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Much of the developing world is experiencing rapid economic growth. Motor vehicle fleets in many megacities are doubling every seven years, creating a huge infrastructure backlog, escalating air quality problems, and imposing constraints on economic development. Besides rapid growth, the very context of transportation challenges is qualitatively different in the developing world. Leaded and unregulated fuels are a serious source of air pollution in cities like Bangkok, Lagos, and Jakarta. ...

  6. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braithwaite, J. [Breeze International Environmental, Clayton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  7. Technology development and technology gap among Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Moya, Edgar David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to study the source of the technology gaps amongst some Latin American countries and to identify whether a regional system of technological progress may be strengthened. ethodology: technology development within some Latin America countries was researched based on the technology frontier concept. In order to do that, the technological advancement of such countries was compared using standard variables and institutional systems. The concept and scope of the technology frontier, whic...

  8. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  9. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  10. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  11. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  12. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  13. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, S.; Mores, S.; Bonifacio, A.; Chancellor, T.; Condori, B.; Crespo-Perez, V.; Hobbs, S.; Kroshel, J.; Ba, M.; Rebaudo, F.; Sherwood, S.G.; Vanek, S.J.; Faye, E.; Herrera, M.; Dangles, O.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countrie

  14. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  15. Globalization and the Least Developed Countries: Potentials and Pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most notable changes in the world economy during the past three decades has been the diverging trends in the growth of the developing countries. Compared to East Asian countries that have integrated well into the global economy, those of Sub-Saharan Africa have remained stagnant and have

  16. National innovation system in less successful developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intarakumnerd, Patarapong; Chairatana, Pun-arj; Tangchitpiboon, Tipawan

    2002-01-01

    This paper, using Thailand as a case study, aims at understanding the national innovation system (NIS) in developing countries which are less successful in technological catching-up. In contrast to developed countries, the development level of Thailand’s NIS does not link to its economic structur...... on factors contributing to the long-running perpetuation of weak and fragmented NIS. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B; Hochard, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world's 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries.

  18. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  19. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility...... of existing techniques. Our results consistently show that the sensitivity of reported profits to profit-shifting incentives is negatively related to the level of economic and institutional development. This may explain why many developing countries opt for low corporate tax rates in spite of urgent revenue...

  20. Optics education in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  1. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  2. Acute viral bronchiolitis and its sequelae in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Teper, Alejandro; Colom, Alejandro J

    2002-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is a common disease found throughout the world. Various aspects of it are being studied: its epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Most of these studies are being conducted in developed countries, with only a few taking place in developing countries. Risk factors such as poor nutrition, an adverse environment and early weaning should be studied where these features are common. Treatment aspects such as cost-effectiveness in low income settings need further study. Use of ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-immunoglobulin are good examples. Post-bronchiolitic sequelae also need to be studied in low income countries. There is evidence that bronchiolitis obliterans is unusually frequent in some Latin-American countries such as Argentina and Brazil. It will be helpful to undertake combined studies in countries with the same socio-economics, investigating the preventive and management aspects of AVB and its sequelae to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  3. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  4. Photovoltaics for rural electrification in developing countries a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Urmee, Tania; Holtorf, Hans-Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This guide will greatly improve the success rate of solar energy projects in remote communities in developing countries, drawing on the authors' own case studies to generate comprehensive, step-by-step procedures that replicate proven real-life strategies.

  5. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  6. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  7. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; Barker, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through...

  8. Learning New Technologies by SMEs in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji; Lal, Kaushalesh

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on new field data, examines the ways in which small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in selected developing countries learn to use and augment their core capabilities with new technologies. This paper presents three findings. First, there is clear evidence of increasing complexity in the adoption and use of ICTs among developing country firms. Second, climbing the technological ladder requires skills upgrading through explicit learning of the new technologies. Third, firm perfo...

  9. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural facto...

  10. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  11. The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries--in education, personal autonomy, and more--explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold certain cultural views that lead to gender inequality? This article discusses several mechanisms through which, as countries grow, gender gaps narrow. I argue that while much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the process of development, society-specific factors are also at play...

  12. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipinth Suwanrong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1 the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2 the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3 the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Provinces. The samples providing information included 170 persons. The instruments using for collecting data included: The Survey Form, Interview Form, Focus Group Discussion and Participatory Workshop. The data were classified into groups. Qualitative data were analyzed according to the specified objectives. The research findings were presented in descriptive analysis. Results: The research findings found that the historical background of Isan Country Song, reflected lifestyle, social situation, ideal, and Thai Culture with the rhyme developed from traditional Country Song blending with Big Brand Music Band mixing with the local singing words and rhythm. The current situation and problem after listening to the Country Song was more increasing popular since there were many song composers and chords. There were advertisements through the media as radio, television, mobile phone and internet network. Therefore, the buying and selling of song were easier and quicker. For the song composing, the text of a song didn’t focus on the rhyme and lacked of morality enhancement. The supplementary music sometimes lacked of beauty based on aesthetic principle. For the commercial problems, there were many violations of right. Consequently, the entrepreneur sometimes faced with the lost. For development, the god points of Isan Country Song were analyzed both of the text and rhyme. The composed song model was created by bringing Pentatonic scale mixing with message of Dorian Mode. The

  13. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  14. On the effects of monetary policy shocks in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data for a sample of developing countries, the time-series evidence indicates the allocation of monetary policy shocks, both expansionary and contractionary, between price inflation and output growth. Subsequently, cross-country regressions evaluate factors that underlie the difference in these allocations and their implications. The real effects of monetary shocks increase as the elasticity of aggregate demand increases with respect to monetary shocks. Nonetheless, capacity constraints hamper the output adjustment to monetary shocks and increase price inflation. Across countries, trend output growth increases with the output response to monetary shocks. Consistent with the stabilizing function of monetary policy, the variability of output growth decreases in the face of monetary fluctuations across countries. In contrast, monetary fluctuations increase the trend and variability of price inflation across countries.

  15. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Syud A [Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W, E-mail: sahmed20@worldbank.or [Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample-particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa-with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  16. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  17. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  18. Outsourcing Strategies of Emerging Country Firms : Are they Different from Developed Country Multinationals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleury, A.; Arkader, R.; Grössler, A.; Timenes Laugen, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze differences in the sourcing strategies of manufacturing firms from emerging and from developed markets. More specifically, we test whether manufacturers from emerging markets have other objectives when sourcing from within their countries or from international

  19. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  20. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.

  1. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  2. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  3. Globalisation and Developing Countries - a Shrinking Tax Base?

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of globalisation on tax bases of countries at varying stages of development. We see globalisation as a process that induces countries to embrace greater trade and financial integration. This in turn should shift their tax revenue from 'easy to collect' taxes (tariffs and seigniorage) towards 'hard to collect' taxes (value added and income taxes). We find that trade and financial openness have a positive association with the 'hard to collect' taxes, and a negati...

  4. Financial Frictions and Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Standard theory of small open economies predicts a smooth path for consumption and investment over time, and procyclical current account balances and employment. This contrasts with the data for emerging countries, where consumption, investment and employment are highly procyclical and volatile, and the current account balance is counter cyclical. Previous studies have reconciled theory and data using different households preferences for emerging countries vs. developed ones, either a lower i...

  5. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  6. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  7. Bringing sexual and reproductive health in the urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda: the case for prioritizing the urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing; Mumah, Joyce; Kabiru, Caroline; Brinton, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Estimates suggest that over 90 % of population increase in the least developed countries over the next four decades will occur in urban areas. These increases will be driven both by natural population growth and rural-urban migration. Moreover, despite its status as the world's least urbanized region, the urban population in the sub-Saharan Africa region is projected to increase from under 40 % currently to over 60 % by 2050. Currently, approximately 70 % of all urban residents in the region live in slums or slum-like conditions. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks for the urban poor are severe and include high rates of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, the links between poverty, urbanization, and reproductive health priorities are still not a major focus in the broader development agenda. Building on theoretical and empirical data, we show that SRH in urban contexts is critical to the development of healthy productive urban populations and, ultimately, the improvement of quality of life. We posit that a strategic focus on the sexual and reproductive health of urban residents will enable developing country governments achieve international goals and national targets by reducing health risks among a large and rapidly growing segment of the population. To that end, we identify key research, policy and program recommendations and strategies required for bringing sexual and reproductive health in urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda.

  8. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  9. Options for improving effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Marion S; Cowley, Daniel; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Hutton, Melanie L; Lyras, Dena; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P

    2016-11-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, 2 live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. In contrast, the same vaccines reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis by only 30-60% in developing countries, but have been proven life-saving. Bridging this "efficacy gap" offers the possibility to save many more lives of children under the age of 5. The reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing settings may be related to differences in transmission dynamics, as well as host luminal, mucosal and immune factors. This review will examine strategies currently under study to target the issue of reduced efficacy and effectiveness of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing settings.

  10. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives...... focus on export-oriented industrial clusters, the risk that CSR becomes a form of economic and cultural imperialism, and the potential for joint-action CSR initiatives in clusters of small and medium-sized enterprises to offer a new form of greenwashing. From this review, the authors develop...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....

  11. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still the main problem for the interest rate derivatives development is the lack of basic conditions, including inadequate measurement of interest rate risk exposure, underdevelopment of financial markets in general and especially of market instruments that underlying derivatives, weak and/or inadequate infrastructure and legal framework, misunderstanding and lack of experience in operations with financial derivatives and the complexity of the derivatives accounting.

  12. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too.

  13. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye; Fazakerley, Jak A; Roberts, Clive L

    2013-11-01

    Optimistic estimates suggest that only 30-70% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These 'scavengers' as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the level of integration must be 'flexible'. In addition, the structure of the ISR should not be based on a 'universal' model but should instead take into account local contexts and conditions.

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  15. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  16. Industrial Clusters and Social Upgrading in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    In this article, we explore the relationship between industrial clusters and social upgrading in developing countries. Our article focuses on the hitherto little-considered influence of the economic and regulatory environment on the social upgrading of a cluster and on its governance system....... In doing so, we develop an analytical framework that seeks to explain how the enabling environment and different actors in cluster governance can either facilitate and/or hinder the process of social upgrading in cluster settings in developing countries. Finally, the conclusion outlines our main findings...

  17. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  18. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  19. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  20. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  1. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  2. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  3. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the associ

  4. What can be learned from the history of developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  5. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  6. Developing countries and the aircraft industry: match or mismatch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2001-01-01

    For many industrially developing countries, technology transfer is seen as a road towards technological and economic development. Indonesian experiences with the aircraft industry suggest that the transfer of technology in this sector is extremely difficult, and even if technology is actually transf

  7. Extent and evaluation of protection in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kol (Jacob)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTariff protection and nontariff barriers are higher in developing countries than in industrial nations. The tendency of protection to decline with a higher level of development can be explained by the role of import taxes in government revenue, by export pessimism, and by differential tr

  8. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  9. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  10. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet.

  11. Global aspects of cardiothoracic surgery with focus on developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, A Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of cardiothoracic disease continue to increase globally, especially in emerging economies and developing countries. Cardiothoracic surgery is also growing despite limited access, availability of surgical centers, political and cost issues. The increase in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, trauma, and thoracic malignancies is a more urgent problem than realized in these emerging economies and developing countries, or low- and middle-income countries. A determined focus and cooperation between the preventive and curative elements of care is warranted. This represents a paradigm shift to develop a consensus that fosters a multi-integrated disease-specific approach that includes prevention, promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. In addition, the concept or acceptance of surgery as a necessary component of public health policy is critical to improving overall global healthcare.

  12. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...

  13. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  14. Do Political Institutions protect the poor? Intra Countries Health Inequalities and Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drabo, Alassane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the link between health inequalities, air pollution and political institutions. In health economics literature, many studies have assessed the association between environmental degradation and health outcomes. This paper extends this literature by investigating how air pollution could explain health inequalities both between and within developing countries, and the role of political institutions in this relationship. Theoretically, we argue that differential in exposition ...

  15. Treatment of epilepsy: with special reference to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuntokun, B O

    1979-01-01

    1. Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder, constitutes an important medical problem especially as in the developing countries there is a great dearth and shortage of health personnel, especially trained ones, in clinical neurosciences. The prevalence of epilepsy in developing countries is probably higher than in the Caucasians although accurate epidemiological data are lacking. 2. Epilepsy is discussed with special regard to the need for accurate diagnosis, and the difficulties encountered in developing countries. 3. Pharmacotherapy should be as simple as possible and suggestions are made on the essential drugs useful in the control of epilepsy with special reference to developing countries and in the context of economics and ready availability. Grand mal and focal epilepsies could be controlled by phenobarbitone, with phenytoin, sulthiame and carbamazepine kept as reserves or adjuncts. Minor (generalised) epilepsies could be controlled by ethosuximide, with clonazepam and sodium valproate (sodium dipropylacetate) as reserve drugs and adjuncts. For status epilepticus, diazepam is effective and readily available, with clonazepam and phenytoin as alternatives. 4. The problems in the management of epilepsy in the developing countries include lack of facilities and personnel to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment, inadequate supply or non-availability of drugs, high defaulting rate of patients, the adverse and often pernicious social stigmatisation of the epileptic. 5. Possible solutions to some of these problems include integration of management (in simple terms) of convulsive disorders into the basic health system of delivery of health care in developing countries, aggressive pursuit of health education of the public by governmental and non-governmental agencies, active, intensive and sustained promotion of training of health personnel in clinical neurosciences and research aimed at producing long-acting anticonvulsants.

  16. Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME, Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural

  17. How To Improve Software Quality Assurance In Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important factor in software industry. Software quality depends upon the customer satisfaction which can be achieved through applying standards. In this era achieving quality software is very important because of the high customer demands. Developed countries are excelling in software industry and improving day by day. Meanwhile developing countries like Pakistan are struggling with software quality and cannot maintain reputation in International Market. Software Quality lacks due tomany reasons. This paper will address the problems for lacking interest in improving the software quality by higher authorities and software assurance team. We have provided solution to the addressed problems also.

  18. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  19. E-health technologies show promise in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.

  20. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via crosscountryanalysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment(FDI and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply andgross domestic product per capita (PCGDP can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is biggerthan the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.

  1. Bisphenol A and food safety: Lessons from developed to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-06-01

    Modern lifestyles and changes in the socio-economic characteristics of households have stimulated current developments in food technology, processing and packaging. Chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) are known to migrate from food packaging into the food, resulting in human exposure to these chemicals. Similarly, BPA can migrate from baby feeding bottles into milk. BPA has been associated with adverse effects attributed to its estrogenic properties in various animal models. This review analyzed peer-reviewed publications in the English literature on human BPA exposure and regulations in developing countries compared to developed countries. BPA has been reduced or eliminated from food packaging and contact materials such as baby bottles in developed countries either voluntarily or by legislation. The meager data from developing countries shows that human BPA exposure in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries. With minor exceptions, BPA restriction, voluntary or legal, is virtually absent in developing countries of Africa, SE Asia, and South and Central America.

  2. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  3. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  4. Growth and Project Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth F.; Müller, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using...... data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of financing in the selected set of countries. Additionally, the project sheds light on other factors of importance...... for economic growth in LDCs. We find that a higher regulatory quality, lower government consumption and a higher level of education helps increase growth. The significance of these variables are, however, not as consistently robust as the results for project finance....

  5. Comparative Characteristics of Technology Transfer in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Palii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research into innovation transfer in the global economy is a very urgent issue under the modern conditions of development of any country. Comparative characteristics of technology transfer in such countries and regions as the USA, EU, Asia, presented in the article, permit us to detect certain patterns of this process inherent both in developed and developing countries. The analysis made in the article can be useful for developing technology transfer processes in the Danube countries’ economy. The analytical method used in this research allowed us to determine the factor that is crucial for the growth of the world market of high-technology products and services. The analysis was conducted on several criteria such as the level of expenditure on R&D in the whole global economy, as well as in individual countries and regions. Besides, there were taken into account the added value of high-tech industries and the share of expenditure on R&D in total production costs. The conclusions regarding the effectiveness of funds allocated for scientific research and experimental development in the U.S. can be drawn on the basis of data presented in the paper on the amount of added value of the U.S. high-tech industries.

  6. The challenge of census taking in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, R R; Torrey, B B

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the new and inexpensive technologies that have been developed at the U.S. Bureau of the Census in order to assist in data processing of census results in developing countries. The process of U.S. technical assistance in this field is described. The authors then consider differences and similarities in processing and producing census data. The article concludes with a discussion of the available technologies, including microcomputing software developed for the 1990 census round.

  7. AGRICULTURAL LAND CONVERSION DRIVERS : A COMPARISON BETWEEN LESS DEVELOPED, DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, H.; Ho, P.; Hasfiati, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the level of intensity, trend and the main drivers of agricultural land conversion (ALC) worldwide. Considering the World Bank classification and using a stratified random sampling, 94 countries were selected in three different groups: less developing, developing and developed co

  8. Bringing Relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is mobilizing medical and epidemic prevention resources from around the country to ensure adequate levels of care for earthquake survivors"When the rescued people arrive, what we can do is to try our best to restore their health,"said Liu Xiaoguang,Deputy Principal of Peking University Third Hospital and head of Beijing’s medical rescue team for the Sichuan earthquake.As one of the first

  9. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  10. The Debate on Learning Assessments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lockheed, Marlaine; Mullis, Ina; Martin, Michael O.; Kanjee, Anil; Gove, Amber; Dowd, Amy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, international and national education agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than quantity) of education in developing countries. This trend has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality of learning. As…

  11. The Educational Implications of Introducing a NQF for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The one-year research project on the implementation of NQFs in developing countries was launched by the ILO 2009 in collaboration with the ETF. This article reviews some of the educational issues that arose from the project. The findings of the case studies raise issues that are important for how future research and policy on NQFs is taken…

  12. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  13. Hinari and Agora: Providing access for researchers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Maurice

    2005-05-01

    This article briefly describes two schemes, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) and Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA), which enable up to date scientific and clinical literature to be distributed via the World Wide Web to individuals in developing countries at zero or minimal cost as a result of agreements between publishers.

  14. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  15. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  16. Creative economy policy in developing countries: The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns w

  17. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks' Z-scores) depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the bank

  18. Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.T. Tu; H.J. Woerdenbag; S. Kane; A. Riewpaiboon; M. van Hulst; M.J. Postma

    2009-01-01

    Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appr

  19. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  20. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  1. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  2. Monetary stability and financial development in Sub-Saharan countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Yvonne; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the interrelation between monetary stability and financial structure in 20 Sub-Saharan economies. Using a panel data set we estimate the impact of monetary stability and financial development on income per capita. Special interest is given to the conditions of the so-called CFA-countries,

  3. Essays on exchange rate policy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khamfula, Y.A.

    1999-01-01

    The breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates has since 1971 given developing countries a wider range of choice with regard to their exchange rate regimes than had previously existed. With the emergence of a variety of exchange rate regimes, increasing attention has been given t

  4. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jeff, Ed.; Talbot, Christopher, Ed.; Cipollone, Daiana B., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, "Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice," are: "Education in Emergencies" (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for…

  5. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Lee, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed

  6. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  7. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  8. Trade Liberalization and Developing Countries under the Doha Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. van Meijl; F. van Tongeren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the impact of multilateral liberalization, with emphasis on distributional effects across countries. We first develop a realistic "base1ine" that takes into account events such as the entry of China into the WTO and the enlargement of the EU, allowing us to focus on those effe

  9. Drugs for developing countries. Uncharitable stance from Oxfam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, C

    1982-12-02

    Oxfam, a British charity organization, has charged multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers with encouraging overuse and misuse of drugs in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a list of "essential" drugs which is being used by Bangladesh to restrict drug sales to only certain products. Despite signs of cooperation between some drug companies and WHO, Oxfam remains skeptical.

  10. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  11. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  12. Engaging Students in Water Resources Issues in Developing Countries (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Lutz, A.

    2010-12-01

    When all is said and done, what does it mean to work in the developing world? The need for access to clean water and sanitation and the desire to end poverty and disease cannot be disputed. But as engineers and physical scientists, we often step into a scenario with a problem-identification-and-solving approach. However, to successfully apply engineering and science in developing countries, we should also consider questions such as: how the problems have come to be; have our approaches been appropriate; and what have the effects of projects been on local populations? A short course to help us better address critical needs begins with readings that cover the history of development, development theories, review of “players” in development, case studies, and possibilities on the road ahead. It is also important to include key guest speakers with experience in developing countries as part of an international course curriculum. Within this overall course context, discussion of case studies provides an opportunity to critically assess positive, negative, and a combination of outcomes for communities. These case studies are building blocks for solving some of the most important water and sanitation issues in developing countries.

  13. New Modes of Constructive Technology Assessment for Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Remmen, Arne

    . Technology assessment helps assess the potential positive or negative impacts following in the wake of introducing a new technology of any conceivable type. It has an overall philosophy of reducing the cost of learning in society’s handling of new technologies, anticipating impacts and feeding these insights...... in influencing technological change. In developing countries, technology assessment has received relatively little attention, but recent developments have expressed a ‘call-to-arms’ to tailor flexible approaches by ensuring the involvement of diverse stakeholders and citizens and continual learning among......An old piece of conventional wisdom warns against unsustainable ‘white elephants’ in any attempts at international transferal, adoption or development of technologies in developing countries. After more than half a century of failed attempts to introduce technologies in such settings mostly through...

  14. The emerging epidemic of environmental cancers in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineis, P.; Xun, W. [University of London Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    In overviews concerning environmental cancers, the definition of 'environmental' can vary considerably in terms of the list of exposures considered, due to differences in inclusion criteria, and the articles tend to focus mainly or exclusively on Western populations. International agencies such as World Health Organisation, that have had considerable success in fighting infectious diseases, seem to be weaker when considering the relevance of environmental carcinogens, particularly in developing countries, and in identifying the exposed populations. The purpose of this paper is to reexamine the issue with a specific focus on developing countries. There are good reasons to believe that the burden of environmental cancers in such countries is high and has been underestimated in previous analyses. We examine the most common pollutants (aflatoxins, arsenic, air pollutants, biomass fuel and coal, polychlorinated biphenyls and wastes). A systematic review was not possible given the sparse nature of the data, but we suggest that the burden of environmental exposures to carcinogens can be substantial in developing countries.

  15. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Anibal; Tapha-Sosseh Ndey; Nweneka Chidi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a le...

  16. Pico hydro power for rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Pico hydro power is a renewable energy system which has the potential to provide millions of rural people world-wide with a cheap, sustainable source of electricity. The development of new, cost-reducing approaches, including local manufacture and implementation in developing countries, has increased the accessibility of this technology to large numbers of people. The new approaches are investigated and some of the present constraints to wider adoption of this technology are analysed. (Author)

  17. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  18. Capital Flows to Developing Countries Show Strong Drop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Net capital flows to developing countries fell to US$780 billion in 2008, reversing an upward trend that began in 2003 and peaked at US$1,222 billion in 2007, according, to a new report from the World Bank. Particularly hard hit were private capital flows, which fell by almost 40%. All developing regions were affected, with emerging market economies in Europe and Central Asia experiencing the sharpest downturn.

  19. Biomedical engineering education in developing countries: research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) contributes to development through improving human health. This paper examines BME education to address the needs of developing countries. Components of different BME programs described in the literature are synthesized to represent what has been proposed or implemented for the production of graduates able to address health problems in a manner suited to the local environment in which they occur. Published research on BME education is reviewed with reference to problem context, interventions and their mechanisms, and intended outcomes.

  20. Valuation of Interest Payment Guarantees on Developing Country Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Borensztein; George Pennacchi

    1990-01-01

    The cost of interest payment guarantees is difficult to evaluate because guarantees are a contingent obligation that become effective only if a certain condition is met (that is, the debtor fails to make a certain payment). In this paper a technique to value interest payment guarantees on developing country debt is developed and preliminary estimates are presented. Using results from option pricing theory, the market price that an interest payment guarantee would have if it were traded in fin...

  1. Improving health services in developing countries with new types of public and allied health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W

    1982-10-01

    Allied health manpower in developing countries should be able to serve the specific needs of these countries in solving malnutrition, diarrheal disease, and other health problems. Disease patterns tend to evolve in stages with each stage requiring a special type of health manpower: 1) the 1st stage where infectious diseases are linked to poverty, malnutrition, and poor personal hygiene for which personnel trained to improve health through providing safe water supplies, improving sanitation, and immunizing the population are needed; 2) in the 2nd stages, diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiac diseases exist, requiring extensive technology such as is available in the US; and 3) the 3rd stage relates to an awareness of health hazards (caused by the environment, by the lifestyle dysfunctions of the society, and an emphasis on health promotion) and implies a responsibility for one's own health by the individual; this is a difficult stage to apply to developing countries since the ability to bring about change assumes literacy on the part of the population which is not always the case. Since most developing countries need to cause change in the 1st stage, more public health personnel such as sanitarians and generalist workers are needed. Training of these personnel should include on-the-job education; traditionally trained US allied health professionals are not always equipped to deal with health problems in developing countries. Health educators should look to the lessons learned by the US in the allied health movement: 1) the system of control that national membership organizations have over schooling and the job environment has contributed to an increased cost of health care delivery, unnecessary prolonged curricula, overspecialization, extreme protectionism for membership, and inappropriate fractionalization of health care delivery; 2) the emphasis on prolonged curricula sometimes causes the student to lose sight of the supposed direct relationship between

  2. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  3. Counterfeit drugs and medical devices in developing countries

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    Glass BD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beverley D GlassSchool of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: The World Health Organization has reported that counterfeit medicines potentially make up more than 50% of the global drug market, with a significant proportion of these fake products being encountered in developing countries. This occurrence is attributed to a lack of effective regulation and a weak enforcement capacity existing in these countries, with an increase in this trade resulting from the growing size and sophistication of drug counterfeiters. In addition, due to both cost and lack of availability of medicines, consumers in developing countries are more likely to seek out these inexpensive options. The World Health Organization is mindful of the impact of counterfeit drugs on consumer confidence in health care systems, health professionals, the supply chain, and genuine suppliers of medicines and medical devices. Antibiotics, antituberculosis drugs, and antimalarial and antiretroviral drugs are frequently targeted, with reports of 60% of the anti-infective drugs in Asia and Africa containing active pharmaceutical ingredients outside their pharmacopoeial limits. This has obvious public health implications of increasing drug resistance and negating all the efforts that have already gone into the provision of medicines to treat these life threatening conditions in the developing world. This review, while focusing on counterfeit medicines and medical devices in developing countries, will present information on their impact and how these issues can be addressed by regulation and control of the supply chain using technology appropriate to the developing world. The complexity of the problem will also be highlighted in terms of the definition of counterfeit and substandard medicines, including gray pharmaceuticals. Although this issue presents as a global public health problem, outcomes in developing countries where counterfeit

  4. Sustainable development and public health: rating European countries

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    Seke Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable development and public health quite strongly correlate, being connected and conditioned by one another. This paper therein attempts to offer a representation of Europe’s current situation of sustainable development in the area of public health. Methods A dataset on sustainable development in the area of public health consisting of 31 European countries (formally proposed by the European Union Commission and EUROSTAT has been used in this paper in order to evaluate said issue for the countries listed thereof. A statistical method which synthesizes several indicators into one quantitative indicator has also been utilized. Furthermore, the applied method offers the possibility to obtain an optimal set of variables for future studies of the problem, as well as for the possible development of indicators. Results According to the results obtained, Norway and Iceland are the two foremost European countries regarding sustainable development in the area of public health, whereas Romania, Lithuania, and Latvia, some of the European Union’s newest Member States, rank lowest. The results also demonstrate that the most significant variables (more than 80% in rating countries are found to be “healthy life years at birth, females” (r2 = 0.880, “healthy life years at birth, males” (r2 = 0.864, “death rate due to chronic diseases, males” (r2 = 0.850, and “healthy life years, 65, females” (r2 = 0.844. Conclusions Based on the results of this paper, public health represents a precondition for sustainable development, which should be continuously invested in and improved. After the assessment of the dataset, proposed by EUROSTAT in order to evaluate progress towards the agreed goals of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS, this paper offers an improved set of variables, which it is hoped, may initiate further studies concerning this problem.

  5. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  6. Rural Panel Surveys in Developing Countries: A Selective Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIDONG; WANG; GUIHUA; XIE; LINGXIN; HAO

    2014-01-01

    Rural panel surveys are the most appropriate source of data for studying the unprecedented rapid migration and urbanization currently taking place in China and other developing countries. This paper provides a selective review, focusing on the panel survey methodologies of several studies, which are organized based on our proposed four key elements of panel surveys: representativeness, retrospect-prospect, multilevel tracking, and temporality. To maximize heterogeneity in urbanization and development over the last three decades, we select rural panel surveys from five Asian countries: India, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and China. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the selected panel surveys to provide directions for designing future rural panel surveys in China and elsewhere in the developing world.

  7. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Prem

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity.

  8. Professional Organizations As Drivers of Social Changes in Developing Countries

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    Andrei A. Yakovlev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the activity of professional organizations of advocates as a factor of transfer from limited access order to open access order, in terms of the theory of North, Wallis and Weingast. Using the analysis of the experience of advocates’ collective action in developing countries, the paper proposes a model explaining the process of mobilization of the legal community for countering the violations of the law by the ruling elite. It shows that collective action of advocates plays a significant role in implementing the principles of rule of law. However, the efficiency of such collective action in a particular country depends on the institutional capacity of its legal association (in terms of Doner & Schneider (2000 and on the position of the professional elite that is heading it. The elite of the advocates’ community in developing countries is confronted by a difficult choice between identifying itself with the national political elite and the need to respond to the demand of grass-roots members of the profession regularly encountering violations of the law by representatives of the authorities. On the example of various countries, we show, how the choice of professional elite leads to different scenarios, and make conclusions for the situation in Russia.

  9. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  10. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

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    Wyss Kaspar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a

  11. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  12. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions.

  13. Pension Reforms in Countries with Developed and Transitional Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Anatolyevich Belozyorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is as follows: pension reforms conducted by some states define the transformation of pension systems. The choice of countries is stipulated by the fact that each of them has different types of pension systems and preconditions for reforms. The purpose is to develop an approach that allows comparing and evaluating changes in disparate systems. The hypothesis is that the ongoing pension reforms, regardless of initial conditions and their type lead to a similar trajectory of pension systems development in all countries. The methodology rests on the comparative analysis that was carried out on the basis of a single algorithm that allows to determine significant modifiable parameters and the overall direction of reform. The novelty is that the authors research the ongoing pension reform from the viewpoint of pension rights formation and distribution of risks. The results are a single trajectory of reforms implementation for the studied countries, which confirms the authors’ hypothesis. The specific features of the Russian pension system do not affect the reform trajectory, which is similar to all countries. The conclusions are the following: the reducing pressure on pension system requires increasing revenues and limiting the number of potential participants. This is achieved by expanding sources of financing, increasing the dependence of pension on an employee’s contributions, transferring the risks of old age into the individual level, and employment motivation during the retirement period. The principle of the intergenerational solidarity loses its value. The obtained results can be used for the pension reform modification in the Russian Federation, the development of voluntary pension insurance based on the experience of other countries and risks faced by the modern Russian pension system.

  14. NGN:奏响融合主旋律%NGN Bringing the Assimilation Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏竞辉

    2005-01-01

    Now the commercial process of NGN has become the hottest topic in telecom industry. All parts in the industry pay great attention to its development. In recent several years, NGN has stepped into commercial period from experimental period. Now many telecom giants in the world declare the network developing roadmap and services planning about NGN, and the related network construction also begins. At the same time, the research and discussing about NGN continues as before. From the public lecture of global NGN technology development, we can get the idea that assimilation and integration has become the main theme in the development and innovation of NGN. And so in this issue """"""""New Telecom Salon"""""""" focuses on NGN, and we are horned to invite all the experts in this field. They will show us the new image of NGN development by discussion here.

  15. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  16. Brand of country as a potential for sustainable development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Ya. Studinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of an article. The purpose of the study is to prove the necessity of forming a national brand strategy for economic development of Ukraine. The results of the analysis. Search an effective solution of economic crisis in Ukraine requires the use of innovative approaches to the choice of strategy development, economic management mechanism, integrating internal and external sources of funding. One approach is to formulate mutual benefits for both Ukraine and the European Union. The integration of the European Association for optimal direction mutually beneficial development is proved. Ukrainian society, as a provider of intellectual labor is highly entrepreneurial ability, making it one of the most attractive in the world and is the key to transforming the country into a prosperous, powerful economically developed country. Creating the conditions for realizing the potential of the intellectual capital of Ukraine will bring some benefit and preference to European Association. The second advantage of Ukraine is its geographical location and the presence of 4 out of 10 European transport corridors, making it attractive in terms of optimization of transport costs in the general European scale. The third advantage is an attractive consumer market for goods manufactured in Europe, both in absolute terms and in qualitative terms, as the level of consumer satisfaction in the country today is quite low. An important part of Ukrainian advantages is its historical and cultural potential, which is still unknown to European tourists. Formation of a national brand of the country through the development of commercial and non-commercial brands is extraordinary approach to this difficult situation too. Using the experience of building national brands proves the effectiveness of this strategy. An integrated approach to the development and implementation strategy for Ukraine combined format of harmonious national brand promoted in an integrated SWOT analysis

  17. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  18. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FDI INFLOW IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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    Mumtaz Hussain SHAH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the importance of infrastructure availability in the host developing country in increasing its attractiveness for overseas investors. I also take into account market size, economic development, macroeconomic stability, regional and income groupings, ability of the people to speak an international language and access to sea. Using annual data for a panel of 90 developing countries over the years 1980-2007, I found that consistent with the prediction of the market size hypothesis, population is found to have a significant positive effect on inward FDI. Sound macroeconomic management proxied by exchange rate and economic development have plausible significant effects on FDI inflows, whereas, high inflation signalling economic disorder deter foreign investors. Infrastructure availability measured through telephone-density positively influence overseas investors location choice. Though, it is sensitive to alternative proxy measures but robust with respect to specification of the estimating model. Language and geographic location dummies confirm that foreign firms prefer Anglophones, and are reluctant to invest in South Asia, MENA and Francophone countries. A significant time trend is also witnessed.

  19. Development Practices of Embedded Systems: SMEs in SEE countries

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    Strugar Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embedded systems are evolving in their use based on the increased trend of merging software with hardware appliances. The market for the embedded systems development is rapidly increasing and this is one of the possible new markets for software firms striving for new competitive advantage. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to explore embedded systems development practices of Croatian firms and compare them with the practices of the firms from South Eastern European (SEE countries. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted using the sample of SME software firms and the data on embedded systems development practices have been analysed. Practices of Croatian firms were compared with practices of other firms from SEE countries. Results: Results of the survey revealed that in comparison to their counterparts from SEE countries, Croatian firms involved in embedded systems development utilise cutting-edge technology and processes to a lower extent. Conclusions: Cutting-edge technology and processes are prerequisites for attaining the level of productivity in software production that is sufficient to ensure maintaining cost competency. However, SMEs are yet to fulfill their market potentials

  20. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuroo, Mohammad S.; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S.; Khuroo, Naira S.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an RNA virus of the Hepeviridae family, has marked heterogeneity. While all five HEV genotypes can cause human infections, genotypes HEV-1 and -2 infect humans alone, genotypes HEV-3 and -4 primarily infect pigs, boars and deer, and genotype HEV-7 primarily infects dromedaries. The global distribution of HEV has distinct epidemiological patterns based on ecology and socioeconomic factors. In resource-poor countries, disease presents as large-scale waterborne epidemics, and few epidemics have spread through person-to-person contact; however, endemic diseases within these countries can potentially spread through person-to-person contact or fecally contaminated water and foods. Vertical transmission of HEV from infected mother to fetus causes high fetal and perinatal mortality. Other means of transmission, such as zoonotic transmission, can fluctuate depending upon the region and strain of the virus. For instance, zoonotic transmission can sometimes play an insignificant role in human infections, such as in India, where human and pig HEV infections are unrelated. However, recently China and Southeast Asia have experienced a zoonotic spread of HEV-4 from pigs to humans and this has become the dominant mode of transmission of hepatitis E in eastern China. Zoonotic HEV infections in humans occur by eating undercooked pig flesh, raw liver, and sausages; through vocational contact; or via pig slurry, which leads to environmental contamination of agricultural products and seafood. Lastly, blood transfusion-associated HEV infections occur in many countries and screening of donors for HEV RNA is currently under serious consideration. To summarize, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause epidemic and endemic diseases in resource poor countries, primarily spreading through contaminated drinking water. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 on the other hand, cause autochthonous infections in developed, and many developing countries, by means of a unique zoonotic food

  1. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

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    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  2. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  3. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  4. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  5. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...... entry barriers push the entrepreneurs towards the informal sector. Whether entrepreneurs succeed in the transition towards the formal sector depends on the size of the entry barriers which are indirectly regulated both by informal institutions such as corruption and formal institutions...... such as competition policy. The model is tested using the World Bank's BEEPS dataset which is a repeated cross section survey of firms across countries in development and transition. This data gives access to observe among other firm size and whether firms pay a bribe or not. This data is combined with Stephan Voigt...

  6. Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

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    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification.

  7. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  8. On the benefits of nominal appreciations: Contrasting evidence across developed and developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies determinants of flexibility of the nominal effective exchange rate and the effects of exchange rate shocks on macroeconomic variables and key components of the external balances using data for a sample of advanced and developing countries. The composite evidence points to the positive effects of appreciation through cheaper imports in support of higher growth and lower price inflation in advanced and developing countries. However, the negative effects of appreciation are more pervasive on the external balances in developing countries. The implication is developing countries remain highly dependent on exports of commodities. In contrast, advanced countries are more diversified and ahead in capitalizing on currency appreciation to mobilize investment growth, a channel that boosts competitiveness and mitigates the adverse effect of appreciation on external stability. The evidence attests to the need to create an environment that is more conducive to investment growth in developing countries.

  9. Neonatal septicemia- a smooth technique of diagnosis in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana N. S.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Amongst all the hematological parameters Immature to total neutrophil (I:T ratio has a reasonably good predictive value for early diagnosis of neonatal septicemia. This study is done as an endeavor to add to something about our preexisting knowledge of diagnosis of neonatal sepsis early for better management of this group of patients especially in developing countries. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2305-2308

  10. Exchange Rate Policy and Sovereign Bond Spreads in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We test the hypothesis of a link between exchange rate policy and sovereign bonds. We analyze the effect of exchange rate policies on supply and credit spreads of sovereign bonds issued by developing countries. An exchange rate policy is captured by the de facto exchange rate regime and the real exchange rate misalignment. The main findings are: (1) real exchange rate overvaluation significantly increases sovereign bond issue probability and raises bond spreads; (2) spreads and the likelihood...

  11. Automotive air pollution : issues and options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Asif; Sinha, Kumares; Walsh, Michael; Varma, Amiy

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to transboundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been re...

  12. China's Oil Ties with Developing Countries Further Strengthened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas teams up with Chinese counterparts For Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas),Malaysia's national petroleum corporation, China is a strategically important partner for growth as it expands into the country's energy market.Established in August 1974, Petronas is vested with all of Malaysia's oil and gas resources and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and adding value to these resources. The company's foray into China began in the early 1990s in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

  13. A Green Enterprise Computing Architecture for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Rabia; Azim, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries often have access to limited energy resources, which frequently results in power cuts and failures. During these power cuts, enterprises rely on backup sources for power such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and electric generators. This paper proposes AnywareDC, an architecture that builds on the recent work on Anyware to reduce energy utilization in the presence of such intermittent power supplies. Anyware reduces energy usage by providing enterprise users laptop...

  14. Best Practices for Land Administration Systems in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a post-conference summary of the International Conference on Land Policy Reform that took place in Jarkarta from July 25-27, 2000. The paper concerns best practice in land administration systems. While the paper is focussed on world's best practice, it does so in the context of developing and emerging industrial countries such as Indonesia which have diverse land tenure relat...

  15. Spanning boundaries: science-policy interaction in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Gamborg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates science–policy interaction in forestry in developing countries. It uses the case of REDD+ in Zambia, and links theoretical considerations with practical strategies. Science–policy interaction in the case of REDD+ is analyzed through two theoretical frameworks: the Knowledge...... opportunities to strengthen the links between science and policy, and consideration is given to the question of what key strategies would best secure this linkage....

  16. Advice for families traveling to developing countries with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Sylvia; Steele, Russell W

    2013-09-01

    Young children are most likely to travel to developing countries with their parents to visit relatives. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of preventive vaccines and chemoprophylaxis. For infants and very young children, data defining safety and efficacy of these agents are often limited. However, accumulated experience suggests that young travelers may be managed similarly to older children and adults.

  17. Road traffic injuries in developing countries: research and action agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng-Min; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Médico, Magíster en Ciencias de la Salud.; Lunnen, Jeffrey C.; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Candidato a Magíster en Estudios de la Mujer.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, Magíster y Doctor en Epidemiología.; Hyder, Adnan A.; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Médico Magíster y Doctor en Salud Pública.

    2010-01-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) is the leading cause of death in persons aged 10-24 worldwide and accounts for about 15% of all male deaths. The burden of RTI is unevenly distributed amongst countries with over eighty-fold differences between the highest and lowest death rates. Thus the unequal risk of RTI occurring in the developing world, due to many reasons, including but not limited to rapid motorization and poor infrastructure, is a major global challenge. This editorial highlights a numbe...

  18. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  19. Task 9. PV deployment in developing countries. Institutional framework and financial instruments for PV deployment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the institutional framework and financial instruments necessary for PV deployment in developing countries. This guide describes the institutional and financial aspects that need to be addressed to ensure that a long term sustainable (and profitable) PV market is established in developing countries. The guide details main fundamental functions that need to be performed such as the agents needed to perform the functions and their differing roles within the framework, the relationships between these agents and the financial instruments available. It is stated that the majority of the aspects recommended in this guide can be adopted to two main PV deployment models: direct sales and rural electrification and development programmes. It is noted that both approaches will have to be tailored and adapted to local conditions.

  20. Medical Signbank: Bringing Deaf People and Linguists Together in the Process of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; Napier, Jemina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe an Australian project in which linguists, signed language interpreters, medical and health care professionals, and members of the Deaf community use the technology of the Internet to facilitate cooperative language development. A web-based, interactive multimedia lexicon, an encyclopedic dictionary, and a database of…

  1. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  3. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  4. The urban environment, poverty and health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C

    1995-06-01

    The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major global environmental changes directly affecting human health today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the policy implications implied by research on health differential between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the contrary.

  5. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  6. Space Product Development: Bringing the Benefits of Space Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosalie W.; Tygielski, Andrew; Gabris, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    The newly developed microgravity Research Program Office was created to consolidate and integrate NASA's microgravity research efforts, comprised of the microgravity Science and Applications Program and Space Product Development Program. This resulted in an integrated agency program serving the science and industrial research communities, providing leadership, management, direction and overview of all agency microgravity research activities. This paper provides an overview of NASA's microgravity Research Program, with particular emphasis on the Space Product Development Program activities, the potential economic impact and quality of life improvements resulting from this research, and future plans for commercial microgravity research in space. The goal of the Space Product Development Program is to facilitate the use of space for commercial products and services. The unique attributes of space are exploited to conduct industry driven research in the areas of crystallography, bio-systems, agriculture, electronic and non-electronic materials. Industry uses the knowledge gained from focused space research to create new products and processes, to gain economic competitive advantages, to create new jobs and improve the quality of life on earth. The objectives of the program are implemented through NASA's Commercial Space Centers, non-profit consortia of industry, academia and government, that provide the mechanism for communication and technical expert exchange between NASA and industry. Over 200 commercial research activities have been conducted by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial affiliates over the last four and one-half years during Space Shuttle mission, as well as sounding rocket flights. The results of this research will have a significant impact on competitive products, jobs and quality of life improvements.

  7. Rehabilitation of the hospital infrastructure in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, H

    2001-01-01

    Mongolia is in fact not a developing country at all but a country of transitional economy (since 1990) with a fairly comprehensive health care infrastructure. However, the health care is facing great difficulties comparable to those in a developing country. Hospital infrastructure rehabilitation was a part of a wider health sector development project with 3 remote aimags (provinces) as the target areas. The Mongolian system of health care has been built up over many years as a country-wide network of community-based feldschers and doctors, supported by a hierarchy of hospitals and mobile emergency teams. Health standards are also impacted by many factors (better housing, water supplies, better roads and rail links) outside the control of the Ministry of Health, and of health care providers. The majority of the rural hospitals lack the basic facilities. There are operating theatres without running water, hospitals with electricity only from 8 to 10 in the evening etc. The hygienic standard is unacceptable. Central heating systems do not function. Many of the facilities are underutilised and in poor condition due an ongoing lack of maintenance. The project aimed for a network that would offer services for all people, including nomadic people. The number of rural hospitals was slightly reduced and some of them were upgraded to first referral unit with basic clinical services. Approximately one third of the rural hospitals had to be rebuilt. The project recommended and started multiphased long-term master planning for those 3 aimag hospitals, all of which displayed difficulties similar to the rural hospitals.

  8. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  9. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  10. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  11. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  12. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANA IUHASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, developing countries have become extremely interesting for researchers, as well as for capital investors. Dominated by growth and industrialization, but lacking macroeconomic indicator stability or sufficiently mature financial markets, these countries make it acutely necessary to identify measures that will stimulate foreign investors to invest and that will ensure the financial stability for SMEs. One such measure is increasing the quality of corporate governance at the level of small and medium-sized enterprises, where it is currently almost absent. This article aims to help raise awareness of the need to implement good corporate management practices at the level of companies in developing countries and especially in Romania. This paper uses a questionnaire in order to evaluate the state of the corporate governance in Timis county and offers some suggestions on what should be done for a higher corporate governance quality in the case of small and medium-sized companies in Romania, with the purpose of establishing a connection between governance quality and business performance of SMEs

  13. Leadership and management principles in libraries in developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Learn leadership skills from achievements at special libraries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America! Leadership and Management Principles in Libraries in Developing Countries is a compilation of success stories epitomizing management and leadership strategies from developing nations around the globe. This book focuses on library administrators from Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America who have significantly transformed their library services in spite of limited funds and a lack of resources. You'll learn about their achievements, their techniques, and t

  14. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  15. Bringing students to the mountain: developing partnerships to introduce students to cutting-edge research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Gordon, Robert J.; Taylor, Benjamin L.; McCarthy, Jon J.

    2013-05-01

    Many materials science education and outreach activities are designed to be easy and cost-effective to implement in K- 12 classrooms. While these activities are extremely effective at teaching broad materials science concepts such as size and scale, materials properties, and the use of tools in science, they do not connect very closely to the work being done in materials science research laboratories. In an effort to more closely connect our outreach efforts to the work being done by our researchers, the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (UW-MRSEC) has developed a partnership with Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc. This partnership allows us to introduce public audiences to a state-of-the-art tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) that is being used by UW researchers. In this paper, we describe the partnership including the use of the SEM in our Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program and in our community outreach programs.

  16. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  17. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  18. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  19. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  20. A growing demand in emerging countries. Millennium development goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, Peter [PA Energy (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is basically about the Millennium Development goals and its relation to the Photovoltaic Power System Programme (PVPS) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In the first part, there are mentioned the following aspects: objectives and mission of the PVPS, situation in the rural electrification, relation between the sustainability of the energy and the development of a country, targets of the Millennium Development Goals concerning the developing countries, among others. Then, there are shown some comparison charts having data related to this topic, among there are going to be found: percent of the population without electricity access, estimated off-grid installations, etc. Finally, there are mentioned the Publications of Photovoltaic Systems for Developing Countries (PVSDC) [Spanish] Basicamente en esta presentacion se habla acerca de los objetivos de Desarollo del Milenio y su relacion con el programa de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos (SFV) de la Agencia Internacional de la Energia (AIE). En la primera parte, son mencionados los siguientes aspectos: objetivos y mision del programa de SFV, situacion de la electrificacion de zonas rurales, relacion entre la sustentabilidad de la energia y el desarrollo de un pais, objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio en relacion con los paises en vias de desarrollo, entre otros mas. Enseguida, se muestran algunos cuadros comparativos, los cuales contienen informacion relacion con este tema, entre los que se pueden encontrar: porcentaje de la poblacion que no cuenta con electricidad, estimado de numero de instalaciones aisladas de la red, etc. Finalmente, se mencionan las publicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos para los paises en vias de desarrollo (PVSDC por sus siglas en ingles)

  1. Modeling financial disaster risk management in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.

    2005-12-01

    The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.

  2. Development of the enteric nervous system: bringing together cells, signals and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A J; Pachnis, V

    2009-02-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract that controls essential functions such as motility, secretion and blood flow, comprises a vast number of neurons and glial cells that are organized into complex networks of interconnected ganglia distributed throughout the entire length of the gut wall. Enteric neurons and glia are derived from neural crest cells that undergo extensive migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival in order to form a functional ENS. Investigations of the developmental processes that underlie ENS formation in animal models, and of the common human congenital ENS abnormality Hirschsprung's disease, have been intimately related and recently led to major advances in the field. This review touches on some of these advances and introduces two topics that are elaborated upon in this journal issue: (i) genome wide approaches for profiling gene expression in wild type and mutant ENS that have been used to identify novel molecules with important roles in enteric neurogenesis, and (ii) the use of multilineage ENS progenitors isolated from embryonic or postnatal gut as novel cell replacement therapies for Hirschsprung's disease. Such studies will not only unravel the mechanisms underlying ENS development, but will also shed light on the pathogenesis of ENS developmental disorders and help to establish novel therapeutic strategies for restoring or repairing malfunctioning enteric neural circuits prevalent in numerous gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Elisabetta; Meleleo, Cristina; Serino, Laura; Sorbara, Debora; Zaratti, Laura

    2012-03-27

    Hepatitis A is the most common form of acute viral hepatitis in the world. Major geographical differences in endemicity of hepatitis A are closely related to hygienic and sanitary conditions and other indicators of the level of socioeconomic development. The anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rate is presently decreasing in many parts of the world, but in less developed regions and in several developing countries, HAV infection is still very common in the first years of life and seroprevalence rates approach 100%. In areas of intermediate endemicity, the delay in the exposure to the virus has generated a huge number of susceptible adolescents and adults and significantly increased the average age at infection. As the severity of disease increases with age, this has led to outbreaks of hepatitis A. Several factors contribute to the decline of the infection rate, including rising socioeconomic levels, increased access to clean water and the availability of a hepatitis A vaccine that was developed in the 1990s. For populations with a high proportion of susceptible adults, implementing vaccination programs may be considered. In this report, we review available epidemiological data and implementation of vaccination strategies, particularly focusing on developing countries.

  4. Making Education Count for Development: Data Collection and Availability in Six PISA for Development Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the collection, availability and quality of system-level data and metadata on education from countries participating in the PISA for Development project: Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia. PISA for Development aims to increase low income countries' use of PISA assessments for monitoring progress towards…

  5. Slicing up the Developing World : Differentiation in the Special Treatment of Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Fialho de Oliveira Ramos (Djalita)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis studies the proliferation of categories of developing countries within the UN, starting with the first formal category created by the organisation (the Least Developed Countries - LDC) and ending with the first negotiated LDC graduation case. Triangulation of data collect

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING WOOD WELDING IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICABILITY IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture, as traditional sector in Romania, is one of the few areas that bring profit. It is a field that contributes to the economical competitiveness through the variety of products for import and export. In this context, joining wood is essential for the production of wood products. Therefore, knowing the environmentally-friendly methods for wood joints could lead to performance and progress. Welding technology of wood as an alternative method to bonding wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now. The paper presents a review performed with the aim of contribute to the knowledge of this innovative technology, to show the problems and the possibilities, of least developed countries, to contribute at this area of reasearch. The general aim is to present the main methods and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages in the context of development in the least developed countries. The results showed that both methods, at low and hight temperature, has benefits but there are and some economic and knowledge barriers for extended the technology.The overall conclusion of this research is to find efficient solutions for wood welding in order to obtain new better and cleaner wood products

  7. Developing Countries: Switching Some Multilateral Loans to Grants Would Lessen Poor Country Debt Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over the next 40 years. During the 1970s and 1980s, many low - income countries sharply increased their external borrowing, mostly from other governments...Loans to Grants Would Lessen Poor Country Debt Burdens Statement of Joseph A. Christoff, Director International Affairs and Trade GAO-02-698T Report...Multilateral Loans to Grants Would Lessen Poor Country Debt Burdens Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task

  8. Effects of WTO on the Textile Industry on Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Sattar Shah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current investigates the Effects of WTO on the Textile Industry on Developing Countries. Data were collected from various secondary sources and data is analyzed by using SPSS-20 version statistical software. It was revealed that WTO more industrialized countries consented to export fewer textiles while less industrialized countries enjoyed increased quotas for exporting their textiles. Bangladesh was expected to suffer the most from the ending of the MFA because it was expected to face more competition, particularly from China, it has tried to maintain its competitiveness in the post-quota era. It was further revealed that It has also been examined that all over the world textile industries are facing high inflation which is the hottest issue due to which the cost of doing business is going higher and higher day by day. The Chinese, Indian, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi textile manufacturers are also out of those affected ones whose major issues are associated with increased cost of production. China’s dominance of the global garments trade has also been affected due to the rise in the costs of material, labour, energy, environmental protection and high interest rate. Furthermore, the environmental standard is also a barrier to many Chinese enterprises; even most of the Chinese enterprises have inputted environmental Standard.

  9. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  10. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  11. Good Governance and Successful Development: Cross Countries Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabthip Kraipornsak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance is one of the essential factors of success in business as well as in a country’s development. This study aimed at examining the role of good governance and the success of the development. The comparable per head GDP measured in PPP (purchasing power parity was used as the proxy of the successful economic development of countries in the study. Four out of total six factors (indicators being the good governance and the other two being social environmental factors were employed in the investigation following concept of the role of external business environmental factors so called “PESTLE or Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legislative or Legal, and Eco-environmental analysis”. These four indicators of good governance are political stability, control of corruption, rule of law, and voice and accountability which are available from the World Bank’s governance project data base. In addition, the other two indicators, country’s openness and size of population, are the major social variables included in the study which can also affect the success. The total six indicators are taken to examine with the GDP per head to see whether these factors can help countries achieve higher levels of income per head. The study indicates connection between the levels of success with these four indicators of the good governance and the two external social variables. For Thailand, the political instability was found to be a problem of the progress of development among those six indicators.

  12. Is it possible to bring the emancipatory practice development and evidence-based practice agendas together in nursing and midwifery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Fairbrother

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emancipatory practice development and evidence-based practice movements play significant roles in driving today’s nursing and midwifery practice and knowledge development agendas. Often, however, they are characterised as philosophically opposed to one another. Aims and objectives: To provide an overview of the philosophical and epistemological background to these two movements and locate them in relation to today’s overall nursing knowledge and practice development environment. Methods: Literature review, case study and model advance. Findings: The paper argues that a mutualised evidence-based emancipatory practice development (EBEPD is today both practical and achievable, and proposes a convergent model. The EBEPD model is discussed with particular reference to contemporary philosophical debate in nursing, some of which positions positivism (a primary underpin to evidence-based practice and critical realism (a primary underpin to emancipatory practice development as epistemologically irreconcilable. Conclusion and implications for practice: Significant knowledge and practice development opportunities are likely to emerge from working to bring together these two fundamentally important and arguably symbiotic movements in healthcare.

  13. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  14. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  15. Developing Countries Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report responds to your request that we (1) assess whether the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative is likely to free up...resources for poverty reduction and achieve the goal of debt sustainability, (2) describe the strategy to strengthen the link between debt relief and poverty

  16. Future of photovoltaic energy conversion in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that photovoltaic energy conversion will be economically viable for usage in developing countries. An overview of programs designed to lower the costs of such conversion systems is presented. Government goals are reviewed, as well as application projects relative to rural usage. A summary of the state-of-the-art in both advanced research and commercially available technology is presented. It is concluded that with the range of the work being done, such systems will be viable for many rural applications within 5 years.

  17. Alternative energy technologies: their application in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carmona, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper was presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of INTA, in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1980. It deals with the possibilities of using alternative energy technologies in planned urban areas in the developing countries. The case of Mexico is used to analyze use, energy balance, inventories of energy resources, and forecasts of energy supply by the year 2000. Described is the relationship between urban structures and energy requirements, providing data and commentary with respect to Mexican national urban plans, and with its programs in the energy area. Data in charts, maps, and statistics are included.

  18. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  19. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  20. Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah; Afsheen, Sumera

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed.

  1. TRIPS Agreement, International Technology Transfer and Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Shugurov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Agreement in facilitation the international technology transfer to least developed countries (LDCs. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the new conditions of technology development of LDCs connected with TRIPS adoption. Special attention is paid to the potentials of Article 66.2 for solving the problem of LDCs capacity building. The article presents detailed analysis of the discussions on the impact of the TRIPS provisions concerning the strengthening of the intellectual property rights (IPRs and the protection of technology transfer to LDCs. An important finding of this study is the recognition of the need to take urgent measures for the transition unto a new model of partnership between developed countries and LDCs in area of technology transfer and IPRs protection. The study concluded that a new model needed to be elaborated at the international level should be based on the effective implementation of Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

  2. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  3. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G S

    2008-02-01

    Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. At the mycotoxin contamination levels generally found in food products traded in these market economies, adverse human health effects have largely been overcome. However, in the developing world, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. The extent to which mycotoxins affect human health is difficult to investigate in countries whose health systems lack capacity and in which resources are limited. Aflatoxin B(1), the toxin on which major resources have been expended, has long been linked to liver cancer, yet its other effects, such as immune suppression and growth faltering previously observed in veterinary studies, are only now being investigated and characterized in human populations. The extent to which factors such as immune suppression contribute to the overall burden of infectious disease is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly significant. Thus, food safety remains an important opportunity for addressing current health problems in developing countries.

  4. Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis.

  5. Classification and comparison of niche services for developing strategy of medical tourism in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-chi; Kuo, Hsin-chih; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chang, Sophia; Su, Syi; Yang, Ming-chin

    2010-01-01

    Medical tourism is a new trend in medical service. It is booming not only in Asian countries but also in European and South American countries. Worldwide competition of medical service is expected in the future, and niche service will be a "trademark" for the promotion of global medicine. Niche service also functions for market segmentation. Niche services are usually surgical procedures. A study was carried out to compare different strategies for developing medical tourism in Asian countries. The role of a niche service is evaluated in the initiation and further development of medical tourism for individual countries. From this study, a general classification was proposed in terms of treatment procedures. It can be used as a useful guideline for additional studies in medical tourism. Niche service plays the following roles in the development of medical tourism: (1) It attracts attention in the mass media and helps in subsequent promotion of business, (2) it exerts pressure on the hospital, which must improve the quality of health care provided in treating foreign patients, especially the niche services, and (3) it is a tool for setting up the business model. E-Da Hospital is an example for developing medical tourism in Taiwan. A side effect is that niche service brings additional foreign patients, which will contribute to the benefit of the hospital, but this leaves less room for treating domestic patients. A niche service is a means of introduction for entry into the market of medical tourism. How to create a successful story is important for the development of a niche service. When a good reputation has been established, the information provided on the Internet can last for a long time and can spread internationally to form a distinguished mark for further development. Niche services can be classified into 3 categories: (1) Low-risk procedures with large price differences and long stay after retirement; (2) high-risk procedures with less of a price difference

  6. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Anibal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions

  7. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweneka, Chidi Victor; Tapha-Sosseh, Ndey; Sosa, Anibal

    2009-11-19

    Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions.

  8. Soil erosion in developing countries: A politicoeconomic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E.

    1991-07-01

    Soil erosion is accelerating in developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It has threatened the livelihood of millions of peasants, for agriculture is their economic mainstay. A probe into the forces causing erosion reveals that the elite’s resolve to accumulate ever more wealth and to maintain, consolidate, or expand their sociopolitical power and the necessity of the poor to fulfill their requirements of food, fuelwood, and fodder are the two major factors accelerating soil erosion. Unless the vast masses of poor people are integrated into the national mainstream through the implementation of equitable and redistributive development policies, it is impossible to control the accelerating rate of soil erosion and thus to achieve the objective of sustainable development.

  9. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: CHALLENGE NOT ONLY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BUT ALSO FOR THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jetmar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social enterprises (businesses represent an emerging sector not only in developing countries but also in the EU. The deepening of social problems associated with high unemployment of graduates, persons at age over 50 years and other vulnerable groups in the labour market brings new impulses for designing public policy and development of cooperation between the different actors (role of NGOs, financial intermediaries, local authorities, etc. The paper focuses on the environment analysis - regulatory approaches, forms and types of support, quality of financial services at European level and states and regions from Western, Central and Northern Europe, involved in the learning Network for Better Future of Social Economy. We can say, the status of the social economy and opportunities are different in each country as a result of reflection of value orientation of society, the quality of the environment. However, it is possible to identify common problems and typical ways to support social economy. It means to overcome lack of co-operation between financial sector, NGOs and public sector inproviding funding for social enterprises, to provide mix of private and public funds in order to solve problem connected with funds insufficiency. It is necessary to set up integrated support schemes allowing the use of various types of financial instruments (grant mechanisms, loans using financial engineering instruments. It is necessary to couple the investment in social enterprises with investment in human capital. 

  10. Developing a tool for assessing public health law in countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yoon; Lee, Yuri; Sohn, Myongsei; Hahm, Ki-Hyun

    2012-09-01

    At present, the World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of developing a tool designed to assess the status of public health legislation in a given country. An Expert Consultation on Public Health Law was convened in Manila, Philippines, in May 2011. The participants agreed that the tool could serve as a guide for a regional approach to assist Member States in assessing the scope, completeness, and adequacy of their public health law. Given the broad definition of "public health" and the laws that affect health, directly or indirectly, the participants further agreed to narrow the field to 4 areas based on significant WHO works/policies, each organized into an independent module: (1) International Digest on Health Law, (2) Primary Health Care, (3) International Health Regulations 2005, and (4) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The tool would be drafted in a questionnaire format that asks the respondent to determine whether primary and/or subsidiary legislation exists in the country on a specific topic and, if so, to cite the relevant law, describe the pertinent points, and attach and/or link to the full text where available. The participants agreed that the respondents should include government officials and/or academics with legal competency. Version 1 of the tool was piloted in the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, and Vanuatu. At a 2nd Expert Consultation on Public Health Law, convened in Incheon, Republic of Korea, in October 2011, in conjunction with the 43rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium on Public Health, the participants determined that the tool was generally usable, certain concerns notwithstanding, such as the risk of standardizing compliance with WHO policies. The agreed next step is to finalize the analysis tool by August 2012, marking the end of stage I in the development process. Stage II will consist of team building and networking of responsible officers and/or professionals in the countries. The tool

  11. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  12. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  13. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Yao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013 in developing countries.Programme: SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme.Conclusion: Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close

  14. Strategic Planning for Higher Education in Developing Countries: Challenges and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    The study presented in this article focuses on strategic planning in developing countries, drawing on the author's experiences in a dozen developing countries in Asia and Africa and focus groups in three of those countries: Afghanistan, Madagascar, and South Africa. It looks at the special challenges faced by planners in developing countries and…

  15. 78 FR 48333 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Least Developed Countries That Are Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Regulation Supplement: Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries (DFARS Case 2013- D019) AGENCY... revision by the United States Trade Representative (USTR) to the list of least developed countries that are....S.C. 2511(b)(4) allows the President to designate least developed countries as eligible...

  16. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  17. The expanding role of co-trimoxazole in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, James A; Fitzgerald, Felicity; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Co-trimoxazole is an inexpensive, broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug that is widely used in developing countries. Before antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduced morbidity and mortality in adults and children with HIV by preventing bacterial infections, diarrhoea, malaria, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, despite high levels of microbial resistance. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces early mortality by 58% (95% CI 39-71) in adults starting ART. Co-trimoxazole provides ongoing protection against malaria and non-malaria infections after immune reconstitution in ART-treated individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to a change in WHO guidelines, which now recommend long-term co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for adults and children in settings with a high prevalence of malaria or severe bacterial infections. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants from age 4-6 weeks; however, the risks and benefits of co-trimoxazole during infancy are unclear. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces anaemia and improves growth in children with HIV, possibly by reducing inflammation, either through direct immunomodulatory activity or through effects on the intestinal microbiota leading to reduced microbial translocation. Ongoing trials are now assessing the ability of adjunctive co-trimoxazole to reduce mortality in children after severe anaemia or severe acute malnutrition. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, benefits and risks, and clinical trials of co-trimoxazole in developing countries.

  18. Modernity and acceptance of family limitation in four developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K A; Inkeles, A

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between individual modernity and adoption of family planning was investigated in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), Israel, India, and Nigeria. The survey involved interviews with approximately 1000 males in each country, with an emphasis on industrial, nonindustrial, and agricultural workers. Results indicated that the variables of modernity, i.e., literacy and amount of education received, degree of exposure to mass media, urban residence, white-collar occupation, and a high standard of living, were only slightly significant in explaining the acceptance of family planning. Survey results indicate that modern experiences have their effect in indirect ways through general psychological modernity. Variables related to family and sex roles do not explain attitudes toward family planning. 2 variables which did relate to family planning attitudes were: belief in science, medicine, and technology, and a secular as opposed to religious life orientation. Implications of the study are that the only way to insure decreasing birthrates in developing countries is to progress with general economic development. However, mere modernization will not achieve the desired results. There must be an emphasis in communication on the value of science, medicine, and technology.

  19. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  20. Investigating The Factors Impacting On The Development & Deployment Of ITS Solutions In Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza; Tsivor, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    in these countries. The main bottlenecks to deploying ITS applications in developing countries include: insufficient understanding of the potentials of ITS and its benefits due to lack of education and awareness, lack of financial resources, lack of technical support, difficulties in integrating ITS applications...

  1. Examples of socially responsible practices of multinational enterprises from developed and developing countries in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available International business research has considered the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the Multinational Enterprises (MNEs and so Multilateral Organizations have developed different recommendations about what these companies should do in different social areas, especially in labor practices. MNEs play a significant role given their influence and activities in both home and host countries. They play a double role: actor of the problem, but also the actor of the solution. The purpose of the paper is to identify the differences of Socially Responsible Practices (SRP between MNEs from developed countries and MNEs from developing countries in Colombia. The method used in this document is a literature review from several academic databases; and we check CSR programs published in Web sites in the host country (Colombia of six MNE´s The results suggest that Multinationals from developing countries focus their practices on the com­munity, mainly in education programs, while Multinationals from developed countries try to work with all stakeholders and involve particularly aspects related with their business in the programs they develop. This is possible because MNEs from developed countries use better divulgation me­chanisms. SRP less mentioned in both cases are related to employees. Commitment with ethical responsibilities, promote greater economic and social inclusion should be the goals for MNEs in developing countries. In the other hand, the government has to play a more important role in this ground establishing minimum standards for MNEs that want to operate in developing countries, and some education programs to sensitize society into a more responsible consumption, in order to generate social pressure.

  2. Access to vaccine technologies in developing countries: Brazil and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie B; Gaulé, Patrick; Kaddar, Miloud

    2007-11-01

    This study, conducted by visits, interviews, and literature search, analyzes how vaccine manufacturers in Brazil and India access technologies for innovative vaccines: through collaborations with academia and research institutions, technology transfer agreements with multinational corporations, public sector, or developing country organizations, or by importation and finishing of bulk products. Each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of speed, market, and ability to independently produce the product. Most manufacturers visited are very concerned about avoiding patent infringement, which might result in undeveloped or delayed products because of a lack of mastery of the patent landscape. Disregarding the patent picture could also threaten the market of a potential product. Although it is too soon to assess the effects of TRIPS on vaccine technology access in Brazil and India, a good understanding of intellectual property management will be useful. A case study on development of a new combination vaccine illustrates these findings.

  3. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world.

  4. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  5. Priorities for early childhood development in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in reducing child mortality in low-income countries is now accompanied with a rapidly expanding population of child survivors and increased life expectancy. However, many have special health care needs in the early foundational years for optimal health and educational and vocational status. Investment in early childhood development (ECD) is therefore crucial but likely to be constrained by lack of adequate resources making priority-setting inevitable. A review of current ECD approaches in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia shows that concerted multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral initiatives targeted at children with developmental disabilities across all crucial domains of ECD and guided by available evidence on optimal timing for interventions are urgently required. This focus would necessitate appropriate national ECD policies, modifications to the current global ECD programs in the developing world, and a more active collaboration between pediatricians and other related service providers.

  6. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  7. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  8. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  9. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  10. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: recommendations for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.R. [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (USA)

    2002-09-01

    Available studies indicate that indoor air pollution (IAP) from household cooking and space heating apparently causes substantial ill-health in developing countries where the majority of households rely on solid fuels (coal or biomass as wood, crop residues, and dung), but there are many remaining uncertainties. To pin down impacts in order to effectively target interventions, research is particularly needed in three areas: (1) epidemiology: case-control studies for tuberculosis (TB) and cardiovascular disease in women and randomized intervention trials for childhood acute respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes; (2) exposure assessment: techniques and equipment for inexpensive exposure assessment at large scale, including national level surveys; (3) interventions: engineering and dissemination approaches for improved stoves, fuels, ventilation, and behavior that reliably and economically reduce exposure. There are also important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and those to reduce health-damaging emissions from solid-fuel stoves. The substitution of biomass by coal being considered in some countries should be pursued with caution because of the known serious health effects of household coal use.

  11. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowledge and skills differences. The increasing biophysical vulnerability contexts and intensity in the Asian LDCs causing adverse effects on food security, human health, biodiversity, water resources, hydroelectric power generation, streams, perennial springs, and livelihood. Drought is also responsible for increasing pollution, pests and diseases and forced migration and famine. Information indicates monsoon has become erratic contributing to up-scaling of droughts. South and Southeast Asian LDCs like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia and Lao PDR under the monsoon climatic zone have also been suffering from increasing droughts arising out of delayed and changing distribution patterns of precipitation. Prolong dry spells increase the frequencies of wildfire in grasslands, forests, and range-lands. The rain-fed crops of the plains are facing challenges from soil-moisture stress with projected droughts. Droughts causing migration of fishes, and marine anadromus species are having adverse impacts on spawning habitats. Reduction in annual surface runoff is decreasing the ground and surface water with negative effect on agriculture and water supply for industrial and domestic sectors. As droughts are exacerbating the consequences are accelerating. However, traditionally people are adapting with the changing situations applying indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable living. This paper reflects on prevalence and impacts of droughts, existing coping

  12. Efficiency of Mechanisms for Ensuring Financial Stability in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizjuk Bohdan M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify relationships between the monetary policy and long-term financial stability. The main method of the study is retrospective analysis of macroeconomic and financial performance of the United States and other developed countries. It has been shown that neither Neo-Keynesian nor monetarist approaches are able to provide long-term financial stability under simultaneous low levels of volatility of GDP and inflation. In addition, the policy of inflation targeting in developed countries is not able to eliminate the risk of significant macro-economic recessions. The article states that the cause of the recessions is a systemic risk growth due to concentration of financial resources in the banking sector and in the hands of owners of non-financial corporations. This concentration has two effects: 1 growth of moral hazard at crediting; 2 decrease in the effective demand on the part of households. Redistribution of financial resources among different macro-economic groups of agents does not happen in a short period of time and is a result of the long-term monetary policy. Since the modern economic statistics has certain methodological problems with calculation of the Gini coefficient, such indicator as a share of wages in GDP is proposed in the article for studying the dynamics of uneven distribution of financial resources in the United States. The conducted retrospective analysis of the US monetary policy showed that an important system indicator of uniformity of financial resources distribution among macroeconomic agents falls out of sight of regulators. Distribution of macroeconomic risks depends on distribution of financial resources in the system, which determines its financial stability. The article justifies the need for developing the monetary policy methods that would simultaneously minimize the volatility of the GDP, inflation and maintain a uniform distribution of financial resources at an acceptable level.

  13. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p developing countries.

  14. CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR TOWARDS TELEMARKETING: : A CASE STUDY OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Macrinici, Adela; Bilal, Mian Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, Direct Marketing, Tele-Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Tele-sales, Developing countries, Customer attitude/behavior, Call center, Outbound calls, Proactive telemarketing, Sales promotion ,Survey, Telemarketing center , Telemarketing sales , Telephone marketers , Cold calls.

  15. Saving the atmosphere. International law, developing countries and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    1995-08-01

    The protection of global ecological systems which are threatened by human activities has evolved into one of the most dynamic and important areas of international law and politics. Most prominently, the chemical composition of the Earth`s atmosphere has increasingly been modified by human interference, followed by regular `holes` in the stratospheric ozone layer, possible change of the global climate and various other damages. Since the 1970s, the international community has reacted by negotiating several binding agreements on environmental policies and by establishing new rules of general customary law binding upon all States. This emerging Law of the Atmosphere is the subject of this study, thereby paying special attention to the differences in the legal status of industrialised and developing countries according to their distinct responsibilities and economic and social capabilities. (orig./KW)

  16. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes.

  17. The (political) economics of antiretroviral treatment in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli J

    2008-12-01

    Despite unprecedented international mobilisation to support universal provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), national governments continue to play the key role in determining access to treatment. Whereas some AIDS-affected countries have performed as well as or better than expected given their level of development, institutional characteristics and demographic challenges (e.g. Thailand and Brazil), others (notably South Africa) have not. This article argues that the 'economics' of antiretroviral drug delivery is at heart a political-economy of access to treatment. It depends on commitment on the part of national governments to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies over patented antiretroviral drug prices, on their policy towards compulsory licensing, and on the approach they adopt to delivering HAART. Civil society has an important role to play in encouraging governments to become, and remain, committed to taking action to ensure sustainable and widespread access to HAART.

  18. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  19. The profitability of photovoltaic projects in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, Philip W.; Hansen, Richard D. [Enersol Associates, Inc., (United states)

    1995-12-31

    This paper shows that it is possible to recover costs and profit from photovoltaic projects, even in relatively poor countries. It explains three basic financial arrangements for full cost recovery used in several developing countries for solar home and business systems: self financing; term financing through equipment vendors, banks and non-governmental organizations, and leasing. It also describes potential sources of cost recovery (besides the end-users), including CO{sub 2} offsets. Finally, it concludes that given the success of some projects, recent efforts toward market conditioning, and the effect of environmental concerns, there are good PV business opportunities for electric power utilities in developing countries. This is an adapted and abbreviated version of a paper entitled Full Cost Recovery in Photovoltaic Projects: Debunking the Myths about Equipment Subsidization. Much of the information has been drawn from the field experiences of Enersol Associates, Inc., a nonprofit organization specializing in PV project implementation; and SOLUZ, Inc., a Massachusetts based company affiliated with Industria Electrica Bella Vista, which operates a PV System Leasing Business in the Dominican Republic. Together, these organizations have facilitated the installation of over 5000 systems on a full cost recovery basis. [Espanol] Este articulo muestra que es posible recuperar los costos y sacar provecho de los proyectos fotovoltaicos, aun en paises relativamente pobres. Explica tres arreglos financieros basicos para la recuperacion total de los gastos usados en varios paises en desarrollo para sistemas solares domesticos y de negocios: autofinanciamiento, financiamiento por un periodo dado a traves de los vendedores de equipo, bancos y organizaciones no gubernamentales y renta. Tambien describe fuentes potenciales para la recuperacion de costos (ademas de los usuarios finales), incluyendo las compensaciones por CO{sub 2}. Finalmente concluye que dado el exito de

  20. M-Learning Adoption: A Perspective from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Iqbal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M-learning is the style of learning for the new millennium. Decreases in cost and increases in capabilities of mobile devices have made this medium attractive for the dissemination of knowledge. Mobile engineers, software developers, and educationists represent the supply side of this technology, whereas students represent the demand side. In order to further develop and improve this medium of learning it is imperative to find out students’ perceptions about m-learning adoption. To achieve this objective a survey was conducted among the students of 10 chartered universities operating in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The results indicate that perceived usefulness, ease of use, and facilitating conditions significantly affect the students’ intention to adopt m-learning, whereas perceived playfulness is found to have less influence. Social influence is found to have a negative impact on adoption of m-learning. The findings of this study are useful in providing guidance to developers and educators for designing m-learning courses specifically in the context of developing countries.

  1. Obstetric mortality and its causes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barns, T

    1991-04-01

    Discusses dual concerns of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG): that a widening gap between obstetric standards in Britain and those in the developing world exists and that the RCOG is unable to meet the needs of Third World doctors who come to the RCOG for postgraduate study. A meeting sponsored by Birthright and held at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) in June 1989 which explored aspects of Third World obstetric care reflects these concerns. The proceedings of the meeting have been published and verbatim recordings of the discussions are available on tape from the RCOG. Reports on maternal mortality/morbidity in the Third World indicate persistence of poor obstetrical practices and of common obstetrical complications. Suggestions for improvement include the redeployment of and the replanning of services within countries and an increase in health education for women. Access to care at the first referral institution level is seen as the key to the improvement of care. Problems of transport and communication create serious obstacles to the link between community care and the first referral institution. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to cut the Third World maternal mortality in half by the year 2000. To reach this goal WHO plans to field obstetric teams in Latin America, Africa and South Asia; to train nurse-midwives to perform life saving measures on their own initiative; and to employ community resources by training indigenous midwives to function as extensions of the health team. The RCOG will sponsor training designed for doctors who will work in developing countries.

  2. Clean development mechanism: a way to sustainable waste management in developing countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebel, M.A.; Rotter, V.S.; Nabende, A.; Gupta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol allows investors in the developed world to invest in the developing world in return for emission credits. The CDM has two goals—to contribute to the reduction of emissions in the developed countries, and to promote sustainable deve

  3. Instrumentation for medical diagnosis and research with radionuclides in the developing countries. Progress report, June 1, 1977--May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1978-07-01

    This project seeks to bring about a more effective use of nuclear instruments in medical applications of radionuclides in developing countries by facilitating selection of appropriate applications, by stimulating the design of instruments capable of performing these applications satisfactorily under the conditions prevailing, and by encouraging improved maintenance. A pilot cost-effectiveness analysis of nuclear medicine applications has been completed, suggesting two topics for further investigation and demonstrating that such analyses can yield useful insights. In the realm of instrument design, we have further developed our prototype well scintillation counter, provided three such instruments for tests in the field, and encouraged its production by others. In addition, we have examined design issues for liquid scintillation counters, radiorespirometry counting devices, whole-body counters, and electrical power supplies. We have completed a survey of maintenance in 8 countries in Southeast Asia and are analyzing the results. Preparations are underway for surveys in three further regions.

  4. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  5. Enabling methods for community health mapping in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Kathryn H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial epidemiology is useful but difficult to apply in developing countries due to the low availability of digitized maps and address systems, accurate population distributions, and computational tools. A community-based mapping approach was used to demonstrate that participatory geographic information system (PGIS techniques can provide information helpful for health and community development. Results The PGIS process allowed for the rapid determination of sectional (neighborhood boundaries within the city of Bo, Sierra Leone. When combined with data about hospital laboratory visits, a catchment area for one hospital in Bo could be established. A survey of households from within the catchment area determined that the average population per household (about 6 individuals was similar to that found in the 2004 census. However, we also found that the average house was inhabited by more than one household, for an average of 17.5 inhabitants per residential building, which is critical information to know when estimating population size using remote imagery that can detect and enumerate buildings. Conclusions The methods developed in this paper serve as a model for the involvement of communities in the generation of municipal maps and their application to community and health concerns.

  6. FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE COMMON MISSION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper holds that an anti-corruption campaign in the process of modernization in developing countries must be sustained and systematic, and conformed, and geared to the whole modernization drive and be reconciled with economic development, social stability, improvement of efficiency and perfection of the legal system, with safeguarding and promoting the overall development of modernization as its purpose. Based on analysis of the characteristics of corruption among government officials, the present paper puts forward five measures to fight it.    Anti-corruption program in a political campaign is of so great importance that proper measures should be taken. The success of this campaign lies largely in the balance between the evil forces behind corruption and the combined force of all the good people in and outside the government, who are behind the anti-corruption campaign. With the spread of corruption, the campaign should not be confined to the government itself; the participation and support of non-governmental democratic institutions and organizations should be sought.

  7. Hepatitis B vaccine in developing countries: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, E A

    1984-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccines are highly immunogenic. To determine the efficacy of low doses and of the intradermal route of vaccination, 197 Nigerian children were given 3 monthly doses of Hevac B. Of these, 96 had 2 micrograms subcutaneously and 101 had 2 micrograms intradermally. One month after completing the schedule, 82.3% and 74.3% of the respective groups had become anti-HBs positive without adverse side-effects. In the second part of the study, 50 chronic HBsAg carriers were vaccinated. Compared to placebo-treated carriers, no effect was demonstrated with regard to HBsAg clearance or anti-HBs production. Immune complexes were not attributable to Hevac B. No untoward effects were noted. Booster vaccination of 50 initial non-responders resulted in the development of significant levels of anti-HBs in 20 (40%) of the recipients. None of the 'non-responders' developed clinical or virological evidence of HBV infection. It is concluded that low-dose vaccination is effective and that the intradermal route may be useful in developing countries.

  8. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  9. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  10. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  11. Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; König, H.; Feng, S.; Bezlepkina, I.; Nesheim, I.; Bonin, M.; Sghaier, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Sieber, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and dev

  12. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)

  13. Experience from Soybean Industry Development of Main Soybean Producing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zenglin; GUO Xiangyu

    2009-01-01

    Soybean output and trade are mainly operated in America, Brazil, Argentina and China in recent years, especially in America. For China, the import output is number one, and the export output is the forth. For this reason, the soybean industry of China got a huge lash, and the soybean farmers got a large loss, it influenced the building of new countryside construction in China. Both U.S.A's soybean output and trade amout are the number one in the world, this achievement should be contributed to U.S.A's advanced production ability and its favorable subsidy policies. Contrary to U.S.A's large subsidy and cheap loan, Brazil and Argentina raise their soybean output and trade amount by high production technology and "untying" policies, such as abolishing some unreasonable rules and tax. So if we want to develop Chinese soybean industry and make sure our soybean industry's safety, it's necessary for us to experience soybean industry development of other countries' and improve ours.

  14. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  15. Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2012-07-13

    This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology.

  16. A comparison on Anti-dumping against China between Developed and Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜笑云

    2013-01-01

      In recent years,Chinese exportation suffers greatly from developed countries’and developing countries’anti-dumping against China. Facing to this sort of phenomenon, this article compares the dif erence in the anti-dumping against China from developing and developed countries in three aspects,analyzes the ef ect of anti-dumping from dif erent countries and gives suggestions from a macro view.The paper selects the statistics reported by WTO and National Bureau of Statistics of China,time span from 1995 to 2011.

  17. A DIFFERENTIAL GAME MODEL FOR A DEVELOPING AND A DEVELOPED COUNTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZHANG; Xuexiang HUANG

    2009-01-01

    A differential game (DG) model for a developing and a developed country is considered. Each player makes decisions about how much resource to be used to restrict the opponent's development so as to maximize his weighted sum of current consumption and final output. Current consumption is assumed to be preferred to final output for both players. The developing country is assumed to have a higher economic growth rate and a higher preference to final output, whereas the developed country is assumed to have a higher initial income and a higher efficiency in restricting his opponent. This problem is investigated under three kinds of information structures, i.e., a zerosum, a nonzero-sum, and a Stackelberg game. Open-loop equilibrium solutions are obtained for all the three cases. Economic implications of the result are provided.

  18. Theories of Equity in Health Care, Implications for Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Olyaee Manesh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This abstract focuses on theoretical background for the notion of “equity in health care” and on the implications of applying these theories to the health care of developed and developing countries. Equity Principals and the Implications: There are different theories about the principle of Equity or Justice such as Altruism, Utilitarians, Marxists, Rawls’ theory and Nazick’s entitlement. Among these theories, some of them are applicable to health care such as Libertarianism and Egalitarianism. The focus of the Libertarians is on the extent to which people are free to purchase the health care that they want. The Libertarians’ principle is the main equity base for private health systems. In contrast, Egalitarians suggest that finance of the health care should be according to the ability to pay and distribution of health care should be according to the need (ill health. It seems that policy makers in most developed countries such as European countries accept the Egalitarians’ principle and application of this equity principle by their health systems has significantly reduced health inequities and inequalities in these countries. There are a limited number of studies to look at equity in the health care of developing countries. A common equity principle for these countries is “equal access for everyone” and different mechanisms are applied to attain this target. Despite the overall improvements in health care in recent years, evidence indicates that many of developing countries have failed to provide equal access to health care for all in need. The financial limitations of the governments, spending about 70% of the health care resources on hospital-based care, unequal access to hospital services in favour of urban population, income inequalities among population, and lack of consistent and up-to-date information of inequalities, make developing countries unable to monitor and prevent inequities and inequalities of health

  19. The situation of waste mobile phone management in developed countries and development status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjian; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of electronic industry and improvement of living standards, a large number of waste mobile phones were generated. According to statistics, approximately 400million waste mobile phones are generated each year in the world, and 25% of that are contributed by China. Irregular disposal of waste mobile phones will do great harm to environment and human health, while at the same time recycling of them has the potential for high profits. Given the enormous quantity, great harm and resource properties, developed countries have taken necessary measures to manage waste mobile phones. As the largest developing country, China has also set out to pay close attention to waste mobile phones. This paper reviewed the situation ofwaste mobile phone management in the developed countries, focused on the development of waste mobile phone management in China, and analyzed existing problems. In light of the successful experience of the developed countries, some suggestions were proposed to promote the waste mobile phone management in China and worked as a valuable reference for other countries.

  20. 26 CFR 1.955-6 - Gross income from sources within less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sources within less developed countries. (a) General. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of § 1.955.5... from sources within less developed countries for any taxable year shall be made by the application of... the name of a less developed country shall be substituted for “the United States”, except that...

  1. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment : What Can South Asia's Lack of Success Teach Other Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Gould; Tan, Congyan; Sadeghi Emamgholi, Amir S.

    2013-01-01

    Like many other developing countries, South Asian nations have been experiencing increased foreign direct investment inflows over the past decade as developing countries get a larger share of cross-border investments that were once sent to developed countries. Nonetheless, South Asia's inflows of foreign direct investment remain the lowest relative to gross domestic product among developin...

  2. Ocular manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome in a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the ocular manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, a common cause of congenital cataracts in developing countries. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of case records of 46 sero-positive infants under 12 months of age who presented at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai between July 1993 and February 2001. The ocular and systemic examination details were recorded. RESULTS: Both eyes were affected in 41 (89% patients. Cataract was present in 81 (93.1% eyes; most of them were nuclear cataract (79, 97.5%. Other common ocular presentations included microphthalmos in 74 (85.1% eyes, iris abnormalities in 51 (58.6% eyes, and pigmentary retinopathy in 33 (37.9% eyes. Cataract, microphthalmos and iris hypoplasia was a common combination present in 49 (56.3% eyes. Systemic manifestations included cardiac anomalies in 23 (50% and neurological anomalies in 16 (34% children. Multi-system involvement was present in 32 (70% children. Low birth weight (below 2 kg was seen in 30% infants. CONCLUSION: CRS may present with a wide spectrum of ocular and systemic findings and requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. Any sick infant with unilateral or bilateral congenital cataract should be investigated thoroughly for CRS.

  3. Screening Diabetic Retinopathy in Developing Countries using Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SIVA SUNDHARA RAJA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in diabetic patients due to intraocular hypertension or high glucose level. Its detection in an earlier stage is essential to prevent vision loss in type 2 diabetic patients. In this paper, the computer aided automatic screening system for diabetic retinopathy is proposed. DR can be diagnosed by detecting the abnormal lesions such as hemorrhages in retinal images and analyzing its relationship with the fovea region. The proposed method consists of the following stages, namely: retinal image enhancement and classification, hemorrhages detection and segmentation, fovea localization and Diabetic Retinopathy classification. The multi directional local histogram equalization is used to enhance the retinal image for better classification rate. The Gabor transform and Support vector machine (SVM classifier is used for retinal image classifications. The proposed method is tested on publicly available HRFand DIARETDB1datasets. The sensitivity and specificity of hemorrhages detection are 94.76% and 99.85%, respectively. Thus, the severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 diabetic patients can be easily identified by detecting fovea region and hemorrhage lesions and analyzing the relation between them to prevent vision loss in diabetic patients.

  4. Banking concentration and developments in FYROM: A country in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Hourvouliades

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM belongs to the transition economies that have witnessed significant structural changes in their domestic markets during the 2000s. We examine the evolution of the banking competition from 2003 until 2011, covering the first period of economic growth followed by the acute financial crisis that still threatens European countries. We apply the Herfindahl–Hirschman index and the CR3 and CR5 indicators in order to estimate banking concentration on five industry variables. Our findings show that the market has been persistently operating under oligopolistic, if not monopolistic, conditions where the leading three or five institutions dominate the market. Foreign newcomers and legislative developments have not changed the situation during the past 10 years and bank customers seem to keep their preferences unaffected, staying loyal to their prior choices. We analyze the banking sector profitability since 2008 and during the economic crisis, as well as the operational performance and the future trends concerning this sector.

  5. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  6. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  7. THE EXTENSION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PROTECTION: NECESSARY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Rahmah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the need of extension of Geographical Indication (GI protection since the current protection under Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS is insufficient to cover all products as a result of discriminatory provisions in TRIPS regulating a greater protection to wines and spirits only and different level of GI protection under Article 22 and Article 23 TRIPS. This paper then assumes that the extensive GI protection for all products should be supported because it would give greater benefits particularly to developing countries such as prevent the free riding, attract regional investment and obtain market power.   Perlindungan Indikasi Geografis (IG perlu diperluas tidak hanya pada produk tertentu seperti wines danspiritskarena perlindungan IG diatur di dalam TRIPS tidak cukup memberikan perlindungan kepada semua produk sebagai akibat perbedaan pengaturan di TRIPS yang memberikan perlindungan lebih kepada wines danspirits saja dan adanya perbedaan tingkat perlindungan pada Pasal 22 dan 23 TRIPS. Perluasan perlindungan IG harus didukung karena akan memberikan manfaat khususnya kepada negara berkembang. Perluasan perlindungan IG dapat melarang pemboncengan reputasi, menarik investasi dan meningkatkan kekuatan produk negara berkembang di pasaran.

  8. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  9. Principles of health information systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krickeberg, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The setting of this article is an all-embracing Health Information System (HIS)* of the type that exists mainly in developing and transition countries. It was inspired by work in Vietnam and other places. The article discusses the basic principles on which a well-functioning HIS needs to rest regardless of the technical means employed (paper, electronic devices). Eleven principles for designing or reforming a HIS are identified, including: explicit description of the underlying units (target population) and variables; no list of indicators to be fixed in advance; only one register per target population; technical coordination between registers and reports; correction algorithms; local use of data and indicators; autonomy of health institutions regarding the information that concerns them; and novel use of registers for various studies. Apart from their technical role, these principles give shape to the philosophy that underlies this article, and make clear that a HIS is not only a tool for collecting indicators; it is intimately tied to clinical and preventive practice, as well as to health management and health economy. In fact, it permeates the entire health system. It can potentially play a much more extended, varied, and useful role than simply that of providing health services to a community.

  10. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Akram; Mansoor Qureshi, Ijaz

    2013-06-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  11. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, N; Lavis, J; Broomberg, J; Mills, A

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact.

  12. Initial evaluation of clean development mechanism type projects in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This study assessed a range of existing energy sector development projects that also reduce greenhouse gas emission, such as micro-hydro plants, biogas digesters, solar photovoltaic panels, and energy efficient cooking stoves. The host countries examined were Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Peru, Kenya, and Nepal. The aim of this project was to inform international debate on the design of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and its implications for energy use, the environment and reduction of poverty to aid capacity building for the CDM in Developing Countries. (author)

  13. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  14. Value Creation Through Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Proctor & Gamble Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kamran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer support for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has been in practice for some years now and firms are demanded to seriously take CSR initiatives. This project has been compiled out of a wealth of literature that addresses the need and importance of CSR and business ethics in the society in great depth. A case study of CSR at Proctor and Gamble Pakistan was carried out by employing both the qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques to gather information so as to bring the attributes of triangulation in this research. The research findings outlined various views and beliefs of the respondents with regards to CSR initiatives by Proctor and Gamble Pakistan. The CSR awareness and societal veracities are the factors that encourage consumers to think ethically and make decisions in terms of who to develop associations with. The research shows a reflection of deductive approach and the researcher understood the inbuilt pros and cons of dependence upon secondary sources of information. It was attempted to adopt a hybrid strategy in this project but it mainly took a positivist look because of the nature of the questionnaire survey based upon close-ended questions aiming for quantitative data. The trend for CSR initiatives in developing countries is now growing at a decent pace and the recent advancements in technology and media have resulted in grown awareness among consumer groups to exert pressures on multinational companies to be apparent in their statements as well as practices.

  15. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  16. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  17. The Global Impact of the Financial Crisis: Main Trends in Developed and Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Heather; West, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the financial crisis on higher education has been considerable, and its effects are continuing. These effects can be discerned in a number of ways; but whereas both developed and developing countries are affected, they can be affected differently. A modifying factor is the shape and structure of the higher education system within…

  18. Libraries, Literacy and Development: Combined Libraries as an Option for Developing Countries: A Brief Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Argues that combining public and school libraries may overcome the scarcity that slows library development in third world countries. The relationship between libraries and development, factors contributing to successful combined libraries, and the ability of libraries to support literacy efforts are discussed. (Contains 29 references.) (KRN)

  19. China to share expertise with other developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China will pass on its technical knowledge to de veloping nations. CAS President LU Yongxiang said the country is now in a position to provide such support in tandem with other foreign aid programs.

  20. Toward a typology of food security in developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; You, Liangzhi; Fan, Shenggen

    2010-01-01

    The recent global food and financial crises have reversed the last decade's progress in reducing hunger and poverty. This paper conducts a factor and sequential typology analysis to identify groups of countries categorized according to five measures of food security—consumption, production, imports, distribution, and agricultural potential—by using indicators from 175 countries. The analysis first identifies five distinct food security groups, characterized by food intake, and then further sp...

  1. Application of food irradiation processes to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Langerak, D.Is.; Cramwinckel, A.B.; Hollman, P.C.; Jong, de, P.; Labrijn, J.F.; Slangen, H.J.; Stegeman, H.; Veen, van der, A.; Wolters, Th.C.; Oortwijn, H.

    1986-01-01

    Sprouting of- and fungal attack on tuber, bulb and foot products is a common problem to most countries. Sprouting can be delayed by storage at low temperature, and partly prevented by a proper use of chemical sprout inhibitors. Cooling is, however, energy consuming, expensive and not practicabie everywhere. Chemicals are cheaper, but their application is not always reliable, especially at temperatures higher than 15'C. Moreover in some countries the application of chemical inhibitors is prohi...

  2. Risk Management In Construction Projects Of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-11-01

    management knowledge should be employed early to make sound preparation for carrying out safe, efficient and quality construction activities. The aim of this research is to identify and evaluate current risks and uncertainties in the construction industry through extensive literature survey. It also intends to make a basis for future studies for development of a risk management structure to be adopted by prospective investors, developers and contractors in Developing countries.

  3. "We Found the 'Black Spots' on Campus on Our Own": Development of Inquiry Skills in Primary Science Learning with BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study situated in a one-year project "Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) for Mobile Knowledge Building," aiming at investigating how primary school students developed their inquiry skills in science learning in BYOD-supported learning environments. Student perceptions of the BYOD-supported inquiry experience were also…

  4. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  5. Connecting Resources for Tertiary Chemical Education with Scientists and Students in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-van Vuuren, Ross D.; Buchanan, Malcolm S.; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of developing countries to provide a sound tertiary chemical education is a key ingredient to the improvement of living standards and economic development within these countries. However, teaching undergraduate experimental chemistry and building research capacity in institutions based within these countries involves formidable…

  6. Spaghetti and noodles. Why is the developing country differentiation landscape so complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Fialho de Oliveira Ramos (Djalita); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe plethora of country classifications that emerged since the star of the 1950s is a remarkable phenomena in the arena of development policymaking. In our sample of country classifications, consisting of classifications for 111 developing countries, the average number of classifications

  7. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  8. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou eADAMBOUNOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  9. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  10. Hirschsprung′s disease: Management problem in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandré E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of Hirschsprung′s disease remains a problem in developing countries. Our aim is to identify the main epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of Hirschsprung′s disease at the University Child Hospital Charles De Gaulle of Ouagadougou (CHUP-CDG. Patients and Method: It is a retrospective study carried out in the period from January 2001 to December 2007 in the Surgery Unit at CHUP-CDG, which is a reference centre for Paediatric Surgery in Burkina Faso. Results: There were 52 patients (M: F=3.3:1. The annual incidence was seven cases. Age at presentation and diagnosis ranged from two days 10 years (median 20 months. Twenty five patients were from poor socio-economic conditions. Presentations were mainly intestinal obstruction, chronic constipation and enterocolitis. There were two cases of associated trisomy 21. Average age at operative intervention was 3.17 months. The rectosigmoidal form was the most frequently encountered. Over two-thirds (67.31%, with no complications at presentation, had benefited from nursing before their final treatment. A temporary colostomy was requested in case of complication. Swenson′s technique was practiced for all the patients who underwent surgery operation. The assessment of functional results in eight patients after an average decrease of 3.5 years gave excellent results. Post-surgery complications were mainly enterocolitis in 12% of patients. Mortality rate was 16%. Conclusion: Management of Hirschsprung′s disease is a problem in Burkina Faso. It is characterised by its late presentation and difficult diagnosis due to inaccessibility and the non-availability of some investigation services (barium enema, histochemistry, and histology, resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates. Effective technical capacities, adequate staff training, and public education will be necessary to improve care quality.

  11. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  12. What can developing economies learn from health system reforms of developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines some general lessons developing nations can draw from the health system reform experiences of developed nations. Using the experiences of developed countries, developing countries should be better able to anticipate socio-economic changes and choose an optimal path for their health systems development to accompany those changes. Most developed countries have adopted rather common objectives and principles in their health systems because of market failure in health care; developing countries may start adopting those principles because they do not have market conditions in the first place. It is suggested that developing countries strengthen what is probably the most fundamental initial systemic asset they have: public finance. They should do so by attracting democratically, possibly through earmarked taxes, resources otherwise channelled through the private sector, competing with public finance for limited real resources. This effort can be promoted by giving consumers, mainly of high income groups and in urban areas, more say (through institutions performing the OMCC function) in the nature of care these groups have access to under auspices of public finance. Where feasible, private insurance as a major source of finance should be seen as a transitional phenomenon, giving way to the emergence of OMCC institutions which require similar financial and managerial market infrastructure. Private and competitive provision of care may be unrealistic in many developing areas because of both scarcity of real resources, mainly manpower, and health needs. The challenge of government is, as resources grow, to divest itself from the provision of care and stay involved in activities and facilities that are of 'public nature'--under specific circumstances--that foster private competitive provision. In general, the government should play an enabling role also by investing in health promotions and management skills for health systems.

  13. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  14. Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Assad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators.

  15. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  16. Improving remote sensing research and education in developing countries: Approaches and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Barry; Ryerson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Since the 1970s, a number of different models have been used to develop basic and applied science capacities of remote sensing in developing countries. Those efforts have had varied levels of success. One of the more effective capacity building efforts is extended training workshops held within the targeted developing country institution with existing resources. The extending training format requires participant teams to complete a remote sensing project for their country in their organization. The basic science activity of developing country scientists was documented by a review of six remote sensing journals which determined that a very small percentage of remote sensing manuscript authors are from developing countries. Many developing countries have established internal remote sensing capacities but many others have not. Given the potential importance of remote sensing for natural resource assessment and monitoring as well as economic decision making, more attention must be given to assisting those countries in hardware, software, internet capacity and technical assistance.

  17. Prevention issues in a multicultural developing country: the Mexican case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosovsky, H; Romero, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews some cultural issues in Mexican society related to alcohol/drug use and misuse. The aim is to provide information that could aid in the identification of opportunities and barriers for preventive actions appropriate to this country. Some of the country's sociodemographic characteristics and a historical overview of alcohol/drug use and misuse are presented, as are also data obtained through different research strategies such as anthropological studies and epidemiological surveys among different populations. An overview of the current preventive interventions and some suggestions to improve conceptualization on alcohol/drug use and misuse for future research and to guide preventive actions are included.

  18. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  19. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  20. Determinants of public capital spending in less-developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In a great majority of countries throughout the world productive government services have declined as percentage of GDP since the 1970s. In the macroeconomic literature this is often associated with the general productivity growth decline, suggesting an important role for infrastructure inv

  1. Developments in strategic landscape monitoring for the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landscape plays an increasingly relevant and prominent role in the protection and mangement of the Earth's terrestrial environments and ecosystems, including the diverse forested, agricultural, wilderness and build-up landscapes within the Nordic countries. However to be meaningful in the Informa...

  2. Subsidiary Role and Skilled Labour Effects in Small Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Tuselmann, Heinz; Dorrenbacher, Christoph; Stephan, Andreas; Mc Donald, F.; Dörrenbächer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the proportion of skilled labour employed by subsidiaries in small countries in the context of the strategic role of subsidiaries. Strategic role is connected to autonomy and intra-organisational relationships and the mandates given to the subsidiary. In the paper, we draw on th

  3. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  4. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  5. Globalization and Developing Countries: Emerging Strategies of Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization process and the internal policy reforms that the developing countries have implemented during the past decade have changed the relative prices of practically all their inputs and outputs. Agricultural producers have therefore been forced to change the structure and methods of their

  6. Market-based biogas sector development in least developed countries —The case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buysman, E.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In many of the least developed countries the energy security conundrum is how to provide affordable, safe and clean energy to a low income rural population. Household level generation of biogas from animal waste for both cooking and lighting, while producing high quality organic fertiliser, is incre

  7. Interprofessional education for whom? --challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. METHODS: We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. CONCLUSION: This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these

  8. The dynamics of contraceptive use in developing countries. Pt. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of contraceptive use in developing countries are described in an abbreviated discussion and are based on a prospective study of the determinants of contraceptive use in India. It is acknowledged use varies among different populations. Contraceptive use behavior is complex and affected by more than just desired family size. The pattern of usage may vary throughout the childbearing years. There is a complex interplay of various sociocultural and behavioral factors associated with the process of choice, continuation or cessation of use of a method, or switching to another method. Not only behavioral factors that operate at the individual level, but national factors such as the national family planning and health services are involved. Information on the social, cultural, and service related determinants of choice and use of different methods is important for policy makers. It affords them the information to plant what methods to offer, the supply of methods, and significance of offering new methods. Policy makers concerned with family planning to reduce fertility need to know to what extent the desire to become pregnant is a reason for discontinuation vs. method failure, opposition by spouse, or health concerns about side effects. Those desiring 2 children were twice as likely to have used other methods prior to sterilization than those desiring 4. Fertility intention was related to choice of method. The distance to the health clinic from home was also related to the prior use of methods before sterilization. Those 1 km from a clinic had a 1.8 times greater chance of having used another method prior to sterilization. IUD and pill users had high discontinuation rates. IUD users shifted to sterilization (34%) or natural methods (20%). while pill users changed to the IUD (49%), sterilization (29%), and the condom (23%). Fertility intentions, the nature and extent of health services, and woman's education affected the pattern. The number of living sons, the

  9. Promoting astronomy in developing countries: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rk

    2006-08-01

    Any international effort to promote astronomy world wide today must necessarily take into account its cultural and historical component. The past few decades have ushered in an age, which we may call the Age of Cultural Copernicanism. In analogy with the cosmological principle that the universe has no preferred location or direction, Cultural Copernicanism would imply that no cultural or geographical area, or ethnic or social group, can be deemed to constitute a superior entity or a benchmark for judging or evaluating others. In this framework, astronomy (as well as science in general) is perceived as a multi-stage civilizational cumulus where each stage builds on the knowledge gained in the previous stages and in turn leads to the next. This framework however is a recent development. The 19th century historiography consciously projected modern science as a characteristic product of the Western civilization decoupled from and superior to its antecedents, with the implication that all material and ideological benefits arising from modern science were reserved for the West. As a reaction to this, the orientalized East has often tended to view modern science as "their" science, distance itself from its intellectual aspects, and seek to defend, protect and reinvent "our" science and the alleged (anti-science) Eastern mode of thought. This defensive mindset works against the propagation of modern astronomy in most of the non-Western countries. There is thus need to construct a history of world astronomy that is truly universal and unselfconscious. Similarly , the planetarium programs , for use the world over, should be culturally sensitive. IAU can help produce cultural-specific modules. Equipped with this paradigmatic background, we can now address the question of actual means to be adopted for the task at hand. Astronomical activity requires a certain minimum level of industrial activity support. Long-term maintenance of astronomical equipment is not a trivial task

  10. Some implications of a community mental health model for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A; Khajavi, F

    The aim of this paper is to call attention to certain problems facing many developing countries which are bound to lead to further difficulties in psychosocial adjustment. Almost all these problems are inherent in the process of socioeconomic change, urbanization, and industrialization. These changes may not only lead to an increase in the rate of mental illness, but because of their impact on the basic family structure and living conditions, will result in a reduced tolerance of deviation on the part of the community. Moreover, the spread of public education and mass media is also likely to lead to a change in the expectations and attitudes of developing nations making it no longer possible to endure psychological suffering as part of one's destiny. Even the improvement of public health services leading to reduction of infant mortality and a rise in life expectancy may lead to a gross increase in demands for mental health services by the very young and the aged sections of the population. It is the contention of this paper that a community mental health model, with certain modifications to fit the local culture, will best serve the increasing mental health needs of developing nations. Of particular relevance are such aspects of the model as population and prevention orientation, community involvement, extension of prefessional resources through consultation, utilization of non-professional manpower, continuity and comprehensiveness of care as well as an open systems conceptualization of the whole process of the organization and delivery of mental health services. The latter approach will help bring about an integration of mental health services within the wider framework of human service agencies, e.g., public health, general and adult education, family planning, and community development.

  11. MEASURING VALUES FOR WETLANDS PROTECTION IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY FROM DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL CITIZEN GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James C.; Bergstrom, John C.

    2003-01-01

    Because of pressures to convert natural areas to commercial economic development uses, protecting natural areas in developing countries is a major challenge. A developing country may desire to protect natural areas, but relatively high out-of-pocket and opportunity costs of protection may pose considerable hurdles. To help protect natural areas in a developing country, the international community often gets involved; for example, providing funds to purchase and preserve natural areas such as ...

  12. Information-communication technology impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Lovrić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the ICT impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries. Empirical studies of the role of ICT as one of the main determinants of productivity growth, for developing countries have produced disagreement. To help clear up the subject, this paper employs a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM through a dynamic panel data approach on the sample of 25 European developed and developing countries over the period of 2001-2010. The results indicate a positive and significant impact of ICT on labor productivity growth in developed and developing countries, but the terms of impact in developing countries rely on human capital, a contribution of a higher educational level, advanced research qualifications and development activity. Comparing to developed countries, the growth accounting approach indicate that developing countries have similar relative ICT contribution to labor productivity growth, but their average growth rate of labor productivity is 6.8 times higher. The main conclusion is that education, especially of higher levels, is the critical factor of productivity and growth of EU developing countries and that must be taken as development policy implication in these countries.

  13. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  14. Comparative Analysis of Food Price Policies in the Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linrong; LI

    2015-01-01

    As the basis for maintenance of national security and global strategic material,food has always captured the attention of governments in the world.After reaching a certain stage of industrialization,most countries will take the food support and protection measures,and the policy objectives and policy tools have evolved into a set of policy systems through continuous adjustment,but the intervention in food price has always been present.The food price intervention only plays a role in regulating food market supply and demand and guaranteeing minimum income for grain producers,and it can not reflect the cost of food production and continuously improve grain producers’ income,but because of its simple operation,low cost and immediate effect,it is suitable for the countries with a large number of grain producers but small operation scale in the short term.

  15. First birth trends in developed countries: Persisting parenthood postponement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Sardon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels and trends of various facets concerning first births are continuously changing. The evidence confirms that the postponement of first births is an ongoing and persisting process which started in western countries among cohorts of the 1940s, but only in the 1960s cohorts in Central and Eastern Europe. The mean age of women having first births is universally rising. Fertility of older women was increasing. The decline in childbearing of young women is robust among the cohorts of the late 1960s and the 1970s; in Southern Europe as well as in central and Eastern Europe the rates of decline have accelerated. Childbearing behavior in the formerly socialist countries is in transition to a different regime.

  16. Mental health and poverty in developing countries: revisiting the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Friedman, Jed; McKenzie, David; Scott, Kinnon

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health has received considerable attention in the recent literature. However, the associations presented in existing studies typically rely on limited samples of individuals and on proxy indicators for poverty such as education, the lack of tap water, or being unemployed. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using data from nationally representative household surveys in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Indonesia and Mexico, along with special surveys from India and Tonga. As in previous studies, we find that individuals who are older, female, widowed, and in poor health are more likely to report worse mental health outcomes. Individuals living with others with poor mental health are significantly more likely to report worse mental health themselves. The size of the coefficients and their significance are comparable across the five countries. In contrast to previous studies, the relationship between higher education and better mental health is weak or non-existent. Furthermore, there is no consistent association between consumption poverty and mental health - in two countries mental health measures are marginally worse for the poor; in two countries there is no association; and in one country mental health measures are better for the poor compared to the non-poor. Moreover, the sizes of the coefficients for both education and consumption poverty are small compared to other factors considered here. While the lack of an association between consumption poverty and mental health implies that poor mental health is not a "disease of affluence", neither is it a disease of poverty. Changes in life circumstances brought on, for instance, by illness may have a greater impact on mental health than levels of poverty. Effective public health policy for mental health should focus on protecting individuals and households from adverse events and on targeted interventions following such adverse changes.

  17. PRIVATE INVESTMENT AND FINANCIAL SECTOR POLICIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    James Ang

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of financial sector policies in determining private investment in the economies of India and Malaysia. The results suggest that the presence of significant directed credit programs favoring certain priority sectors in the economies appear to be harmful for private capital formation in both countries. Interest rate controls seem to have a positive impact on investment in the private sector, and the effect is found to be stronger in India. While high reserve and liq...

  18. Effects of capital markets development on economic growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artor Nuhiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this research paper we have tried to elaborate the issue whether capital market development is an alternative towards economic growth and economic prosperity of developing countries in general, the Western Balkan countries in particular. The focus of the paper is to study the effects of proper functioning of capital markets and their im-pact on increasing the level of savings, capital investments and in locating relevant resources for long-term financing of the economy. The research paper presents positive and negative arguments, linking the establishment and development of a capital market and its impact on economic development of developing countries, particularly Western Balkan countries.

  19. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor.

  20. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.